Robert Redford . Biography
Charles Robert Redford, Jr. (born August 18, 1936) is an American actor, film director, producer, businessman, environmentalist, philanthropist, and founder of the Sundance Film Festival. He has received two Oscars: one in 1981 for directing Ordinary People, and one for Lifetime Achievement in 2002. In 2010, he was awarded French Knighthood in the Legion d’Honneur.
Redford at the 2012 Sundance Film Festival
|Born||Charles Robert Redford, Jr.
August 18, 1936
Santa Monica, California, U.S.
|Occupation||Actor, director, producer, businessman, environmentalist, philanthropist|
|Spouse(s)||Lola Van Wagenen
Redford was born in Santa Monica, California. His mother, Martha W. (née Hart), was born in Texas, to Archibald Hart and Sallie Pate Green; and his father, Charles Robert Redford, Sr. (November 19, 1914 – April 2, 1991), was a milkman-turned-accountant from Pawcatuck, New London County, Connecticut, son of Charles Elijah Redford and Lena Taylor. He has a stepbrother, William, from his father’s re-marriage. Redford is of English, Irish, Scottish, and Scots-Irish ancestry (his surname originates in England).
Redford’s family moved to Van Nuys, California, while his father worked in El Segundo. He attended Van Nuys High School, where he was classmates with baseball player Don Drysdale. He has described himself as having been a “bad” student, finding inspiration outside the classroom, and being interested in art and sports. He hit tennis balls with Pancho Gonzales at the Los Angeles Tennis Club to warm him up. After high school, he attended the University of Colorado for a year and a half, where he was a member of the Kappa Sigma Fraternity. While there, he worked at the restaurant/bar The Sink; a painting of his likeness is prominent in the bar’s murals. After being asked to leave the University of Colorado, he traveled in Europe, living in France, Spain, and Italy. He later studied painting at the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn and took classes at the American Academy of Dramatic Arts in New York City.
Redford’s career — like that of almost all major stars who emerged in the 1950s — began in New York, where an actor could find work both in television and on stage. Starting in 1959, he appeared as a guest star on numerous programs, including The Untouchables, The Americans, Whispering Smith, Perry Mason, Alfred Hitchcock Presents, Route 66, Dr. Kildare, Playhouse 90, Tate, The Twilight Zone, and “Captain Brassbound’s Conversion” with a young Christopher Plummer, among others.
In 1960, Redford was cast as Danny Tilford, a mentally disturbed young man trapped in the wreckage of his family garage, in “Breakdown”, one of the last episodes of the syndicated adventure series, Rescue 8, starring Jim Davis and Lang Jeffries.
Redford earned an Emmy nomination as Best Supporting Actor for his performance in The Voice of Charlie Pont (ABC, 1962). One of his last television appearances was on October 7, 1963, on Breaking Point, an ABC medical drama about psychiatry.
Redford’s Broadway debut was in a small role in Tall Story (1959), followed by parts in The Highest Tree (1959) and Sunday in New York (1961). His biggest Broadway success was as the stuffy newlywed husband of Elizabeth Ashley in Neil Simon’s Barefoot in the Park (1963).
While still largely an unknown, Redford made his screen debut in War Hunt (1962), co-starring with John Saxon in a film set during the last days of the Korean War. This film also marked the debuts of director Sydney Pollack, with whom Redford would often collaborate in the near future, and actor Tom Skerritt. After his Broadway success, he was cast in larger feature roles in movies. He was cast alongside screen legend Alec Guinness in the war comedy Situation Hopeless … But Not Serious, in which he played a soldier who has to spend years of his life hiding behind enemy lines. In Inside Daisy Clover (1965), which won him a Golden Globe for best new star, he played a bisexual movie star who marries starlet Natalie Wood, and rejoined her along with Charles Bronson for Pollack’s This Property Is Condemned (1966) — again as her lover, though this time in a film which achieved even greater success. The same year saw his first teaming with Jane Fonda, in Arthur Penn’s The Chase. This film marked the only time Redford would star with Marlon Brando. Fonda and Redford were paired again in the popular big screen version of Barefoot in the Park (1967) and were again co-stars much later in Pollack’s The Electric Horseman (1979).
After this initial success, Redford became concerned about his blond male stereotype image and turned down roles in Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? and The Graduate. Redford found the property he was looking for in George Roy Hill’s Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid (1969), scripted by William Goldman, in which he was paired for the first time with Paul Newman. The film was a huge success and made him a major bankable star, cementing his screen image as an intelligent, reliable, sometimes sardonic good guy.
