Tokyo


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TOKYO 1-vertTokyo_in_Japan.svg

  • Country: Japan
  • Region: Kantō
  • Island: Honshu
  • Divisions: 23 special wards, 26 cities, 1 district, and 4 subprefectures
  • Government
    • Type Metropolis
    • Governor Yuriko Koike (Ind)
    • Capital Tokyo
  • Area
    • Metropolis 2,187.66 km2 (844.66 sq mi)
    • Metro 13,572 km2 (5,240 sq mi)
  • Area rank: 45th
  • Elevation: 40 m (130 ft)
  • Population (July 31, 2016)
    • Metropolis 13,617,445
    • Density 6,224.66/km2 (16,121.8/sq mi)
    • Metro 37,800,000
    • Metro density 2,662/km2 (6,890/sq mi)
    • 23 Wards 8,967,665
    (2015 per prefectural government)
  • Demonym(s) 江戸っ子 (Edokko), 東京人 (Tokyo-jin), 東京っ子 (Tokyokko), Tokyoite
    GDP(Kanto Region) (Nominal; 2014)
    • Total $2.5 trillion
    • Per capita $60,000
  • Time zone: Japan Standard Time (UTC+9)
  • ISO: 3166-2 JP-13
  • Flower: Somei-Yoshino cherry blossom
  • Tree: Ginkgo tree (Ginkgo biloba)
  • Bird: Black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus)

Tokyo (Japanese: [toːkʲoː] (About this sound listen), English: /ˈtoʊkioʊ/), officially Tokyo Metropolis, is the capital of Japan and one of its 47 prefectures. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world. It is the seat of the Emperor of Japan and the Japanese government. Tokyo is in the Kantō region on the southeastern side of the main island Honshu and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Formerly known as Edo, it has been the de facto seat of government since 1603 when Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters. It officially became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from the old capital of Kyoto in 1868; at that time Edo was renamed Tokyo. Tokyo Metropolis was formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture (東京府 Tōkyō-fu) and the city of Tokyo (東京市 Tōkyō-shi).

Tokyo is often referred to as a city, but is officially known and governed as a “metropolitan prefecture”, which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo. The Tokyo metropolitan government administers the 23 Special Wards of Tokyo (each governed as an individual city), which cover the area that was the City of Tokyo before it merged and became the metropolitan prefecture in 1943. The metropolitan government also administers 39 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture and the two outlying island chains. The population of the special wards is over 9 million people, with the total population of the prefecture exceeding 13 million. The prefecture is part of the world’s most populous metropolitan area with upwards of 37.8 million people and the world’s largest urban agglomeration economy. The city hosts 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world. Tokyo ranked third in the International Financial Centres Development IndexEdit. The city is also home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System.

Tokyo ranked first in the Global Economic Power Index and fourth in the Global Cities Index. The city is considered an alpha+ world city – as listed by the GaWC’s 2008 inventory – and in 2014, Tokyo was ranked first in the “Best overall experience” category of TripAdvisor’s World City Survey (the city also ranked first in the following categories: “helpfulness of locals”, “nightlife”, “shopping”, “local public transportation” and “cleanliness of streets”). In 2015, Tokyo was ranked as the 11th most expensive city for expatriates, according to the Mercer consulting firm, and also the world’s 11th most expensive city, according to the Economist Intelligence Unit’s cost-of-living survey. In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo was ranked first out of all fifty cities in the 2015 Safe Cities Index. The 2016 edition of QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, and the 1993 G-7 summit, and will host the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics.

Contents

1 | Etymology
2  |History

2.1 | Pre-1869 (Edo Period)
2.2 | 1869–1943
2.3 | 1943–present

3 | Geography

3.1 | Special Wards
3.2 | Tama Area (Western Tokyo)
3.2.1 | Cities
3.2.2 | Nishi-Tama District
3.3 | Islands
3.4 | National parks
3.5 | Seismicity
3.5.1 | Common Seismicity
3.5.2 | Infrequent Powerful Quakes
3.6 | Climate

4 | Cityscape
5 | Environment
6 | Demographics
7 | Economy
8 | Transportation
9 | Education
10 | Culture
11 | Sports
12 | In popular Culture
13 | International Relations
13.1 | Sister Cities, Sister States, and Friendship Agreements


1 | Etymology

Tokyo was originally known as Edo (江戸), which means “estuary”. Its name was changed to Tokyo (東京 Tōkyō, 東 tō “east”, and 京 kyō “capital”) when it became the imperial capital with the arrival of Emperor Meiji in 1868, in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital (京) in the name of the capital city (like Kyoto-京都, Peking-北京 and Nanking-南京) . During the early Meiji period, the city was also called “Tōkei”, an alternative pronunciation for the same Chinese characters representing “Tokyo”, making it a kanji homograph. Some surviving official English documents use the spelling “Tokei”. However, this pronunciation is now obsolete.
The name Tokyo was first suggested in 1813 in the book Kondō Hisaku (ja) (Secret Plan of Commingling), written by Satō Nobuhiro. When Ōkubo Toshimichi proposed the renaming to the government during the Meiji Restoration, according to Oda Kanshi (織田完之),[vague] he got the idea from that book.

Japanese name

2 | History


Timeline of Tokyo

Prior to 19th Century


  • 1457 – Edo Castle built.
  • 1617 – Yoshiwara (prostitution district) begins operating.
  • 1634 – Sankin-kōtai policy established.
  • 1657 – March 2: Great Fire of Meireki occurs.
  • 1682 – 1682 Edo fire (ja).
  • 1698 – 1698 Edo fire (ja).
  • 1707 – December: Eruption of Mount Fuji; ash falls on Edo.
  • 1721 – “First population census conducted (Edo’s population about 1.3 million).”

