Nowadays, 243 national top-level domains are assigned, with 195 of them reserved for independent countries and 48 are owned by dependent territories. The worldwide known country code domain names (ccTLDs) are .us, .uk, .de, .eu. They are commonly used, on a par with the generic top-level domains (gTLDs) .com, .org, .net.
Some smaller nations are opening their domain names for commercial registration. And everyone can buy them, not only country’s citizens or local companies. We frequently find on the web such domain names like .co (Colombia), which widely used for companies, .tv (Tuvalu) for online TV, .fm (Micronesia) for FM radio, .pr (Puerto Rico) for public relations websites.
All the observed world time zones are listed by country (or territory) in the table below. There are independent states with multiple time zones, and the record-holder is France with 12 zones, but 11 of them are used in overseas areas and only one in the country’s mainland. The situation is the same in the United Kingdom, Denmark, New Zealand, Netherlands.
The countries with multiple time zones in the mainland area (some of them also have the insular territories) are Russia, USA, Canada, Australia, Mexico, Brazil, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kiribati, Micronesia, Chile, Spain, Portugal, and Ecuador.
The Daylight Saving Time (DST) is widely used in Europe and North America, and also in some parts of Africa, Australia, South America. It helps to make the daylight duration longer in summer by setting clock 1 hour forward in the spring (start of DST period) and setting them 1 hour backward in autumn when the DST period is over.
Alphabetical list of countries and territories with their standard time zones and DST
First of all, you need to dial your country’s International Direct Dialling (IDD) prefix to exit from your location to international phone circuit, and then dial the destination country calling code, after that the city code and a local phone number.
For example, for calling from American Samoa (USA) to Andorra:
011 –> 376 –> City Code –> Phone Number
In some countries, the exit prefix looks like 0xx, where x marks the international carrier selection code, comprising one or more digits.
For domestic telephone calls within the country of your location, you need to dial the National Direct Dialling (NDD) prefix (if such exists), and only after that the city calling code and a local phone number.
List of all country calling codes, international and national dialing prefixes
Being an important symbol of the sovereign state, the national flags describe in their colors and design the history and the present day of the countries. The most famous of them have become the widely known symbols and country brands, recognized in every corner of the world. The most recognized are the flags of the USA and United Kingdom with their very symbolic and unique design, followed by the Canadian Maple Leaf.
In the bestsellers list are the flags of the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Ireland, Germany, France, China, Brazil and India.
As the capital cities of their countries, these 197 towns differ in terms of safety, prices, health care, pollutions level, and other conditions, these all are called the quality of life. What is the best place to live? The world’s number one place for living is Australian capital Canberra, followed by the Canadian Ottawa.
For travel most tourists choose Great Britain’s capital city London, it is the most visited town in the world. The second one is Bangkok, in the third place is world famous Paris.
Alphabetical list of all countries and capitals of the world
What money do you use depends on where are you living or planning to travel. Totally, there are 164 official national currencies circulating around the world. Although the number of the independent countries is 197 plus about five dozen of dependent territories. The matter is, that some of them don’t have their own money and officially use the foreign currency.
Thus the European euro is used in 35 independent states and overseas territories, the United States dollar is used in 10 foreign countries and in the USA, the West African CFA franc – in 8 and the Central African CFA franc – in 6 African states, the East Caribbean dollar – in 6 Caribbean nations.
The world’s most-traded currency is the US dollar with about 47% share of global payments and 87% of the forex market’s daily turnover. On the second place is the Euro, having about 33% of the daily forex transactions and 28% share of the international bank payments.
All currencies of the world with their ISO-4217 codes, listed by countries and dependent territories
Source: merdeka | Selasa, 21 Mei 2019 | Reporter: Tommy Kurnia
Pendiri Facebook, Mark Zuckerberg baru merayakan ulang tahunnya yang ke 35. Dia lahir pada 14 Mei 1984 dan sempat menjadi miliuner termuda di dunia pada usianya yang ke-23.
Berdasarkan laporan kekayaan Forbes, Mark Zuckerberg adalah orang terkaya nomor lima di dunia dengan total kekayaan US$73,9Miliar (2019) data from Wikipedia terbaru 2019. Mark Zuckerberg juga merupakan sosok termuda di antara 100 orang terkaya di dunia.