Redford suffered through a few films that did not achieve box office success during this time, including Downhill Racer (1969); Tell Them Willie Boy Is Here (1969); Little Fauss and Big Halsy (1970), and The Hot Rock (1972). But his overall career was flourishing with the critical and box office hit Jeremiah Johnson (1972); the political satire The Candidate (1972); the hugely popular period drama The Way We Were (1973); and the biggest hit of his career; the blockbuster crime caper The Sting (1973), which became one of the top 20 highest grossing movies of all time when adjusted for inflation and for which he was also nominated for an Oscar.
Between 1974 and 1976, exhibitors voted Redford Hollywood’s top box-office name. His hits included The Great Gatsby (1974), The Great Waldo Pepper (1975), and Three Days of the Condor (1975). The popular and acclaimed All the President’s Men (1976), directed by Alan J. Pakula and scripted once again by Goldman, was a landmark film for Redford. Not only was he the executive producer and co-star, but the film’s serious subject matter — the Watergate scandal — and its attempt to create a realistic portrayal of journalism also reflected the actor’s offscreen concerns for political causes.
He also starred in a segment of the war film A Bridge Too Far (1977), the prison drama Brubaker (1980), playing a prison warden attempting to reform the system, and the fantasy baseball drama The Natural (1984). Redford continued his involvement in mainstream Hollywood movies, though with a newfound focus on directing. The first film he directed, Ordinary People, which followed the disintegration of an upper class American family after the death of a son, was one of the most critically and publicly acclaimed films of the decade, winning a number of Oscars, including the Academy Award for best director for Redford himself. His follow-up directorial project, The Milagro Beanfield War (1987), failed to generate the same level of attention. Sydney Pollack’s Out of Africa (1985), with Redford in the male lead role opposite Meryl Streep, became an enormous critical and box office success and won seven Oscars including Best Picture, proving to be Redford’s biggest success of the decade and Redford and Pollack’s most successful of their six movies together. His next film, Legal Eagles (1986), was only a minor success at the box office.
Redford continued as a major star throughout the 1990s and 2000s. He released his third film as a director, A River Runs Through It, in 1992, which was a return to mainstream success for Redford as a director and brought a young Brad Pitt to greater prominence. 1993 brought Redford one of his most popular and recognized roles when he starred as a millionaire businessman who tests people’s morals through bribery in Indecent Proposal, which became one of the year’s biggest hits. He co-starred with Michelle Pfeiffer in the newsroom romance Up Close & Personal (1996), and with Kristin Scott Thomas in The Horse Whisperer (1998), which he also directed. Redford also continued work in films with political context, such as Havana (1990), playing Jack Weil, a professional gambler in 1959 Cuba during the Revolution, as well as Sneakers (1992), in which he co starred with River Phoenix among others.
He appeared as a disgraced Army general sent to prison in the prison drama The Last Castle (2001), directed by Rod Lurie. In the same year, Redford reteamed with Brad Pitt for Spy Game, another success for the pair but with Redford switching this time from director to actor. Redford, a leading environmental activist, narrated the IMAX documentary Sacred Planet (2004), a sweeping journey across the globe to some of its most exotic and endangered places. In The Clearing (2004), a thriller co-starring Helen Mirren, Redford was a successful businessman whose kidnapping unearths the secrets and inadequacies that led to his achieving the American Dream.
Redford stepped back into producing with The Motorcycle Diaries (2004), a coming-of-age road film about a young medical student, Ernesto “Che” Guevera, and his friend Alberto Granado. It also explored political and social issues of South America that influenced Guevara and shaped his future. With five years spent on the film’s making, Redford was credited by director Walter Salles for being instrumental in getting it made and released.
Back in front of the camera, Redford received good notices for his role in director Lasse Hallstrom’s An Unfinished Life (2005) as a cantankerous rancher who is forced to take in his estranged daughter-in-law (Jennifer Lopez) — whom he blames for his son’s death — and the granddaughter he never knew he had when they fled an abusive relationship. The film, which sat on the shelf for many months while its distributor Miramax was restructured, was generally dismissed as clichéd and overly sentimental. Meanwhile, Redford returned to familiar territory when he reteamed with Meryl Streep 22 years after they starred in Out of Africa, for his personal project Lions for Lambs (2007), which also starred fellow superstar Tom Cruise. After a great deal of hype, the film opened to mixed reviews and disappointing box office. Redford more recently signed on to direct and star in an update of The Candidate.