19th Century


  • 1853
    • July 8: American Perry Expedition arrives in Edo Bay.
    • Odaiba island forts built in Edo Bay.
    • Hanayashiki garden opens.
  • 1855 – November 11: 1855 Edo earthquake occurs.
  • 1856 – Hiroshige’s One Hundred Famous Views of Edo published.
  • 1868 – Edo renamed “Tokyo.”
  • 1869
    • Japanese imperial capital relocated to Tokyo from Kyoto.
    • Tokyo Shôkonsha (shrine) established.
    • Yokohama-Tokyo telegraph begins operating.
  • 1871 – Esaki Reiji photo studio in business.
  • 1872
    • October: Yokohama-Tokyo railroad begins operating.
    • Tokyo Nichi Nichi Shimbun (newspaper) begins publication.
    • “Ordinances aimed at the civilizing of the populace are enacted in Tokyo.”
    • Imperial Library headquartered in Tokyo.
  • 1873 – Dai-Ichi Kokuritsu Bank established.
  • 1874 – Aoyama Gakuin school and Saint Paul’s school established.
  • 1877
    • University of Tokyo[7] and Fifteen Bank (ja) established.
    • National Industrial Exhibition (ja) held.
  • 1880 – Mitsubishi Bank and Yasuda Bank established.
  • 1881
    • Tokyo Imperial Museum built.
    • Tokyo Vocational School founded.
  • 1882
    • Bank of Japan headquartered in city.
    • Ueno Zoo opens.
  • 1884 – Railway Yamanote Line begins operating.
  • 1886 – “First fixed advertising billboard in Tokyo” installed.
  • 1887 – Tokyo School of Art (ja) founded.
  • 1888
    • Tokyo Asahi Shimbun (newspaper) begins publication.
    • Tokyo Observatory (ja) established.
  • 1889
    • “Tokyo City and 15 wards established.”
    • Kabuki-za (theatre) opens.
  • 1890
    • Telephone begins operating.
    • Population: 1,155,290.
  • 1894 – Tokyo-fu Government Building constructed in Marunouchi.
  • 1897 – March: Motion picture first shown.[

20th Century


1900s-1940s

  • 1901 – Tokyo Photography Circle (club) formed.
  • 1902 – Industrial Bank of Japan headquartered in city.
  • 1903
    • Electric tram begins operating.
    • Electric Hall (cinema) opens.
  • 1905 – September 5: Hibiya Incendiary Incident occurs.
  • 1906 – Harajuku Station opens.
  • 1907 – Tokyo Industrial Exhibition held.
  • 1910 – Luna Park opens.
  • 1911 – Imperial Theatre opens.
  • 1914
    • December: Central Station opens.
    • Taisho Exposition held.
  • 1916 – Tokyo Photographers Guild established.
  • 1917 – Asakusa Opera (ja) active.
  • 1918
    • Rice riot occurs.
    • Neon light installed in Ginza.
  • 1920
    • Meiji Shrine built.
    • Population: 3,699,428.
  • 1921 – November 4: Japanese prime minister Takashi Hara assassinated.
  • 1923 – September 1: 1923 Great Kantō earthquake occurs.
  • 1925 – Tokyo Broadcasting Station (ja) begins operating.
  • 1926
    • “Public apartment housing” built.
    • NHK Symphony Orchestra and Tokyo Metropolitan Art Museum established.
  • 1927 – Tokyo Underground Railway begins operating between Asakusa and Ueno.
  • 1928 – Daiba Park (ja) opens in Tokyo Bay.
  • 1929 – Tokyo March song/film become popular.
  • 1930 – Population: 4,986,913.
  • 1931 – Haneda Airport begins operating.
  • 1933 – Dai-Ichi Seimei Building constructed.
  • 1934
    • Yomiuri Giants baseball team formed.
    • Hibiya Theatre (ja) opens.
  • 1936
    • Konishiroku Honten in business.
    • Japanese Folk Crafts Museum founded.
  • 1937 – Korakuen Stadium opens.
  • 1938 – Rikugi-en (park) opens.
  • 1940 – Population: 6,778,804.
  • 1941 – Port of Tokyo opens.
  • 1942 – April: Bombing of Tokyo by US forces begins.
  • 1943 – “Metropolitan administration system established.”
  • 1945
    • August: Bombing of Tokyo by US forces ends.
    • Japan Savings Bank (ja) established.
    • Population: 3,488,284.
  • 1946 – Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal begins.
  • 1947
    • Seiichirō Yasui (fr; ja) elected governor.
    • 23 Special wards of Tokyo created.
  • 1948 – National Diet Library headquartered in Tokyo.

1950s-1990s

  • 1950 – Population: 6,277,500.
  • 1955
  • Tokyo International Trade Fair begins.
  • Population: 6,966,499.
  • 1958
  • Japanese National Stadium opens.
  • May: 1958 Asian Games held in Tokyo.
  • 1961
    • Suntory Art Museum (ja) opens.
    • Higashi-Ikebukuro Taishôken ramen shop in business.
  • 1964
    • Tōkaidō Shinkansen (hi-speed train) begins operating;
    • October: 1964 Summer Olympics held in Tokyo.
    • Tokyo 12 Channel TV begins broadcasting.
    • Hotel New Otani Tokyo built.
  • 1967 – Yoyogi Park created.
  • 1968
    • Kasumigaseki Building (hi-rise) built.
    • Ramen Jiro (ja) eatery in business.
  • 1969 – “Tokyo Metropolitan Pollution Control Ordinance (ja) enacted.”
  • 1971 – Keio Plaza Hotel (hi-rise) built.
  • 1972 – Nakagin Capsule Tower built.
  • 1973 – Tokyo Metropolitan Library opens.
  • 1975
    • Ward mayoral election held.
    • Population: 8,640,000 city; 11,622,651 urban agglomeration.
  • 1979 – June: 5th G7 summit held in city.
  • 1988
    • Tokyo Dome (stadium) opens.
    • Yumenoshima Tropical Greenhouse Dome established.
  • 1989 – Bunkamura cultural venue opens.
  • 1991 – Metropolitan government relocates to new building in Shinjuku.
  • 1993
    • Rainbow Bridge opens.
    • DN Tower 21 built.
  • 1995 – March 20: Tokyo subway sarin attack.
  • 1996 – Tokyo Big Sight convention centre opens.
  • 2000 – Population: 8,130,408.

21st Century


  • 2001 – October: Asian Network of Major Cities 21 meets in Tokyo.
  • 2002 – Tokyo International Anime Fair begins.
  • 2004 – ShinGinkō Tokyo (ja) bank established.
  • 2005 – Tokyo Metropolitan University established.
  • 2007
  • Tokyo Marathon begins.
  • Midtown Tower built.
  • Shinjuku Wald 9 cinema in business.
  • 2008 – C40 environmental group meets in Tokyo.
  • 2011 – 2011 Tōhoku earthquake occurs.
  • 2012
  • Tokyo Gate Bridge opens.
  • Tokyo Skytree tower built.
  • 2013 – September: Tokyo chosen as site of the future 2020 Summer Olympics.
  • 2014
  • Toranomon Hills (hi-rise) built.
  • Yoichi Masuzoe elected governor.
  • 2016 – Yuriko Koike elected governor.

