10 Pantai di Gunungkidul

10 Pantai di Gunungkidul, Jogja yang Wajib Dikunjungi. Original Post by by anekatempatwisata. 8 November 2015

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Bicara tentang Jogja pasti tak lepas dengan wisata budaya, karena Jogja memiliki banyak bangunan tua bersejarah yang eksotis.

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Tetapi siapa sangka kota yang menjadi salah satu tujuan wisata favorit para turis ini juga memiliki banyak pantai yang sayang untuk dilewatkan, terutama bagi Anda yang sudah menyiapkan hari khusus untuk berlibur di Jogja bersama keluarga atau kawan tercinta. 10 pantai di Gunungkidul, Jogja tersebut antara lain:

1. Pantai Baron

Pantai Baron terletak di kabupaten Gunungkidul. Untuk masuk ke Pantai Baron ini nanti Anda akan diminta membayar sebesar 5000 Rupiah dan biaya parkir untuk mobil atau motor sebesar 1000 sampai 2500 Rupiah. Panorama yang masih alami merupakan salah satu keunggulan dari pantai ini.

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Para pengunjung yang datang bisa menghabiskan waktu mereka dengan bermain dan berbasah-basahan di laut. Tidak perlu khawatir terseret ombak, karena pihak pengelola sudah memberikan pembatas untuk menandai wilayah mana saja yang masih aman dikunjungi. Ombak di pantai ini yang cukup menantang juga digemari oleh para peselencar.

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2. Pantai Drini

Pantai Drini terletak di Desa Banjarejo, Kecamatan Tanjungsari, Gunungkidul. Yang istimewa dari Pantai Drini adalah sebuah pulau kecil di tengah-tengah pantai. keberadaan pulau kecil ini seolah membuat Pantai Drini terbagi menjadi dua bagian.

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Di sisi timur pantai terdapat barisan tebing yang berdiri kokoh bak benteng yang menghadang ombak dipadukan dengan keindahan pulau karang, airnya yang lebih tenang memungkinkan bagi Anda untuk berenang. Sedangkan di sisi barat, Anda bisa melihat jajaran perahu bercadik yang pulang dari berlayar mencari ikan. Ombak yang besar membuat perairan di barat ini terlihat lebih ganas.

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3. Pantai Sadranan

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Pantai Sadranan terkenal sebagai salah satu spot snorkeling baru yang banyak diminati di pulau Jawa. Di Pantai Sadranan terdapat tempat penyewaan yang dikenal dengan nama ‘Sadranan Snorkeling’ untuk Anda yang ingin menyewa peralatan snorkeling.

Pantai Sadranan merupakan rumah dari beberapa spesies laut menarik seperti Ikan Lepu, Kerondong, Botana Kuning, Kepe-kepe, Areng-areng, Ikan Neon, dan masih banyak spesies lain yang menunggu kedatangan Anda. Waktu terbaik untuk melakukan snorkeling di pantai ini adalah pada pagi, tengah, atau sore hari menjelang matahari terbenam.

4. Pantai Ngobaran

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Pantai Ngobaran merupakan pantai yang memiliki kisah mistis yang kental. Kisah mistis tersebut menceritakan tentang Prabu Brawijaya V. Pantai ini rutin digunakan sebagai lokasi upacara adat masyarakat sekitar.

Beberapa spot menarik yang dapat dinikmati di Pantai Ngobaran adalah Bukit Karang, Candi Pemujaan, dan Patung Dewa. Apabila Anda hendak mengunjungi pantai ini, ada satu tempat wisata kuliner yang wajib Anda coba, yaitu “landak goreng”. Landak Goreng di Pantai Ngobaran sudah sangat tersohor sebagai kuliner andalan.

5. Pantai Siung

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Pantai Siung merupakan satu-satunya pantai di Jogja yang memiliki medan untuk wisata panjat tebing. Di pantai ini Anda akan disuguhi pemandangan batu karang raksasa yang berdiri kokoh di sisi timur dan barat pantai.

Hingga saat ini Pantai Siung memiliki 250 jalur pemanjatan dengan tingkat kesulitan yang berbeda-beda. Bahkan Pantai ini mendapat julukan sebagai “the best rock climbing site in Jogja”. Pantai Siung adalah pantai yang sangat tepat untuk moncoba sensasi mendaki. Dari atas bebatuan karang yang kokoh ini Anda bisa menikmati pemandangan laut lepas yang lain dari biasannya.

6. Pantai Kesirat

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Berbeda dengan pantai di kawasan Gunung Kidul lainnya, Pantai Kesirat adalah pantai yang tidak memiliki keindahan pasir putih yang memukau. Keindahan Pantai Kesirat berupa tebing karang yang kokoh dan suara deburan ombak kencang yang menghantam sisi karang.

Bagi Anda yang ingin berkemping, sangat cocok untuk datang ke pantai ini karena pantai ini tidak terlalu padat dan sangat bersih. Anda dapat menikmati jingga senja sembari bercengkrama dengan kawan-kawan tercinta.

7. Pantai Jogan

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Ingin menikmati keindahan air terjun yang berada di tepi pantai? Datang ke Pantai Jogan adalah pilihan yang paling tepat. Sama seperti Pantai Banyu Tibo di Pacitan, Pantai Jogan adalah sebuah pantai yang memiliki air terjun sangat indah.

Pantai Jogan memiliki tebing-tebing menjulang khas pegunungan kapur, Air terjun yang terdapat di pantai ini jatuh dari atas tebing langsung menuju laut. Di sini, selain menikmati indahnya pantai dan deburan ombak. Anda juga bisa menikmati guyuran air terjun yang segar. Meskipun memiliki keindahan yang unik, sayangnya pantai ini sering luput oleh perhatian para wisatawan.

8. Pantai Krakal

See also: Pantai Krakal Gunungkidul, Surfing dan Lanskap Alam Indah di Jogja

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Selain Pantai Baron, Pantai Krakal adalah salah satu tempat wisata pantai yang terkenal di Gunungkidul. Pantai Krakal memiliki pasir putih yang indah dan batuan karang yang membingkai bibir pantai. Untuk merilekskan pikiran, Anda bisa berjalan menyusuri pantai bertelanjang kaki sambil menikmati deburan ombak yang merdu.

Batuan karang yang membingkai bibir Pantai Krakal adalah rumah bagi para biota laut seperti Ikan damselfish, butterfly fish, bintang laut, dan ikan-ikan lainnya. Bagi Anda yang gemar menaklukan ombak dapat mencoba berselancar di Pantai Krakal, karena pantai ini memiliki ombak yang cukup menantang dengan spot selancar yang cukup beragam.

9. Pantai Indrayanti

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Sebenarnya saat ini Pantai Indrayanti lebih dikenal dengan nama Pantai Pulsa atau Pulang Sawal. Hal ini karena nama Indrayanti sendiri sebelumnya telah menuai kontroversi. Pantai Indrayanti tampak lebih bersih dan terawat, jika dibandingkan dengan pantai-pantai lainnya yang ada di sekitar kota Jogja.

Bagi Anda pecinta olahraga air dapat mencoba permainan jet ski yang telah disediakan di sana, sedangkan bagi Anda yang ingin suasana lebih santai dapat menikmati senja di gazebo pantai ini, atau berjalan menyusuri bukit karang untuk menyaksikan keindahan Samudra Hindia.

10. Pantai Glagah

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Dibandingkan dengan pantai di Jogja lainnya, Pantai Glagah terbilang unik karena memiliki permukaan tanah yang cukup datar dan landai. Selain hamparan pasir putih yang cantik, anda juga bakal dimanjakan dengan indahnya bukit karang yang berdiri kokoh di daerah pesisir.

Ada beberapa kegiatan yang bisa anda lakukan di Pantai Glagah, seperti misalnya wisata air dan tentu saja yang utama adalah menikmati pemandangan alami yang tersedia di tempat wisata ini. Salah satu keunikan pantai ini yang tersohor adalah laguna yang berada sekitar 300 meter dari dermaga. Laguna di Pantai Glagah tidak banyak dimiliki oleh pantai-pantai lain di Jawa Tengah.

 

 

 

 

 

Pantai Krakal Gunungkidul

Pantai Krakal Gunungkidul, Surfing dan Lanskap Alam Indah di Jogja. Original Post by Sarah Armetia 22 Jun 2015

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Pantai Krakal Gunungkidul adalah salah satu di antara destinasi wisata pantai Gunungkidul yang populer. Pantai ini adalah tempat surfing yang menarik bagi para peselancar selain pula memiliki lanskap alam yang menawan.

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Pantai Krakal Gunungkidul seungguhnya telah dikenal sejak lama, bahkan jauh sebelum Pantai Indrayanti, Pantai Jogan, Pantai Baron, atau Pantai Pok Tunggal menjadi ramai dengan kunjungan para penikmat perjalanan.

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Sejumlah pihak menyebutkan bahwa Pantai Krakal memiliki spot paling indah di antara sederet pantai yang membentang di pesisir Gunungkidul.

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Di Pantai Krakal, Anda dapat menemukan pantai yang begitu landai dengan taburan pasir putih yang terhampar luas. Air laut yang jernih serta hempasan ombak yang berirama menambah keindahan panorama pantai tersebut.

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Anda akan membutuhkan waktu perjalanan selama 2,5 jam untuk dapat tiba di lokasi pantai ini jika perjalanan dimulai dari pusat Kota Yogyakarta. Di sepanjang jalan menuju Pantai Krakal, terdapat deretan warung makan yang menawarkan sajian menu khas Jogja serta makanan olahan hasil laut.

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Alamat Pantai Krakal: Desa Ngestirejo, Kec. Tanjungsari, Kab. Gunungkidul, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta
Koordinat GPS: -8.145009,110.599060

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Untuk dapat masuk ke kawasan pantai ini, Anda harus membayar tiket masukPantai Krakal Gunungkidul sebesar Rp 10 ribu per orang. Tiket ini dibayar di post retribusi Pantai Baron.

Biaya tiket sudah mencakup wisata Pantai Baron, Pantai Sundak, serta Pantai Kukup. Ke-4 pantai ini berada pada deretan yang sama di pesisir Gunungkidul.