Posisi kekayaan Mark Zuckerberg kembali meningkat, padahal awal tahun ini dia terlempar dari lima besar dan mendarat di posisi delapan. Kekayaannya sempat merosot karena tahun lalu akibat berbagai skandal privasi yang menimpa Facebook.
Zuck, demikian sapaan akrabnya, berhasil memimpin Facebook keluar dari terpaan badai. Pemasukan Facebook pun tetap tinggi, melebihi ekspektasi analis. Pada awal tahun ini saja Facebook meraup USD 15,08 miliar (Rp 217,8 triliun).
Uniknya, Facebook tampak sepi meski pendirinya ulang tahun. Profil resmi Mark Zuckerberg juga tak membahas ulang tahun, melainkan Hari Ibu yang jatuh pada 12 Mei lalu.
Akun Instagram resmi pada Mark Zuckerberg dan Facebook juga terpantau tak membahas ulang tahun Zuck. Postingan terakhir mereka juga terkait Hari Ibu.
Belakangan, Facebook sedang menghadapi permintaan untuk memecahkan diri karena dianggap memiliki kekuasaan terlalu besar. Ide itu digaungkan Chris Hughes, salah satu pendiri Facebook.
Dalam artikelnya di The New York Times, Hughes menyebut Mark Zuckerberg juga abai mengenai urusan keamanan di platformnya. Pihak Facebook menyanggah gagasan tersebut karena dianggap bukan solusi tepat.
Jack Ma (born Ma Yun, Chinese: 马云; [mà y̌n]; born 10 September 1964), is a Chinese business magnate, investor, politician and philanthropist. He is the co-founder and executive chair of Alibaba Group, a multinational technology conglomerate. Ma is a strong proponent of an open and market-driven economy.
A prominent business figure, Ma is seen as a global ambassador for Chinese business and as such is frequently listed as one of the world’s most powerful people by Forbes. He also serves as a role model for startup businesses. In 2017, he was ranked second in the annual “World’s 50 Greatest Leaders” list by Fortune. On 10 September 2018, he announced that he will retire from Alibaba and pursue educational work, effective in one year, with Daniel Zhang succeeding him as executive chairman.
He applied ten times to Harvard Business School (HBS) and got rejected. As of June 2019, he is one of China’s richest men, with a net worth of $35.6 billion, as well as one of the wealthiest people in the world and also was ranked 21st in Forbes’ World’s Most Powerful People.
Early Life and Education
Ma was born on 10 September 1964 in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. He began studying English at a young age by conversing with English-speakers at Hangzhou international hotel. He would ride 70 miles on his bicycle to give tourists tours of the area to practice his English for nine years. He became pen pals with one of those foreigners, who nicknamed him “Jack” because he found it hard to pronounce his Chinese name.
Later in his youth, Ma struggled attending college. The Chinese entrance exams are held only once a year and Ma took four years to pass. Ma attended Hangzhou Teacher’s Institute (currently known as Hangzhou Normal University) and graduated in 1988 with a B.A. in English. While at school, Ma was head of the student council. After graduation, he became a lecturer in English and International Trade at Hangzhou Dianzi University.
Ma applied for 30 different jobs and got rejected by all. “I went for a job with the police; they said, ‘you’re no good'”, Ma told interviewer Charlie Rose. “I even went to KFC when it came to my city. Twenty-four people went for the job. Twenty-three were accepted. I was the only guy …”.
In 1994, Ma heard about the Internet and also started his first company Hangzhou Haibo Translation Agency. In early 1995, he went to the US with his friends, who helped introduce him to the Internet. Although he found information related to beer from many countries, he was surprised to find none from China. He also tried to search for general information about China and again was surprised to find none. So he and his friend created an “ugly” website related to China. He launched the website at 9:40 AM, and by 12:30 PM he had received emails from some Chinese investors wishing to know about him. This was when Ma realized that the Internet had something great to offer. In April 1995,Jack and He Yibing (a computer teacher) opened the first office for China Pages and Ma started their second company.On May 10,1995, they regstered the domain chinapagesdotcom in the United States. Within three years, the company had made 5,000,000 Chinese Yuan which at the time was equivalent to US$800,000.
Ma began building websites for Chinese companies with the help of friends in the US. He said that “The day we got connected to the Web, I invited friends and TV people over to my house”, and on a very slow dial-up connection, “we waited three and a half hours and got half a page”, he recalled. “We drank, watched TV and played cards, waiting. But I was so proud. I proved the Internet existed”. At a conference in 2010, Ma revealed that he has never actually written a line of code nor made one sale to a customer. He acquired a computer for the first time at the age of 33.
