Shanghai

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Shanghai | 上海市

Municipality | Shanghai Municipality

Shanghai_montage

Clockwise from top: A view of the Pudong skyline, Yu Garden, China pavilion at Expo 2010 along with the Expo Axis, neon signs on Nanjing Road, and The Bund


Etymology: 上海浦 (Shànghăi Pǔ)
“The original name of the Huangpu River.”

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Location of Shanghai Municipality in China
Coordinates: 31°13′43″N 121°28′29″E


  • Country: China
  • Settled: c. 4000 BC
  • Establishment of
    • Qinglong Town 746
    • Shanghai County 1292
    • Municipality 7 July 1927
  • Divisions
  • County-level: 16 districts
  • Township-level: 210 towns and subdistricts
  • Government
    • Type Municipality
    • Party Secretary Han Zheng
    • Mayor Ying Yong
    • Congress Chairman Yin Yicui
    • Conference Chairman Wu Zhiming
  • Area
    • Municipality: 6,341 km2 (2,448 sq mi)
    • Water: 697 km2 (269 sq mi)
  • Elevation: 4 m (13 ft)
  • Population: (2015)
    • Municipality 24,152,700
    • Rank 1st in China
    • Density 3,800/km2 (9,900/sq mi)
    • Metro (2010)[8] 34,000,000
  • Demonym(s) Shanghainese
  • Time zone CST (UTC+8)
  • Postal code 200000–202100
  • Area code(s) 21
  • Nominal GDP 2016
  •  Total: ¥2.75 trillion: $414 billion (11th)
  • Per capita: ¥113,719, $17,125 (3rd)
  • Growth Increase 6.8%
  • HDI (2014) 0.852[10] (4th) – very high
  • Licence plate prefixes
    • 沪A, 沪B, 沪D-沪H, 沪J-沪N
    • 沪C (outer suburbs)
  • Abbreviation SH / 沪 (hù)
  • City flower: Yulan magnolia
  • Languages: Shanghainese, Mandarin
  • Website: shanghai gov cn

Shanghai


Shanghai is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world with a population of more than 24 million as of 2014. It is a global financial centre and transport hub, with the world’s busiest container port. Located in the Yangtze River Delta, it sits on the south edge of the estuary of the Yangtze in the middle portion of the East China coast. The municipality borders the provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang to the north, south and west, and is bounded to the east by the East China Sea.

As a major administrative, shipping and trading city, Shanghai grew in importance in the 19th century due to trade and recognition of its favourable port location and economic potential. The city was one of five treaty ports forced open to foreign trade following the British victory over China in the First Opium War. The subsequent 1842 Treaty of Nanking and 1844 Treaty of Whampoa allowed the establishment of the Shanghai International Settlement and the French Concession. The city then flourished as a centre of commerce between China and other parts of the world (predominantly Western countries), and became the primary financial hub of the Asia-Pacific region in the 1930s. However, with the Communist Party takeover of the mainland in 1949, trade was limited to other socialist countries, and the city’s global influence declined. In the 1990s, the economic reforms introduced by Deng Xiaoping resulted in an intense re-development of the city, aiding the return of finance and foreign investment to the city.

Shanghai has been described as the “showpiece” of the booming economy of mainland China; renowned for its Lujiazui skyline, and museums and historic buildings, such as those along The Bund, as well as the City God Temple and the Yu Garden.

Contents

1 Names
2 History
2.1 Ancient History
2.2 Imperial History
2.3 Rise and Golden Age
2.4 Wartime Era
2.5 Modern History
3 Geography
3.1 Climate
4 Cityscape
5 Politics
6 Administrative Divisions
7 Economy
8 Demographics
9 Religion
10 Education
11 Transport
11.1 Public Transport
11.2 Roads
11.3 Railway
11.4 Air
12 Architecture
13 Environment
13.1 Parks and Resorts
13.2 Environmental Protection
13.3 Air Pollution and Government Reaction
14 Culture
14.1 Language
14.2 Museums
14.3 Cinema
14.4 Arts
14.5 Fashion
15 Media
16 Sports
17 International Relations

1 | Names


The two Chinese characters in the city’s name are 上 (shàng/zan, “above”) and 海 (hǎi/hei, “sea”), together meaning “Upon-the-Sea”. The earliest occurrence of this name dates from the 11th-century Song Dynasty, at which time there was already a river confluence and a town with this name in the area. There are disputes as to exactly how the name should be understood, but Chinese historians have concluded that during the Tang dynasty Shanghai was literally on the sea.

Shanghai is officially abbreviated 沪 (Hù) in Chinese, a contraction of 沪渎 (Hù Dú, lit “Harpoon Ditch”), a 4th- or 5th-century Jin name for the mouth of Suzhou Creek when it was the main conduit into the ocean. This character appears on all motor vehicle license plates issued in the municipality today.

Another alternative name for Shanghai is Shēn (申) or Shēnchéng (申城, “Shen City”), from Lord Chunshen, a third-century BC nobleman and prime minister of the state of Chu, whose fief included modern Shanghai. Sports teams and newspapers in Shanghai often use Shen in their names, such as Shanghai Shenhua F.C. and Shen Bao.

Huating (华亭) was another early name for Shanghai. In AD 751, during the mid-Tang dynasty, Huating County was established by the Governor of Wu Commandery Zhao Juzhen at modern-day Songjiang, the first county-level administration within modern-day Shanghai. Today, Huating appears as the name of a four-star hotel in the city.
The city also has various nicknames in English, including “Pearl of the Orient” and “Paris of the East”.

2 | History


2.1 | Ancient History

During the Spring and Autumn period, the Shanghai area belonged to the Kingdom of Wu, which was conquered by the Kingdom of Yue, which in turn was conquered by the Kingdom of Chu. During the Warring States period, Shanghai was part of the fief of Lord Chunshen of Chu, one of the Four Lords of the Warring States. He ordered the excavation of the Huangpu River. Its former or poetic name, the Chunshen River, gave Shanghai its nickname of “Shen”. Fishermen living in the Shanghai area then created a fishing tool called the hu, which lent its name to the outlet of Suzhou Creek north of the Old City and became a common nickname and abbreviation for the city.

2.2. | Imperial History

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Songjiang Square Pagoda, built in the 11th century

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The walled Old City of Shanghai in the 17th century

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Section of the old city walls of Shanghai

During the Tang and Song dynasties, Qinglong Town (青龙镇) in modern Qingpu District was a major trading port. Established in 746 (fifth year of the Tang Tianbao era), it developed into what contemporary sources called a “giant town of the Southeast”, with thirteen temples and seven pagodas. The famous Song scholar and artist Mi Fu served as its mayor. The port had a thriving trade with provinces along the Yangtze River and the Chinese coast, as well as foreign countries such as Japan and Silla.

By the end of the Song dynasty, the center of trading had moved downstream of the Wusong River to Shanghai, which was upgraded in status from a village to a market town in 1074, and in 1172 a second sea wall was built to stabilize the ocean coastline, supplementing an earlier dike. From the Yuan dynasty in 1292 until Shanghai officially became a municipality in 1927, central Shanghai was administered as a county under Songjiang Prefecture, whose seat was at the present-day Songjiang District.

Two important events helped promote Shanghai’s development in the Ming dynasty. A city wall was built for the first time in 1554 to protect the town from raids by Japanese pirates. It measured 10 metres (33 feet) high and 5 kilometres (3 miles) in circumference. During the Wanli reign (1573–1620), Shanghai received an important psychological boost from the erection of a City God Temple in 1602. This honour was usually reserved for prefectural capitals and not normally given to a mere county seat such as Shanghai. It probably reflected the town’s economic importance, as opposed to its low political status.

During the Qing dynasty, Shanghai became one of the most important sea ports in the Yangtze Delta region as a result of two important central government policy changes: In 1684, the Kangxi Emperor reversed the Ming dynasty prohibition on oceangoing vessels – a ban that had been in force since 1525; and in 1732 the Yongzheng Emperor moved the customs office for Jiangsu province (江海关; see Customs House, Shanghai) from the prefectural capital of Songjiang to Shanghai, and gave Shanghai exclusive control over customs collections for Jiangsu’s foreign trade. As a result of these two critical decisions, by 1735 Shanghai had become the major trade port for all of the lower Yangtze region, despite still being at the lowest administrative level in the political hierarchy.

2.3 | Rise and Golden Age

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Shanghai in the 1930s, with the Shanghai International Settlement and Shanghai French Concession

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The Bund in 1928; the WWI monument in the foreground was destroyed by the Japanese during WWII

Shanghai_Nanking_Road_1930sNanking Road (modern-day East Nanjing Road) in the 1930s

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Tallest building of Asia for decades – Shanghai Park Hotel

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Flag of the Shanghai International Settlement(1845—1943)

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Seal of the Shanghai International Settlement(1845—1943)

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Flag of the Shanghai French Concession(1849—1943)

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Seal of the Shanghai French Concession(1849—1943)

International attention to Shanghai grew in the 19th century due to European recognition of its economic and trade potential at the Yangtze. During the First Opium War (1839–1842), British forces occupied the city. The war ended with the 1842 Treaty of Nanking, which allowed the British to dictate opening the treaty ports, Shanghai included, for international trade. The Treaty of the Bogue signed in 1843, and the Sino-American Treaty of Wanghia signed in 1844 forced Chinese concession to European and American desires for visitation and trade on Chinese soil. Britain, France (under the 1844 Treaty of Whampoa), and the United States all carved out concessions outside the walled city of Shanghai, which was still ruled by the Chinese.

The Chinese-held old city of Shanghai fell to the rebels of the Small Swords Society in 1853 but was recovered by the Qing government in February 1855. In 1854, the Shanghai Municipal Council was created to manage the foreign settlements. Between 1860–1862, the Taiping rebels twice attacked Shanghai and destroyed the city’s eastern and southern suburbs, but failed to take the city. In 1863, the British settlement to the south of Suzhou Creek (northern Huangpu District) and the American settlement to the north (southern Hongkou District) joined in order to form the Shanghai International Settlement. The French opted out of the Shanghai Municipal Council and maintained its own concession to the south and southwest.

Citizens of many countries and all continents came to Shanghai to live and work during the ensuing decades; those who stayed for long periods – some for generations – called themselves “Shanghailanders”. In the 1920s and 1930s, almost 20,000 White Russians and Russian Jews fled the newly established Soviet Union and took up residence in Shanghai. These Shanghai Russians constituted the second-largest foreign community. By 1932, Shanghai had become the world’s fifth largest city and home to 70,000 foreigners. In the 1930s, some 30,000 Jewish refugees from Europe arrived in the city.

The Sino-Japanese War concluded with the Treaty of Shimonoseki, which elevated Japan to become another foreign power in Shanghai. Japan built the first factories in Shanghai, which were soon copied by other foreign powers. Shanghai was then the most important financial center in the Far East. All this international activity gave Shanghai the nickname “the Great Athens of China”.

Under the Republic of China, Shanghai’s political status was raised to that of a municipality on 14 July 1927. Although the territory of the foreign concessions was excluded from their control, this new Chinese municipality still covered an area of 828.8 square kilometres (320.0 sq mi), including the modern-day districts of Baoshan, Yangpu, Zhabei, Nanshi, and Pudong. Headed by a Chinese mayor and municipal council, the new city government’s first task was to create a new city center in Jiangwan town of Yangpu district, outside the boundaries of the foreign concessions. The “Greater Shanghai Plan” included a public museum, library, sports stadium, and city hall, which were partially constructed when the plan was interrupted by the Japanese invasion.

2.4 | Wartime Era

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Zhabei District on fire.

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“Bloody Saturday”: a baby in the ruins of the old Shanghai South Railway Station after Japanese bombing in August 1937

On 28 January 1932, Japanese forces invaded Shanghai and the Chinese resisted, fighting to a standstill; a ceasefire was brokered in May. The Battle of Shanghai in 1937 resulted in the occupation of the Chinese administered parts of Shanghai outside of the International Settlement and the French Concession. The foreign concessions were ultimately occupied by the Japanese on 8 December 1941 and remained occupied until Japan’s surrender in 1945, during which time many war crimes were committed.
It was also during this wartime turmoil that the French Jesuit and war hero Robert Jacquinot de Besange saved more than 500,000 Chinese people in Shanghai during the Second Sino-Japanese War after successfully setting up safety zones in the city.

On 27 May 1949, the People’s Liberation Army took control of Shanghai. Under the new People’s Republic of China (PRC), Shanghai was one of only three municipalities not merged into neighboring provinces over the next decade (the others being Beijing and Tianjin). Shanghai underwent a series of changes in the boundaries of its subdivisions over the next decade. After 1949, most foreign firms moved their offices from Shanghai to Hong Kong, as part of a foreign divestment due to the Communist victory.