Redford appears in the 2011 documentary Buck, where he discusses his experiences with title subject Buck Brannaman during the production of The Horse Whisperer in 1998.
In 2012, Redford directed and starred in The Company You Keep, about a former Weather Underground activist who goes on the run from a journalist who has discovered his identity.
In 2013, Redford starred in All Is Lost, directed by J.C. Chandor, about a man lost at sea.
In April 2013, Redford announced he would be returning to the screen in an unconventional role for him – in the summer Marvel Studios super hero film Captain America: The Winter Soldier. Redford will play the head of S.H.I.E.L.D.
Redford had long harbored ambitions to work on both sides of the camera. As early as 1969, Redford had served as the executive producer for Downhill Racer. His first outing as director was in 1980’s Ordinary People, a drama about the slow disintegration of an upper-middle class family, for which he won the Academy Award for Best Director. Redford was credited with obtaining a powerful dramatic performance from Mary Tyler Moore, as well as superb work from Donald Sutherland and Timothy Hutton, who also won the Oscar for Best Supporting Actor.
Redford did not direct again until The Milagro Beanfield War (1988), a well-crafted, though not commercially successful, screen version of John Nichols‘ acclaimed novel of the Southwest. The Milagro Beanfield War is the story of the people of Milagro, New Mexico (based on the real town of Truchas in northern New Mexico), overcoming big developers who set about to ruin their community and force them out because of tax increases. Other directorial projects have included the period drama A River Runs Through It (1992), based on Norman Maclean’s novella, and the exposé Quiz Show (1994), about the quiz show scandal of the late 1950s. In the latter film, Redford worked from a screenplay by Paul Attanasio with noted cinematographer Michael Ballhaus and a strong cast that featured Paul Scofield, John Turturro, Rob Morrow, and Ralph Fiennes. Redford handpicked Morrow for his part in the film (Morrow’s only high-profile feature film role to date), because he liked his work on Northern Exposure. Redford also directed Matt Damon and Will Smith in The Legend of Bagger Vance (2000). In 2010, Redford released The Conspirator, a period drama revolving around the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. Despite a subject matter of personal interest to Redford, the film received mixed reviews and proved to be a flop at the box office.
Redford attended the University of Colorado in the 1950s and received an Honorary Degree in 1983.
In 1995, he received an honorary Doctor of Humane Letters degree from Bard College. He was a 2002 Lifetime Achievement Award/Honorary Oscar recipient at the 74th Academy Awards.
In 1996, he was awarded the National Medal of Arts.
In December 2005, he received the Kennedy Center Honors for his contributions to American culture. The Honors recipients are recognized for their lifetime contributions to American culture through the performing arts: whether in dance, music, theater, opera, motion pictures or television.
In 2008, he was awarded The Dorothy and Lillian Gish Prize, one of the richest prizes in the arts, given annually to “a man or woman who has made an outstanding contribution to the beauty of the world and to mankind’s enjoyment and understanding of life.”
The University of Southern California (USC) School of Dramatic Arts announced the first annual Robert Redford Award for Engaged Artists in 2009. According to the school’s web site, the award was created “to honor those who have distinguished themselves not only in the exemplary quality, skill and innovation of their work, but also in their public commitment to social responsibility, to increasing awareness of global issues and events, and to inspiring and empowering young people.”
Redford received an honorary Doctor of Fine Arts from Brown University at the 240th Commencement exercises on May 25, 2008. He also spoke during the ceremonies.
On October 14, 2010, he was appointed Chevalier of the Légion d’honneur.
He was a 2010 recipient of the New Mexico Governor’s Award for Excellence in the Arts
With the financial proceeds of his acting success, starting with his salaries from Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid and Downhill Racer, Redford bought an entire ski area on the east side of Mount Timpanogos northeast of Provo, Utah, called “Timp Haven”, which was renamed “Sundance”. Redford’s wife Lola was from Utah and they had built a home in the area in 1963. Portions of the movie Jeremiah Johnson (1972), a film which is both one of Redford’s favorites and one that has heavily influenced him, were shot near the ski area. He founded the Sundance Film Festival, Sundance Institute, Sundance Cinemas, Sundance Catalog, and the Sundance Channel, all in and around Park City, Utah, 30 miles (48 km) north of the Sundance ski area. The Sundance Film Festival caters to independent filmmakers in the United States and has received recognition from the industry as a place to open films. In 2008, Sundance exhibited 125 feature-length films from 34 countries, with more than 50,000 attendees. The name Sundance comes from his Sundance Kid character. Redford also owns a restaurant called Zoom, located on Main Street in the former mining town of Park City.