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Lanskap Pantai Krakal Gunungkidul

Di Pantai Krakal Gungkidul, terdapat batu-batu karang yang berdiri kokoh di sepanjang pantai. Uniknya, bebatuan karang tersebut dihuni ribuan ikan karang yang berwarna-warni.

Beberapa spesies ikan tersebut, misalnya Damselfish dengan ciri khas warna kuning dan sedikit aksen biru di punggungnya.

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Ada lagi yang disebut ikan Butterflyfish yang oleh penduduk lokal disebut sebagai ikan Kepe-kepe dengan warna garis-garis biru tua bercampur biru muda. Selain itu, ada pula kelompok ikan-ikan kecil berwarna biru yang bermain di sela-sela karang.

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Batu-batu karang di Pantai Krakal Gunungkidul menghadirkan kekhasan yang menarik untuk dieksplorasi. Anda dapat berjalan-jalan di deretan bebatuan karang yang menyembul ke permukaan laksana membentuk jalan setapak yang membelah lautan.

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Untuk menyusuri deretan batu karang ini, Anda harus mengenakan alas kaki sebab sebagian batu ada yang bertekstur cukup runcing dan tajam. Dari bongkahan batu karang ini, Anda dapat menyaksikan para nelayan yang asyik dengan joran mencari lokasi strategis untuk memancing.

Tetapi, ada banyak di antara nelayan tersebut yang justru lebih suka menyelam mencari umbal. Umbal adalah sejenis binatang laut berbentuk kecil yang hidup menempel di batuan karang. Umbal kecil-kecil ini biasanya diolah warga lokal menjadi makanan rempeyek yang gurih.

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Selain panorama alamnya yang menawan, gelombang ombak di Pantai Krakal Gunungkidul juga disukai para peselancar. Setiap hari, terdapat wisatawan yang terlihat asyik berselancar di sana, menari-nari di atas lidah ombak laut.

Para Surfer biasanya berjalan terlebih dulu menuju deretan batu karang di lepas pantai untuk menyambut kedatangan ombak reef break yang disebut-sebut cukup menantang. Tetapi ada yang patut diketahui, dasar lautnya banyak didominasi bebatuan karang yang menuntut para surfer harus ekstra hati-hati.

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Kegiatan surfing bukanlah jenis olahraga yang populer di tengah-tengah warga lokal. Jika Anda ingin berselancar di pantai ini, Anda harus membawa papan surfing sendiri sebab di sekitar pantai tidak tersedia rental surfboard.

Hotel di Pantai Krakal Gunungkidul

Di kawasan Pantai Krakal terdapat sejumlah hotel dengan tarif yang terbilang murah. Keberadaan hotel dekat Pantai Krakal Gunungkidul ini menguntungkan bagi para surfer yang menginap sembari menunggu ombak terbaik untuk berselancar. Dengan demikian, para wisatawan tidak perlu membawa tenda atau perlengkapan berkemah.

Rute Perjalanan ke Pantai Krakal

Rute perjalanan ke Pantai Krakal Gunungkidul memiliki arah yang sama dengan rute ke Pantai Baron atau Pantai Kukup. Dari pusat Kota Yogyakarta, ambilah arah menuju Wonosari. Memasuki kota Wonosari, Anda akan melewati tiga lampu merah, kemudian berbeloklah ke kanan, lalu ikuti jalan lurus sampai Anda menjumpai papan petunjuk arah.

Arah ke kiri adalah arah menuju Pantai Sundak, Pantai Siung, dan Pantai Wediombo. Anda tinggal ambil lurus saja sebagaimana papan petunjuk arah menuju Pantai Krakal, Baron, dan Kukup.

 

 

Legenda dan Ritual Suku Tengger Gunung Bromo

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Indonesia adalah Negara kepulauan yang kaya akan budaya dan keindahan panorama alamnya. Jajaran pulau, deretan pantai, rimbunya hutan dengan gunung – gunung yang menjulang tinggi menjadikan Indonesia sebagai Negara destinasi wisata pilihan di Asia Tenggara. Kali ini saya akan mengajak anda mengenal Suku Tengger dan keindahan alam Gunung Bromo yang terletak dikawasan Taman Nasional Bromo Tengger Semeru (TNBTS).

Suku Tengger adalah suku pegunungan yang berada dilereng Gunung Bromo dan Semeru Pegunungan ini berada diwilayah Kabupaten Pasuruan, Probolinggo, Malang dan Lumajang Jawa Timur. Keberadaan suku Tengger sering dikaitkan dengan Kerajaan Majapahit yang pernah berkuasa pada priode tahun 1293 Masehi hingga abad ke 6.

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Legenda Suku Tengger. Tengger berasal dari nama dua orang suami istri yang menetap disuatu tempat antara gunung Bromo dan Semeru. Rara Anteng adalah anak seorang bangsawan yang cantik, (Nyai Dadap Putih) dan Joko Seger adalah anak yang dilahirkan oleh ayah Pendeta. Wajahya ganteng dan badanya sehat (seger). Keduanya kemudian menikah dan membuka kampung baru. Kampung itu diberi nama “Tengger” yang di ambil dari awalan Rara Anteng untuk awalan “Teng”, dan “Ger” dari Joko Seger.

Masa perkawinanya beranjak dewasa tetapi keduanya belum dikaruniai anak, dengan berharap mereka akhirnya bersemedi dan memohon kepada Dewa agar dikaruniai keturunan, setelah bersemedi mereka mendapatkan wangsit dari Dewata, mereka akan dikarunia anak tetapi dengan satu syarat. kelak jika anak bungsu sudah dewasa, Joko Seger dan Rara Anteng harus merelakan anak bungsunya untuk dikorbankan kepada Bharata Dharma dikawah Gunung Bromo.

Singkat cerita akhirnya pasangan Joko Seger dan Rara Anteng dikaruniai anak yang banyak, yang berjumlah 25. Dari ke 25 anak itu, anak bungsu yang bernama Dewa Kusuma dikorbankan kepada Bharata Dharma dikawah Gunung Bromo sebagai tanda pengabdian dan untuk memenuhi janjinya. Sebelum dikorbankan Dewa Kusuma berpesan agar setiap tahun pada tanggal dan bulan dirinya dikorbankan, saudara dan anak cucu mereka diharapkan mengirimkan korban dan sesaji. Pesan itu dilaksanakan turun menurun hingga hari ini, ini lah asal muasal peringatan hari Kasodo yang kita kenal.

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Masyarakat Tengger beranggapan 25 anak Rara Anteng dan Joko Seger itu merupakan nenek moyang mereka, nama 25 orang itu masih hidup dalam pikiran dan hati masyarakat Tengger dan dikaitkan dengan tempat – tempat keramat dimana mereka menyampaikan sesaji dan penyembahan kepada roh-roh yang diyakini bisa memberikan keselamatan hidup. Nama ke25 tempat keramat itu adalah :

  1. Tumenggung Kliwang. Dihubungkan dengan (Gunung Renggit)
  2. Sinta Wiji, dihubungkan dengan (Gunung Mindangan)
  3. Ki Rawit Klinting. Dihubungkan dengan (Lemah Kuning)
  4. Ki Rawit dihubungkan dengan (Sumber Air Semantik)
  5. Jiting Jenah dihubungkan dengan (Gunung Jinahan)
  6. Penganten Ical dihubungkan dengan (Gunung Pranten)
  7. Prabu Sewah dihubungkan dengan (Gunung Lingga)
  8. Cokro Pranoto dihubungkan dengan (Gunung Gandera)
  9. Tumenggung Klinter dihubungkan dengan (Gunung Pananjakan)
  10. Tunggul Wulung dihubungkan dengan (Cemoro Lawang)
  11. Raden Bagus Waris dihubungkan dengan (Gunung Batu Walang)
  12. Kaki Dukun dihubungkan dengan (Gunung. Watu Wangkuk)
  13. Ki Pranoto dihubugkang dengan (Gunun Poten)
  14. Kaki Perniti dihubungkan dengan (Gunung Bajangan)
  15. Tunggul Ametung dihubungkan dengan (Gunung Batok)
  16. Raden Masigit dihubungkan dengan (Gunung Masigit)
  17. Puspo Ki gentong dihubungkan dengan (Gunung Widodaren)
  18. Kaki Teku / Ni Teku dihubungkan sama dengan Ki Pranoto (Gunung Poten)
  19. Ki Dadung Awuk dihubungkan dengan (Gunung Wonongkaro)
  20. Ki Kedamiling dihubungkan dengan (Gunung Pusung Lingkir)
  21. Ki Sindri Jaya dihubungkan dengan ( Gunung Kedung Babat)
  22. Raden Sapu Jagat dihubungkang dengan (Gunung Pudak Lembu)
  23. Ki Jenggot dihubungkan dengan (Gunung Rujak)
  24. Demang Diningrat dihubungkan dengan (Gunung Semeru)
  25. Dewa Kusuma dihubungkan dengan (Gunung Bromo)
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Jika merujuk tulisan H.E. Josper dalam buku Tengger on Tenggereezen 1927 ada perbedaan panggilan. (ki = adalah sunan). missal ki dadung awuk = sunan dadung awuk

Sementara itu ada pendapat yang berbeda tentang asal muasal nama Tengger. Nama Tengger ini berasal dari suami istri yang menetap di lereng Gunung Bromo bernama “Kaki Umah” dan “Nini Umah” Keduanya adalah keturunan dari kerajaan Majapahit. Pendapat ini didasari penemuan batu petilasan disalah satu desa yang merupakan tenger (tanda) dari kata tenger inilah penduduk atau masyarakt itu dinamakan Tengger.

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Jika anda browsing di internet akan ada banyak tulisan yang mengaikatnya (asal muasal suku Tengger) dengan Kerajaan besar Majapahit. Dalam tulisan itu ada yang menyebutkan jika Rara Anteng yang menjadi legenda suku Tengger adalah putri dari Raja Brawijaya, Raja Majapahit dan ada juga yang menyebutkan jika Suku Tengger adalah suku yang dibagun oleh prajurit-prajurit kerajaan Majapahit yang saat itu terdesak oleh Kerajaan Islam Demak yang kemudian mendirikan perkampungan baru dilereng Gunung Bromo dan Semeru.