2.5 | Modern History

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Lujiazui Finance and Trade Zone

During the 1950s and 1960s, Shanghai became the center for radical leftism since it was the industrial centre of China with most skilled industrial workers. The radical leftist Jiang Qing and her three cohorts, together the Gang of Four, were based in the city. Yet, even during the most tumultuous times of the Cultural Revolution, Shanghai was able to maintain high economic productivity and relative social stability. During most of the history of the PRC, Shanghai has been a comparatively heavy contributor of tax revenue to the central government, with Shanghai in 1983 contributing more in tax revenue to the central government than Shanghai had received in investment in the prior 33 years combined. This came at the cost of severely crippling welfare of Shanghainese people and Shanghai’s infrastructural and capital development. Its importance to the fiscal well-being of the central government also denied it economic liberalizations begun in 1978. Shanghai was finally permitted to initiate economic reforms in 1991, starting the massive development still seen today and the birth of Lujiazui in Pudong.

3 | Geography


Yangtze_River_Delta

This map of Shanghai (center and east), Jiangsu (north), and Zhejiang (south) shows the developed areas around Shanghai, Nanjing (dark green), and Hangzhou in green. Provincial boundaries are in purple, sub-provincial boundaries in gray.

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This natural-color satellite image shows the urban area of Shanghai in 2016, along with its major islands of (from northwest to southeast) Chongming, Changxing, Hengsha, and the Jiuduansha shoals off Pudong.

Shanghai lies on China’s east coast roughly equidistant from Beijing and Guangzhou. The Old City and modern downtown Shanghai are now located in the center of an expanding peninsula between the Yangtze River Delta to the north and Hangzhou Bay to the south, formed by the Yangtze’s natural deposition and by modern land reclamation projects. The provincial-level Municipality of Shanghai administers both the eastern area of this peninsula and many of its surrounding islands. It is bordered on the north and west by Jiangsu, on the south by Zhejiang, and on the east by the East China Sea. Its northernmost point is on Chongming Island, now the second-largest island in mainland China after its expansion during the 20th century. The municipality does not, however, include an exclave of Jiangsu on northern Chongming or the two islands forming Shanghai’s Yangshan Port, which are part of Zhejiang’s Shengsi County. This deep-water port was made necessary by the increasing size of container ships but also the silting of the Yangtze, which narrows to less than 20 meters (66 ft) as far out as 45 miles (70 km) from Hengsha.

Downtown Shanghai is bisected by the Huangpu River, a man-made tributary of the Yangtze that was created by order of Lord Chunshen during the Warring States period. The historic center of the city was located on the west bank of the Huangpu (Puxi), near the mouth of Suzhou Creek, connecting it with Lake Tai and the Grand Canal. The central financial district Lujiazui has grown up on the east bank of the Huangpu (Pudong). The destruction of local wetlands occasioned by the creation of Pudong International Airport along the peninsula’s eastern shore has been somewhat offset by the protection and expansion of the nearby shoals of Jiuduansha as a nature preserve.

Shanghai’s location on an alluvial plain means that the vast majority of its 6,340.5 km2 (2,448.1 sq mi) land area is flat, with an average elevation of 4 m (13 ft). Its sandy soil has required its skyscrapers to be built with deep concrete piles to stop them from sinking into the soft ground of the central area. The few hills such as She Shan lie to the southwest and the highest point is the peak of Dajinshan Island in Hangzhou Bay (103 m or 338 ft). The city has many rivers, canals, streams and lakes and is known for its rich water resources as part of the Lake Tai drainage area.

3.1 | Climate

Shanghai has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) and experiences four distinct seasons. Winters are chilly and damp, with northwesterly winds from Siberia can cause nighttime temperatures to drop below freezing, although most years there are only one or two days of snowfall. Summers are hot and humid, with an average of 8.7 days exceeding 35 °C (95 °F) annually; occasional downpours or freak thunderstorms can be expected. The city is also susceptible to typhoons in summer and the beginning of autumn, none of which in recent years has caused considerable damage. The most pleasant seasons are spring, although changeable and often rainy, and autumn, which is generally sunny and dry. The city averages 4.2 °C (39.6 °F) in January and 27.9 °C (82.2 °F) in July, for an annual mean of 16.1 °C (61.0 °F). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 34% in March to 54% in August, the city receives 1,895 hours of bright sunshine annually. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −10.1 °C (14 °F) on 31 January 1977 (unofficial record of −12.1 °C (10 °F) was set on 19 January 1893) to 39.9 °C (104 °F) on 6 and 8 August 2013. A highest record of 40.9 °C (106 °F) was registered in Xujiahui, a downtown station on 21 July 2017.

Climate data for Shanghai (normals 1981–2010, extremes 1951–present)

Climate data for Shanghai
Source: China Meteorological Administration

4 | Cityscape


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Panoramic view of the Bund

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Panoramic view of Pudong’s skyline from the Bund

5 | Politics


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The government of Shanghai seated on HSBC Building, the Bund from 1955–1995. The historic building, which was headquarters of The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation from 1923 to 1955, now houses Shanghai Pudong Development Bank.

Like virtually all governing institutions in the mainland People’s Republic of China, the politics of Shanghai is structured in a dual party-government system, in which the Party Committee Secretary, officially termed the Communist Party of China Shanghai Municipal Committee Secretary (currently Han Zheng), outranks the Mayor (currently Ying Yong).

Political power in Shanghai is widely seen as a stepping stone to higher positions in the national government. Since Jiang Zemin became the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China in June 1989, all former Shanghai party secretaries but one were elevated to the Politburo Standing Committee, the de facto highest decision-making body in China, including Jiang himself (Party General Secretary), Zhu Rongji (Premier), Wu Bangguo (Chairman of the National People’s Congress), Huang Ju (Vice Premier), Xi Jinping (current General Secretary), and Yu Zhengsheng. Zeng Qinghong, a former deputy party secretray of Shanghai, also rose to the Politburo Standing Committee and became the Vice President and an influential power broker. The only exception is Chen Liangyu, who was fired in 2006 and later convicted of corruption. Officials with ties to the Shanghai administration form a powerful faction in the national government, the so-called Shanghai Clique, which was often thought to compete against the rival Youth League Faction over personnel appointments and policy decisions. Xi Jinping, successor to Hu Jintao as General Secretary and President, was a compromise candidate between the two groups with supporters in both camps.

6 | Administrative Divisions


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Map of central Shanghai

Shanghai is administratively equal to a province and is divided into 16 county-level districts. Even though every district has its own urban core, the real city center is between Bund to the east, Nanjing Rd to the north, Old City Temple and Huaihai Road to the south. Prominent central business areas include Lujiazui on the east bank of the Huangpu River, and The Bund and Hongqiao areas in the west bank of the Huangpu River. The city hall and major administration units are located in Huangpu District, which also serve as a commercial area, including the famous Nanjing Road. Other major commercial areas include Xintiandi and the classy Huaihai Road (previously Avenue Joffre) in Huangpu District and Xujiahui (formerly Romanized as Zikawei or Siccawei, reflecting the Shanghainese pronunciation) in Xuhui District. Many universities in Shanghai are located in residential areas of Yangpu District and Putuo District.

Seven of the districts govern Puxi (lit. “The West Bank”), the older part of urban Shanghai on the west bank of the Huangpu River. These seven districts are collectively referred to as Shanghai Proper (上海市区) or the core city (市中心), which comprise Huangpu, Xuhui, Changning, Jing’an, Putuo, Hongkou, and Yangpu.

Pudong (lit. “The East Bank”), the newer part of urban and suburban Shanghai on the east bank of the Huangpu River, is governed by Pudong New Area (Chuansha County until 1992, merged with Nanhui District in 2009 and with oversight of the Jiuduansha shoals).

Seven of the districts govern suburbs, satellite towns, and rural areas further away from the urban core: Baoshan (Baoshan County until 1988), Minhang (original Minhang District & Shanghai County until 1992), Jiading (Jiading County until 1992), Jinshan (Jinshan County until 1997), Songjiang (Songjiang County until 1998), Qingpu (Qingpu County until 1999), and Fengxian (Fengxian County until 2001).

The islands of Changxing and Hengsha and most (but not all of Chongming Island form Chongming.

The former district of Nanhui was absorbed into Pudong District in 2009. In 2011 Luwan District merged with Huangpu District.

As of 2015, these county-level divisions are further divided into the following 210 township-level divisions: 109 towns, 2 townships, 99 subdistricts. Those are in turn divided into the following village-level divisions: 3,661 neighborhood committees and 1,704 village committees.

Administrative divisions of Shanghai-1-vert

Divisions in Chinese and varieties of romanizations

7 | Economy


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Panoramic view of Pudong’s skyline in 2010

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Increasing influence over global capital market: Shanghai Stock Exchange

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Shanghai Port is the world’s busiest container port

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Lujiazui at night, Pudong

Shanghai is the commercial and financial center of China, and ranks 13th in the 2017 edition of the Global Financial Centres Index (and fourth most competitive in Asia after Singapore, Hong Kong, and Tokyo) published by the Z/Yen Group and Qatar Financial Centre Authority. It also ranks the most expensive city to live in Mainland China, according to the study of economist Intelligence Unit in 2017. It was the largest and most prosperous city in East Asia during the 1930s, and rapid re-development began in the 1990s. This is exemplified by the Pudong District, a former swampland reclaimed to serve as a pilot area for integrated economic reforms. By the end of 2009, there were 787 financial institutions, of which 170 were foreign-invested. In 2009, the Shanghai Stock Exchange ranked third among worldwide stock exchanges in terms of trading volume and sixth in terms of the total capitalization of listed companies, and the trading volume of six key commodities including rubber, copper and zinc on the Shanghai Futures Exchange all ranked first in the world. In September 2013, with the backing of Chinese Premier Li Keqiang the city launched the China (Shanghai) Pilot Free-Trade Zone-the first free-trade zone in mainland China. The Zone introduced a number of pilot reforms designed to create a preferential environment for foreign investment. In April 2014, The Banker reported that Shanghai “has attracted the highest volumes of financial sector foreign direct investment in the Asia-Pacific region in the 12 months to the end of January 2014”. In August 2014, Shanghai was named FDi magazine’s Chinese Province of the Future 2014/15 due to “particularly impressive performances in the Business Friendliness and Connectivity categories, as well as placing second in the Economic Potential and Human Capital and Lifestyle categories”.
In the last two decades Shanghai has been one of the fastest developing cities in the world. Since 1992 Shanghai has recorded double-digit growth almost every year except during the global recession of 2008 and 2009. In 2011, Shanghai’s total GDP grew to 1.92 trillion yuan (US$297 billion) with GDP per capita of 82,560 yuan (US $12,784). The three largest service industries are financial services, retail, and real estate. The manufacturing and agricultural sectors accounted for 39.9 percent and 0.7 percent of the total output respectively. Average annual disposable income of Shanghai residents, based on the first three quarters of 2009, was 21,871 RMB.

Located at the heart of the Yangtze River Delta, Shanghai has the world’s busiest container port, which handled 29.05 million TEUs in 2010. Shanghai aims to be an international shipping center in the near future.

Shanghai is one of the main industrial centers of China, playing a key role in China’s heavy industries. A large number of industrial zones, including Shanghai Hongqiao Economic and Technological Development Zone, Jinqiao Export Economic Processing Zone, Minhang Economic and Technological Development Zone, and Shanghai Caohejing High-Tech Development Zone, are backbones of Shanghai’s secondary industry. Heavy industries accounted for 78% of the gross industrial output in 2009. China’s largest steelmaker Baosteel Group, China’s largest shipbuilding base – Hudong-Zhonghua Shipbuilding Group, and the Jiangnan Shipyard, one of China’s oldest shipbuilders are all located in Shanghai. Auto manufacture is another important industry. The Shanghai-based SAIC Motor is one of the three largest automotive corporations in China, and has strategic partnerships with Volkswagen and General Motors.

The conference and meeting sector is also growing. In 2012, the city hosted 780 international gatherings, up from 754 in 2011. The high supply of hotel rooms has kept room rates lower than expected, with the average room rate for four- and five-star hotels in 2012 at just RMB950 (US$153).

As of September 2013, Shanghai is also home to the largest free-trade zone in mainland China, the China (Shanghai) Pilot Free-Trade Zone. The zone covers an area of 29 km2 and integrates four existing bonded zones — Waigaoqiao Free Trade Zone, Waigaoqiao Free Trade Logistics Park, Yangshan Free Trade Port Area and Pudong Airport Comprehensive Free Trade Zone. Several preferential policies have been implemented to attract foreign investment in various industries to the FTZ. Because the Zone is not technically considered PRC territory for tax purposes, commodities entering the zone are not subject to duty and customs clearance as would otherwise be the case.

8 | Demographics


Main article: Demographics of Shanghai

Historical Population

Historical population

Population size may be affected by changes to administrative divisions.

The 2010 census put Shanghai’s total population at 23,019,148, a growth of 37.53% from 16,737,734 in 2000. 20.6 million of the total population, or 89.3%, are urban, and 2.5 million (10.7%) are rural. Based on the population of its total administrative area, Shanghai is the second largest of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China, behind Chongqing, but is generally considered the largest Chinese city because Chongqing’s urban population is much smaller.

Shanghai also has 150,000 officially registered foreigners, including 31,500 Japanese, 21,000 Americans and 20,700 Koreans, but the real number of foreign citizens in the city is probably much higher. Shanghai is also a domestic immigration city, which means a huge population of citizens come from other cities in China.