2.1 | Pre-1869 (Edo Period)

1024px-Commodore_Perry_expedition_LOC_LC-USZ62-3319

A painting depicting the Commodore Matthew Perry expedition and his first arrival to Japan in 1853

Tokyo was originally a small fishing village named Edo, in what was formerly part of the old Musashi Province. Edo was first fortified by the Edo clan, in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu made Edo his base. When he became shogun in 1603, the town became the center of his nationwide military government. During the subsequent Edo period, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century. Edo became the de facto capital of Japan even while the emperor lived in Kyoto, the imperial capital. During this time, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa, and in the presence of such peace, Edo adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city. The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires, earthquakes, and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city. However, this prolonged period of seclusion came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore, Matthew C. Perry in 1853. Commodore Perry negotiated the opening of the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation. Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations, especially in the form of the “smashing” of rice establishments. Meanwhile, supporters of the Meiji Emperor leveraged the disruption that these widespread rebellious demonstrations were causing to further consolidate power by overthrowing the last Tokugawa shogun, Yoshinobu, in 1867. After about 263 years, the Pax Tokugawa came to an end.

2.2 | 1869–1943

Ginza_in_1933

Ginza area in 1933

In 1869, the 17-year-old Emperor Meiji moved to Edo, and in accordance the city was renamed Tokyo (meaning Eastern Capital). The city was divided into Yamanote and Shitamachi. Tokyo was already the nation’s political and cultural center, and the emperor’s residence made it a de facto imperial capital as well, with the former Edo Castle becoming the Imperial Palace. The city of Tokyo was officially established on May 1, 1889.

Central Tokyo, like Osaka, has been designed since about 1900 to be centered on major railway stations in a high-density fashion, so suburban railways were built relatively cheaply at street level and with their own right-of-way. This differs from many cities in the United States that are low-density and automobile-centric. Though expressways have been built in Tokyo, the basic design has not changed.

Tokyo went on to suffer two major catastrophes in the 20th century: the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake, which left 140,000 dead or missing; and World War II.

2.3 | 1943–present

1101px-Firebombing_of_Tokyo

Tokyo burning in 1945

In 1943, the city of Tokyo merged with the “Metropolitan Prefecture” of Tokyo. Since then, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government served as both the prefecture government for Tokyo, as well as administering the special wards of Tokyo, for what had previously been Tokyo City. World War II wrought widespread destruction of most of the city due to the persistent Allied air raids on Japan and the use of incendiary bombs. The bombing of Tokyo in 1944 and 1945 is estimated to have killed between 75,000 and 200,000 civilians and left more than half of the city destroyed. The deadliest night of the war came on March 9–10, 1945, as nearly 700,000 incendiary bombs rained on the eastern half of the city, mainly in heavily residential wards. Two-fifths of the city were completely burned, more than 276,000 buildings were demolished, 100,000 civilians were killed, and 110,000 more were injured. Between 1940 and 1945, the population of Japan’s capital city dwindled from 6,700,000 to less than 2,800,000, with the majority of those who lost their homes living in “ramshackle, makeshift huts”.

Tokyo_Tower_and_around_Skyscrapers

The Tokyo Tower, built in 1958

2011_Japan_Earthquake_Tokyo_Tower

2011 Tōhoku earthquake did slight damage to the antenna of Tokyo Tower.

After the war, Tokyo was completely rebuilt, and was showcased to the world during the 1964 Summer Olympics. The 1970s brought new high-rise developments such as Sunshine 60, a new and controversial airport at Narita in 1978 (some distance outside city limits), and a population increase to about 11 million (in the metropolitan area).
Tokyo’s subway and commuter rail network became one of the busiest in the world as more and more people moved to the area. In the 1980s, real estate prices skyrocketed during a real estate and debt bubble. The bubble burst in the early 1990s, and many companies, banks, and individuals were caught with mortgage backed debts while real estate was shrinking in value. A major recession followed, making the 1990s Japan’s “Lost Decade” from which it is now slowly recovering.

Tokyo still sees new urban developments on large lots of less profitable land. Recent projects include Ebisu Garden Place, Tennozu Isle, Shiodome, Roppongi Hills, Shinagawa (now also a Shinkansen station), and the Marunouchi side of Tokyo Station. Buildings of significance are demolished for more up-to-date shopping facilities such as Omotesando Hills.

Land reclamation projects in Tokyo have also been going on for centuries. The most prominent is the Odaiba area, now a major shopping and entertainment center. Various plans have been proposed for transferring national government functions from Tokyo to secondary capitals in other regions of Japan, in order to slow down rapid development in Tokyo and revitalize economically lagging areas of the country. These plans have been controversial within Japan and have yet to be realized.

The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami that devastated much of the northeastern coast of Honshu was felt in Tokyo. However, due to Tokyo’s earthquake-resistant infrastructure, damage in Tokyo was very minor compared to areas directly hit by the tsunami, although activity in the city was largely halted. The subsequent nuclear crisis caused by the tsunami has also largely left Tokyo unaffected, despite occasional spikes in radiation levels.

On September 7, 2013, the IOC selected Tokyo to host the 2020 Summer Olympics. Tokyo will be the first Asian city to host the Olympic Games twice.

3 | Geography


Tokyo_Landsat

Satellite photo of Tokyo’s 23 Special wards taken by NASA’s Landsat 7

1280px-TokyoMetropolitanGovernmentOffice

Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building

The mainland portion of Tokyo lies northwest of Tokyo Bay and measures about 90 km (56 mi) east to west and 25 km (16 mi) north to south. The average elevation in Tokyo is 40 m (131 ft). Chiba Prefecture borders it to the east, Yamanashi to the west, Kanagawa to the south, and Saitama to the north. Mainland Tokyo is further subdivided into the special wards (occupying the eastern half) and the Tama area (多摩地域) stretching westwards.

Also within the administrative boundaries of Tokyo Metropolis are two island chains in the Pacific Ocean directly south: the Izu Islands, and the Ogasawara Islands, which stretch more than 1,000 km (620 mi) away from the mainland. Because of these islands and the mountainous regions to the west, Tokyo’s overall population density figures far underrepresent the real figures for the urban and suburban regions of Tokyo.

Under Japanese law, Tokyo is designated as a to (都), translated as metropolis. Its administrative structure is similar to that of Japan’s other prefectures. The 23 special wards (特別区 -ku), which until 1943 constituted the city of Tokyo, are now separate, self-governing municipalities, each having a mayor, a council, and the status of a city.
In addition to these 23 special wards, Tokyo also includes 26 more cities (市 -shi), five towns (町 -chō or machi), and eight villages (村 -son or -mura), each of which has a local government. The Tokyo Metropolitan Government, which administers the whole metropolis, is headed by a publicly elected governor and metropolitan assembly. Its headquarters are located in Shinjuku Ward.

700px-Tokyo_Metropolis_Map.svg

3.1 | Special Wards

Tokyo_special_wards_map.svg

A map of Tokyo’s 23 special wards

The special wards (特別区 tokubetsu-ku) of Tokyo comprise the area formerly incorporated as Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, Tokyo City was merged with Tokyo Prefecture (東京府 Tōkyō-fu) forming the current “metropolitan prefecture”. As a result, unlike other city wards in Japan, these wards are not conterminous with a larger incorporated city.