From 1998 to 1999, Ma headed an information technology company established by the China International Electronic Commerce Center, a department of the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation. In 1999, he quit and returned to Hangzhou with his team to found Alibaba, a China-based business-to-business marketplace site in his apartment with a group of 18 friends. He started a new round of venture development with 500,000 yuan.
In October 1999 and January 2000, Alibaba twice won a total of a $25 million foreign venture capital investment. The program was expected to improve the domestic e-commerce market and perfect an e-commerce platform for Chinese enterprises, especially small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), to address World Trade Organization (WTO) challenges. Ma wanted to improve the global e-commerce system and from 2003 he founded Taobao Marketplace, Alipay, Ali Mama and Lynx. After the rapid rise of Taobao, eBay offered to purchase the company. However, Ma rejected their offer, instead garnering support from Yahoo co-founder Jerry Yang with a $1 billion investment.
In September 2014 it was reported Alibaba was raising over $25 billion in an initial public offering (IPO) on the New York Stock Exchange. Alibaba became one of the most valuable technology companies in the world after raising the full $25 billion, the largest initial public offering in US financial history. Ma served as executive chairman of Alibaba Group, which is a holding company with nine major subsidiaries: Alibaba.com, Taobao Marketplace, Tmall, eTao, Alibaba Cloud Computing, Juhuasuan, 1688.com, AliExpress.com and Alipay. In November 2012, Alibaba’s online transaction volume exceeded one trillion yuan. As of 2016, Ma is the owner of Château de Sours in Bordeaux, Chateau Guerry in Côtes de Bourg and Château Perenne in Blaye, Côtes de Bordeaux.
On 9 January 2017, Ma met with United States President-elect Donald Trump at Trump Tower, to discuss a potential 1 million job openings in the following five years through Alibaba’s interest in the country. On 8 September 2017, to celebrate Alibaba’s 18th year of establishment, Ma appeared on stage and gave a Michael-Jackson-inspired performance. He performed part of “Can You Feel The Love Tonight” at the 2009 Alibaba birthday event while dressed as a heavy metal lead singer. In the same month, Ma also partnered with Sir Li Ka-shing in a joint venture to offer a digital wallet service in Hong Kong.
Ma announced on 10 September 2018 that he will step down as executive chairman of Alibaba Group Holding in the coming year. Ma denied reports that he was forced to step aside by the Chinese government. and stated that he wants to focus on philanthropy through his foundation.
In 2017, Ma made his acting debut with his first kung fu short film Gong Shou Dao. It was filmed in collaboration with the Double 11 Shopping Carnival Singles’ Day. In the same year, he also participated in a singing festival and performed dances during Alibaba’s 18th anniversary party.
Awards and Honours
In 2004, Ma was honoured as one of the “Top 10 Economic Personalities of the Year” by China Central Television (CCTV).
In Sep 2005, the World Economic Forum selected Ma as a “Young Global Leader”.
Fortune also selected him as one of the “25 Most Powerful Businessperson in Asia” in 2005.
Businessweek also selected him as a “Businessperson of the Year” in 2007.
In 2008, Barron’s featured him as one of the 30 “World’s Best CEOs”
In May 2009, Time magazine listed Ma as one of the world’s 100 most powerful people. In reporting Ma’s accomplishments, Adi Ignatius, former Time senior editor and editor-in-chief of the Harvard Business Review, noted that “the Chinese Internet entrepreneur is soft-spoken and elf-like — and he speaks really good English” and remarked that “Taobao.com, Mr. Ma’s consumer-auction website, conquered eBay in China.” He was also included in this list in 2014.
BusinessWeek chose him as one of China’s Most Powerful People.
Forbes China also selected him as one of the Top 10 Most Respected Entrepreneurs in China by in 2009. Ma received the 2009 CCTV Economic Person of the Year: Business Leaders of the Decade Award.
In 2010, Ma was selected by Forbes Asia as one of Asia’s Heroes of Philanthropy for his contribution to disaster relief and poverty.
In 2011 it was announced that one of his companies had gained control of Alipay, formerly a subsidiary of Alibaba Group, so as to “comply with Chinese law governing payment companies in order to secure a license to continue operating Alipay.