9 | Religion


Religion

Due to its cosmopolitan history, Shanghai has a blend of religious heritage as shown by the religious buildings and institutions still scattered around the city. According to a 2012 survey only around 13% of the population of Shanghai belongs to organised religions, the largest groups being Buddhists with 10.4%, followed by Protestants with 1.9%, Catholics with 0.7% and other faiths with 0.1%. Around 87% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities and ancestors, Confucian churches, Taoism and folk religious sects.

There are folk religious temples such as a Temple of the Chenghuangshen (City God), at the heart of the old city, and a temple dedicated to the Three Kingdoms general Guan Yu. The White Cloud Temple of Shanghai is an important Taoist centre in the city. The Wenmiao (Temple of the God of Culture) is dedicated to Confucius.

Buddhism, in its Chinese varieties, has had a presence in Shanghai since ancient times. The Longhua Temple, the largest temple in Shanghai, and the Jing’an Temple, were first founded in the Three Kingdoms period. Another important temple is the Jade Buddha Temple, which is named after a large statue of Buddha carved out of jade in the temple. In recent decades, dozens of modern temples have been built throughout the city.

Islam came into Shanghai 700 years ago and a mosque was built in 1295 in Songjiang. In 1843, a teachers’ college was also set up. The Shanghai Muslim Association is located in the Xiaotaoyuan Mosque in Huangpu.

Shanghai has one of the largest proportions of Catholics in China (2003). Among Catholic churches, St Ignatius Cathedral in Xujiahui is one of the largest, while She Shan Basilica is an active pilgrimage site.

Other forms of Christianity in Shanghai include Eastern Orthodox minorities and, since 1996, registered Christian Protestant churches. During World War II thousands of Jews descended upon Shanghai in an effort to flee Hitler’s regime. The Jews lived side-by-side in a designated area called Shanghai Ghetto and formed a vibrant community centered on the Ohel Moishe Synagogue, which is preserved remnant of this portion of Shanghai’s complex religious past.

10 | Education


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University City District in Songjiang

Shanghai ranked first in the 2009 and 2012 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), a worldwide study of academic performance of 15-year-old students conducted by the OECD. Shanghai students, including migrant children, scored highest in every aspect (math, reading and science) in the world. The study concludes that public-funded schools in Shanghai have the highest educational quality in the world. Critics of PISA results counter that, in Shanghai and other Chinese cities, most children of migrant workers can only attend city schools up to the ninth grade, and must return to their parents’ hometowns for high school due to hukou restrictions, thus skewing the composition of the city’s high school students in favor of wealthier local families.

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Shanghai Jiao Tong University Library

Shanghai is the first city in the country to implement 9-year mandatory education. The 2010 census shows that out of Shanghai’s total population, 22.0% had a college education, double the level from 2000, while 21.0% had high school, 36.5% middle school, and 1.35% primary school education. 2.74% of residents age 15 and older were illiterate.

Shanghai has more than 930 kindergartens, 1,200 primary and 850 middle schools. Over 760,000 middle schools students and 871,000 primary school students are taught by 76,000 and 64,000 teaching staff respectively.

Shanghai is a major center of higher education in China with over 30 universities and colleges. A number of China’s most prestigious universities are based in Shanghai, including Fudan University, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Tongji University, East China Normal University (these universities are selected as “985 universities” by the Chinese Government in order to build world-class universities). In 2012 NYU Shanghai was established in Pudong by New York University in partnership with East China Normal University as the first Sino-US joint venture university. In 2013 the Shanghai Municipality and the Chinese Academy of Sciences founded the ShanghaiTech University in the Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park in Pudong. This new research university is aiming to be a first-class institution on a national and international level. The cadre school China Executive Leadership Academy in Pudong is also located in Shanghai, as well as the China Europe International Business School.

Children with foreign passports are permitted to attend any public school in Shanghai. Prior to 2007 they were permitted to attend 150 select public schools. In 2006 about 2,000 non-Chinese nationals under 18 years of age attended Shanghai public schools. Students with Hanyu Shuiping Kaoshi (HSK) above 3 or 4 may attend public schools using Mandarin Chinese as the medium of instruction, while students below HSK 3–4 may attend international divisions of public schools or private international schools.
Shanghai has the largest number of international schools of any city in China. In November 2015 Christopher Cottrell of the Global Times wrote that Shanghai “prides itself on its international schools”.

11 | Transport


11.1 | Public transport

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The Maglev with a top speed of 431 km/h (268 mph) exiting the Shanghai Pudong International Airport

Shanghai has an extensive public transport system, largely based on metros, buses and taxis. Payment of all these public transportation tools can be made by using the Shanghai Public Transportation Card.

Shanghai’s rapid transit system, the Shanghai Metro, incorporates both subway and light metro lines and extends to every core urban district as well as neighboring suburban districts. As of 2016, there are 14 metro lines (excluding the Shanghai Maglev Train and Jinshan Railway), 364 stations and 588 km (365 mi) of lines in operation, making it the longest network in the world. On 31 December 2016, it set a record of daily ridership of 11.7 million. The fare depends on the length of travel distance starting from 3 RMB.

In 2010, Shanghai reintroduced trams, this time as a modern rubber tyred Translohr system, in Zhangjiang area of East Shanghai as Zhangjiang Tram. A separate conventional tram system being constructed in Songjiang District. Additional tram lines are under study in Hongqiao Subdistrict and Jiading District.

Shanghai also has the world’s most extensive network of urban bus routes, with nearly one thousand bus lines, operated by numerous transportation companies. The system includes the world’s oldest continuously operating trolleybus system. Bus fare normally costs 2 RMB.

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A typical VW Touran Taxi in Shanghai

Taxis are plentiful in Shanghai. The base fare is currently ¥14(sedan)/¥16(MPV) (inclusive of a ¥1 fuel surcharge; ¥18 between 11:00 pm and 5:00 am) which covers the first 3 km (2 mi). Additional km cost ¥2.4 each (¥3.2 between 11:00 pm and 5:00 am).

11.2 | Roads

Shanghai is a major hub of China’s expressway network. Many national expressways (prefixed with G) pass through or terminate in Shanghai, including G2 Beijing–Shanghai Expressway (overlapping G42 Shanghai–Chengdu), G15 Shenyang–Haikou, G40 Shanghai–Xi’an, G50 Shanghai–Chongqing, G60 Shanghai–Kunming (overlapping G92 Shanghai–Ningbo), and G1501 Shanghai Ring Expressway. In addition, there are also numerous municipal expressways prefixed with S (S1, S2, S20, etc.). Shanghai has one bridge-tunnel crossing spanning the mouth of the Yangtze to the north of the city.
In the city center, there are several elevated expressways to lessen traffic pressure on surface streets, but the growth car use has made demand far outstrip capacity, with heavy congestion being commonplace. There are bicycle lanes separate from car traffic on many surface streets, but bicycles and motorcycles are banned from many main roads including the elevated expressways. Recently, cycling has seen a resurgence in popularity thanks to the emergence of a large number of dockless app based bikeshares such as Mobike, Bluegogo and Ofo.

Private car ownership in Shanghai has been rapidly increasing in recent years, but a new private car cannot be driven until the owner buys a license in the monthly private car license plate auction. Around 11,500 license plates are auctioned each month and the average price is about 84,000 RMB ($12,758). According to the municipal regulation in 2016, only those who are Shanghai registered residents or have paid social insurance or individual incomer tax for over 3 years in a row. The purpose of this policy is to limit the growth of automobile traffic and to alleviate congestion.

11.3 | Railway

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The lobby of Shanghai South Railway Station

Shanghai has four major railway stations: Shanghai Railway Station, Shanghai South Railway Station, Shanghai West Railway Station, and Shanghai Hongqiao Railway Station. All are connected to the metro network and serve as hubs in the railway network of China. Two main railways terminate in Shanghai: Jinghu Railway from Beijing, and Huhang Railway from Hangzhou. Hongqiao Station also serves as the main Shanghai terminus of three high-speed rail lines: the Shanghai–Hangzhou High-Speed Railway, the Shanghai–Nanjing High-Speed Railway, and the Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway.

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Shanghai Pudong International Airport terminal at night

11.4 | Air

Shanghai is one of the leading air transport gateways in Asia. The city has two commercial airports: Shanghai Pudong International Airport and Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport. Pudong Airport is the main international airport, while Hongqiao Airport mainly operates domestic flights with limited short-haul international flights. In 2010 the two airports served 71.7 million passengers (Pudong 40.4 million, Hongqiao 31.3 million), and handled 3.7 million tons of cargo (Pudong 3.22 million tons, Hongqiao 480 thousand tons).

12 | Architecture


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Renovated shikumen lanes in Xintiandi, now a high-end restaurant and shopping center

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Paramount, a historical dancehall. Art Deco structure, built 1931–1932.

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Shanghai Exhibition Centre, an example of Soviet neoclassical architecture in Shanghai

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Site of the First National Congress of the Communist Party of China, a typical shikumen building in the former French Concession.

Shanghai has a rich collection of buildings and structures of various architectural styles. The Bund, located by the bank of the Huangpu River, contains a rich collection of early 20th-century architecture, ranging in style from neoclassical HSBC Building to the art deco Sassoon House. A number of areas in the former foreign concessions are also well-preserved, the most notable ones being the French Concession. Shanghai has one of the world’s largest number of Art Deco buildings as a result of the construction boom during the 1920s and 1930s. One of the most famous architects working in Shanghai was László Hudec, a Hungarian-Slovak architect who lived in the city between 1918–1947. Some of his most notable Art Deco buildings include the Park Hotel and the Grand Theater. Other prominent architects who contributed to the Art Deco style are Parker & Palmer, who designed the Peace Hotel, Metropole Hotel, and the Broadway Mansions, and Austrian architect GH Gonda who designed the Capital Theatre. The Bund’s first revitalization started in 1986 with a new promenade by the Dutch Architect Paulus Snoeren, the completion was in the mid-1990s.

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Shanghai World Financial Center (left) and Jin Mao Tower (right)

In recent years, a large number of architecturally distinctive and even eccentric buildings have sprung up throughout Shanghai. Notable examples of contemporary architecture include the Shanghai Museum, Shanghai Grand Theatre in the People’s Square precinct and Shanghai Oriental Art Center. Despite rampant redevelopment, the old city still retains some buildings of a traditional style, such as the Yuyuan Garden, an elaborate traditional garden in the Jiangnan style.

One uniquely Shanghainese cultural element is the shikumen (石库门) residences, which are two- or three-story townhouses, with the front yard protected by a high brick wall. Each residence is connected and arranged in straight alleys, known as a longtang (弄堂), pronounced longdang in Shanghainese. The entrance to each alley is usually surmounted by a stylistic stone arch. The whole resembles terrace houses or townhouses commonly seen in Anglo-American countries, but distinguished by the tall, heavy brick wall in front of each house. The name “shikumen” means “stone storage door”, referring to the strong gateway to each house.

The shikumen is a cultural blend of elements found in Western architecture with traditional Lower Yangtze (Jiangnan) Chinese architecture and social behavior. All traditional Chinese dwellings had a courtyard, and the shikumen was no exception. Yet, to compromise with its urban nature, it was much smaller and provided an “interior haven” to the commotions in the streets, allowing for raindrops to fall and vegetation to grow freely within a residence. The courtyard also allowed sunlight and adequate ventilation into the rooms.

Less than Beijing, the city also has some examples of Soviet neoclassical architecture or Stalinist architecture. These buildings were mostly erected during the period from the founding of the People’s Republic in 1949 until the Sino-Soviet Split in the late 1960s. During this decade, large numbers of Soviet experts, including architects, poured into China to aid the country in the construction of a communist state. Examples of Soviet neoclassical architecture in Shanghai include what is today the Shanghai Exhibition Centre.

The Pudong district of Shanghai is home to a number of skyscrapers, many of which rank among the tallest in the world. Among the most prominent examples are the Jin Mao Tower and the taller Shanghai World Financial Center, which at 492 metres (1,614 ft) tall is the third tallest skyscraper in mainland China and ranks tenth in the world. The Shanghai Tower, completed in 2015, is the tallest building in China, as well as the second tallest in the world. With a height of 632 metres (2,073 ft), the building has 128 floors and a total floor area of 380,000 square metres (4,100,000 sq ft) above ground. The distinctive Oriental Pearl Tower, at 468 metres (1,535 ft), is located nearby, as is One Lujiazui, standing at 269 metres (883 ft).

13 | Environment


13.1 | Parks and resorts

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People’s Square seen from Urban Planning Exhibition Center

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Enchanted Storybook Castle of Shanghai Disneyland

The extensive public park system in Shanghai offers the citizens some reprieve from the urban jungle. By the year 2012, the city had 157 parks, with 138 of them free of charge. Some of the parks, aside from offering a green public space to locals, became popular tourist attractions due to their unique location, history or architecture. The former racetrack turned central park, People’s Square park, located in the heart of downtown Shanghai, is especially well known for its proximity to other major landmarks in the city. Fuxing Park, located in the former French Concession of Shanghai, features formal French-style gardens and is surrounded by high end bars and cafes. Zhongshan Park in northwestern central Shanghai is famous for its monument of Chopin, the tallest statue dedicated to the composer in the world. Built in 1914 as Jessfield Park, it once contained the campus of St. John’s University, Shanghai’s first international college; today, it is known for its extensive rose and peony gardens, a large children’s play area, and as the location of an important transfer station on the city’s metro system. Shanghai Botanical Garden is located 12 km (7 mi) southwest of the city center and was established in 1978. One of the newest parks is in the Xujiahui area – Xujiahui Park, built in 1999 on the former grounds of the Great Chinese Rubber Works Factory and the EMI Recording Studio (now La Villa Rouge restaurant). The park has a man-made lake with a sky bridge running across the park, and offers a pleasant respite for Xujiahui shoppers. Other well-known Shanghai parks include: People’s Square Park, Gongqing Forest Park, Fuxing Park, Zhongshan Park, Lu Xun Park, Century Park, and Jing’an Park.