Dari legenda yang sudah ada, saya mencoba menghimpun sebuah kesimpulan baru bahwa, suku Tengger adalah bagian dari suku Jawa Kuno yang menempati wilayah pegunungan Tengger yang sudah ada sejak abad ke 7 Masehi pada periode kerajaan Kanuruhan (Kanjurahan) yang dipimpin oleh Raja Gajayana (Malang) yang kemudian terus berkembang dipriode kerajaan berikutnya (Kerajaan Kediri) dan mencapai perkembanganya di era Kerajaan Majapahit. Kesimpulan saya ini hanya pandangan pribadi. Oleh sebab itu masih dibutuhkan study literature yang lebih luas dan mendalam.

Masyarakat Jawa pada jaman kerajaan Hindu-Budha sangat percaya akan kekuatan yang bersifat adikodrati. Mereka mempercayai kekuatan seorang raja yang dapat memberikan berkah dan keselamatan. Semakin sakti seorang raja (pemimpin) semakin luas daerah kekuasaanya, semakin aman wilayahnya, semakin subur lahan pertanianya dan semakin jauh dari musibah dan bencana. Karna itulah pada umumnya masyarakat Jawa bermukim tersentral dan tidak jauh dari pusat Kerajaan (Keraton) dengan harapan bisa mendapatkan efek kekuatan sang raja berupa berkah dan keselamatan. Keyakinan terhadap raja seperti ini masih bisa dilihat di Keraton Yogyakarta. Kerajaan Kanjuruhan adalah kerajaan pertama di-Wilayah Malang sebelum kerajaan Singosari. Kerajaan ini tidak jauh dengan Pegunungan Tengger (suku tengger). Kondisi ini membuka kemungkinan tentang hubungan kepercayaan (berkah dann keselamatan) pemukiman suku Tengger dengan kerajaan yang berkuasa saat itu, Kanjuruhan.

Pada kisaran abad ke 7 hanya orang-orang suci, (pandita) yang tinggal dikawasan lereng gunung Tengger. Pandita ini menghabiskan waktu untuk bersemedi di Gunung Bromo atau Gunung Brahma dalam kosmologi Hindu-Budha. Kemudian petapa ini melahirkan seorang anak tampan yang diberi nama Joko Seger (lihat halaman 1). Riwayat suku Tengger (Joko seger dan Rara Anteng) ini selalu dibacakan saat prosesi Upacara Adat Kasodo hingga saat ini.

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Suku Tengger terus berkembang di masa Kerajaan Kediri yang berkuasa sejak abad ke 10 hingga tahun 1222 Masehi. Banyak orang suci yang berdatangan untuk bersemedi dan beribadah dipegunungan Tengger dan kemudian menetap disana. Penemuan Arkeologi berupa prasasti Tengger yang berangka tahun 851 Saka (929 Masehi) bisa menjadi bukti keberadaan kehidupan orang suci (pandita) dipegunungan Tengger (sebelum Majapahit) sekaligus menjadi bukti kemajuan peradaban dan budaya Tengger dalam hal ukiran (pahatan) batu dan tulisan (prasasti).

Isi prasasti Tengger menyebutkan bahwa sebuah Desa bernama Walandit, terletak di pegunungan Tengger, adalah tempat suci karena dihuni oleh hulun. Isi prasasti diatas diperkuat oleh prasasti berikutya yang ditemukan didaerah Penanjakan (desa Wonokitri) berangkakan tahun 1327 Saka (1405 Masehi. Era Majapahit). Prasasti ini menyatakan bahwa desa Walandit dihuni oleh hulun Hyang (abdi Tuhan) dan tanah di sekitarnya itu disebut hila-hila (suci). (Hefner, Robert. 1985. Masyarakat Tengger Dalam Sejarah Nasional Indonesia. Boston: University Boston).

Pada masa runtuhnya Kerajaan Majapahit yang kemudian digantikan oleh Kerajaan Islam pertama (Demak) tahun 1527 Masehi. Banyak simpatisan Majapahit yang berkumpul didaerah-daerah menghimpun kekuatan dan melakukan perlawanan. Pada tahun 1545 terjadi pertempuran sengit didaerah Malang antara simpatisan Majapahit dengan Pasukan Islam (Demak). (Pigeaud, 1985, Kerajan-kerajaan Islam di Jawa, Grafitipers) Sejarah ini membuka kemungkinan jika simpatisan Majapahit itu keteteran saat melawan pasukan kerajaan Islam Demak dan akhirya berbondong-bondong berlindung dipegunungan Tengger karna letak Malang dengan Pegunungan Tengger tidak terlalu jauh. Mereka kemudian hidup dan menetap disana. Sebagian simpatisan Majapahit lainya berpindah tempat ke Blambangan (Banyuwangi) yang merupakan Kerajaan Hindu terakhir di pulau Jawa sebelum ditaklukan oleh kerajaan Mataram Islam dan sebagian lainya menyebrang ke pulau Bali.

Suku Tengger dengan Majapahit memiliki hubungan yang erat, jauh sebelum terjadinya perpindahan besar-besaran simpatisan Majapahit ke pegunungan Tengger pada kisaran tahun 1527 – 1550 Masehi. Ini bisa dibuktikan dari peninggalan Kerajaan Majapahit berupa “prasen” tempat air suci yang terbuat dari kuningan bergambar patung dari Dewa dan zodiak agama Hindu. Sebagian besar “prasen” yang digunakan di Tengger berangka tahun Saka antara 1243 dan 1352 (Masa Majapahit). Peninggalan tempat air dari kuningan berukiran ini membuktikan dua hal. Pertama hubungan suku Tengger dengan Majapahit, kedua puncak kemajuan kebudayaan suku Tengger dari segi peninggalan.

Prasen ini masih digunakan hingga saat ini oleh para pandita (dukun) Suku Tengger. Kedekatan Suku Tengger dengan Majapahit diperkuat naskah yang berasal dari Keraton Yogyakarta yang berangka tahun 1814 M (Nancy), konon daerah Tengger termasuk wilayah yang dihadiahkan kepada Gajah Mada karena jasa-jasanya kepada keraton Majapahit.

Semakin banyak cerita tentang legenda Suku Tengger semakin memberikan banyak pegetahuan kepada kita. Dari beberapa legenda suku Tengger yang ada, anda bebas memilih cerita legenda mana yang ingin anda percayai. Legenda tetaplah legenda, akan selalu menjadi bingkai cerita suatu tempat, daerah atau suku secara turun menurun yang memberikan warna budaya di Indonesia.

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Kehidupan masyarakat Tengger dikenal masyarakat yang teratur, dan serasi . jarang terjadi perselisihan, permusuhan antar sesama. ini dikarenakan masyarakat Tengger memiliki tujuh pedoman kehidupan yang dipegang teguh. Tujuh pedoman ini biasanya di bacakan pada hari raya Kasodo. Ketujuh pedoman itu antara lain :

  1. Hong pukulan maniro sak sampune dumerek ing sasi kasodo maningo ing tamah (Yang Maha Kuasa pelindung seluruh mahluk mengetahui amal perbuatan manusia, memberikan berkahnya pada bulan kasodo)
  2. Milango ing sarining potro kanggo milar panjenengan ing manah (hendaknya mansuia berbuat amal kebajikan, merubah perbuatan buruk menjadi baik, memperhatikan gerak hati yang bersih)
  3. Kang adoh pinerekaken , kang parek tinariko nang aron-aron (orang yang jauh dari kebaikan supaya diingatkan untuk berbuat baik dan diajak mendekatkan kepada Tuhan)
  4. Angrasuko ajang kang pinuju ing sang hyang sukmo (kerjakanlah perbuatan yang baik supaya selamat jiwa dan raga dan mendapatkan ridho Tuhan)
    Jiwo raga sinusupan babahan werno songo (hendaklah jiwa raga terjaga segala sesuatu yg memasuki lobang 9 pada manusia).
  5. Ngelingono jiwo premono hanimboho banyu karabayuan (hendaklah manusia mempunyai hati yang bersih dan berbuat kasih sayang terhadap semua mahluk)
  6. Deniru neediyo nyondro nitis spisan kerto rahayu palinggihane titi yang lurah, lurah kyabi dukun sagunge anak putu andoyo puluh. (bila petunjuk2 tesebut dilaksanakan dengan sabaik-baiknya dengan jiwa mantap oleh seluruh lapisan masyarakat, maka manusia setelah mati akan mendapatkan ketentraman dan kebahagian jiwa yang disebut sebagai mati sempurna)

Selain ketujuh pedoman hidup, suku Tengger mempunyai tujuh tuntunan kasih sayang atau yang dikenal dengan “Tuntunan Welas Asih Pepitu”. Isi ketujuh tuntunan kasih sayang itu adalah :

  1. Tansah welas asih dumanteng jiwo raga pribadi . (setiap orang selalu ingat menjaga dirinya memilhara panca inderanya dari perbuatan yang tercela)
  2. Tansah welas asih dating hyang maha agung. (supaya setiap orang selalu berbakti dan mengagunkan Tuhan Yang Maha Kuasa)
  3. Tansah welas asih dumateng ibu pertiwi. (setiap orang harus menjaga dan berbakti kepada bumi tumpah darahnya)
  4. Tansah welas asih dumateng bapo biyung (setiap orang harus berbakti kepada orang tuanya)
  5. Tansah welas asih dating sesamining janmo manuso ing saklumahing bumi sak kurebing langit. (supaya setiap orang harus slalu kasih sayang terhadap sesama manusia dipermukaan bumi ini)
    Tansah welas asih dumateng seto kewan (setiap orang harus slalu sayang terhadap mahluk bintang)
  6. Tansah welas asih dating tuwuh tandur powijo karang kirno kanan kiri, (setiap orang harus selalu memelihara dengan baik semua tanaman, pohon-pohonan dan sebagainya)
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Nilai – nilai positif pedoman suku Tengger ini bisa kita adopsi kedalam kehidupan kita sehari – hari agar tercipta hubungan kehidupan social yang harmonis antar sesama.

Pandita atau Dukun Tengger memiliki peran yang penting bagi masyarakat Tengger karena seluruh upacara keagaamaan adat dan pencarian waktu baik atau hari baik tidak dapat dilepaskan oleh peranan dukun. Siapun bisa menjadi dukun asal orang tersebut lulus ujian menjadi dukun yang diadakan tiap tahun saat perayaan Kasodo.