Numerous analysts reported that Ma sold Alipay to himself below market value without notifying the board of Alibaba Group or the other major owners Yahoo and Softbank, while Ma stated that Alibaba Group’s board of directors were aware of the transaction. The ownership dispute was resolved by Alibaba Group, Yahoo! and Softbank in July 2011.
Ma was awarded an honorary doctoral degree by the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology in November 2013.
Ma is a board member of Japan’s SoftBank and China’s Huayi Brothers Media Corporation. He became a trustee of The Nature Conservancy’s China program in 2009 and joined its global board of directors in April 2010.
In 2013, he became chairman of the board for The Nature Conservancy’s China Program; this was one day after he stepped down from Alibaba as company CEO.
In 2014, he was ranked as the 30th most powerful person in the world in an annual ranking published by Forbes.
In 2015, Asian Award honoured him with the Entrepreneur of the Year award.
In 2017, Fortune ranked Ma second on its World’s 50 Greatest Leaders list.
In 2017, a KPMG survey ranked Ma third in global tech innovation visionary survey.
In October 2017, Ma was given an honorary degree of Doctor of Science in Technopreneurship from De La Salle University Manila, Philippines.
In May 2018, Ma was given an honorary degree of Doctor of Social Sciences honoris causa in recognition of his contributions to technology, society and the world by University of Hong Kong.
In May 2018, Ma received an honorable doctoral degree from professors Yaakov Frenkel and Yaron Oz at the Tel Aviv University in Tel Aviv, Israel.
In May 2019, Ma and other 16 influential global figures were appointed by UN Secretary-General Guterres as the new advocates for sustainable development goals.
At the annual general meeting of shareholders for Alibaba.com in May 2010, Ma announced Alibaba Group would begin in 2010 to earmark 0.3% of annual revenue to environmental protection, particularly on water and air-quality improvement projects. Of the future of Alibaba, he has said, “our challenge is to help more people to make healthy money, ‘sustainable money’, money that is not only good for themselves but also good for the society. That’s the transformation we are aiming to make.”
In November 2018, the People’s Daily identified Ma as a member of the Communist Party of China, something which surprised observers.
Ma received international criticism after he publicly endorsed the Chinese work practice known as the 996 working hour system.
Jack Ma is the founder of the Jack Ma Foundation, a philanthropic organization focused on improving education, the environment and public health.
In 2008, Alibaba donated $808,000 to victims of the Sichuan earthquake. In 2009 Jack Ma became a trustee of the Nature Conservancy’s China program, and in 2010 he joined the global Board of Directors of the organization.
In 2015, Alibaba launched a non-profit organization, Alibaba Hong Kong Young Entrepreneurs Foundation, which support Hong Kong entrepreneurs to help them grow their businesses. During the same year, the company funded the rebuilding of 1,000 houses damaged by the earthquake-hit in Nepal, and raised money for another 9,000.
In 2019 Jack Ma’s foundation started the Netpreneur initiative that grants ten prices of one million dollars each to ten African entrepreneurs per year and launched a fund with 14.6 million dollars to develop education in Tibet.
Bocah Asal Jember Jadi Juara Olimpiade Matematika Internasional
Lain Lalu Muhammad Zohri, lain Mafazi Ikhwan Dhandy Hibatulloh. Bocah 13 tahun asal Jember ini juga menorehkan prestasi tingkat internasional di bidang matematika. Fafa, panggilan akrab Mafazi berhasil meraih juara tiga olimpiade sains internasional bidang matematika (IMC), di Bulgares, Bulgaria, pekan lalu.
Pantauan JawaPos, penampilan bocah itu sederhana, pendiam, ceria, tetapi penuh potensi. Fafa mampu bersaing dengan 28 finalis dari berbagai negara dalam IMC (International Mathematics Competition) yang berlangsung seminggu di negara Eropa Timur itu.
Bersama 12 peserta lainnya dari Indonesia, Fafa termasuk bagian dari sedikit anak bangsa yang mampu berkompetisi di bidang sains hingga ke tingkat internasional. Juga merupakan sedikit dari pelajar muslim yang siap bersaing dengan peserta umumnya didominasi nonmuslim.
Termasuk dari Indonesia sendiri. Bayangkan saja, dari 12 finalis Indonesia yang mengikuti event internasional tersebut, hanya tiga siswa saja yang berasal dari keluarga muslim. “Kami patut bangga dan bersyukur atas keberhasilan ini,” ujar Ari Kurniawan, pembina siswa berprestasi lembaga pendidikan Alfurqon Jember.