The Shanghai Disney Resort Project was approved by the government on 4 November 2009, and opened in 2016. The $4.4 billion theme park and resort in Pudong features a castle that is the biggest among Disney’s resorts.

13.2 | Environmental Protection

Public awareness of the environment is growing, and the city is investing in a number of environmental protection projects. A 10-year, US$1 billion cleanup of Suzhou Creek, which runs through the city-center, was expected to be finished in 2008, and the government also provides incentives for transportation companies to invest in LPG buses and taxis. Additionally, the government has moved almost all the factories within the city center to either the outskirts or other provinces in the recent decades.

13.3 | Air Pollution and Government Reaction

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Huangpu District during the 2013 Eastern China smog

Air pollution in Shanghai is low compared to other Chinese cities, but still substantial by world standards. During the December 2013 Eastern China smog, air pollution rates reached between 23 and 31 times the international standard. On 6 December 2013, levels of PM2.5 particulate matter in Shanghai rose above 600 micrograms per cubic meter and in the surrounding area, above 700 micrograms per cubic metre. Levels of PM2.5 in Putuo District reached 726 micrograms per cubic meter. As a result, the Shanghai Municipal Education Commission received orders to suspend students’ outdoor activities. Authorities pulled nearly one-third of government vehicles from the roads, while a mass of construction work was halted. Most of inbound flights were cancelled, and more than 50 flights were diverted at Pudong International Airport.
On 23 January 2014, Yang Xiong, the mayor of Shanghai municipality announced that three main measures would be taken to manage the air pollution in Shanghai, along with surrounding Anhui, Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces. The measures involved delivery of the 2013 air cleaning program, linkage mechanism with the three surrounding provinces and improvement of the ability of early warning of emergency situation. On 12 February 2014, China’s cabinet announced that a 10-billion-renminbi (US$1.7-billion) fund will be set up to help companies to meet new environmental standards.

14 | Culture

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Qibao Town

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The Mercedes-Benz Arena, previously known as the Expo Cultural Center during the World Expo in 2010.

Shanghai is sometimes considered a center of innovation and progress in China. It was in Shanghai, for example, that the first motor car was driven and (technically) the first train tracks and modern sewers were laid. It was also the intellectual battleground between socialist writers who concentrated on critical realism, which was pioneered by Lu Xun, Mao Dun, Nien Cheng and the famous French novel by André Malraux, Man’s Fate, and the more “bourgeois”, more romantic and aesthetically inclined writers, such as Shi Zhecun, Shao Xunmei, Ye Lingfeng, and Eileen Chang.

In the past years Shanghai has been widely recognized as a new influence and inspiration for cyberpunk culture. Futuristic buildings such as the Oriental Pearl Tower and the neon-illuminated Yan’an Elevated Road are a few examples that have helped to boost Shanghai’s cyberpunk image.

14.1 | Language

The vernacular language spoken in the city is Shanghainese, a dialect of the Taihu Wu subgroup of the Wu Chinese family. This makes it a different language from the official language nationwide, which is Mandarin, itself completely mutually unintelligible with Wu Chinese. Most Shanghai residents are the descendants of immigrants from the two adjacent provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang who moved to Shanghai in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The population of those regions speak different dialects of Wu Chinese. From the 1990s, many migrants outside of Wu-speaking area have come to Shanghai for work. They often cannot speak the local language and therefore use Mandarin as a lingua franca.

Modern Shanghainese is based on different dialects of Taihu Wu: the Suzhou dialect, the Ningbo dialect, and dialects of Shanghai’s traditional areas (now lie within the Hongkou, Baoshan and Pudong districts). The prestige dialect of Wu Chinese is spoken within the city of Shanghai prior to its modern expansion. Known as “the local tongue” (本地話), it is influenced to a lesser extent by the languages of other nearby regions from which large numbers of people have migrated to Shanghai since the 20th century, and includes a significant number of terms borrowed from European languages. The prevalence of Mandarin fluency is generally higher for those born after 1949 than those born before, while the prevalence of English fluency is higher for people who received their secondary and tertiary education before 1949 than those who did so after 1949 and before the 1990s. On the other hand, however, Shanghainese started to decline and fluency amongst young speakers weakened, as Mandarin and English are being favoured and taught over the native language. In recent years though, there have been movements within the city to protect and promote the local language from ever fading out.

14.2 | Museums

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The Shanghai Museum, located on the People’s Square

Shanghai has several museums of regional and national importance. The Shanghai Museum has one of the best collections of Chinese historical artifacts in the world, including a large collection of ancient Chinese bronzes. The China Art Museum, located in the former China Pavilion of Expo 2010, is the largest art museum in Asia. Power Station of Art is built in a converted power station, similar to London’s Tate Modern. The Shanghai Natural History Museum and the Shanghai Science and Technology Museum are major natural history and science museums. In addition, there is a variety of smaller, specialist museums housed in important archaeological and historical sites such as the Songze Museum, the Museum of the First National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party, the site of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, the former Ohel Moshe Synagogue (Shanghai Jewish Refugees Museum), and the General Post Office Building (Shanghai Postal Museum). The Rockbund Art Museum is also in Shanghai. There are also many art galleries, concentrated in the M50 Art District and Tianzifang. Shanghai is also home to one of China’s largest aquariums, the Shanghai Ocean Aquarium.

14.3 | Cinema

Shanghai was the birthplace of Chinese cinema and theater. China’s first short film, The Difficult Couple (1913), and the country’s first fictional feature film, An Orphan Rescues His Grandfather (孤儿救祖记, Gu’er Jiu Zuji, 1923) were both produced in Shanghai. These two films were very influential, and established Shanghai as the center of Chinese film-making. Shanghai’s film industry went on to blossom during the early 1930s, generating great stars such as Hu Die, Ruan Lingyu, Zhou Xuan, Jin Yan, and Zhao Dan. Another film star, Jiang Qing, went on to become Madame Mao Zedong. The exile of Shanghainese filmmakers and actors as a result of the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Communist revolution contributed enormously to the development of the Hong Kong film industry. Many aspects of Shanghainese popular culture (“Shanghainese Pops”) were transferred to Hong Kong by the numerous Shanghainese emigrants and refugees after the Communist Revolution. The movie In the Mood for Love, which was directed by Wong Kar-wai (a native Shanghainese himself), depicts a slice of the displaced Shanghainese community in Hong Kong and the nostalgia for that era, featuring 1940s music by Zhou Xuan.

14.4 | Arts

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十万图之四 (No. 4 of a Hundred Thousand Scenes) by Ren Xiong, a pioneer of the Shanghai School of Chinese art, c. 1850. 

The “Shanghai School” was an important Chinese school of traditional arts during the Qing Dynasty and the twentieth century. Under the masters from this school, traditional Chinese art developed into the modern style of “Chinese painting”. The Shanghai School challenged and broke the elitist tradition of Chinese art, while also paying technical homage to the ancient masters and improving on existing traditional techniques. Members of this school were themselves educated literati who had come to question their very status and the purpose of art and had anticipated the impending modernization of Chinese society. In an era of rapid social change, works from the Shanghai School were widely innovative and diverse and often contained thoughtful yet subtle social commentary. The best known figures from this school include Qi Baishi, Ren Xiong, Ren Bonian, Zhao Zhiqian, Wu Changshuo, Sha Menghai, Pan Tianshou, Fu Baoshi, Xie Zhiliu, He Tianjian, and Wang Zhen. In literature, the term was used in the 1930s by some May Fourth Movement intellectuals – notably Zhou Zuoren and Shen Congwen – as a derogatory label for the literature produced in Shanghai at the time. They argued that Shanghai School literature was merely commercial and therefore did not advance social progress. This became known as the Jingpai versus Haipai (Beijing v. Shanghai School) debate.

The “Songjiang School” (淞江派) was a small painting school during the Ming Dynasty. It is commonly considered as a further development of the Wu or Wumen School in the then-cultural center of the region, Suzhou. The Huating School (华亭派) was another important art school during the middle to late Ming Dynasty. Its main achievements were in traditional Chinese painting, calligraphy, and poetry. It was especially famous for its Renwen painting (人文画). Dong Qichang was one of the masters from this school.

14.5 | Fashion

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Two women wear Shanghai-styled qipao while playing golf in this 1930s Shanghai soap advertisement.

Other Shanghainese cultural artifacts include the cheongsam (Shanghainese: zansae), a modernization of the traditional Manchurian qipao. This contrasts sharply with the traditional qipao, which was designed to conceal the figure and be worn regardless of age. The cheongsam went along well with the western overcoat and the scarf, and portrayed a unique East Asian modernity, epitomizing the Shanghainese population in general. As Western fashions changed, the basic cheongsam design changed, too, introducing high-neck sleeveless dresses, bell-like sleeves, and the black lace frothing at the hem of a ball gown. By the 1940s, cheongsams came in transparent black, beaded bodices, matching capes and even velvet. Later, checked fabrics became also quite common. The 1949 Communist Revolution ended the cheongsam and other fashions in Shanghai. However, the Shanghainese styles have seen a recent revival as stylish party dresses. The fashion industry has been rapidly revitalizing in the past decade. Like Shanghai’s architecture, local fashion designers strive to create a fusion of western and traditional designs, often with innovative if controversial results.

In recent times Shanghai has established its own fashion week called Shanghai Fashion Week. It is held twice every year in October and April. The April session is a part of Shanghai International Fashion Culture Festival which usually lasts for a month, while Shanghai Fashion Week lasts for seven days, and the main venue is in Fuxing Park, Shanghai, while the opening and closing ceremony is in Shanghai Fashion Center. Supported by the People’s Republic Ministry of Commerce, Shanghai Fashion Week is a major business and culture event of national significance hosted by the Shanghai Municipal Government. Shanghai Fashion Week is aiming to build up an international and professional platform, gathering all of the top design talents of Asia. The event features international designers but the primary purpose is to showcase Chinese designers. The international presence has included many of the most promising young British fashion designers.

15 | Media


In regard to foreign publications in Shanghai, Hartmut Walravens of the IFLA Newspapers Section said that when the Japanese controlled Shanghai in the 1940s “it was very difficult to publish good papers – one either had to concentrate on emigration problems, or cooperate like the Chronicle”.
Newspapers include:
Jiefang Daily
Oriental Sports Daily
Shanghai Review of Books
Shanghai Daily
Shanghai Star
Xinmin Evening News
Wen Hui Bao
Wenhui Book Review
Newspapers formerly published in Shanghai include:
Der Ostasiatische Lloyd (German)
Gelbe Post
North China Daily News
Shanghai Evening Post & Mercury
Shanghai Gazette
Shanghai Jewish Chronicle
Shanghai Herald
Shanghai Mercury
The Shanghai Post (German paper)
Shanghai Times
Shen Bao (Shanghai News)
Broadcasters:
Shanghai Media Group

16 | Sports


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F1 Chinese Grand Prix in Shanghai

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Shanghai Masters in Qizhong Stadium

Shanghai is home to several football teams, including two in the Chinese Super League – Shanghai Greenland Shenhua and Shanghai SIPG. Another professional team, Shanghai Shenxin, is currently in China League One. China’s top tier basketball team, the Shanghai Sharks of the Chinese Basketball Association, developed Yao Ming before he entered the NBA. Shanghai also has an ice hockey team, China Dragon, and a baseball team, the Shanghai Golden Eagles, which plays in the China Baseball League.

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Yao Ming

Shanghai is the hometown of many outstanding and well-known Chinese professional athletes, such as Yao Ming, the 110-meter hurdler Liu Xiang, the table-tennis player Wang Liqin and the former world women’s single champion and current Olympic silver medalist badminton player Wang Yihan.

Beginning in 2004, Shanghai started hosting the Chinese Grand Prix, one round of the Formula One World Championship. The race was staged at the Shanghai International Circuit. In 2010, Shanghai also became the host city of German Touring Car Masters (DTM), which raced in a street circuit in Pudong.

Shanghai also holds the Shanghai Masters tennis tournament which is part of ATP World Tour Masters 1000, and the BMW Masters and WGC-HSBC Champions golf tournaments.

The Shanghai Cricket Club is a cricket club based in Shanghai. The club dates back to 1858 when the first recorded cricket match was played between a team of British Naval officers and a Shanghai 11. Following a 45-year dormancy after the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, the club was re-established in 1994 by expatriates living in the city and has since grown to over 300 members. The Shanghai cricket team was a cricket team that played various international matches between 1866 and 1948. With cricket in the rest of China almost non-existent, for that period they were the de facto Chinese national side.