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Untuk melakukan tugasnya sebagai dukun, dukun dibantu oleh pembantunya yang terdiri dari:”wong sepuh”, jabatan wong sepuh ditetapkan oleh petinggi berdasarkan kecakapanya dalam melaksanakan tugas,. Wong sepuh inilah yang membantu menyediakan persyaratan sajian dan menjadi saksi.

“Dandan”. yakni seorang wanita pembantu dukun yang bertugas memeriksa syarat sesaji dan selamatan yang akan dilaksanakan “Legen” adalah. Pembantu dukun yang merupakan pesuruh untuk mempersiapkan alat-alat upacara dan pembakaran dupa.

Dalam masyarakat Tengger terdapat beberapa upacara adat yang dilakukan secara besar, rutin dan bersama-sama, misalnya upacara tahunan Kasodo dan Karo Selain itu ada juga upacara adat yang bersifat individu. Missalnya, Upacara tujuh bulanan (sayut), Upacara indung anak, Upacara Tugel Gombak (laki-laki) dan Tugel Kuncung (perempuan), Upacara Wala gara atau Temu Manten dll. Acara adat besar yang akan saya tulis adalah upacara Karo dan Kasodo.

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Upacara Karo adalah hari raya adat suku Tengger yang dirayakan bersama-sama secara besara-besaran pada pertengahan bulan karo setiap tahun. Upacara ini dilaksanakan selama tujuh hari, selama itu mereka saling kunjung mengunjungi untuk memperat tali silaturahim (persaudaraan) yang istilahya disebut sambung batin.

Asal muasal diadakanya perayaan Karo menurut cerita masyarakat Tengger adalah untuk memperingati meningalnya dua orang abdi yang setia dalam melaksanakan tugasnya. Yaitu seorang bernama “Setio” abdi dari Aji Saka dan seorang lagi bernama “Satuhu” abdi dari Kanjeng Nabi Muhamad. Siapa Aji Saka? bisa baca tulisan dalam bentuk legenda (C.C.Berg, penulisan sejarah jawa, bahtwera, Jakarta 1972).

Pada suatu hari Aji Saka berkungjung ke rumah Nabi Muhammad, teteapi pada saat ingin pulang keris pusaka yang dibawanya tertinggal. Oleh karena itu diperintahkanlah orang kepercayaanya yaitu Setio untuk mengambilnya dikediaman Nabi Muhammad.

Sebaliknya ketika Nabi Muhammad mengetahui keris pusaka milik Aji Saka tertinggal Beliau langsung mengutus seorang kepercayaanya Satuhu untuk mengembalikan keris puusaka itu kepada Aji Saka sendiri. Dan berpesan jangan memberikan keris itu kepada siapapun kecuali kepada pemiliknya Aji Saka.

Ditengah jalan kedua orang kepercayaan itu bertemu. Setelah saling tegur sapa keduanya menyampaikan maksut dari keperginaya. Setio menceritakan jika diutus oleh Aji Saka untuk mengambil keris pusaka yang tertinggal, begitu juga sebaliknya Satahu menyampaikan alasan kepergianya untuk menyerahkan keris pusaka Aji Saka yang tertinggal langsung kepada Aji Saka.

Akhirnya terjadi perselisihan antara Setio dan Satahu. Setio yang melihat keris pusaka kepunyaan Aji Saka berusaha merebut keris itu untuk dibawa pulang sesuai perintah Aji Saka. Dan sebaliknya, Satahu bersi keras untuk mempertahankan, memegang amanat dari Nabi Muhammad, bahwa keris pusaka itu harus diantar langsung kepada pemiliknya Aji Saka.

Keduanya terlibat perkelahian dan saling menunjukan kesaktianya. Tetapi diantara keduanya tidak ada yang kalah dan tidak ada yang menang. Keris pusaka yang diperebutkan itu dipakainya untuk saling menusuk, dan kedua utusanya itu pun akhirnya meninggal. Sang Aji Saka dan Nabi Muhammad lama menunggu kedatangan dua utusanya. Karena tidak kunjung datang masing-masing mencarinya.

Ditengah perjalanan masing-masing menemukan kedua orang utusanya tergeletak meninggal, mayat Setio tergeletak membuju kearah selatan dan mayat Satuhu membujur kea rah utara. Karena itu jika orang Tengger meninggal mayatnya dikubur membujur kearah utara. Meningalnya kedua orang utusan itu diadakan upacara salamatan dari asal mula selamatan inilah adanya upacara Karo.

Pelaksaana Karo diadakan dirumah petinggi bersama-sama dan rumah warga desa. Perayaan dirumah petinggi diadakan terlebih dahulu dan baiaya dipukul bersama seluruh warga desa. Untuk merakamaikanya seringkali diadakan hiburan , pertunjukan seperti ludruk.

Tujuan upacara Karo ialah memohon selamat untuk penghormatan kepada bapak dan ibu. Karena dengan perantara keduanyalah Tuhan telah menyebarkan bibit manusia, acara ini dipimpin oleh dukun.

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Hari Raya Kasodo adalah hari raya yang diadakan oleh masyarakat Tengger setiap tahun pada bulan (saddo) sepuluh pada pertengahan bulan. Upacara Kasodo ini sangat dinanti oleh masyarakat Tengger. Mereka percaya jika meraka tidak turut merayakan kehidupanya tidak akan tentram. Sebailknya jika mengikuti upacara Kasodo dan merayakanya kehidupan meraka akan selamat dan dimurahkan rejekinya dan diberi kesehatan. Karma itu jauh sebelum perayaan Kasodo masyarakat tengger telah mempersiapkan segala sesuatu yang diperlukanya.

Pusat kegiatan berada di lautan pasir gunung Bromo, di Pura Poten. Dan Desa Ngadisari sebagai pusat keramaian sebelum acara di lautan pasir. Dukun desa Ngadisari menjadi pimpinan upacara sekaligus menjadi kepala dukun diseluruh masyarakat Tengger.

Upacara ini diadakan malam hari. Sore hari sebelumnya acara diadakan dibalai desa Ngadisari (resepsi) didesa ini diadakan hibura sebagai prosesi upacara, sebelum melakukan upacara puncak di pura lautan pasir Gunung Bromo, Ratusan orang datang untuk upacara dan berwisata (Wisata Budaya).

Umumnyua sebelum puncak acara Kasodo masyarakat terlebih dahulu mengadakan sesajian ditempat yang bernama watu baling, watu mungkuk dan watu dukun. Diwatu baling orang mengambil batu sebesar gengaman dan berkeliling sebanyak tiga kali. Arah putaranya searah jarum jam. Setelah berputar tiga kali kemudia naik keatas batu dengan menyampaikan niat yang diinginkanya sambil melempar batu ke lautan pasir.

Di watu wungkuk prosesinya berbeda yaitu dengan cara membakar kemenyan dibawah batu itu, sambil mengutarakan niat dan memberikan sesaji berupa bunga-bunga, buah-buahan dll. Jika niatnya terkabul pemohon wajib menyanpaikan korbanya ke kawah Gunung Bromo.

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Prosesi kegiatan di Pura Poten pertama kali adalah pembukaan atau ujub yaitu mengayubagyo (memulyakan) paara hadirin. Kemudian para dukun membacakan mantra untuk keselamatan desa. Selanjutya mumunen ujian bagi calon dukun untuk membacakan mantra Kasodo. Yang dapat menghafal mantra-mantra dan setelah mendapat persetujuan para dukun mulai dari brang wetan dan brang kulon. Maka calon dukun itu dinyatakan lulus menjadi dukun. Berikutnya wewerah yakni memberikan penerangan kepada hadirin yang disampaikan dukun tentang riwayat Tengger dan hari raya Kasodo. Tingkah laku yang baik dan petunju tentang kehidupan. Setelah itu menuju ke kawah Gunung Bromo untuk menyampaikan korban (sesaji). Setelah itu selamatan pagi.

Indonesia kaya akan budaya. Dengan mempelajari suku dan budaya suku Tengger atau suku lain akan memberikan banyak nilai positif terhadap diri. Selain kearifan lokal, pengetahuan dan wasasan kita pun semakin luas. kebanyakan orang yang berkunjung ke gunung Bromo (TNBTS) hanya menikmati keindahan panorama alamnya saja, sejarah dan budaya suku daerah lokasi wisata menjadi tidak penting. Padahal tempat wisata alam tidak dapat dipisahkan dari legenda, mitologi dan budaya daerah lokasi wisata tersebut berada. Mari ber-Wisata sehat, berwisata yang tidak hanya menikmati keindahan alamnya saja tetapi juga mempelajari kearifan lokalnya dan menjaga kelestarianya.

Source: JusteNote

Mark Zuckerberg: Top 5 interesting things about the CEO of Facebook

Facebook crossed a total of one billion users in 2012. By Nithya Nair | Updated: October 9, 2014 11:46 AM IST

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Mark Zuckerberg, the CEO of the most used social networking site in the world will be visiting India today. His visit schedule also includes meeting the Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi and talks about increasing the number of internet audiences will also be discussed. While we hope that India is covered by affordable internet across with the CEO’s visit, here are five interesting things about the internet entrepreneur, Mark Zuckerberg.

Facebook’s Initial Days

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Facebook  was launched in the dormitory of Harvard University. Yes, Zuckerberg with his friends Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz, and Chris Hughes launched Facebook inside the university. Mark Zuckerberg is known as one among the five co-founders of the social networking site. Facebook was made as a part of his college project and had no intention to made it a social networking side across the world.

According to Mark’s friends, they had book called Face Books, which included the names and pictures of everyone who lived in the student dorms. At first, they built a site and placed two pictures, or pictures of two males and two females. Visitors to the site had to choose who was “hotter” and according to the votes there would be a ranking.

Mark’ Income

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Mark Zuckerberg receives a one-dollar salary as CEO of Facebook! Surprised? Yes, he doesn’t ask for more. However, in 2007, when Mark was 23, he became a billionaire . The number of Facebook users worldwide reached a total of one billion in 2012.

Most Followed Man

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Time magazine had named Zuckerberg among the 100 wealthiest and most influential people in the world as a part of its Person of the Year distinction. In 2011, Zuckerberg ranked first on the list of the “Most Influential Jews in the World” by The Jerusalem Post since then has been topping the list every year as of 2013.