While falling under the jurisdiction of Tokyo Metropolitan Government, each ward is also a borough with its own elected leader and council, like other cities of Japan. The special wards use the word “city” in their official English name (e.g. Chiyoda City).
The wards differ from other cities in having a unique administrative relationship with the prefectural government. Certain municipal functions, such as waterworks, sewerage, and fire-fighting, are handled by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. To pay for the added administrative costs, the prefecture collects municipal taxes, which would usually be levied by the city.

The special wards of Tokyo are:

  • Adachi
  • Arakawa
  • Bunkyo
  • Chiyoda
  • Chūō
  • Edogawa
  • Itabashi
  • Katsushika
  • Kita
  • Kōtō
  • Meguro
  • Minato
  • Nakano
  • Nerima
  • Ōta
  • Setagaya
  • Shibuya
  • Shinagawa
  • Shinjuku
  • Suginami
  • Sumida
  • Taitō
  • Toshima

The “three central wards” of Tokyo – Chiyoda, Chūō and Minato – are the business core of the city, with a daytime population more than seven times higher than their nighttime population. Chiyoda Ward is unique in that it is in the very heart of the former Tokyo City, yet is one of the least populated wards. It is occupied by many major Japanese companies, and is also the seat of the national government, and the Japanese emperor. It is often called the “political center” of the country. Akihabara, known for being an otaku cultural center and a shopping district for computer goods, is also located in Chiyoda.

3.2 | Tama Area (Western Tokyo)

Western_Tokyo_map.svg

A map of cities in western part of Tokyo. They border on the three westernmost special wards in the map above

To the west of the special wards, Tokyo Metropolis consists of cities, towns and villages that enjoy the same legal status as those elsewhere in Japan.

While serving as “bed towns” for those working in central Tokyo, some of them also have a local commercial and industrial base. Collectively, these are often known as the Tama Area or Western Tokyo.

3.2.1 |Cities

Twenty-six cities lie within the western part of Tokyo:

  • Akiruno
  • Akishima
  • Chōfu
  • Fuchū
  • Fussa
  • Hachiōji
  • Hamura
  • Higashikurume
  • Higashimurayama
  • Higashiyamato
  • Hino
  • Inagi
  • Kiyose
  • Kodaira
  • Koganei
  • Kokubunji
  • Komae
  • Kunitachi
  • Machida
  • Mitaka
  • Musashimurayama
  • Musashino
  • Nishitōkyō
  • Ōme
  • Tachikawa
  • Tama

The Tokyo Metropolitan Government has designated Hachiōji, Tachikawa, Machida, Ōme and Tama New Town as regional centers of the Tama area, as part of its plans to disperse urban functions away from central Tokyo.

3.2.2 | Nishi-Tama District

Tokyo_Nishitama_District_Area_Map.svg

Map of Nishi-Tama District in green

The far west is occupied by the district (gun) of Nishi-Tama. Much of this area is mountainous and unsuitable for urbanization. The highest mountain in Tokyo, Mount Kumotori, is 2,017 m (6,617 ft) high; other mountains in Tokyo include Takasu (1,737 m (5,699 ft)), Odake (1,266 m (4,154 ft)), and Mitake (929 m (3,048 ft)). Lake Okutama, on the Tama River near Yamanashi Prefecture, is Tokyo’s largest lake. The district is composed of three towns (Hinode, Mizuho and Okutama) and one village (Hinohara).

多摩ニュータウンの全景(2013年10月12日撮影) (1)

Tama

Takao-san_HachiojiUrbanDistrict

Hachioji

Musashino_in_the_afternoonMusashino

3.3 | Islands

Map_of_Izu_Islands

Map of the Izu Islands in black labels

Ogasawara_islands

Map of the Ogasawara Islands in black labels

Tokyo has numerous outlying islands, which extend as far as 1,850 km (1,150 mi) from central Tokyo. Because of the islands’ distance from the administrative headquarters of the metropolitan government in Shinjuku, local offices administer them.

The Izu Islands are a group of volcanic islands and form part of the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park. The islands in order from closest to Tokyo are Izu Ōshima, Toshima, Nii-jima, Shikine-jima, Kōzu-shima, Miyake-jima, Mikurajima, Hachijō-jima, and Aogashima. The Izu Islands are grouped into three subprefectures. Izu Ōshima and Hachijojima are towns. The remaining islands are six villages, with Niijima and Shikinejima forming one village.

The Ogasawara Islands include, from north to south, Chichi-jima, Nishinoshima, Haha-jima, Kita Iwo Jima, Iwo Jima, and Minami Iwo Jima. Ogasawara also administers two tiny outlying islands: Minami Torishima, the easternmost point in Japan and at 1,850 km (1,150 mi) the most distant island from central Tokyo, and Okinotorishima, the southernmost point in Japan. Japan’s claim on an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) surrounding Okinotorishima is contested by China and South Korea as they regard Okinotorishima as uninhabitable rocks which have no EEZ. The Iwo chain and the outlying islands have no permanent population, but host Japanese Self-Defense Forces personnel. Local populations are only found on Chichi-jima and Haha-jima. The islands form both Ogasawara Subprefecture and the village of Ogasawara, Tokyo.

Subprefecture

3.4 | National Parks


Ogasawara_Islands,_Tokyo,_Japan

Ogasawara National Park, a UNESCO World Natural Heritage site

As of March 31, 2008, 36% of the total land area of the prefecture was designated as Natural Parks (second only to Shiga Prefecture), namely the Chichibu Tama Kai, Fuji-Hakone-Izu, and Ogasawara National Parks (the last a UNESCO World Heritage Site); Meiji no Mori Takao Quasi-National Park; and Akikawa Kyūryō, Hamura Kusabana Kyūryō, Sayama, Takao Jinba, Takiyama, and Tama Kyūryō Prefectural Natural Parks.
A number of museums are located in Ueno Park: Tokyo National Museum, National Museum of Nature and Science, Shitamachi Museum and National Museum for Western Art, among others. There are also art works and statues at several places in the park. There is also a zoo in the park, and the park is a popular destination to view cherry blossoms.

3.5 | Seismicity

1280px-Temporarygatheringplace

A sign with instructions in case of an earthquake (Shibuya)

3.5.1 | Common Seismicity

Tokyo is near the boundary of three plates, making it an extremely active region for smaller quakes and slippage which frequently affect the urban area with swaying as if in a boat, ironically epicenters within mainland Tokyo (excluding Tokyo’s 2000 km long island jurisdiction) are quite rare. It’s not uncommon in the metro area to have hundreds of these such minor quakes (magnitudes 4-6) that can be felt in single year, something local residents merely brush off but can be a source of anxiety to not only to foreign visitors but Japanese from elsewhere as well. They rarely cause much damage (sometimes a few injuries) as they are either too small or far away as quakes tend to dance around the region, particularly active are offshore regions and to a lesser extent Chiba and Ibaraki.