On 21 September 2017, Shanghai will be one of two cities to host an National Hockey League (NHL) ice hockey exhibition game that will feature the Los Angeles Kings vs. the Vancouver Canucks as an effort to garner fan interest in China before the start of the 2017–18 season.

17 | International Relations


Shanghai is twinned with:

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Tokyo

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedi

Related Post: Japan

TOKYO 1-vertTokyo_in_Japan.svg

  • Country: Japan
  • Region: Kantō
  • Island: Honshu
  • Divisions: 23 special wards, 26 cities, 1 district, and 4 subprefectures
  • Government
    • Type Metropolis
    • Governor Yuriko Koike (Ind)
    • Capital Tokyo
  • Area
    • Metropolis 2,187.66 km2 (844.66 sq mi)
    • Metro 13,572 km2 (5,240 sq mi)
  • Area rank: 45th
  • Elevation: 40 m (130 ft)
  • Population (July 31, 2016)
    • Metropolis 13,617,445
    • Density 6,224.66/km2 (16,121.8/sq mi)
    • Metro 37,800,000
    • Metro density 2,662/km2 (6,890/sq mi)
    • 23 Wards 8,967,665
    (2015 per prefectural government)
  • Demonym(s) 江戸っ子 (Edokko), 東京人 (Tokyo-jin), 東京っ子 (Tokyokko), Tokyoite
    GDP(Kanto Region) (Nominal; 2014)
    • Total $2.5 trillion
    • Per capita $60,000
  • Time zone: Japan Standard Time (UTC+9)
  • ISO: 3166-2 JP-13
  • Flower: Somei-Yoshino cherry blossom
  • Tree: Ginkgo tree (Ginkgo biloba)
  • Bird: Black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus)

Tokyo (Japanese: [toːkʲoː] (About this sound listen), English: /ˈtoʊkioʊ/), officially Tokyo Metropolis, is the capital of Japan and one of its 47 prefectures. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world. It is the seat of the Emperor of Japan and the Japanese government. Tokyo is in the Kantō region on the southeastern side of the main island Honshu and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Formerly known as Edo, it has been the de facto seat of government since 1603 when Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters. It officially became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from the old capital of Kyoto in 1868; at that time Edo was renamed Tokyo. Tokyo Metropolis was formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture (東京府 Tōkyō-fu) and the city of Tokyo (東京市 Tōkyō-shi).

Tokyo is often referred to as a city, but is officially known and governed as a “metropolitan prefecture”, which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo. The Tokyo metropolitan government administers the 23 Special Wards of Tokyo (each governed as an individual city), which cover the area that was the City of Tokyo before it merged and became the metropolitan prefecture in 1943. The metropolitan government also administers 39 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture and the two outlying island chains. The population of the special wards is over 9 million people, with the total population of the prefecture exceeding 13 million. The prefecture is part of the world’s most populous metropolitan area with upwards of 37.8 million people and the world’s largest urban agglomeration economy. The city hosts 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world. Tokyo ranked third in the International Financial Centres Development IndexEdit. The city is also home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System.

Tokyo ranked first in the Global Economic Power Index and fourth in the Global Cities Index. The city is considered an alpha+ world city – as listed by the GaWC’s 2008 inventory – and in 2014, Tokyo was ranked first in the “Best overall experience” category of TripAdvisor’s World City Survey (the city also ranked first in the following categories: “helpfulness of locals”, “nightlife”, “shopping”, “local public transportation” and “cleanliness of streets”). In 2015, Tokyo was ranked as the 11th most expensive city for expatriates, according to the Mercer consulting firm, and also the world’s 11th most expensive city, according to the Economist Intelligence Unit’s cost-of-living survey. In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo was ranked first out of all fifty cities in the 2015 Safe Cities Index. The 2016 edition of QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, and the 1993 G-7 summit, and will host the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics.

Contents

1 | Etymology
2  |History

2.1 | Pre-1869 (Edo Period)
2.2 | 1869–1943
2.3 | 1943–present

3 | Geography

3.1 | Special Wards
3.2 | Tama Area (Western Tokyo)
3.2.1 | Cities
3.2.2 | Nishi-Tama District
3.3 | Islands
3.4 | National parks
3.5 | Seismicity
3.5.1 | Common Seismicity
3.5.2 | Infrequent Powerful Quakes
3.6 | Climate

4 | Cityscape
5 | Environment
6 | Demographics
7 | Economy
8 | Transportation
9 | Education
10 | Culture
11 | Sports
12 | In popular Culture
13 | International Relations
13.1 | Sister Cities, Sister States, and Friendship Agreements


1 | Etymology

Tokyo was originally known as Edo (江戸), which means “estuary”. Its name was changed to Tokyo (東京 Tōkyō, 東 tō “east”, and 京 kyō “capital”) when it became the imperial capital with the arrival of Emperor Meiji in 1868, in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital (京) in the name of the capital city (like Kyoto-京都, Peking-北京 and Nanking-南京) . During the early Meiji period, the city was also called “Tōkei”, an alternative pronunciation for the same Chinese characters representing “Tokyo”, making it a kanji homograph. Some surviving official English documents use the spelling “Tokei”. However, this pronunciation is now obsolete.
The name Tokyo was first suggested in 1813 in the book Kondō Hisaku (ja) (Secret Plan of Commingling), written by Satō Nobuhiro. When Ōkubo Toshimichi proposed the renaming to the government during the Meiji Restoration, according to Oda Kanshi (織田完之),[vague] he got the idea from that book.

Japanese name

2 | History


Timeline of Tokyo

Prior to 19th Century


  • 1457 – Edo Castle built.
  • 1617 – Yoshiwara (prostitution district) begins operating.
  • 1634 – Sankin-kōtai policy established.
  • 1657 – March 2: Great Fire of Meireki occurs.
  • 1682 – 1682 Edo fire (ja).
  • 1698 – 1698 Edo fire (ja).
  • 1707 – December: Eruption of Mount Fuji; ash falls on Edo.
  • 1721 – “First population census conducted (Edo’s population about 1.3 million).”

19th Century


  • 1853
    • July 8: American Perry Expedition arrives in Edo Bay.
    • Odaiba island forts built in Edo Bay.
    • Hanayashiki garden opens.
  • 1855 – November 11: 1855 Edo earthquake occurs.
  • 1856 – Hiroshige’s One Hundred Famous Views of Edo published.
  • 1868 – Edo renamed “Tokyo.”
  • 1869
    • Japanese imperial capital relocated to Tokyo from Kyoto.
    • Tokyo Shôkonsha (shrine) established.
    • Yokohama-Tokyo telegraph begins operating.
  • 1871 – Esaki Reiji photo studio in business.
  • 1872
    • October: Yokohama-Tokyo railroad begins operating.
    • Tokyo Nichi Nichi Shimbun (newspaper) begins publication.
    • “Ordinances aimed at the civilizing of the populace are enacted in Tokyo.”
    • Imperial Library headquartered in Tokyo.
  • 1873 – Dai-Ichi Kokuritsu Bank established.
  • 1874 – Aoyama Gakuin school and Saint Paul’s school established.
  • 1877
    • University of Tokyo[7] and Fifteen Bank (ja) established.
    • National Industrial Exhibition (ja) held.
  • 1880 – Mitsubishi Bank and Yasuda Bank established.
  • 1881
    • Tokyo Imperial Museum built.
    • Tokyo Vocational School founded.
  • 1882
    • Bank of Japan headquartered in city.
    • Ueno Zoo opens.
  • 1884 – Railway Yamanote Line begins operating.
  • 1886 – “First fixed advertising billboard in Tokyo” installed.
  • 1887 – Tokyo School of Art (ja) founded.
  • 1888
    • Tokyo Asahi Shimbun (newspaper) begins publication.
    • Tokyo Observatory (ja) established.
  • 1889
    • “Tokyo City and 15 wards established.”
    • Kabuki-za (theatre) opens.
  • 1890
    • Telephone begins operating.
    • Population: 1,155,290.
  • 1894 – Tokyo-fu Government Building constructed in Marunouchi.
  • 1897 – March: Motion picture first shown.[

20th Century


1900s-1940s

  • 1901 – Tokyo Photography Circle (club) formed.
  • 1902 – Industrial Bank of Japan headquartered in city.
  • 1903
    • Electric tram begins operating.
    • Electric Hall (cinema) opens.
  • 1905 – September 5: Hibiya Incendiary Incident occurs.
  • 1906 – Harajuku Station opens.
  • 1907 – Tokyo Industrial Exhibition held.
  • 1910 – Luna Park opens.
  • 1911 – Imperial Theatre opens.
  • 1914
    • December: Central Station opens.
    • Taisho Exposition held.
  • 1916 – Tokyo Photographers Guild established.
  • 1917 – Asakusa Opera (ja) active.
  • 1918
    • Rice riot occurs.
    • Neon light installed in Ginza.
  • 1920
    • Meiji Shrine built.
    • Population: 3,699,428.
  • 1921 – November 4: Japanese prime minister Takashi Hara assassinated.
  • 1923 – September 1: 1923 Great Kantō earthquake occurs.
  • 1925 – Tokyo Broadcasting Station (ja) begins operating.
  • 1926
    • “Public apartment housing” built.
    • NHK Symphony Orchestra and Tokyo Metropolitan Art Museum established.
  • 1927 – Tokyo Underground Railway begins operating between Asakusa and Ueno.
  • 1928 – Daiba Park (ja) opens in Tokyo Bay.
  • 1929 – Tokyo March song/film become popular.
  • 1930 – Population: 4,986,913.
  • 1931 – Haneda Airport begins operating.
  • 1933 – Dai-Ichi Seimei Building constructed.
  • 1934
    • Yomiuri Giants baseball team formed.
    • Hibiya Theatre (ja) opens.
  • 1936
    • Konishiroku Honten in business.
    • Japanese Folk Crafts Museum founded.
  • 1937 – Korakuen Stadium opens.
  • 1938 – Rikugi-en (park) opens.
  • 1940 – Population: 6,778,804.
  • 1941 – Port of Tokyo opens.
  • 1942 – April: Bombing of Tokyo by US forces begins.
  • 1943 – “Metropolitan administration system established.”
  • 1945
    • August: Bombing of Tokyo by US forces ends.
    • Japan Savings Bank (ja) established.
    • Population: 3,488,284.
  • 1946 – Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal begins.
  • 1947
    • Seiichirō Yasui (fr; ja) elected governor.
    • 23 Special wards of Tokyo created.
  • 1948 – National Diet Library headquartered in Tokyo.

1950s-1990s

  • 1950 – Population: 6,277,500.
  • 1955
  • Tokyo International Trade Fair begins.
  • Population: 6,966,499.
  • 1958
  • Japanese National Stadium opens.
  • May: 1958 Asian Games held in Tokyo.
  • 1961
    • Suntory Art Museum (ja) opens.
    • Higashi-Ikebukuro Taishôken ramen shop in business.
  • 1964
    • Tōkaidō Shinkansen (hi-speed train) begins operating;
    • October: 1964 Summer Olympics held in Tokyo.
    • Tokyo 12 Channel TV begins broadcasting.
    • Hotel New Otani Tokyo built.
  • 1967 – Yoyogi Park created.
  • 1968
    • Kasumigaseki Building (hi-rise) built.
    • Ramen Jiro (ja) eatery in business.
  • 1969 – “Tokyo Metropolitan Pollution Control Ordinance (ja) enacted.”
  • 1971 – Keio Plaza Hotel (hi-rise) built.
  • 1972 – Nakagin Capsule Tower built.
  • 1973 – Tokyo Metropolitan Library opens.
  • 1975
    • Ward mayoral election held.
    • Population: 8,640,000 city; 11,622,651 urban agglomeration.
  • 1979 – June: 5th G7 summit held in city.
  • 1988
    • Tokyo Dome (stadium) opens.
    • Yumenoshima Tropical Greenhouse Dome established.
  • 1989 – Bunkamura cultural venue opens.
  • 1991 – Metropolitan government relocates to new building in Shinjuku.
  • 1993
    • Rainbow Bridge opens.
    • DN Tower 21 built.
  • 1995 – March 20: Tokyo subway sarin attack.
  • 1996 – Tokyo Big Sight convention centre opens.
  • 2000 – Population: 8,130,408.

21st Century


  • 2001 – October: Asian Network of Major Cities 21 meets in Tokyo.
  • 2002 – Tokyo International Anime Fair begins.
  • 2004 – ShinGinkō Tokyo (ja) bank established.
  • 2005 – Tokyo Metropolitan University established.
  • 2007
  • Tokyo Marathon begins.
  • Midtown Tower built.
  • Shinjuku Wald 9 cinema in business.
  • 2008 – C40 environmental group meets in Tokyo.
  • 2011 – 2011 Tōhoku earthquake occurs.
  • 2012
  • Tokyo Gate Bridge opens.
  • Tokyo Skytree tower built.
  • 2013 – September: Tokyo chosen as site of the future 2020 Summer Olympics.
  • 2014
  • Toranomon Hills (hi-rise) built.
  • Yoichi Masuzoe elected governor.
  • 2016 – Yuriko Koike elected governor.