Memang, kemenangan Fafa dalam kejuaraan internasional tersebut bukan kali pertama diikuti SD maupun SMP Alfurqon Jember. Sejak diselenggarakan olimpiade sains tingkat dunia tujuh tahun lalu, sekolah ini sudah enam kali berhasil mengirimkan delegasinya. Antara lain di Bulgaria (dua kali), Singapura, Korea, Thailand, Taiwan, dan China.
Itu berarti, setiap tahun digelarnya olimpiade, Alfurqon selalu lolos seleksi tingkat nasional, dan berlanjut ke jenjang internasional. Itu baru satu-satunya sekolah yang terus-menerus mengikuti ajang internasional tersebut. “Sekolah lain biasanya cuma sekali atau maksimal dua kali,” imbuh Ari Kurniawan.
Untuk mengikuti lomba bergengsi itu, kata Ari, diakui memang tidak mudah. Seleksinya dimulai tingkat kecamatan, kabupaten, provinsi, hingga nasional. Sebelum maju ke tingkat internasional, para finalis biasanya digembleng (dikarantina) secara khusus, dengan jadwal yang amat ketat dan selektif.
Para pembinanya biasanya diambil dari akademisi perguruan tinggi terkenal, termasuk UI, ITB, Trisakti, dan lain-lain. Mereka digembleng berhari-hari mulai pagi hingga sore, untuk mengerjakan beragam soal dengan waktu yang amat ketat.
Demikian pula dengan Fafa, kata Ari, yang juga ayahnya itu, anak satu-satunya itu tergolong pendiam dan penurut. Dia hampir tak pernah menolak tugas mengerjakan soal-soal yang diprogramkan.
“Tetapi, yang namanya anak-anak, duduk setengah jam saja sudah bosan, gelisah, dan ingin jalan-jalan saja. Untungnya dia sabar dan mengikuti arahan pembinanya,” jelas, Ari. Padahal, sebagai anak tunggal, lanjut Ari, biasanya sering manja dan selalu ingin didampingi orangtuanya.
Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM), Yogyakarta berhasil menorehkan prestasi di kancah International yaitu International Mathematics Competition (IMC) 2018 yang dihelat di Kota Blagoevard, Bulgaria pada 22-28 Juli 2018 dengan sukses membawa pulang dua medali perunggu dan 1 penghargaan honorable mention.
Mahasiswa tersebut di antaranya adalah Alzimna Badril Uman dan Adryan Wiradinata yang menyumbangkan medali perak. Lalu, Resita Sri Wahyuni yang berhasil meraih penghargaan honorable mention. Ketiga mahasiswa UGM ini terpilih menjadi perwakilan Indonesia di IMC 2018 bersama enam mahasiswa dari perguruan tinggi Indonesia lainnya.
Alzimna mengatakan, keikutsertaannya dalam IMC ini merupakan yang pertama kali. Dia pun mengaku bangga ketika bisa membawa pulang medali dari kompetisi dunia ini.
“Bangga bisa meraih predikat third prize dan mengharumkan nama UGM serta Indonesia di tingkat dunia,” jelasnya, dalam website UGM, Jumat (10/8).
Kendati demikian, perasaan kecewa sempat menghinggapi Alzimna. Sebab, perolehan nilai yang didapatnya hanya terpaut tiga poin untuk menyabet predikat juara dua.
“Sempat ada rasa kecewa karena tidak bisa memenuhi target saya untuk meraih second prize karena hanya mendapat 30 poin dari 33 poin cut off second prize. Namun begitu, saya tetap bersyukur sudah meraih predikat ini serta mendapat banyak sekali ilmu dan pengalaman baru,” urainya.
Keberhasilan yang diraih Alzimna dan dua rekannya tidak lepas dari usaha dan kerja keras mereka dalam berlatih dan belajar menghadapi IMC. Selain itu, juga dukungan dari dosen pembina UGM dan alumni IMC UGM yang telah menorehkan prestasi dalam kompetisi tahun-tahun sebelumnya serta pembinaan intensif dari Kemenristekdikti.
“Pencapaian ini merupakan hasil dari kerja keras dan dukungan semua pihak. Semoga dalam IMC mendatang Indonesia bisa semakin berjaya,” pungkas Alzimma.
Source: okezone | Vanni Firdaus Yuliandi 10 Agustus 2018
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