3.5.2 |Infrequent powerful quakes

Tokyo has been hit by powerful megathrust earthquakes in 1703, 1782, 1812, 1855, 1923, and much more indirectly (some liquefaction in landfill zones) in 2011, the frequency of direct and large quakes is a relative rarity. The 1923 earthquake, with an estimated magnitude of 8.3, killed 142,000 people, the last time the urban area was directly hit. The 2011 quake focus was hundreds of km away and resulted in no direct deaths in the metro area.

3.6 | Climate

The former city of Tokyo and the majority of mainland Tokyo lie in the humid subtropical climate zone (Köppen climate classification Cfa), with warm humid summers and generally cool winters with cold spells. The region, like much of Japan, experiences a one-month seasonal lag, with the warmest month being August, which averages 26.4 °C (79.5 °F), and the coolest month being January, averaging 5.2 °C (41.4 °F). The record low temperature is −9.2 °C (15.4 °F) on January 13, 1876 while the record high is 39.5 °C (103.1 °F) on July 20, 2004. Annual rainfall averages nearly 1,530 millimetres (60.2 in), with a wetter summer and a drier winter. Snowfall is sporadic, but does occur almost annually. Tokyo also often sees typhoons every year, though few are strong. The last one to hit was Fitow in 2007,[dubious – discuss] while the most rainy month since records began in 1876 has been October 2004 with 780 millimetres (30 in) of rain, including 270.5 millimetres (10.6 in) on the ninth of that month.

Climate data for Kitanomaru Park

The western mountainous area of mainland Tokyo, Okutama also lies in the humid subtropical climate (Köppen classification Cfa).

Climate data for Ogouchi

Tokyo’s offshore territories’ climates vary significantly from the city. The climate of Chichi-jima in Ogasawara village is on the boundary between the tropical savanna climate (Köppen classification Aw) and the humid subtropical climate (Köppen classification Cfa). It is approximately 1,000 km south of the Greater Tokyo Area resulting in different climatic conditions.

Tokyo’s easternmost territory, the island of Minamitorishima (Marcus Island) in Ogasawara village, is in the tropical savanna climate zone (Köppen classification Aw). Tokyo’s Izu and Ogasawara islands are affected by an average of 5.4 typhoons a year, compared to 3.1 in mainland Kantō.

4 | Cityscape


Architecture in Tokyo has largely been shaped by Tokyo’s history. Twice in recent history has the metropolis been left in ruins: first in the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake and later after extensive firebombing in World War II. Because of this, Tokyo’s urban landscape consists mainly of modern and contemporary architecture, and older buildings are scarce. Tokyo features many internationally famous forms of modern architecture including Tokyo International Forum, Asahi Beer Hall, Mode Gakuen Cocoon Tower, NTT Docomo Yoyogi Building and Rainbow Bridge. Tokyo also features two distinctive towers: Tokyo Tower and the new Tokyo Skytree which is the tallest tower in Japan and the second tallest structure in the world after the Burj Khalifa in Dubai.

Tokyo also contains numerous parks and gardens. There are four national parks in Tokyo Prefecture, including the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, which includes all of the Izu Islands.

Tokyo_from_the_top_of_the_SkyTree_(cropped) (1)

Panoramic view of Tokyo from Tokyo Skytree

5 | Environment


Tokyo has enacted a measure to cut greenhouse gases. Governor Shintaro Ishihara created Japan’s first emissions cap system, aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emission by a total of 25% by 2020 from the 2000 level. Tokyo is an example of an urban heat island, and the phenomenon is especially serious in its special wards. According to the Tokyo Metropolitan Government, the annual mean temperature has increased by about 3 °C (5.4 °F) over the past 100 years. Tokyo has been cited as a “convincing example of the relationship between urban growth and climate.”

In 2006, Tokyo enacted the “10 Year Project for Green Tokyo” to be realised by 2016. It set a goal of increasing roadside trees in Tokyo to 1 million (from 480,000), and adding 1,000 ha of green space 88 of which will be a new park named “Umi no Mori” (sea forest) which will be on a reclaimed island in Tokyo Bay which used to be a landfill. From 2007 to 2010, 436 ha of the planned 1,000 ha of green space was created and 220,000 trees were planted bringing the total to 700,000. In 2014, road side trees in Tokyo have increased to 950,000 and a further 300 ha of green space has been added.

6 | Demographics


As of October 2012, the official intercensal estimate showed 13.506 million people in Tokyo with 9.214 million living within Tokyo’s 23 wards. During the daytime, the population swells by over 2.5 million as workers and students commute from adjacent areas. This effect is even more pronounced in the three central wards of Chiyoda, Chūō, and Minato, whose collective population as of the 2005 National Census was 326,000 at night, but 2.4 million during the day.

In 1889, the Ministry of Home Affairs recorded 1,375,937 people in Tokyo City and a total of 1,694,292 people in Tokyo-fu. In the same year, a total of 779 foreign nationals were recorded as residing in Tokyo. The most common nationality was British (209 residents), followed by United States nationals (182) and nationals of the Qing dynasty (137).

Tokyo_historical_population

Tokyo historical population since 1920

Growth_rate_map_of_municipalities_of_Tokyo_Metropolis,_Japan.svg

This chart is growth rate of municipalities of Tokyo

Registered foreign nationals

Population of Tokyo

Population of Tokyo

7 | Economy


Tokyo_Skytree_2014_Ⅲ

Tokyo Skytree, the tallest tower in the world

Tokyo_stock_exchange

Tokyo Stock Exchange

Ginza_Wako_Clock

Ginza is a popular upscale shopping area of Tokyo as one of the most luxurious[vague] shopping districts in the world.

Bank_of_Japan_headquarters_in_Tokyo,_Japan

Bank of Japan headquarters in Chuo, Tokyo

Tokyo_Tower_at_night_8

Tokyo Tower at night

Shibuya_crossing

Shibuya attracts many tourists.

Tokyo has the largest metropolitan economy in the world. According to a study conducted by PricewaterhouseCoopers, the Tokyo urban area 38 million people had a total GDP of $2 trillion in 2012 (at purchasing power parity), which topped that list. 51 of the companies listed on the Fortune Global 500 are based in Tokyo, almost twice that of the second-placed city (Paris).

Tokyo is a major international finance center, houses the headquarters of several of the world’s largest investment banks and insurance companies, and serves as a hub for Japan’s transportation, publishing, electronics and broadcasting industries. During the centralised growth of Japan’s economy following World War II, many large firms moved their headquarters from cities such as Osaka (the historical commercial capital) to Tokyo, in an attempt to take advantage of better access to the government. This trend has begun to slow due to ongoing population growth in Tokyo and the high cost of living there.