2.1 | Pre-1869 (Edo Period)

1024px-Commodore_Perry_expedition_LOC_LC-USZ62-3319

A painting depicting the Commodore Matthew Perry expedition and his first arrival to Japan in 1853

Tokyo was originally a small fishing village named Edo, in what was formerly part of the old Musashi Province. Edo was first fortified by the Edo clan, in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu made Edo his base. When he became shogun in 1603, the town became the center of his nationwide military government. During the subsequent Edo period, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century. Edo became the de facto capital of Japan even while the emperor lived in Kyoto, the imperial capital. During this time, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa, and in the presence of such peace, Edo adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city. The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires, earthquakes, and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city. However, this prolonged period of seclusion came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore, Matthew C. Perry in 1853. Commodore Perry negotiated the opening of the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation. Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations, especially in the form of the “smashing” of rice establishments. Meanwhile, supporters of the Meiji Emperor leveraged the disruption that these widespread rebellious demonstrations were causing to further consolidate power by overthrowing the last Tokugawa shogun, Yoshinobu, in 1867. After about 263 years, the Pax Tokugawa came to an end.

2.2 | 1869–1943

Ginza_in_1933

Ginza area in 1933

In 1869, the 17-year-old Emperor Meiji moved to Edo, and in accordance the city was renamed Tokyo (meaning Eastern Capital). The city was divided into Yamanote and Shitamachi. Tokyo was already the nation’s political and cultural center, and the emperor’s residence made it a de facto imperial capital as well, with the former Edo Castle becoming the Imperial Palace. The city of Tokyo was officially established on May 1, 1889.

Central Tokyo, like Osaka, has been designed since about 1900 to be centered on major railway stations in a high-density fashion, so suburban railways were built relatively cheaply at street level and with their own right-of-way. This differs from many cities in the United States that are low-density and automobile-centric. Though expressways have been built in Tokyo, the basic design has not changed.

Tokyo went on to suffer two major catastrophes in the 20th century: the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake, which left 140,000 dead or missing; and World War II.

2.3 | 1943–present

1101px-Firebombing_of_Tokyo

Tokyo burning in 1945

In 1943, the city of Tokyo merged with the “Metropolitan Prefecture” of Tokyo. Since then, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government served as both the prefecture government for Tokyo, as well as administering the special wards of Tokyo, for what had previously been Tokyo City. World War II wrought widespread destruction of most of the city due to the persistent Allied air raids on Japan and the use of incendiary bombs. The bombing of Tokyo in 1944 and 1945 is estimated to have killed between 75,000 and 200,000 civilians and left more than half of the city destroyed. The deadliest night of the war came on March 9–10, 1945, as nearly 700,000 incendiary bombs rained on the eastern half of the city, mainly in heavily residential wards. Two-fifths of the city were completely burned, more than 276,000 buildings were demolished, 100,000 civilians were killed, and 110,000 more were injured. Between 1940 and 1945, the population of Japan’s capital city dwindled from 6,700,000 to less than 2,800,000, with the majority of those who lost their homes living in “ramshackle, makeshift huts”.

Tokyo_Tower_and_around_Skyscrapers

The Tokyo Tower, built in 1958

2011_Japan_Earthquake_Tokyo_Tower

2011 Tōhoku earthquake did slight damage to the antenna of Tokyo Tower.

After the war, Tokyo was completely rebuilt, and was showcased to the world during the 1964 Summer Olympics. The 1970s brought new high-rise developments such as Sunshine 60, a new and controversial airport at Narita in 1978 (some distance outside city limits), and a population increase to about 11 million (in the metropolitan area).
Tokyo’s subway and commuter rail network became one of the busiest in the world as more and more people moved to the area. In the 1980s, real estate prices skyrocketed during a real estate and debt bubble. The bubble burst in the early 1990s, and many companies, banks, and individuals were caught with mortgage backed debts while real estate was shrinking in value. A major recession followed, making the 1990s Japan’s “Lost Decade” from which it is now slowly recovering.

Tokyo still sees new urban developments on large lots of less profitable land. Recent projects include Ebisu Garden Place, Tennozu Isle, Shiodome, Roppongi Hills, Shinagawa (now also a Shinkansen station), and the Marunouchi side of Tokyo Station. Buildings of significance are demolished for more up-to-date shopping facilities such as Omotesando Hills.

Land reclamation projects in Tokyo have also been going on for centuries. The most prominent is the Odaiba area, now a major shopping and entertainment center. Various plans have been proposed for transferring national government functions from Tokyo to secondary capitals in other regions of Japan, in order to slow down rapid development in Tokyo and revitalize economically lagging areas of the country. These plans have been controversial within Japan and have yet to be realized.

The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami that devastated much of the northeastern coast of Honshu was felt in Tokyo. However, due to Tokyo’s earthquake-resistant infrastructure, damage in Tokyo was very minor compared to areas directly hit by the tsunami, although activity in the city was largely halted. The subsequent nuclear crisis caused by the tsunami has also largely left Tokyo unaffected, despite occasional spikes in radiation levels.

On September 7, 2013, the IOC selected Tokyo to host the 2020 Summer Olympics. Tokyo will be the first Asian city to host the Olympic Games twice.

3 | Geography


Tokyo_Landsat

Satellite photo of Tokyo’s 23 Special wards taken by NASA’s Landsat 7

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Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building

The mainland portion of Tokyo lies northwest of Tokyo Bay and measures about 90 km (56 mi) east to west and 25 km (16 mi) north to south. The average elevation in Tokyo is 40 m (131 ft). Chiba Prefecture borders it to the east, Yamanashi to the west, Kanagawa to the south, and Saitama to the north. Mainland Tokyo is further subdivided into the special wards (occupying the eastern half) and the Tama area (多摩地域) stretching westwards.

Also within the administrative boundaries of Tokyo Metropolis are two island chains in the Pacific Ocean directly south: the Izu Islands, and the Ogasawara Islands, which stretch more than 1,000 km (620 mi) away from the mainland. Because of these islands and the mountainous regions to the west, Tokyo’s overall population density figures far underrepresent the real figures for the urban and suburban regions of Tokyo.

Under Japanese law, Tokyo is designated as a to (都), translated as metropolis. Its administrative structure is similar to that of Japan’s other prefectures. The 23 special wards (特別区 -ku), which until 1943 constituted the city of Tokyo, are now separate, self-governing municipalities, each having a mayor, a council, and the status of a city.
In addition to these 23 special wards, Tokyo also includes 26 more cities (市 -shi), five towns (町 -chō or machi), and eight villages (村 -son or -mura), each of which has a local government. The Tokyo Metropolitan Government, which administers the whole metropolis, is headed by a publicly elected governor and metropolitan assembly. Its headquarters are located in Shinjuku Ward.

700px-Tokyo_Metropolis_Map.svg

3.1 | Special Wards

Tokyo_special_wards_map.svg

A map of Tokyo’s 23 special wards

The special wards (特別区 tokubetsu-ku) of Tokyo comprise the area formerly incorporated as Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, Tokyo City was merged with Tokyo Prefecture (東京府 Tōkyō-fu) forming the current “metropolitan prefecture”. As a result, unlike other city wards in Japan, these wards are not conterminous with a larger incorporated city.

While falling under the jurisdiction of Tokyo Metropolitan Government, each ward is also a borough with its own elected leader and council, like other cities of Japan. The special wards use the word “city” in their official English name (e.g. Chiyoda City).
The wards differ from other cities in having a unique administrative relationship with the prefectural government. Certain municipal functions, such as waterworks, sewerage, and fire-fighting, are handled by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. To pay for the added administrative costs, the prefecture collects municipal taxes, which would usually be levied by the city.

The special wards of Tokyo are:

  • Adachi
  • Arakawa
  • Bunkyo
  • Chiyoda
  • Chūō
  • Edogawa
  • Itabashi
  • Katsushika
  • Kita
  • Kōtō
  • Meguro
  • Minato
  • Nakano
  • Nerima
  • Ōta
  • Setagaya
  • Shibuya
  • Shinagawa
  • Shinjuku
  • Suginami
  • Sumida
  • Taitō
  • Toshima

The “three central wards” of Tokyo – Chiyoda, Chūō and Minato – are the business core of the city, with a daytime population more than seven times higher than their nighttime population. Chiyoda Ward is unique in that it is in the very heart of the former Tokyo City, yet is one of the least populated wards. It is occupied by many major Japanese companies, and is also the seat of the national government, and the Japanese emperor. It is often called the “political center” of the country. Akihabara, known for being an otaku cultural center and a shopping district for computer goods, is also located in Chiyoda.

3.2 | Tama Area (Western Tokyo)

Western_Tokyo_map.svg

A map of cities in western part of Tokyo. They border on the three westernmost special wards in the map above

To the west of the special wards, Tokyo Metropolis consists of cities, towns and villages that enjoy the same legal status as those elsewhere in Japan.

While serving as “bed towns” for those working in central Tokyo, some of them also have a local commercial and industrial base. Collectively, these are often known as the Tama Area or Western Tokyo.

3.2.1 |Cities

Twenty-six cities lie within the western part of Tokyo:

  • Akiruno
  • Akishima
  • Chōfu
  • Fuchū
  • Fussa
  • Hachiōji
  • Hamura
  • Higashikurume
  • Higashimurayama
  • Higashiyamato
  • Hino
  • Inagi
  • Kiyose
  • Kodaira
  • Koganei
  • Kokubunji
  • Komae
  • Kunitachi
  • Machida
  • Mitaka
  • Musashimurayama
  • Musashino
  • Nishitōkyō
  • Ōme
  • Tachikawa
  • Tama

The Tokyo Metropolitan Government has designated Hachiōji, Tachikawa, Machida, Ōme and Tama New Town as regional centers of the Tama area, as part of its plans to disperse urban functions away from central Tokyo.

3.2.2 | Nishi-Tama District

Tokyo_Nishitama_District_Area_Map.svg

Map of Nishi-Tama District in green

The far west is occupied by the district (gun) of Nishi-Tama. Much of this area is mountainous and unsuitable for urbanization. The highest mountain in Tokyo, Mount Kumotori, is 2,017 m (6,617 ft) high; other mountains in Tokyo include Takasu (1,737 m (5,699 ft)), Odake (1,266 m (4,154 ft)), and Mitake (929 m (3,048 ft)). Lake Okutama, on the Tama River near Yamanashi Prefecture, is Tokyo’s largest lake. The district is composed of three towns (Hinode, Mizuho and Okutama) and one village (Hinohara).

多摩ニュータウンの全景(2013年10月12日撮影) (1)

Tama

Takao-san_HachiojiUrbanDistrict

Hachioji

Musashino_in_the_afternoonMusashino

3.3 | Islands

Map_of_Izu_Islands

Map of the Izu Islands in black labels

Ogasawara_islands

Map of the Ogasawara Islands in black labels

Tokyo has numerous outlying islands, which extend as far as 1,850 km (1,150 mi) from central Tokyo. Because of the islands’ distance from the administrative headquarters of the metropolitan government in Shinjuku, local offices administer them.

The Izu Islands are a group of volcanic islands and form part of the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park. The islands in order from closest to Tokyo are Izu Ōshima, Toshima, Nii-jima, Shikine-jima, Kōzu-shima, Miyake-jima, Mikurajima, Hachijō-jima, and Aogashima. The Izu Islands are grouped into three subprefectures. Izu Ōshima and Hachijojima are towns. The remaining islands are six villages, with Niijima and Shikinejima forming one village.

The Ogasawara Islands include, from north to south, Chichi-jima, Nishinoshima, Haha-jima, Kita Iwo Jima, Iwo Jima, and Minami Iwo Jima. Ogasawara also administers two tiny outlying islands: Minami Torishima, the easternmost point in Japan and at 1,850 km (1,150 mi) the most distant island from central Tokyo, and Okinotorishima, the southernmost point in Japan. Japan’s claim on an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) surrounding Okinotorishima is contested by China and South Korea as they regard Okinotorishima as uninhabitable rocks which have no EEZ. The Iwo chain and the outlying islands have no permanent population, but host Japanese Self-Defense Forces personnel. Local populations are only found on Chichi-jima and Haha-jima. The islands form both Ogasawara Subprefecture and the village of Ogasawara, Tokyo.

Subprefecture

3.4 | National Parks


Ogasawara_Islands,_Tokyo,_Japan

Ogasawara National Park, a UNESCO World Natural Heritage site

As of March 31, 2008, 36% of the total land area of the prefecture was designated as Natural Parks (second only to Shiga Prefecture), namely the Chichibu Tama Kai, Fuji-Hakone-Izu, and Ogasawara National Parks (the last a UNESCO World Heritage Site); Meiji no Mori Takao Quasi-National Park; and Akikawa Kyūryō, Hamura Kusabana Kyūryō, Sayama, Takao Jinba, Takiyama, and Tama Kyūryō Prefectural Natural Parks.
A number of museums are located in Ueno Park: Tokyo National Museum, National Museum of Nature and Science, Shitamachi Museum and National Museum for Western Art, among others. There are also art works and statues at several places in the park. There is also a zoo in the park, and the park is a popular destination to view cherry blossoms.