Since founding the nonprofit Sundance Institute in Park City, in 1981, Redford has been deeply involved with independent film. Through its various workshop programs and popular film festival, Sundance has provided much-needed support for independent filmmakers. In 1995, Redford signed a deal with Showtime to start a 24-hour cable television channel devoted to airing independent films. The Sundance Channel premiered on February 29, 1996.
On September 12, 1958, in Las Vegas, Nevada, Redford married Lola Van Wagenen, who dropped out of college to marry him. They had four children: Scott Anthony, David James “Jamie,” Shauna, and Amy Redford.
His son, Jamie Redford, is a writer/producer.
Scott — their first child — was born September 1, 1959, and died of sudden infant death syndrome on November 17, 1959, at age 2½ months. His remains were buried at Provo City Cemetery in Provo, Utah. Lola and Redford divorced in 1985. He has five grandchildren: Dylan and Lena Redford (by son Jamie), Mica and Conor Schlosser (by daughter Shauna) and Eden August (by daughter Amy).
In July 2009, Redford married his longtime partner, Sibylle Szaggars, at the luxurious Louis C. Jacob Hotel in Hamburg, Germany, and in St. Severini church in Kirchwerder, in a rural part of Hamburg. She had moved in with Redford in the 1990s and shares his Sundance, Utah, home.
In May 2011, Alfred A Knopf published Robert Redford: The Biography by Michael Feeney Callan, written fifteen years with Redford’s input, and drawn from his personal papers and diaries.
Redford is both conservative and liberal. As far as his views on environmental issues, Redford is somewhat liberal, supporting environmentalism, Native American rights, and the arts, but is more conservative on social issues. Some of his federal political contributions have been to Republicans and some to Democrats. He has also supported advocacy groups, such as the Political Action Committee of the Directors Guild of America. Redford has on occasion also supported Republicans, including Brent Cornell Morris in his unsuccessful 1990 race for Utah’s 3rd congressional district seat. Redford also supported Gary R. Herbert, another Republican and a friend, in Herbert’s successful campaign to be elected Utah’s Lieutenant Governor (he is currently the Governor of Utah). Redford is an avid environmentalist and is a trustee of the Natural Resources Defense Council. Redford has been a vocal critic of Barack Obama for his lack of follow-through on environmental policies. He wrote, “One reason I supported President Obama is because he said we must protect clean air, water and lands. But what good is it to say the right thing unless you act on it?”
|1960||Maverick||Jimmy Coleman||Episode 76: “Iron Hand”|
|1960||Rescue 8||Danny Tilford||Episode 67: “Breakdown”|
|1960||The Deputy||Burt Johnson||Episode 31: “The Last Gunfight”|
|1960||Playhouse 90||Lieutenant Lott||Episode 134: “In the Presence of Mine Enemies”|
|1960||Tate||John Torsett||Episode 3: “The Bounty Hunter”|
|1960||Moment of Fear||Stranger||Episode 1: “The Golden Deed”|
|1960||Tate||Tad Dundee||Episode 8: “Comanche Scalps”|
|1960||Perry Mason||Dick Hart||Episode 96: “The Case of the Treacherous Toupee”|
|1960||The Iceman Cometh||Don Parritt|
|1961||Whispering Smith||Johnny||Episode 2: “The Grudge”|
|1962||The Twilight Zone||Death||Episode 81: “Nothing in the Dark”|
|1962||War Hunt||Private Roy Loomis|
|1963||The Untouchables||Jack Parker||Episode 103: “Snowball”|
|1963||The Virginian||Role unidentified||Episode 34 (2.4): “A Killer in Town”|
|1965||Inside Daisy Clover||Wade Lewis||Golden Globe Award for New Star of the Year – Actor|
|1965||Situation Hopeless … But Not Serious||Captain Hank Wilson|
|1966||This Property Is Condemned||Owen Legate|
|1966||The Chase||Charlie ‘Bubber’ Reeves|