Tokyo was rated by the Economist Intelligence Unit as the most expensive (highest cost-of-living) city in the world for 14 years in a row ending in 2006.

Tokyo emerged as a leading international financial center (IFC) in the 1960s and has been described as one of the three “command centers” for the world economy, along with New York City and London. In the 2017 Global Financial Centres Index, Tokyo was ranked as having the fifth most competitive financial center in the world (alongside cities such as London, New York City, San Francisco, Chicago, Sydney, Boston, and Toronto in the top 10), and third most competitive in Asia (after Singapore and Hong Kong). The Japanese financial market opened up slowly in 1984 and accelerated its internationalisation with the “Japanese Big Bang” in 1998. Despite the emergence of Singapore and Hong Kong as competing financial centers, the Tokyo IFC manages to keep a prominent position in Asia, for now. The Tokyo Stock Exchange is Japan’s largest stock exchange, and third largest in the world by market capitalization and fourth largest by share turnover. In 1990 at the end of the Japanese asset price bubble, it accounted for more than 60% of the world stock market value. Tokyo had 8,460 ha (20,900 acres) of agricultural land as of 2003, according to the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, placing it last among the nation’s prefectures. The farmland is concentrated in Western Tokyo. Perishables such as vegetables, fruits, and flowers can be conveniently shipped to the markets in the eastern part of the prefecture. Komatsuna and spinach are the most important vegetables; as of 2000, Tokyo supplied 32.5% of the komatsuna sold at its central produce market.

With 36% of its area covered by forest, Tokyo has extensive growths of cryptomeria and Japanese cypress, especially in the mountainous western communities of Akiruno, Ōme, Okutama, Hachiōji, Hinode, and Hinohara. Decreases in the price of timber, increases in the cost of production, and advancing old age among the forestry population have resulted in a decline in Tokyo’s output. In addition, pollen, especially from cryptomeria, is a major allergen for the nearby population centers. Tokyo Bay was once a major source of fish. Currently, most of Tokyo’s fish production comes from the outer islands, such as Izu Ōshima and Hachijōjima. Skipjack tuna, nori, and aji are among the ocean products.

Tourism in Tokyo is also a contributor to the economy. In 2006, 4.81 million foreigners and 420 million Japanese visits to Tokyo were made; the economic value of these visits totaled 9.4 trillion yen according to the government of Tokyo. Many tourists visit the various downtowns, stores, and entertainment districts throughout the neighbourhoods of the special wards of Tokyo; particularly school children on class trips, a visit to Tokyo Tower is de rigueur. Cultural offerings include both omnipresent Japanese pop culture and associated districts such as Shibuya and Harajuku, subcultural attractions such as Studio Ghibli anime center, as well as museums like the Tokyo National Museum, which houses 37% of the country’s artwork national treasures (87/233).

The Tsukiji Fish Market in central Tokyo is the biggest wholesale fish and seafood market in the world and also one of the largest wholesale food markets of any kind. The Tsukiji market holds strong to the traditions of its predecessor, the Nihombashi fish market, and serves some 50,000 buyers and sellers every day. Retailers, whole-sellers, auctioneers, and public citizens alike frequent the market, creating a unique microcosm of organized chaos that still continues to fuel the city and its food supply after over four centuries.

8 | Transportation


1280px-Tokyo_station_from_marunouchi_oazo

Tokyo Station is the main intercity rail terminal in Tokyo.

1280px-HND_control_tower

Haneda Airport

10000x6300_01 (1)

Tokyo Metro and Toei Subway are two main subway operators in Tokyo.

Shuto_expressway_shibaura_jct_ii

Hamazakibashi JCT in Shuto Expressway

Tokyo, as the center of the Greater Tokyo Area, is Japan’s largest domestic and international hub for rail, ground, and air transportation. Public transportation within Tokyo is dominated by an extensive network of clean and efficient trains and subways run by a variety of operators, with buses, monorails and trams playing a secondary feeder role. There are up to 62 electric train lines and more than 900 train stations in Tokyo.

Within Ōta, one of the 23 special wards, Haneda Airport offers domestic and international flights. Outside Tokyo, Narita International Airport, in Chiba Prefecture, is the major gateway for international travelers to Japan. Japan’s flag carrier Japan Airlines, as well as All Nippon Airways, Delta Air Lines, and United Airlines all have a hub at this airport.

Various islands governed by Tokyo have their own airports. Hachijō-jima (Hachijojima Airport), Miyakejima (Miyakejima Airport), and Izu Ōshima (Oshima Airport) have services to Tokyo International and other airports.

Rail is the primary mode of transportation in Tokyo, which has the most extensive urban railway network in the world and an equally extensive network of surface lines. JR East operates Tokyo’s largest railway network, including the Yamanote Line loop that circles the center of downtown Tokyo. Two different organisations operate the subway network: the private Tokyo Metro and the governmental Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation. The metropolitan government and private carriers operate bus routes and one tram route. Local, regional, and national services are available, with major terminals at the giant railroad stations, including Tokyo, Shinagawa, and Shinjuku.

Expressways link the capital to other points in the Greater Tokyo area, the Kantō region, and the islands of Kyushu and Shikoku. In order to build them quickly before the 1964 Summer Olympics, most were constructed above existing roads. Other transportation includes taxis operating in the special wards and the cities and towns. Also long-distance ferries serve the islands of Tokyo and carry passengers and cargo to domestic and foreign ports.

9 | Education


YasudaAuditorium

Yasuda Auditorium at the University of Tokyo in Bunkyō

Okuma_lecture_hall_Waseda_University_2007-01

Okuma Auditorium at Waseda University in Shinjuku

Hibiya-Highschool-00

Hibiya High School in Chiyoda

Tokyo has many universities, junior colleges, and vocational schools. Many of Japan’s most prestigious universities are in Tokyo, i

cluding University of Tokyo, Hitotsubashi University, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Waseda University, Tokyo University of Science, and Keio University.

Some of the biggest national universities in Tokyo are:

  • Hitotsubashi University
  • National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies
  • Ochanomizu University
  • Tokyo Gakugei University
  • Tokyo Institute of Technology
  • Tokyo Medical and Dental University
  • Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
  • Tokyo University of Foreign Studies
  • Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology
  • Tokyo University of the Arts
  • University of Electro-Communications
  • University of Tokyo

There is only one non-national public university:

  • Tokyo Metropolitan University.

There are also a few universities well known for classes conducted in English and for the teaching of the Japanese language. They include:

  • Globis University Graduate School of Management
  • International Christian University
  • Sophia University
  • Waseda University

Tokyo is also the headquarters of the

  • United Nations University.