3.5 | Seismicity

1280px-Temporarygatheringplace

A sign with instructions in case of an earthquake (Shibuya)

3.5.1 | Common Seismicity

Tokyo is near the boundary of three plates, making it an extremely active region for smaller quakes and slippage which frequently affect the urban area with swaying as if in a boat, ironically epicenters within mainland Tokyo (excluding Tokyo’s 2000 km long island jurisdiction) are quite rare. It’s not uncommon in the metro area to have hundreds of these such minor quakes (magnitudes 4-6) that can be felt in single year, something local residents merely brush off but can be a source of anxiety to not only to foreign visitors but Japanese from elsewhere as well. They rarely cause much damage (sometimes a few injuries) as they are either too small or far away as quakes tend to dance around the region, particularly active are offshore regions and to a lesser extent Chiba and Ibaraki.

3.5.2 |Infrequent powerful quakes

Tokyo has been hit by powerful megathrust earthquakes in 1703, 1782, 1812, 1855, 1923, and much more indirectly (some liquefaction in landfill zones) in 2011, the frequency of direct and large quakes is a relative rarity. The 1923 earthquake, with an estimated magnitude of 8.3, killed 142,000 people, the last time the urban area was directly hit. The 2011 quake focus was hundreds of km away and resulted in no direct deaths in the metro area.

3.6 | Climate

The former city of Tokyo and the majority of mainland Tokyo lie in the humid subtropical climate zone (Köppen climate classification Cfa), with warm humid summers and generally cool winters with cold spells. The region, like much of Japan, experiences a one-month seasonal lag, with the warmest month being August, which averages 26.4 °C (79.5 °F), and the coolest month being January, averaging 5.2 °C (41.4 °F). The record low temperature is −9.2 °C (15.4 °F) on January 13, 1876 while the record high is 39.5 °C (103.1 °F) on July 20, 2004. Annual rainfall averages nearly 1,530 millimetres (60.2 in), with a wetter summer and a drier winter. Snowfall is sporadic, but does occur almost annually. Tokyo also often sees typhoons every year, though few are strong. The last one to hit was Fitow in 2007,[dubious – discuss] while the most rainy month since records began in 1876 has been October 2004 with 780 millimetres (30 in) of rain, including 270.5 millimetres (10.6 in) on the ninth of that month.

Climate data for Kitanomaru Park

The western mountainous area of mainland Tokyo, Okutama also lies in the humid subtropical climate (Köppen classification Cfa).

Climate data for Ogouchi

Tokyo’s offshore territories’ climates vary significantly from the city. The climate of Chichi-jima in Ogasawara village is on the boundary between the tropical savanna climate (Köppen classification Aw) and the humid subtropical climate (Köppen classification Cfa). It is approximately 1,000 km south of the Greater Tokyo Area resulting in different climatic conditions.

Tokyo’s easternmost territory, the island of Minamitorishima (Marcus Island) in Ogasawara village, is in the tropical savanna climate zone (Köppen classification Aw). Tokyo’s Izu and Ogasawara islands are affected by an average of 5.4 typhoons a year, compared to 3.1 in mainland Kantō.

4 | Cityscape


Architecture in Tokyo has largely been shaped by Tokyo’s history. Twice in recent history has the metropolis been left in ruins: first in the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake and later after extensive firebombing in World War II. Because of this, Tokyo’s urban landscape consists mainly of modern and contemporary architecture, and older buildings are scarce. Tokyo features many internationally famous forms of modern architecture including Tokyo International Forum, Asahi Beer Hall, Mode Gakuen Cocoon Tower, NTT Docomo Yoyogi Building and Rainbow Bridge. Tokyo also features two distinctive towers: Tokyo Tower and the new Tokyo Skytree which is the tallest tower in Japan and the second tallest structure in the world after the Burj Khalifa in Dubai.

Tokyo also contains numerous parks and gardens. There are four national parks in Tokyo Prefecture, including the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, which includes all of the Izu Islands.

Tokyo_from_the_top_of_the_SkyTree_(cropped) (1)

Panoramic view of Tokyo from Tokyo Skytree

5 | Environment


Tokyo has enacted a measure to cut greenhouse gases. Governor Shintaro Ishihara created Japan’s first emissions cap system, aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emission by a total of 25% by 2020 from the 2000 level. Tokyo is an example of an urban heat island, and the phenomenon is especially serious in its special wards. According to the Tokyo Metropolitan Government, the annual mean temperature has increased by about 3 °C (5.4 °F) over the past 100 years. Tokyo has been cited as a “convincing example of the relationship between urban growth and climate.”

In 2006, Tokyo enacted the “10 Year Project for Green Tokyo” to be realised by 2016. It set a goal of increasing roadside trees in Tokyo to 1 million (from 480,000), and adding 1,000 ha of green space 88 of which will be a new park named “Umi no Mori” (sea forest) which will be on a reclaimed island in Tokyo Bay which used to be a landfill. From 2007 to 2010, 436 ha of the planned 1,000 ha of green space was created and 220,000 trees were planted bringing the total to 700,000. In 2014, road side trees in Tokyo have increased to 950,000 and a further 300 ha of green space has been added.

6 | Demographics


As of October 2012, the official intercensal estimate showed 13.506 million people in Tokyo with 9.214 million living within Tokyo’s 23 wards. During the daytime, the population swells by over 2.5 million as workers and students commute from adjacent areas. This effect is even more pronounced in the three central wards of Chiyoda, Chūō, and Minato, whose collective population as of the 2005 National Census was 326,000 at night, but 2.4 million during the day.

In 1889, the Ministry of Home Affairs recorded 1,375,937 people in Tokyo City and a total of 1,694,292 people in Tokyo-fu. In the same year, a total of 779 foreign nationals were recorded as residing in Tokyo. The most common nationality was British (209 residents), followed by United States nationals (182) and nationals of the Qing dynasty (137).

Tokyo_historical_population

Tokyo historical population since 1920

Growth_rate_map_of_municipalities_of_Tokyo_Metropolis,_Japan.svg

This chart is growth rate of municipalities of Tokyo

Registered foreign nationals

Population of Tokyo

Population of Tokyo

7 | Economy


Tokyo_Skytree_2014_Ⅲ

Tokyo Skytree, the tallest tower in the world

Tokyo_stock_exchange

Tokyo Stock Exchange

Ginza_Wako_Clock

Ginza is a popular upscale shopping area of Tokyo as one of the most luxurious[vague] shopping districts in the world.

Bank_of_Japan_headquarters_in_Tokyo,_Japan

Bank of Japan headquarters in Chuo, Tokyo

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Tokyo Tower at night

Shibuya_crossing

Shibuya attracts many tourists.

Tokyo has the largest metropolitan economy in the world. According to a study conducted by PricewaterhouseCoopers, the Tokyo urban area 38 million people had a total GDP of $2 trillion in 2012 (at purchasing power parity), which topped that list. 51 of the companies listed on the Fortune Global 500 are based in Tokyo, almost twice that of the second-placed city (Paris).

Tokyo is a major international finance center, houses the headquarters of several of the world’s largest investment banks and insurance companies, and serves as a hub for Japan’s transportation, publishing, electronics and broadcasting industries. During the centralised growth of Japan’s economy following World War II, many large firms moved their headquarters from cities such as Osaka (the historical commercial capital) to Tokyo, in an attempt to take advantage of better access to the government. This trend has begun to slow due to ongoing population growth in Tokyo and the high cost of living there.

Tokyo was rated by the Economist Intelligence Unit as the most expensive (highest cost-of-living) city in the world for 14 years in a row ending in 2006.

Tokyo emerged as a leading international financial center (IFC) in the 1960s and has been described as one of the three “command centers” for the world economy, along with New York City and London. In the 2017 Global Financial Centres Index, Tokyo was ranked as having the fifth most competitive financial center in the world (alongside cities such as London, New York City, San Francisco, Chicago, Sydney, Boston, and Toronto in the top 10), and third most competitive in Asia (after Singapore and Hong Kong). The Japanese financial market opened up slowly in 1984 and accelerated its internationalisation with the “Japanese Big Bang” in 1998. Despite the emergence of Singapore and Hong Kong as competing financial centers, the Tokyo IFC manages to keep a prominent position in Asia, for now. The Tokyo Stock Exchange is Japan’s largest stock exchange, and third largest in the world by market capitalization and fourth largest by share turnover. In 1990 at the end of the Japanese asset price bubble, it accounted for more than 60% of the world stock market value. Tokyo had 8,460 ha (20,900 acres) of agricultural land as of 2003, according to the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, placing it last among the nation’s prefectures. The farmland is concentrated in Western Tokyo. Perishables such as vegetables, fruits, and flowers can be conveniently shipped to the markets in the eastern part of the prefecture. Komatsuna and spinach are the most important vegetables; as of 2000, Tokyo supplied 32.5% of the komatsuna sold at its central produce market.

With 36% of its area covered by forest, Tokyo has extensive growths of cryptomeria and Japanese cypress, especially in the mountainous western communities of Akiruno, Ōme, Okutama, Hachiōji, Hinode, and Hinohara. Decreases in the price of timber, increases in the cost of production, and advancing old age among the forestry population have resulted in a decline in Tokyo’s output. In addition, pollen, especially from cryptomeria, is a major allergen for the nearby population centers. Tokyo Bay was once a major source of fish. Currently, most of Tokyo’s fish production comes from the outer islands, such as Izu Ōshima and Hachijōjima. Skipjack tuna, nori, and aji are among the ocean products.

Tourism in Tokyo is also a contributor to the economy. In 2006, 4.81 million foreigners and 420 million Japanese visits to Tokyo were made; the economic value of these visits totaled 9.4 trillion yen according to the government of Tokyo. Many tourists visit the various downtowns, stores, and entertainment districts throughout the neighbourhoods of the special wards of Tokyo; particularly school children on class trips, a visit to Tokyo Tower is de rigueur. Cultural offerings include both omnipresent Japanese pop culture and associated districts such as Shibuya and Harajuku, subcultural attractions such as Studio Ghibli anime center, as well as museums like the Tokyo National Museum, which houses 37% of the country’s artwork national treasures (87/233).

The Tsukiji Fish Market in central Tokyo is the biggest wholesale fish and seafood market in the world and also one of the largest wholesale food markets of any kind. The Tsukiji market holds strong to the traditions of its predecessor, the Nihombashi fish market, and serves some 50,000 buyers and sellers every day. Retailers, whole-sellers, auctioneers, and public citizens alike frequent the market, creating a unique microcosm of organized chaos that still continues to fuel the city and its food supply after over four centuries.

8 | Transportation


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Tokyo Station is the main intercity rail terminal in Tokyo.

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Haneda Airport

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Tokyo Metro and Toei Subway are two main subway operators in Tokyo.

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Hamazakibashi JCT in Shuto Expressway

Tokyo, as the center of the Greater Tokyo Area, is Japan’s largest domestic and international hub for rail, ground, and air transportation. Public transportation within Tokyo is dominated by an extensive network of clean and efficient trains and subways run by a variety of operators, with buses, monorails and trams playing a secondary feeder role. There are up to 62 electric train lines and more than 900 train stations in Tokyo.

Within Ōta, one of the 23 special wards, Haneda Airport offers domestic and international flights. Outside Tokyo, Narita International Airport, in Chiba Prefecture, is the major gateway for international travelers to Japan. Japan’s flag carrier Japan Airlines, as well as All Nippon Airways, Delta Air Lines, and United Airlines all have a hub at this airport.

Various islands governed by Tokyo have their own airports. Hachijō-jima (Hachijojima Airport), Miyakejima (Miyakejima Airport), and Izu Ōshima (Oshima Airport) have services to Tokyo International and other airports.

Rail is the primary mode of transportation in Tokyo, which has the most extensive urban railway network in the world and an equally extensive network of surface lines. JR East operates Tokyo’s largest railway network, including the Yamanote Line loop that circles the center of downtown Tokyo. Two different organisations operate the subway network: the private Tokyo Metro and the governmental Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation. The metropolitan government and private carriers operate bus routes and one tram route. Local, regional, and national services are available, with major terminals at the giant railroad stations, including Tokyo, Shinagawa, and Shinjuku.

Expressways link the capital to other points in the Greater Tokyo area, the Kantō region, and the islands of Kyushu and Shikoku. In order to build them quickly before the 1964 Summer Olympics, most were constructed above existing roads. Other transportation includes taxis operating in the special wards and the cities and towns. Also long-distance ferries serve the islands of Tokyo and carry passengers and cargo to domestic and foreign ports.

9 | Education


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Yasuda Auditorium at the University of Tokyo in Bunkyō

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Okuma Auditorium at Waseda University in Shinjuku

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Hibiya High School in Chiyoda

Tokyo has many universities, junior colleges, and vocational schools. Many of Japan’s most prestigious universities are in Tokyo, i

cluding University of Tokyo, Hitotsubashi University, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Waseda University, Tokyo University of Science, and Keio University.

Some of the biggest national universities in Tokyo are:

  • Hitotsubashi University
  • National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies
  • Ochanomizu University
  • Tokyo Gakugei University
  • Tokyo Institute of Technology
  • Tokyo Medical and Dental University
  • Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
  • Tokyo University of Foreign Studies
  • Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology
  • Tokyo University of the Arts
  • University of Electro-Communications
  • University of Tokyo

There is only one non-national public university:

  • Tokyo Metropolitan University.