The Simpsons titled “Loan-a Lisa

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Zuckerberg lent his voice for an episode of The Simpsons titled “Loan-a Lisa”, which first aired on October 3, 2010. In the episode, Zuckerberg tells Lisa that she does not need to graduate from college to be wildly successful, referencing Bill Gates and Richard Branson as examples. ”Loan-a Lisa” is the second episode of The Simpsons’ twenty-second season and it was aired on October 3, 2010. Other guest stars included Chris Hansen and Muhammad Yunus.

Lawsuit on Facebook

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Mark Zuckerberg has been embroiled in legal woes right in his initial days when three Harvard students Cameron Winklevoss, Tyler Winklevoss, and Divya Narendra accused Zuckerberg of lifting their idea of building a social network called HarvardConnection.com, later on to be called ConnectU. Zuckerberg is believed to have done some work for them but he later on to launch his own social network. The three filed a lawsuit that asked the court to shut down the site thefacebook.com and force Zuckerberg and to turn over the profits resulting from his alleged breach of contract.

 

 

50 Crazy Facts You Didn’t Know About Facebook

Original Post By Ajumoke Nwaeze

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Do not be surprised to meet your teenage daughter on Facebook, and if she isn’t there yet, she will own an account in just a matter of months.

Since the launch of this online social networking services in 2004, billions of people worldwide have enjoyed the benefits as well as hazards associated with having one’s “face/life” on a billboard. 31 year old Jewish-American computer programmer and Internet entrepreneur, Mark Zuckerberg, and four of his Harvard College roommates, Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz, Chris Hughes founded Facebook social network when Mark was only 20 years old.

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The idea was to create a platform for Harvard students to interact. It later grew to accommodate students from other universities across the country and then to the entire people on earth who are interested.

So far Facebook has become the most used, most popular and most addictive social media in the history of social networking. However, as common as it seems, there are a lot of things you may not know about Facebook. Check out this list of Facebook facts.

1. The name “Facebook” comes from a colloquialism for the directory given to it by American university students.

2. Facebook’s theme is basically blue because the major founder, Mark Zuckerberg, suffers red-green color blindness.

3. Al Pacino was the first “face” on Facebook.

4. As of March 2015, Facebook had about 10,082 employees.

5. Instagram and WhatsApp are major subsidiary social networks of Facebook.

6. As of 2014, the total assets of Facebook was US$40.184 billion.

7. Facebook is estimated to spend US$30 million monthly on hosting alone.

8. Mark Zuckerberg is the youngest billionaire in the world and is among the top 10 richest persons on earth with a net worth of about US$38.6 billion.

9. The number of Facebook users worldwide hit one billion in 2012.

10. In Same 2012, Mark Zuckerberg married his wife of Asian decent, Priscilla Chan. The couple are expecting their first child after experiencing several miscarriages in the past years.

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11. Since 2010, Time magazine has named Zuckerberg among the 100 wealthiest and most influential people in the world as a part of its Person of the Year distinction.

12. Smartphone users check Facebook 14 times a day.

13. There are about 30 million dead people on Facebook whose accounts are still active.

14. The legal age for anyone to be allowed registration access on Facebook is 13, although the age requirement may be higher depending on applicable local laws.

15. The “Like” button on Facebook was originally going to be called“Awesome”.

16. According to Facebook data analysis, the weeks before Christmas is the most popular time for couples to break up.

17. 8.7% of Facebook users are fake.

18. Facebook looses almost US$25,000 for every minute it is down.

19. Every minute, 1.8 million new “likes” are made on Facebook.

20. There are more Facebook users in Nigeria, than Nigerian citizens who voted in the last election.

21.  According to a study, 1 in 3 people feel more dissatisfied with their lives after viewing people’s profile, recent pictures and status on Facebook.

22. Zuckerberg was played by actor Jesse Eisenberg in the 2010 film The Social Network, in which the rise of Facebook is portrayed.

23. The average Facebook U S. user spends 40 minutes a day on the site.

24. You can change your language on Facebook to “Pirate.”

25. Several people have been murdered for unfriending someone on Facebook.

26. Facebook has a feature that allows you designate who will manage your account after you die.

27. In 2005, MySpace discussed a deal with Facebook, but rejected Mark Zuckerberg’s asking price of US$75 million as too expensive.

28. Facebook, Twitter and The New York Times have been blocked in China since 2009.

29. A third of all divorce filings of 2011 in the U.S. contained the word “Facebook.”

30. Single Nigerian youths have used Facebook as a platform for buying and selling sex in the name of being sociable.

31. As the CEO of Facebook, Mark Zuckerberg receives a monthly salary of  US$ 1.

32. Facebook has helped in crime investigation as a burglar in Minnesota was caught after he logged into his Facebook account on the home’s PC and forgot to log out.

33. Just like you can’t shoot a King out of his palace, you can’t block Mark Zuckerberg on Facebook.

34. Facebook earns an average of US$5.85 from every U.S. user.

35. A Blogger hired a woman to slap him every time he’s on Facebook.

36. According to a survey, 5% of Brits use Facebook while having sex.

37. Any text you put into the status update box is sent to Facebook’s servers, even if you don’t click the post button.

38. So many Facebook photos and videos are uploaded via mobile and it takes up 27% of upstream web traffic.

39. On average, there are 3.74 degrees of separation between any one Facebook user and another.

40. In Britain, a woman was given 20 months in jail for creating fake Facebook profiles to send abusive messages to herself.

41. 600,000 hacking attempts are made to Facebook accounts every day.

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42. In 2009, WhatsApp co-founder Brian Acton was turned down for a job at Facebook. Five years later, Facebook purchased WhatsApp for US$19 billion.

43. A study found that 88% of Facebook users sneak on the pages of their ex-partners after a breakup.

45. Facebook has 95 million users in China despite being blocked.

46. Facebook tracks which sites you visit, even after you have signed out.

47. Facebook’s first annual Hacker Cup coding challenge was won by a programmer at Google. He showed up at Facebook headquarters to collect his prize wearing his Google employee badge.

48. Facebook had over 1.18 billion monthly active users as of August 2015.

49. Between January 2014 and March 2014, over one billion users logged into their Facebook account on a mobile device.

50. Facebook is addictive and time consuming as well as a killjoy for people who find it hard to be content with what they have.

 

 

Facebook founders are world’s youngest billionaires

Oh, to be young and filthy, stinking rich.

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Forbes released its annual list of the world’s billionaires on Monday — there are 1,426 of them on the planet — and noted that there are just 23 under 40. And Facebook’s founders are the youngest on the list.

Dustin Moskovitz and Mark Zuckerberg founded Facebook way back in the day. Now, at the tender age of 28, the pair are the youngest billionaires on Forbes list, with net worths of $3.8 billion and $13.3 billion respectively, according to the website.

Eduardo Saverin, who also co-founded the site, is fifth youngest at 30 and worth $2.2 billion, according to Forbes. In 2012, Saverin renounced his U.S. citizenship, a move widely believed to be a way around capital gains tax — something Saverin denied through his spokesman.

Joining them in the list of the five youngest billionaires are Scott Duncan, who inherited the the massive fortune of late energy pipeline entrepreneur Dan Duncan, and Albert von Thurn und Taxis, who also inherited a vast wealth.

Another Facebook alum numbers in the top ten youngest, however: Sean Parker, the founder of music-sharing website Napster and Facebook’s first president. Parker is 33, and worth $2 billion, Forbes said.

These kids have ways to go before they reach the astronomical wealth at the top of the list, of course. Carlos Slim Helu and his family top the overall list, with a staggering net worth of $73 billion. And Bill Gates sits pretty in second place, with a net worth of $67 billion.

But the 57-year-old Gates won’t remain in that slot forever. The wealthiest person in United States is also the world’s most generous person, according to Forbes. Gates has already given more than $28 billion to charity, and has said he plans to give away the majority of his fortune in an effort to eradicate deadly diseases like polio and malaria.

 

Chan Zuckerberg Initiative

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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The Chan Zuckerberg Initiative (CZI) is a limited liability company founded by Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg and Priscilla Chan with an investment of “up to $1 billion in [Facebook] shares in each of the next three years”. Its creation was announced on 1 December 2015, for the birth of their daughter, Maxima Chan Zuckerberg.

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Priscilla Chan and Mark Zuckerberg (Prague, 2013).

The aim of the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative is to “advance human potential and promote equality in areas such as health, education, scientific research and energy”

Context  

There are many previous examples of “philanthrocapitalism” in the United States, such as Andrew Carnegie, John Rockefeller (Rockefeller Foundation), Warren Buffett and Bill Gates (Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation).As have Bill Gates, Warren Buffett, Michael Bloomberg, Charles Bronfman, Carl Icahn, David Rockefeller and others, Mark Zuckerberg signed the “Giving Pledge”.

Activities

Investments

The Chan Zuckerberg Initiative chose to invest $24 million in Andela for its first major initiative. Andela is a startup focused on training quality developers in Africa through their bootcamp and four-year fellowship program, during which they pair their trainees with U.S. companies needing development help. The Chan Zuckerberg Initiative led the company’s Series B funding.

On September 8, 2016, education startup Byju announced raising $50 million in a round co-led by The Chan Zuckerberg Initiative and Sequoia Capital, along with investors Sofina, Lightspeed Ventures, and Times Internet Ltd. The funding has been raised to fuel their international expansion.

Philanthropy

On September 21, 2016, CZI announced its new science program, Chan Zuckerberg Science, with $3 billion in investment over the next decade, with Cornelia Bargmann ofRockefeller University announced as the first president of science, to begin October 1, 2016. The goal of the program is to help cure, manage, or prevent all disease by the year 2100. $600 million of the $3 billion would be spent on Biohub, a location in San Francisco’s Mission Bay District near the University of California, San Francisco, to allow for easy interaction and collaboration between scientists at USCF, University of California, Berkeley, Stanford University, and other universities in the area, as well as engineers and others.

Company Form and Taxation

The Chan Zuckerberg Initiative is not a charitable trust or a private foundation but a limited liability company which can be for-profit, spend money on lobbying, make political donations, will not have to disclose its pay to its top five executives and have fewer other transparency requirements, compared to a charitable trust. ]Under this legal structure, as Forbes wrote it, “Zuckerberg will still control the Facebook shares owned by the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative”.