List of Universities in Tokyo


National Universities

  • Aeronautical Safety College (administrated by Japan Ministry of Land)
  • Hitotsubashi University
  • National College of Nursing (administrated by Japan Ministry of Health)
  • National Fire Fighters’ Academy
  • National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies
  • National Police Academy
  • Ochanomizu University
  • Tokyo Gakugei University
  • Tokyo Institute of Technology
  • Tokyo Medical and Dental University
  • Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music
  • Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
  • Tokyo University of Foreign Studies
  • Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology
  • University of Electro-Communications
  • University of Tokyo
  • University of Tsukuba, branch campus in Tokyo

Public Universities

  • Advanced Institute of Industrial Technology
  • Tokyo Metropolitan University

Private Universities

  • Asia University
  • Atomi University
  • Bunka Gakuen University
  • Bunkyo Gakuin University
  • Chuo University
  • Daito Bunka University
  • Ferris University
  • Gakushuin University
  • Gakushuin Women’s University
  • Globis University Graduate School of Management
  • Graduate School of Film Producing
  • Hosei University
  • Hoshi University
  • International Christian University
  • Japan College of Social Work
  • Japan Lutheran College
  • Japan Professional School of Education
  • Japan Women’s University
  • Japan Women’s College of Physical Education
  • Jikei University School of Medicine
  • Jissen Women’s University
  • Josai International University in Kioi
  • Joshibi University of Art and Design
  • Juntendo University
  • Kaetsu University
  • Kagawa Nutrition University
  • Kanazawa Institute of Technology in Toranomon
  • Kawamura Gakuen Woman’s University
  • Keio University
  • Keisen University
  • Kitasato University
  • Kogakuin University
  • Kokugakuin University
  • Kokushikan University
  • Komazawa University
  • Komazawa Women’s University
  • Kunitachi College of Music
  • Kyorin University
  • Kyoritsu College of Pharmacy
  • Kyoritsu Women’s University
  • LCA Institute of Business
  • LEC Tokyo Legal Mind University
  • Local Autonomy College
  • Meiji Gakuin University
  • Meiji Pharmaceutical University
  • Meiji University
  • Meisei University
  • Mejiro University
  • Musashi Institute of Technology
  • Musashi University
  • Musashino Academia Musicae
  • Musashino Art University
  • Musashino University
  • Nihon Bunka University
  • Nihon University
  • Nippon Medical School
  • Nippon Sport Science University
  • Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University
  • Nishogakusha University
  • Obirin University
  • Otsuma Women’s University
  • Polytechnic University
  • Rikkyo University
  • Rissho University
  • Sanno University
  • Seibo College
  • Seijo University
  • Seikei University
  • Seisen University
  • Senshu University
  • Shibaura Institute of Technology
  • Shiraume University
  • Shirayuri College
  • Showa Pharmaceutical University
  • Showa University
  • Showa Women’s University
  • Soka University
  • Sophia University
  • St. Luke’s College of Nursing
  • Sugino Fashion College
  • Surugadai University in Ochanomizu
  • Takachiho University
  • Takarazuka University Of Art And Design in Shinjuku
  • Takushoku University
  • Taisho University
  • Tama University
  • Tama Art University
  • Tamagawa University
  • Teikyo University
  • Temple University Japan (Temple University)
  • The Nippon Dental University
  • The Japanese Red Cross College of Nursing
  • Toho University
  • Toho Gakuen School of Music
  • Tokai University
  • Tokyo College of Music
  • Tokyo Denki University
  • Tokyo Fuji University
  • Tokyo Future University
  • Tokyo Health Care University
  • Tokyo Jogakkan College
  • Tokyo Junshin University
  • Tokyo Kasei University
  • Tokyo Kasei-Gakuin University
  • Tokyo Keizai University
  • Tokyo Medical University
  • Tokyo Polytechnic University
  • Tokyo Seiei College
  • Tokyo Seitoku University
  • Tokyo Union Theological Seminary
  • Tokyo University of Agriculture
  • Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences
  • Tokyo University of Science
  • Tokyo University of Technology
  • Tokyo Woman’s Christian University
  • Tokyo Women’s College of Physical Education
  • Tokyo Women’s Medical University
  • Tokyo Zokei University
  • Toyo University
  • Toyo Eiwa University
  • Toyo Gakuen University
  • Tsuda College
  • Ueno Gakuen University
  • University of the Sacred Heart
  • Wako University
  • Waseda University

Junior Colleges

  • Aobagakuen Junior College
  • Aoyama Women’s Junior College
  • Asia University Junior College
  • Atomi Gakuen Women’s Junior College
  • Bunka Women’s Junior College
  • Bunkyo Gakuin Junior College
  • Gakushuin Women’s Junior College
  • Hosen Gakuen Junior College
  • Japan Agricultural Cooperatives Junior College
  • Jissen Women’s Junior College
  • Josai University Junior College
  • Joshibi Women’s university art and design Junior College
  • Kaetsu University Junior college Division
  • Kagawa Nutrition University Junior College Division
  • Kawamura College
  • Keio Junior College of Nursing
  • Kogyokusha College of Technology
  • Kogakuin University Junior College
  • Kokusai Junior College
  • Komazawa University Junior College
  • Komazawa Women’s Junior College
  • Kyorin Junior College
  • Kyoritsu Women’s Junior College
  • Mejiro University College
  • Nippon Sport Science University Junior College
  • Otsuma Women’s University Junior College Division
  • Obirin Junior College
  • Sanno University Junior College in Jiyu-Gaoka
  • Seibi Gakuen College
  • Shiraume Junor College
  • Shukutoku Junior College
  • Showa Women’s University Junior College
  • Soka Women’s College
  • St.Margaret’s Junior College
  • Sugino Fashion Junior College
  • Teikyo Junior College
  • The Nippon Dental University College at Tokyo
  • Toho Gakuen College of Drama and Music
  • Toho Junior College of Music
  • Toita Women’s Junior College
  • Tokai University Junior College
  • Tokyo Bunka Junior College
  • Tokyo College of Transport Studies
  • Tokyo Fuji University Junior College
  • Tokyo Kasei University Junior College
  • Tokyo Kasei-Gakuin Junior College
  • Tokyo Metropolitan College (Public)
  • Tokyo Rissho Junior College
  • Tokyo Seitoku College
  • Tokyo Tanaka College
  • Tokyo University of Agriculture Junior College
  • Tokyo Women’s Junior College of Physical Education
  • Toyoko Gakuen Women’s College
  • Tsurukawa Women’s Junior College
  • Ueno Gakuen Junior College
  • Yamano College of Aesthetics
  • Yamawaki Gakuen Junior College
  • Yamazaki College of Animal Health Technology