There are also a few universities well known for classes conducted in English and for the teaching of the Japanese language. They include:

  • Globis University Graduate School of Management
  • International Christian University
  • Sophia University
  • Waseda University

Tokyo is also the headquarters of the

  • United Nations University.

List of Universities in Tokyo


National Universities

  • Aeronautical Safety College (administrated by Japan Ministry of Land)
  • Hitotsubashi University
  • National College of Nursing (administrated by Japan Ministry of Health)
  • National Fire Fighters’ Academy
  • National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies
  • National Police Academy
  • Ochanomizu University
  • Tokyo Gakugei University
  • Tokyo Institute of Technology
  • Tokyo Medical and Dental University
  • Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music
  • Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
  • Tokyo University of Foreign Studies
  • Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology
  • University of Electro-Communications
  • University of Tokyo
  • University of Tsukuba, branch campus in Tokyo

Public Universities

  • Advanced Institute of Industrial Technology
  • Tokyo Metropolitan University

Private Universities

  • Asia University
  • Atomi University
  • Bunka Gakuen University
  • Bunkyo Gakuin University
  • Chuo University
  • Daito Bunka University
  • Ferris University
  • Gakushuin University
  • Gakushuin Women’s University
  • Globis University Graduate School of Management
  • Graduate School of Film Producing
  • Hosei University
  • Hoshi University
  • International Christian University
  • Japan College of Social Work
  • Japan Lutheran College
  • Japan Professional School of Education
  • Japan Women’s University
  • Japan Women’s College of Physical Education
  • Jikei University School of Medicine
  • Jissen Women’s University
  • Josai International University in Kioi
  • Joshibi University of Art and Design
  • Juntendo University
  • Kaetsu University
  • Kagawa Nutrition University
  • Kanazawa Institute of Technology in Toranomon
  • Kawamura Gakuen Woman’s University
  • Keio University
  • Keisen University
  • Kitasato University
  • Kogakuin University
  • Kokugakuin University
  • Kokushikan University
  • Komazawa University
  • Komazawa Women’s University
  • Kunitachi College of Music
  • Kyorin University
  • Kyoritsu College of Pharmacy
  • Kyoritsu Women’s University
  • LCA Institute of Business
  • LEC Tokyo Legal Mind University
  • Local Autonomy College
  • Meiji Gakuin University
  • Meiji Pharmaceutical University
  • Meiji University
  • Meisei University
  • Mejiro University
  • Musashi Institute of Technology
  • Musashi University
  • Musashino Academia Musicae
  • Musashino Art University
  • Musashino University
  • Nihon Bunka University
  • Nihon University
  • Nippon Medical School
  • Nippon Sport Science University
  • Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University
  • Nishogakusha University
  • Obirin University
  • Otsuma Women’s University
  • Polytechnic University
  • Rikkyo University
  • Rissho University
  • Sanno University
  • Seibo College
  • Seijo University
  • Seikei University
  • Seisen University
  • Senshu University
  • Shibaura Institute of Technology
  • Shiraume University
  • Shirayuri College
  • Showa Pharmaceutical University
  • Showa University
  • Showa Women’s University
  • Soka University
  • Sophia University
  • St. Luke’s College of Nursing
  • Sugino Fashion College
  • Surugadai University in Ochanomizu
  • Takachiho University
  • Takarazuka University Of Art And Design in Shinjuku
  • Takushoku University
  • Taisho University
  • Tama University
  • Tama Art University
  • Tamagawa University
  • Teikyo University
  • Temple University Japan (Temple University)
  • The Nippon Dental University
  • The Japanese Red Cross College of Nursing
  • Toho University
  • Toho Gakuen School of Music
  • Tokai University
  • Tokyo College of Music
  • Tokyo Denki University
  • Tokyo Fuji University
  • Tokyo Future University
  • Tokyo Health Care University
  • Tokyo Jogakkan College
  • Tokyo Junshin University
  • Tokyo Kasei University
  • Tokyo Kasei-Gakuin University
  • Tokyo Keizai University
  • Tokyo Medical University
  • Tokyo Polytechnic University
  • Tokyo Seiei College
  • Tokyo Seitoku University
  • Tokyo Union Theological Seminary
  • Tokyo University of Agriculture
  • Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences
  • Tokyo University of Science
  • Tokyo University of Technology
  • Tokyo Woman’s Christian University
  • Tokyo Women’s College of Physical Education
  • Tokyo Women’s Medical University
  • Tokyo Zokei University
  • Toyo University
  • Toyo Eiwa University
  • Toyo Gakuen University
  • Tsuda College
  • Ueno Gakuen University
  • University of the Sacred Heart
  • Wako University
  • Waseda University

Junior Colleges

  • Aobagakuen Junior College
  • Aoyama Women’s Junior College
  • Asia University Junior College
  • Atomi Gakuen Women’s Junior College
  • Bunka Women’s Junior College
  • Bunkyo Gakuin Junior College
  • Gakushuin Women’s Junior College
  • Hosen Gakuen Junior College
  • Japan Agricultural Cooperatives Junior College
  • Jissen Women’s Junior College
  • Josai University Junior College
  • Joshibi Women’s university art and design Junior College
  • Kaetsu University Junior college Division
  • Kagawa Nutrition University Junior College Division
  • Kawamura College
  • Keio Junior College of Nursing
  • Kogyokusha College of Technology
  • Kogakuin University Junior College
  • Kokusai Junior College
  • Komazawa University Junior College
  • Komazawa Women’s Junior College
  • Kyorin Junior College
  • Kyoritsu Women’s Junior College
  • Mejiro University College
  • Nippon Sport Science University Junior College
  • Otsuma Women’s University Junior College Division
  • Obirin Junior College
  • Sanno University Junior College in Jiyu-Gaoka
  • Seibi Gakuen College
  • Shiraume Junor College
  • Shukutoku Junior College
  • Showa Women’s University Junior College
  • Soka Women’s College
  • St.Margaret’s Junior College
  • Sugino Fashion Junior College
  • Teikyo Junior College
  • The Nippon Dental University College at Tokyo
  • Toho Gakuen College of Drama and Music
  • Toho Junior College of Music
  • Toita Women’s Junior College
  • Tokai University Junior College
  • Tokyo Bunka Junior College
  • Tokyo College of Transport Studies
  • Tokyo Fuji University Junior College
  • Tokyo Kasei University Junior College
  • Tokyo Kasei-Gakuin Junior College
  • Tokyo Metropolitan College (Public)
  • Tokyo Rissho Junior College
  • Tokyo Seitoku College
  • Tokyo Tanaka College
  • Tokyo University of Agriculture Junior College
  • Tokyo Women’s Junior College of Physical Education
  • Toyoko Gakuen Women’s College
  • Tsurukawa Women’s Junior College
  • Ueno Gakuen Junior College
  • Yamano College of Aesthetics
  • Yamawaki Gakuen Junior College
  • Yamazaki College of Animal Health Technology

Publicly run kindergartens, elementary schools (years 1 through 6), and Primary schools (7 through 9) are operated by local wards or municipal offices. Public Secondary schools in Tokyo are run by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Board of Education and are called “Metropolitan High Schools”. Tokyo also has many private schools from kindergarten through high school:

  • Aoba-Japan International School
  • The British School in Tokyo
  • Jingumae International Exchange School
  • K. International School Tokyo
  • Tokyo International School
  • Canadian International School
  • Tokyo West International School
  • St. Mary’s International School
  • New International School

10 | Culture


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The National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation, also known as “Miraikan”

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Takeshita Street in Harajuku, the center of Japanese youth culture

Tokyo has many museums. In Ueno Park, there is the Tokyo National Museum, the country’s largest museum and specializing in traditional Japanese art; the National Museum of Western Art and Ueno Zoo. Other museums include the National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation in Odaiba; the Edo-Tokyo Museum in Sumida, across the Sumida River from the center of Tokyo; the Nezu Museum in Aoyama; and the National Diet Library, National Archives, and the National Museum of Modern Art, which are near the Imperial Palace.

Tokyo has many theatres for performing arts. These include national and private theatres for traditional forms of Japanese drama. Noteworthy are the National Noh Theatre for noh and the Kabuki-za for kabuki. Symphony orchestras and other musical organisations perform modern and traditional music. Tokyo also hosts modern Japanese and international pop and rock music at venues ranging in size from intimate clubs to internationally known arenas such as the Nippon Budokan.

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The Sanja Festival in Asakusa

Many different festivals occur throughout Tokyo. Major events include the Sannō at Hie Shrine, the Sanja at Asakusa Shrine, and the biennial Kanda Festivals. The last features a parade with elaborately decorated floats and thousands of people. Annually on the last Saturday of July, an enormous fireworks display over the Sumida River attracts over a million viewers. Once cherry blossoms bloom in spring, many residents gather in Ueno Park, Inokashira Park, and the Shinjuku Gyoen National Garden for picnics under the blossoms.

Harajuku, a neighbourhood in Shibuya, is known internationally for its youth style, fashion and cosplay.

Cuisine in Tokyo is internationally acclaimed. In November 2007, Michelin released their first guide for fine dining in Tokyo, awarding 191 stars in total, or about twice as many as Tokyo’s nearest competitor, Paris. Eight establishments were awarded the maximum of three stars (Paris has 10), 25 received two stars, and 117 earned one star. Of the eight top-rated restaurants, three offer traditional Japanese fine dining, two are sushi houses and three serve French cuisine.

11 | Sports


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Tokyo Dome, the home stadium for the Yomiuri Giants

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Ryōgoku Kokugikan sumo wrestling arena

Tokyo, with a diverse array of sports, is home to two professional baseball clubs, the Yomiuri Giants who play at the Tokyo Dome and Tokyo Yakult Swallows at Meiji-Jingu Stadium. The Japan Sumo Association is also headquartered in Tokyo at the Ryōgoku Kokugikan sumo arena where three official sumo tournaments are held annually (in January, May, and September). Football clubs in Tokyo include F.C. Tokyo and Tokyo Verdy 1969, both of which play at Ajinomoto Stadium in Chōfu, and FC Machida Zelvia at Nozuta Stadium in Machida. Basketball clubs include the Hitachi SunRockers, Toyota Alvark Tokyo and Tokyo Excellence.

Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, thus becoming the first Asian city to host the Summer Games. The National Stadium, also known as the Olympic Stadium, is host to a number of international sporting events. With a number of world-class sports venues, Tokyo often hosts national and international sporting events such as basketball tournaments, women’s volleyball tournaments, tennis tournaments, swim meets, marathons, rugby union and sevens rugby games, football, American football exhibition games, judo, and karate. Tokyo Metropolitan Gymnasium, in Sendagaya, Shibuya, is a large sports complex that includes swimming pools, training rooms, and a large indoor arena. According to Around the Rings, the gymnasium has played host to the October 2011 artistic gymnastics world championships, despite the International Gymnastics Federation’s initial doubt in Tokyo’s ability to host the championships following the March 11 tsunami. Tokyo was selected to host the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics on September 7, 2013.

12 | In Popular Culture


Akihabara_Night

Akihabara is the most popular area for fans of anime, manga and games.

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Fuji TV Headquarters

As the largest population center in Japan and the site of the country’s largest broadcasters and studios, Tokyo is frequently the setting for many Japanese movies, television shows, animated series (anime), web comics, and comic books (manga). In the kaiju (monster movie) genre, landmarks of Tokyo are routinely destroyed by giant monsters such as Godzilla and Gamera.

Some Hollywood directors have turned to Tokyo as a backdrop for movies set in Japan. Postwar examples include Tokyo Joe, My Geisha, Tokyo Story and the James Bond film You Only Live Twice; recent examples include Kill Bill, The Fast and the Furious: Tokyo Drift, Lost in Translation, Babel, and Inception.

Japanese author Haruki Murakami has based some of his novels in Tokyo (including Norwegian Wood (novel)), and David Mitchell (author)’s first two novels number9dream and Ghostwritten (novel) featured the city. Contemporary British painter Carl Randall spent 10 years living in Tokyo as an artist, creating a body of work depicting the cities crowded streets and public spaces.

13 | International Relations


Tokyo is the founder member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21 and is a member of the Council of Local Authorities for International Relations. Tokyo was also a founding member of the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group.

13.1 | Sister cities, sister states, and friendship agreements

As of 2016, Tokyo has twinning or friendship agreements with the following twelve cities and states:

Sister cities

  • United States New York City, United States (since February 1960)
  • China Beijing, China (since March 1979)
  • France Paris, France (“Friendship and cooperation agreement”, since July 1982)
  • Australia New South Wales, Australia (since May 1984)
  • South Korea Seoul, South Korea (since September 1988)
  • Indonesia Jakarta, Indonesia (since October 1989)
  • Brazil São Paulo State, Brazil (since June 1990)
  • Egypt Cairo, Egypt (since October 1990)
  • Russia Moscow, Russia (since July 1991)
  • Germany Berlin, Germany (since May 1994)
  • Italy Rome, Italy (“Friendship and cooperation agreement”, since July 1996)
  • United Kingdom London, United Kingdom (since October 2015)