Mark Zuckerberg will not give all his shares at once and he will deduct the fair value of his gift to the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative from his taxable income in each year he makes a donation. The Daily Beast wrote that “If purity is the essence here, there seems no reason that the tax system should support it. Zuckerberg can afford to dabble in politics and society without massive subsidies from the rest of the country”.

Mark Zuckerberg

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BIOGRAPHY 150x17

Mark Elliot Zuckerberg (born May 14, 1984) is an American programmer, Internet entrepreneur, executive, and philanthropist. He is the chairman, chief executive officer, and co-founder of social networking website Facebook. His net worth is estimated to be US$54.5 billion as of September 2016, ranking him as the 5th richest person in the world.

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Together with his college roommates and fellow Harvard University students Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz, and Chris Hughes, he launched Facebook from Harvard’s dormitory rooms. The group then introduced Facebook to other campuses. Facebook expanded rapidly, with one billion users by 2012. Zuckerberg was involved in various legal disputes that were initiated by others in the group, who claimed a share of the company based upon their involvement during the development phase of Facebook.

In December 2012, Zuckerberg and his wife Priscilla Chan announced they would give the majority of their wealth over the course of their lives to “advancing human potential and promoting equality” in the spirit of The Giving Pledge. On December 1, 2015, they announced they would give 99% of their Facebook shares (worth about $45 billion at the time) to the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative.

Since 2010, Time magazine has named Zuckerberg among the 100 wealthiest and most influential people in the world as a part of itsPerson of the Year distinction.

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Early life

Zuckerberg was born in 1984 in White Plains, New York. He is the son of dentist Edward Zuckerberg and psychiatrist Karen Kempner. He and his three sisters, Randi, Donna, and Arielle, were brought up in Dobbs Ferry, New York, a small Westchester County village about 21 miles north of Midtown Manhattan. Zuckerberg was raised Jewish and had his bar mitzvah when he turned 13. Afterward, he became an atheist.Although a sworn atheist, he has a firm belief in karma and has previously stated thatBuddhism as a religion is amazing.

At Ardsley High School, Zuckerberg excelled in classes. He transferred to Phillips Exeter Academy in New Hampshire in his junior year, where he won prizes in science (math, astronomy, and physics) and classical studies. On his college application, Zuckerberg claimed that he could read and write French, Hebrew, Latin, and ancient Greek. He was captain of the fencing team.

Software Developer

Early Years

Zuckerberg began using computers and writing software in middle school. His father taught him Atari BASIC Programming in the 1990s, and later hired software developer David Newman to tutor him privately. Newman calls him a “prodigy”, adding that it was “tough to stay ahead of him”. Zuckerberg took a graduate course in the subject at Mercy Collegenear his home while still in high school. He enjoyed developing computer programs, especially communication tools and games. In one program, since his father’s dental practice was operated from their home, he built a software program he called “ZuckNet” that allowed all the computers between the house and dental office to communicate with each other. It is considered a “primitive” version of AOL’s Instant Messenger, which came out the following year.

According to writer Jose Antonio Vargas, “some kids played computer games. Mark created them.” Zuckerberg himself recalls this period: “I had a bunch of friends who were artists. They’d come over, draw stuff, and I’d build a game out of it.” However, notes Vargas, Zuckerberg was not a typical “geek-klutz”, as he later became captain of his prep schoolfencing team and earned a classics diploma. Napster co-founder Sean Parker, a close friend, notes that Zuckerberg was “really into Greek odysseys and all that stuff”, recalling how he once quoted lines from the Roman epic poem Aeneid, by Virgil, during a Facebook product conference.

During Zuckerberg’s high school years, under the company name Intelligent Media Group, he built a music player called the Synapse Media Player that used machine learning to learn the user’s listening habits, which was posted to Slashdot and received a rating of 3 out of 5 from PC Magazine.

College Years

By the time he began classes at Harvard, Zuckerberg had already achieved a “reputation as a programming prodigy”, notes Vargas. He studied psychology and computer scienceas well as belonging to Alpha Epsilon Pi and Kirkland House. In his sophomore year, he wrote a program he called CourseMatch, which allowed users to make class selection decisions based on the choices of other students and also to help them form study groups. A short time later, he created a different program he initially called Facemashthat let students select the best looking person from a choice of photos. According to Zuckerberg’s roommate at the time, Arie Hasit, “he built the site for fun”. Hasit explains:

We had books called Face Books, which included the names and pictures of everyone who lived in the student dorms. At first, he built a site and placed two pictures, or pictures of two males and two females. Visitors to the site had to choose who was “hotter” and according to the votes there would be a ranking.

The site went up over a weekend; but by Monday morning, the college shut it down because its popularity had overwhelmed one of Harvard’s network switches and prevented students from accessing the Internet. In addition, many students complained that their photos were being used without permission. Zuckerberg apologized publicly, and the student paper ran articles stating that his site was “completely improper.”

The following semester, in January 2004, Zuckerberg began writing code for a new website. On February 4, 2004, Zuckerberg launched “Thefacebook”, originally located at thefacebook.com.

Six days after the site launched, three Harvard seniors, Cameron Winklevoss, Tyler Winklevoss, and Divya Narendra, accused Zuckerberg of intentionally misleading them into believing he would help them build a social network called HarvardConnection.com, while he was instead using their ideas to build a competing product. The three complained to the Harvard Crimson and the newspaper began an investigation in response.

Following the official launch of the Facebook social media platform, the three filed a lawsuit against Zuckerberg that resulted in a settlement. The agreed settlement was for 1.2 million Facebook shares that were worth US$300 million at Facebook’s IPO.

Zuckerberg dropped out of Harvard in his sophomore year to complete his project. In January 2014, Zuckerberg recalled:

I remember really vividly, you know, having pizza with my friends a day or two after—I opened up the first version of Facebook at the time I thought, “You know, someone needs to build a service like this for the world.” But I just never thought that we’d be the ones to help do it. And I think a lot of what it comes down to is we just cared more.

Career

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Facebook

Zuckerberg launched Facebook from his Harvard dormitory room on February 4, 2004. An earlier inspiration for Facebook may have come from Phillips Exeter Academy, the prep school from which Zuckerberg graduated in 2002. It published its own student directory, “The Photo Address Book”, which students referred to as “The Facebook”. Such photo directories were an important part of the student social experience at many private schools. With them, students were able to list attributes such as their class years, their friends, and their telephone numbers.

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Zuckerberg listening to President Barack Obama before a private meeting where Obama dined with technology business leaders in Woodside, California, February 17, 2011. Also seen in the picture are Carol Bartz of Yahoo!, Art Levinson of Genentech, Steve Westly of The Westly Group, and Eric Schmidt of Google.

Once at college, Zuckerberg’s Facebook started off as just a “Harvard thing” until Zuckerberg decided to spread it to other schools, enlisting the help of roommate Dustin Moskovitz. They began with Columbia, New York University, Stanford, Dartmouth, Cornell, Penn,Brown, and Yale. Samyr Laine, a triple jumper representing Haiti at the 2012 Summer Olympics, shared a room with Zuckerberg during Facebook’s founding. “Mark was clearly on to great things,” said Laine, who was Facebook’s fourteenth user.

After Zuckerberg moved to Palo Alto, California with Moskovitz and some friends, they leased a small house that served as an office. Over the summer, Zuckerberg met Peter Thiel who invested in the company. They got their first office in mid-2004. According to Zuckerberg, the group planned to return to Harvard but eventually decided to remain in California. They had already turned down offers by major corporations to buy the company. In an interview in 2007, Zuckerberg explained his reasoning: “It’s not because of the amount of money. For me and my colleagues, the most important thing is that we create an open information flow for people. Having media corporations owned by conglomerates is just not an attractive idea to me.”

He restated these goals to Wired magazine in 2010: “The thing I really care about is the mission, making the world open.” Earlier, in April 2009, Zuckerberg sought the advice of former Netscape CFO Peter Currie about financing strategies for Facebook. On July 21, 2010, Zuckerberg reported that the company reached the 500 million-user mark.When asked whether Facebook could earn more income from advertising as a result of its phenomenal growth, he explained:

I guess we could….. If you look at how much of our page is taken up with ads compared to the average search query. The average for us is a little less than 10 percent of the pages and the average for search is about 20 percent taken up with ads….. That’s the simplest thing we could do. But we aren’t like that. We make enough money. Right, I mean, we are keeping things running; we are growing at the rate we want to.

In 2010, Steven Levy, who wrote the 1984 book Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution, wrote that Zuckerberg “clearly thinks of himself as a hacker”. Zuckerberg said that “it’s OK to break things” “to make them better”.

Facebook instituted “hackathons” held every six to eight weeks where participants would have one night to conceive of and complete a project. The company provided music, food, and beer at the hackathons, and many Facebook staff members, including Zuckerberg, regularly attended. “The idea is that you can build something really good in a night”, Zuckerberg told Levy. “And that’s part of the personality of Facebook now….. It’s definitely very core to my personality.”

Vanity Fair magazine named Zuckerberg number 1 on its 2010 list of the Top 100 “most influential people of the Information Age”. Zuckerberg ranked number 23 on the Vanity Fair 100 list in 2009. In 2010, Zuckerberg was chosen as number 16 in New Statesman’s annual survey of the world’s 50 most influential figures.

In a 2011 interview with PBS after the death of Steve Jobs, Zuckerberg said that Jobs had advised him on how to create a management team at Facebook that was “focused on building as high quality and good things as you are”.

On October 1, 2012, Zuckerberg visited Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev in Moscow to stimulate social media innovation in Russia and to boost Facebook’s position in the Russian market. Russia’s communications minister tweeted that Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev urged the social media giant’s founder to abandon plans to lure away Russian programmers and instead consider opening a research center in Moscow. In 2012, Facebook had roughly 9 million users in Russia, while domestic clone VK had around 34 million. Rebecca Van Dyck, Facebook’s head of consumer marketing, claimed that 85 million American Facebook users were exposed to the first day of the Home promotional campaign on April 6, 2013.