Publicly run kindergartens, elementary schools (years 1 through 6), and Primary schools (7 through 9) are operated by local wards or municipal offices. Public Secondary schools in Tokyo are run by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Board of Education and are called “Metropolitan High Schools”. Tokyo also has many private schools from kindergarten through high school:

  • Aoba-Japan International School
  • The British School in Tokyo
  • Jingumae International Exchange School
  • K. International School Tokyo
  • Tokyo International School
  • Canadian International School
  • Tokyo West International School
  • St. Mary’s International School
  • New International School

10 | Culture


1280px-Nihon-Kagaku-Miraikan,Koto-ward,Tokyo,Japan

The National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation, also known as “Miraikan”

761px-Takeshita_street_2012

Takeshita Street in Harajuku, the center of Japanese youth culture

Tokyo has many museums. In Ueno Park, there is the Tokyo National Museum, the country’s largest museum and specializing in traditional Japanese art; the National Museum of Western Art and Ueno Zoo. Other museums include the National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation in Odaiba; the Edo-Tokyo Museum in Sumida, across the Sumida River from the center of Tokyo; the Nezu Museum in Aoyama; and the National Diet Library, National Archives, and the National Museum of Modern Art, which are near the Imperial Palace.

Tokyo has many theatres for performing arts. These include national and private theatres for traditional forms of Japanese drama. Noteworthy are the National Noh Theatre for noh and the Kabuki-za for kabuki. Symphony orchestras and other musical organisations perform modern and traditional music. Tokyo also hosts modern Japanese and international pop and rock music at venues ranging in size from intimate clubs to internationally known arenas such as the Nippon Budokan.

1280px-View_of_mikoshi_from_sensoji_Sanja_Matsuri_2006-3

The Sanja Festival in Asakusa

Many different festivals occur throughout Tokyo. Major events include the Sannō at Hie Shrine, the Sanja at Asakusa Shrine, and the biennial Kanda Festivals. The last features a parade with elaborately decorated floats and thousands of people. Annually on the last Saturday of July, an enormous fireworks display over the Sumida River attracts over a million viewers. Once cherry blossoms bloom in spring, many residents gather in Ueno Park, Inokashira Park, and the Shinjuku Gyoen National Garden for picnics under the blossoms.

Harajuku, a neighbourhood in Shibuya, is known internationally for its youth style, fashion and cosplay.

Cuisine in Tokyo is internationally acclaimed. In November 2007, Michelin released their first guide for fine dining in Tokyo, awarding 191 stars in total, or about twice as many as Tokyo’s nearest competitor, Paris. Eight establishments were awarded the maximum of three stars (Paris has 10), 25 received two stars, and 117 earned one star. Of the eight top-rated restaurants, three offer traditional Japanese fine dining, two are sushi houses and three serve French cuisine.

11 | Sports


1280px-Tokyo_Dome_night

Tokyo Dome, the home stadium for the Yomiuri Giants

1280px-Ryogoku_Kokugikan_Tsuriyane_05212006

Ryōgoku Kokugikan sumo wrestling arena

Tokyo, with a diverse array of sports, is home to two professional baseball clubs, the Yomiuri Giants who play at the Tokyo Dome and Tokyo Yakult Swallows at Meiji-Jingu Stadium. The Japan Sumo Association is also headquartered in Tokyo at the Ryōgoku Kokugikan sumo arena where three official sumo tournaments are held annually (in January, May, and September). Football clubs in Tokyo include F.C. Tokyo and Tokyo Verdy 1969, both of which play at Ajinomoto Stadium in Chōfu, and FC Machida Zelvia at Nozuta Stadium in Machida. Basketball clubs include the Hitachi SunRockers, Toyota Alvark Tokyo and Tokyo Excellence.

Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, thus becoming the first Asian city to host the Summer Games. The National Stadium, also known as the Olympic Stadium, is host to a number of international sporting events. With a number of world-class sports venues, Tokyo often hosts national and international sporting events such as basketball tournaments, women’s volleyball tournaments, tennis tournaments, swim meets, marathons, rugby union and sevens rugby games, football, American football exhibition games, judo, and karate. Tokyo Metropolitan Gymnasium, in Sendagaya, Shibuya, is a large sports complex that includes swimming pools, training rooms, and a large indoor arena. According to Around the Rings, the gymnasium has played host to the October 2011 artistic gymnastics world championships, despite the International Gymnastics Federation’s initial doubt in Tokyo’s ability to host the championships following the March 11 tsunami. Tokyo was selected to host the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics on September 7, 2013.

12 | In Popular Culture


Akihabara_Night

Akihabara is the most popular area for fans of anime, manga and games.

1280px-Fuji_TV_headquarters_and_Aqua_City_Odaiba_-_2006-05-03_edit

Fuji TV Headquarters

As the largest population center in Japan and the site of the country’s largest broadcasters and studios, Tokyo is frequently the setting for many Japanese movies, television shows, animated series (anime), web comics, and comic books (manga). In the kaiju (monster movie) genre, landmarks of Tokyo are routinely destroyed by giant monsters such as Godzilla and Gamera.

Some Hollywood directors have turned to Tokyo as a backdrop for movies set in Japan. Postwar examples include Tokyo Joe, My Geisha, Tokyo Story and the James Bond film You Only Live Twice; recent examples include Kill Bill, The Fast and the Furious: Tokyo Drift, Lost in Translation, Babel, and Inception.

Japanese author Haruki Murakami has based some of his novels in Tokyo (including Norwegian Wood (novel)), and David Mitchell (author)’s first two novels number9dream and Ghostwritten (novel) featured the city. Contemporary British painter Carl Randall spent 10 years living in Tokyo as an artist, creating a body of work depicting the cities crowded streets and public spaces.

13 | International Relations


Tokyo is the founder member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21 and is a member of the Council of Local Authorities for International Relations. Tokyo was also a founding member of the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group.

13.1 | Sister cities, sister states, and friendship agreements

As of 2016, Tokyo has twinning or friendship agreements with the following twelve cities and states:

Sister cities

  • United States New York City, United States (since February 1960)
  • China Beijing, China (since March 1979)
  • France Paris, France (“Friendship and cooperation agreement”, since July 1982)
  • Australia New South Wales, Australia (since May 1984)
  • South Korea Seoul, South Korea (since September 1988)
  • Indonesia Jakarta, Indonesia (since October 1989)
  • Brazil São Paulo State, Brazil (since June 1990)
  • Egypt Cairo, Egypt (since October 1990)
  • Russia Moscow, Russia (since July 1991)
  • Germany Berlin, Germany (since May 1994)
  • Italy Rome, Italy (“Friendship and cooperation agreement”, since July 1996)
  • United Kingdom London, United Kingdom (since October 2015)

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