|1967||Barefoot in the Park||Paul Bratter|
|1969||Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid||The Sundance Kid||BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role|
|1969||Tell Them Willie Boy Is Here||Deputy Sheriff Christopher ‘Coop’ Cooper||BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role|
|1969||Downhill Racer||David Chappellet||BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role|
|1970||Little Fauss and Big Halsy||Halsy Knox|
|1972||Jeremiah Johnson||Jeremiah Johnson|
|1972||The Candidate||Bill McKay|
|1972||The Hot Rock||John Archibald Dortmunder|
|1973||The Sting||Johnny Hooker||Nominated — Academy Award for Best Actor|
|1973||The Way We Were||Hubbell Gardiner|
|1974||The Great Gatsby||Jay Gatsby|
|1975||Three Days of the Condor||Joseph Turner/The Condor|
|1975||The Great Waldo Pepper||Waldo Pepper|
|1976||All the President’s Men||Bob Woodward|
|1977||A Bridge Too Far||Major Julian Cook|
|1979||The Electric Horseman||Norman ‘Sonny’ Steele|
|1984||The Natural||Roy Hobbs|
|1985||Out of Africa||Denys Finch Hatton|
|1986||Legal Eagles||Tom Logan|
|1992||Sneakers||Martin “Marty” Bishop|
|1992||Incident at Oglala||Narrator|
|1993||Indecent Proposal||John Gage|
|1993||La Classe américaine||Steven|
|1996||Up Close & Personal||Warren Justice|
|1998||The Horse Whisperer||Tom Booker||Also Producer/Director|
|2001||The Last Castle||Lt. Gen. Eugene Irwin|
|2001||Spy Game||Nathan D. Muir|
|2004||The Clearing||Wayne Hayes|
|2005||An Unfinished Life||Einar Gilkyson|
|2007||Lions for Lambs||Dr. Stephen Malley||Also Producer/Director|
|2012||The Company You Keep||Jim Grant/Nick Sloan||Also Producer/Director|
|2013||All Is Lost||Our Man|
|2014||Captain America: The Winter Soldier||Alexander Pierce|
|1980||Ordinary People||Academy Award for Best Director
Directors Guild of America Award for Outstanding Directing – Feature Film
Golden Globe Award for Best Director
|1988||The Milagro Beanfield War||Nominated — Political Film Society|
|1992||A River Runs Through It||Nominated — Golden Globe Award for Best Director|
|1994||Quiz Show||Nominated — Academy Award for Best Picture
Nominated — Academy Award for Best Director
Nominated — BAFTA Award for Best Film
Nominated — Directors Guild of America Award for Outstanding Directing – Feature Film
Nominated — Golden Globe Award for Best Director
|1998||The Horse Whisperer||Nominated — Golden Globe Award for Best Director|
|2000||The Legend of Bagger Vance|
|2007||Lions for Lambs|
|2012||The Company You Keep|
|1970||The Making of Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid||Documentary|
|1971||The Language And The Music Of The Wolves||Project of The Natural History Magazine|
|1974||Following the Tundra Wolf||Documentary|
|1975||Broken Treaty at Battle Mountain||Documentary|
|1983||The Sun Dagger||Documentary|
|1988||Audubon Video: Grizzly and Man – Uneasy Truce||Documentary|
|1986||Audubon Video: California Condor||Documentary|
|1989||To Protect Mother Earth||Documentary|
|1990||American Experience: Yosemite – The Fate of Heaven||Documentary|
|1992||A River Runs Through It||Also director/producer|
|1992||Incident At Oglala||Documentary|
|1999||Mountain Climbing: Free Climb||Documentary|
|1997||Wallace Stegner: A Writer’s Life||Documentary|
|1999||The Mystery of Chaco Canyon||Documentary|
|2006||Charlotte’s Web||Voice of Ike the horse|
|2006||Jean-Michel Cousteau: Ocean Adventures||Narrated two episodes|
|2008||Fighting Goliath: Texas Coal Wars||Documentary|
|2008||Grand Canyon Adventure: River at Risk||Documentary on the Colorado River|
|2009||Saving The Bay||Documentary on the San Francisco Bay|
|2010||Stories From The Gulf||Documentary project of NRDC|
|2012||The Movement: One Man Joins An Uprising||Project of the Make A Hero organization|