On August 19, 2013, the Washington Post reported that Zuckerberg’s Facebook profile was hacked by an unemployed web developer.

At the 2013 TechCrunch Disrupt conference, held in September, Zuckerberg stated that he is working towards registering the 5 billion humans who were not connected to the Internet as of the conference on Facebook. Zuckerberg then explained that this is intertwined with the aim of the Internet.org project, whereby Facebook, with the support of other technology companies, seeks to increase the number of people connected to the internet.

Zuckerberg was the keynote speaker at the 2014 Mobile World Congress (MWC), held in Barcelona, Spain, in March 2014, which was attended by 75,000 delegates. Various media sources highlighted the connection between Facebook’s focus on mobile technology and Zuckerberg’s speech, claiming that mobile represents the future of the company. Zuckerberg’s speech expands upon the goal that he raised at the TechCrunch conference in September 2013, whereby he is working towards expanding Internet coverage into developing countries.

Alongside other American technology figures like Jeff Bezos and Tim Cook, Zuckerberg hosted visiting Chinese politician Lu Wei, known as the “Internet czar” for his influence in the enforcement of China’s online policy, at Facebook’s headquarters on December 8, 2014. The meeting occurred after Zuckerberg participated in a Q&A session at Tsinghua University in Beijing, China, on October 23, 2014, where he attempted to converse in Mandarin Chinese—although Facebook is banned in China, Zuckerberg is highly regarded among the people and was at the university to help fuel the nation’s burgeoning entrepreneur sector.

Zuckerberg fielded questions during a live Q&A session at the company’s headquarters in Menlo Park on December 11, 2014. The founder and CEO explained that he does not believe Facebook is a waste of time because it facilitates social engagement, and participating in a public session was so that he could “learn how to better serve the community”.Zuckerberg receives a one-dollar salary as CEO of Facebook.

Wirehog

A month after Facebook launched in February 2004, i2hub, another campus-only service, created by Wayne Chang, was launched. i2hub focused on peer-to-peer file sharing. At the time, both i2hub and Facebook were gaining the attention of the press and growing rapidly in users and publicity. In August 2004, Zuckerberg, Andrew McCollum, Adam D’Angelo, and Sean Parker launched a competing peer-to-peer file sharing service called Wirehog, a precursor to Facebook Platform applications.

Platform, Beacon, and Connect

On May 24, 2007, Zuckerberg announced Facebook Platform, a development platform for programmers to create social applications within Facebook. Within weeks, many applications had been built and some already had millions of users. It grew to more than 800,000 developers around the world building applications for Facebook Platform.

On November 6, 2007, Zuckerberg announced Beacon, a social advertising system that enabled people to share information with their Facebook friends based on their browsing activities on other sites. For example, eBay sellers could let friends know automatically what they have for sale via the Facebook news feed as they listed items for sale. The program came under scrutiny because of privacy concerns from groups and individual users. Zuckerberg and Facebook failed to respond to the concerns quickly, and on December 5, 2007, Zuckerberg wrote a blog post on Facebook, taking responsibility for the concerns about Beacon and offering an easier way for users to opt out of the service.

In 2007, Zuckerberg was named by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Technology Review’s TR35 as one of the top 35 innovators in the world under the age of 35. On July 23, 2008, Zuckerberg announced Facebook Connect, a version of Facebook Platform for users.

Internet.org

In a public Facebook post, Zuckerberg launched the Internet.org project in late August 2013. Zuckerberg explained that the primary aim of the initiative is to provide Internet access to the 5 billion people who are not connected as of the launch date. Using a three-tier strategy, Internet.org will also create new jobs and open up new markets, according to Zuckerberg. He stated in his post:

The world economy is going through a massive transition right now. The knowledge economy is the future. By bringing everyone online, we’ll not only improve billions of lives, but we’ll also improve our own as we benefit from the ideas and productivity they contribute to the world. Giving everyone the opportunity to connect is the foundation for enabling the knowledge economy. It is not the only thing we need to do, but it’s a fundamental and necessary step.

To stay proven on the efforts of bringing in the concept of net neutrality, Mark Zuckerberg met Narendra Modi, Satya Nadella and Sundar Pichai at the Silicon Valley, to discuss on how to effectively establish affordable internet access to the less developed countries. As a token of initiation, Mark Zuckerberg changed his Facebook profile picture to extend his support to the Digital India to help the rural communities to stay connected to the internet.

Legal Controversies

ConnectU Lawsuits

Harvard students Cameron Winklevoss, Tyler Winklevoss, and Divya Narendra accused Zuckerberg of intentionally making them believe he would help them build a social network called HarvardConnection.com (later called ConnectU). They filed a lawsuit in 2004, but it was dismissed on a technicality on March 28, 2007.

It was refiled soon thereafter infederal court in Boston. Facebook countersued in regards to Social Butterfly, a project put out by The Winklevoss Chang Group, an alleged partnership between ConnectU andi2hub. On June 25, 2008, the case settled and Facebook agreed to transfer over 1.2 million common shares and pay $20 million in cash.

In November 2007, confidential court documents were posted on the website of 02138, a magazine that catered to Harvard alumni. They included Zuckerberg’s Social Security number, his parents’ home address, and his girlfriend’s address. Facebook filed to have the documents removed, but the judge ruled in favor of 02138.

Saverin Lawsuit

A lawsuit filed by Eduardo Saverin against Facebook and Zuckerberg was settled out of court. Though terms of the settlement were sealed, the company affirmed Saverin’s title as co-founder of Facebook. Saverin signed a non-disclosure contract after the settlement.

Pakistan Criminal Investigation

In June 2010, Pakistani Deputy Attorney General Muhammad Azhar Sidiqque launched a criminal investigation into Zuckerberg and Facebook co-founders Dustin Moskovitz andChris Hughes after a “Draw Muhammad” contest was hosted on Facebook.

The investigation named the anonymous German woman who created the contest. Sidiqque asked the country’s police to contact Interpol to have Zuckerberg and the three others arrested for blasphemy.

On May 19, 2010, Facebook’s website was temporarily blocked in Pakistan until Facebook removed the contest from its website at the end of May. Sidiqque also asked its UN representative to raise the issue with the United Nations General Assembly.

Paul Ceglia

In June 2010, Paul Ceglia, the owner of a wood pellet fuel company in Allegany County, upstate New York, filed suit against Zuckerberg, claiming 84 percent ownership of Facebook and seeking monetary damages.

According to Ceglia, he and Zuckerberg signed a contract on April 28, 2003, that an initial fee of $1,000 entitled Ceglia to 50% of the website’s revenue, as well as an additional 1% interest in the business per day after January 1, 2004, until website completion.

Zuckerberg was developing other projects at the time, among which was Facemash, the predecessor of Facebook, but did not register the domain name thefacebook.com until January 1, 2004. Facebook management dismissed the lawsuit as “completely frivolous”. Facebook spokesman Barry Schnitt told a reporter that Ceglia’s counsel had unsuccessfully sought an out-of-court settlement.

On October 26, 2012, federal authorities arrested Ceglia, charging him with mail and wire fraud and of “tampering with, destroying and fabricating evidence in a scheme to defraud the Facebook founder of billions of dollars.”

Ceglia is accused of fabricating emails to make it appear that he and Zuckerberg discussed details about an early version of Facebook, although after examining their emails, investigators found there was no mention of Facebook in them. Some law firms withdrew from the case before it was initiated and others after Ceglia’s arrest.

Palestinian Terror Attacks

On July 2, 2016, Israeli cabinet minister Gilad Erdan accused Zuckerberg of having some responsibility for deadly attacks by Palestinians against Israelis. According to him, the social network has not doing enough to ban posts to its platform that incite violence against Israelis. Some of the victims’ blood is on Zuckerberg’s hands, he told Channel 2.

Depictions in Media

The Social Network

A movie based on Zuckerberg and the founding years of Facebook, The Social Network was released on October 1, 2010, and stars Jesse Eisenberg as Zuckerberg. After Zuckerberg was told about the film, he responded, “I just wished that nobody made a movie of me while I was still alive.”

Also, after the film’s script was leaked on the Internet and it was apparent that the film would not portray Zuckerberg in a wholly positive light, he stated that he wanted to establish himself as a “good guy”.

The film is based on the book The Accidental Billionaires by Ben Mezrich, which the book’s publicist once described as “big juicy fun” rather than “reportage”. The film’s screenwriter Aaron Sorkin toldNew York magazine, “I don’t want my fidelity to be the truth; I want it to be storytelling”, adding, “What is the big deal about accuracy purely for accuracy’s sake, and can we not have the true be the enemy of the good?”

Upon winning the Golden Globes award for Best Picture on January 16, 2011, producer Scott Rudin thanked Facebook and Zuckerberg “for his willingness to allow us to use his life and work as a metaphor through which to tell a story about communication and the way we relate to each other.”Sorkin, who won for Best Screenplay, retracted some of the impressions given in his script:

“I wanted to say to Mark Zuckerberg tonight, if you’re watching, Rooney Mara’s character makes a prediction at the beginning of the movie. She was wrong. You turned out to be a great entrepreneur, a visionary, and an incredible altruist.”

On January 29, 2011, Zuckerberg made a surprise guest appearance on Saturday Night Live, which was being hosted by Jesse Eisenberg. They both said it was the first time they ever met. Eisenberg asked Zuckerberg, who had been critical of his portrayal by the film, what he thought of the movie. Zuckerberg replied, “It was interesting.”

In a subsequent interview about their meeting, Eisenberg explains that he was “nervous to meet him, because I had spent now, a year and a half thinking about him …” He adds, “Mark has been so gracious about something that’s really so uncomfortable … The fact that he would do SNL and make fun of the situation is so sweet and so generous. It’s the best possible way to handle something that, I think, could otherwise be very uncomfortable.”

Disputed Accuracy

Jeff Jarvis, author of the book Public Parts, interviewed Zuckerberg and believes Sorkin made up too much of the story. He states, “That’s what the internet is accused of doing, making stuff up, not caring about the facts.”

According to David Kirkpatrick, former technology editor at Fortune magazine and author of The Facebook Effect:The Inside Story of the Company That Is Connecting the World,(2011), “the film is only “40% true … he is not snide and sarcastic in a cruel way, the way Zuckerberg is played in the movie.”

He says that “a lot of the factual incidents are accurate, but many are distorted and the overall impression is false”, and concludes that primarily “his motivations were to try and come up with a new way to share information on the internet”.

Although the film portrays Zuckerberg’s creation of Facebook in order to elevate his stature after not getting into any of the elite final clubs at Harvard, Zuckerberg himself said he had no interest in joining the clubs. Kirkpatrick agrees that the impression implied by the film is “false”.

Karel Baloun, a former senior engineer at Facebook, notes that the “image of Zuckerberg as a socially inept nerd is overstated….. It is fiction…..” He likewise dismisses the film’s assertion that he “would deliberately betray a friend”.

Other Depictions

Zuckerberg voiced himself on an episode of The Simpsons titled “Loan-a Lisa”, which first aired on October 3, 2010. In the episode, Lisa Simpson and her friend Nelson encounter Zuckerberg at an entrepreneurs’ convention. Zuckerberg tells Lisa that she does not need to graduate from college to be wildly successful, referencing Bill Gates and Richard Branson as examples.

On October 9, 2010, Saturday Night Live lampooned Zuckerberg and Facebook. Andy Samberg played Zuckerberg. The real Zuckerberg was reported to have been amused: “I thought this was funny.”

Stephen Colbert awarded a “Medal of Fear” to Zuckerberg at the Rally to Restore Sanity and/or Fear on October 30, 2010, “because he values his privacy much more than he values yours”.

Mark Zuckerberg appears in the climax of the documentary film Terms and Conditions May Apply.

Use of other Social Networks

Zuckerberg created an account with Google+ soon after the social network was unveiled, saying he sees it as a “validation for his vision” of online social networking. By July 2011, Zuckerberg had become the most followed user on Google+, outranking Google co-founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin. As of March 6, 2012, his ranking has dropped to 184 on the service, behind Page and Brin. His public profile is minimal with one photo and a bio that reads “I make things”.

Zuckerberg has maintained a private account on Twitter under the username “zuck”, although as of November 2014, the account’s status is suspended. In 2009, he revealed that the public account “finkd” also belonged to him.

Philanthropy

See also: Chan Zuckerberg Initiative

Zuckerberg donated an undisclosed amount to Diaspora, an open-source personal web server that implements a distributed social networking service. He called it a “cool idea”.

Zuckerberg founded the Start-up: Education foundation. On September 22, 2010, it was reported that Zuckerberg had donated $100 million to Newark Public Schools, the public school system of Newark, New Jersey.

Critics noted the timing of the donation as being close to the release of The Social Network, which painted a somewhat negative portrait of Zuckerberg. Zuckerberg responded to the criticism, saying, “The thing that I was most sensitive about with the movie timing was, I didn’t want the press about The Social Networkmovie to get conflated with the Newark project.

I was thinking about doing this anonymously just so that the two things could be kept separate.” Newark Mayor Cory A. Booker stated that he and New Jersey Governor Chris Christie had to convince Zuckerberg’s team not to make the donation anonymously. The money was largely wasted, according to journalist Dale Russakoff.

On December 9, 2010, Zuckerberg, Bill Gates, and investor Warren Buffett signed a promise they called “The Giving Pledge “, in which they promised to donate to charity at least half of their wealth over the course of time, and invited others among the wealthy to donate 50% or more of their wealth to charity.

On December 19, 2013, Zuckerberg announced a donation of 18 million Facebook shares to the Silicon Valley Community Foundation, to be executed by the end of the month—based on Facebook’s valuation as of then, the shares totaled $990 million in value. On December 31, 2013, the donation was recognized as the largest charitable gift on public record for 2013. The Chronicle of Philanthropy placed Zuckerberg and his wife at the top of the magazine’s annual list of 50 most generous Americans for 2013, having donated roughly $1 billion to charity.

In October 2014, Zuckerberg and his wife Priscilla Chan donated $25 million to combat the ebola virus disease, specifically the ebola virus epidemic in West Africa.

On December 1, 2015, Zuckerberg and Chan announced the birth of their daughter Max, and in an open letter to Max, they pledged to donate 99% of their Facebook shares, then valued at $45 billion, to the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative, their new organization which will focus on health and education. The donation will not be given immediately, but over the course of their lives.

However, instead of forming a charitable corporation to donate the value of the stock to, as Bill Gates, Warren Buffett, Larry Page, Sergey Brin and other tech billionaires have done, Zuckerberg and Chan chose to use the structure of a limited liability company. This has drawn criticism from a number of journalists.

Politics

In 2002, Zuckerberg registered to vote in Westchester County, New York, where he grew up, but did not cast a ballot until November 2008. Santa Clara County Registrar of Voters Spokeswoman, Elma Rosas, told Bloomberg that Zuckerberg is listed as “no preference” on voter rolls, and he voted in the past two general elections, in 2008 and 2012. On Zuckerberg’s Facebook page, he has Chris Christie, Cory Booker, Nicolas Sarkozy, and Barack Obama in his likes section.

Mark Zuckerberg has never specified his own political views: some consider him a conservative, while others consider him liberal. In 2013, numerous liberal and progressive groups, such as The League of Conservation Voters, MoveOn.org, the Sierra Club, Democracy for America, CREDO, Daily Kos, 350.org, and Presente and Progressives United agreed to either pull their Facebook ad buys or not buy Facebook ads for at least two weeks, in protest of Zuckerberg ads funded by FWD.us that were in support of oil drilling and the Keystone XL pipeline, and in opposition to Obamacare among Republican US senators who back immigration reform.

On February 13, 2013, Zuckerberg hosted his first ever fundraising event for New Jersey Governor Chris Christie. Zuckerberg’s particular interest on this occasion was education reform, and Christie’s education reform work focused on teachers unions and the expansion of charter schools. Later that year, Zuckerberg would host a campaign fundraiser for Newark mayor Cory Booker, who was running in the 2013 New Jersey special Senate election.

In September 2010, with the support of Governor Chris Christie, Booker obtained a $100 million pledge from Zuckerberg to Newark Public Schools. In December 2012, Zuckerberg donated 18 million shares to the Silicon Valley Community Foundation, a community organization that includes education in its list of grant-making areas.

On April 11, 2013, Zuckerberg led the launch of a 501(c)(4) lobbying group called FWD.us. The founders and contributors to the group were primarily Silicon Valley entrepreneurs and investors, and its president was Joe Green, a close friend of Zuckerberg.

The goals of the group include immigration reform, improving the state of education in the US, and enabling more technological breakthroughs that benefit the public, yet it has also been criticized for financing ads advocating a variety of oil and gas development initiatives, including drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge and the Keystone XL pipeline.

A media report on June 20, 2013 revealed that Zuckerberg actively engaged with Facebook users on his own profile page after the online publication of a FWD.us video. In response to a claim that the FWD.us organization is “just about tech wanting to hire more people”, the Internet entrepreneur replied: “The bigger problem we’re trying to address is ensuring the 11 million undocumented folks living in this country now and similar folks in the future are treated fairly.”

In June 2013, Zuckerberg joined Facebook employees in a company float as part of the annual San Francisco Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Pride Celebration. The company first participated in the event in 2011, with 70 employees, and this number increased to 700 for the 2013 march. The 2013 pride celebration was especially significant, as it followed a U.S. Supreme Court ruling that deemed the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) unconstitutional.

When questioned about the mid-2013 PRISM scandal at the TechCrunch Disrupt conference in September 2013, Zuckerberg stated that the U.S. government “blew it.” He further explained that the government performed poorly in regard to the protection of the freedoms of its citizens, the economy, and companies.

Zuckerberg placed a statement on his Facebook wall on December 9, 2015 which said that he wants “to add my voice in support of Muslims in our community and around the world” in response to the aftermath of the November 2015 Paris attacks and the 2015 San Bernardino attack. The statement also said that Muslims are “always welcome” on Facebook, and that his position was a result of the fact that “as a Jew, my parents taught me that we must stand up against attacks on all communities.”

On February 24, 2016, Zuckerberg sent out a company-wide internal memo to employees formally rebuking employees who had crossed out handwritten “Black Lives Matter” phrases on the company walls and had written “All Lives Matter” in their place. Facebook allows employees to free-write thoughts and phrases on company walls. The memo was then leaked by several employees.

As Zuckerberg had previously condemned this practice at previous company meetings, and other similar requests had been issued by other leaders at Facebook, Zuckerberg wrote in the memo that he would now consider this overwriting practice not only disrespectful, but “malicious as well.” According to Zuckerberg’s memo, “Black Lives Matter doesn’t mean other lives don’t — it’s simply asking that the black community also achieves the justice they deserve.”

The memo also noted that the act of crossing something out in itself, “means silencing speech, or that one person’s speech is more important than another’s.” Zuckerberg also said in the memo that he would be launching investigations into the incidents.

The New York Daily News interviewed Facebook employees who commented anonymously that, “Zuckerberg was genuinely angry about the incident and it really encouraged staff that Zuckerberg showed a clear understanding of why the phrase ‘Black Lives Matter’ must exist, as well as why writing through it is a form of harassment and erasure.” 

Personal Life

Zuckerberg met his future wife, fellow student Priscilla Chan, at a fraternity party during his sophomore year at Harvard. They began dating in 2003. Chan is the daughter of Chinese-Vietnamese refugees, who arrived in the U.S. after the Fall of Saigon in 1975.She was born in Braintree, Massachusetts, a suburb of Boston, and is a 2003 graduate of Quincy High School.

In September 2010, Zuckerberg invited Chan, by then a medical student at the University of California, San Francisco, to move into his rented Palo Alto house. Zuckerberg studied Mandarin in preparation for the couple’s visit to China in December 2010.

On May 19, 2012, Zuckerberg and Chan married in Zuckerberg’s backyard in an event that also celebrated her graduation from medical school.

On July 31, 2015, Zuckerberg announced that he and Chan were expecting a baby girl. He said he felt confident that the risk of miscarrying was low so far into the pregnancy, after Chan had already suffered three miscarriages.

On December 1, Zuckerberg announced the birth of his first child, Maxima Chan Zuckerberg (“Max”). The couple announced on their Chinese New Year video, published on February 6, 2016, that Maxima’s official Chinese name is Chen Mingyu (Chinese: 陈明宇).