From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Microsoft Windows is the name of several families of computer software operating systems created by Microsoft. Microsoft first introduced an operating environment named Windows in November 1985 as an add-on to MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces (GUIs).
Basic general information about Windows.
^N has also an N-edition
^K has also an N-edition
^KN has also an N-edition
^x64 has a separate x64-edition
^Core has also a Core-edition
^wHV has also an edition without HyperV
^CwHV has also a Core-edition without HyperV
Windows Embedded Compact
Windows Embedded Compact (Windows CE) is a variation of Microsoft’s Windows operating system for minimalistic computers and embedded systems. Windows CE is a distinctly different kernel, rather than a trimmed-down version of desktop Windows. It is supported on Intel x86 and compatibles, MIPS, ARM, and Hitachi SuperH processors.
Windows Mobile is Microsoft’s discontinued line of operating systems for smartphones.
As of 2013 Windows Phone is Microsoft’s active line of operating systems for smartphones.
It is possible to install the MS-DOS variants 7.0 and 7.1 without the graphics user interface of Windows. If an independent installation of both, DOS and Windows is desired, DOS ought to be installed prior to Windows, at the start of a small partition. The system must be transferred by the (dangerous) “SYSTEM” DOS-command, while the other files constituting DOS can simply be copied (the files located in the DOS-root and the entire COMMAND directory). Such a stand-alone installation of MS-DOS 8 is not possible, as it’s designed to work as real mode for Windows Me and nothing else.
The Windows NT kernel powers all recent Windows operating systems. It runs on IA-32, x64 and Itanium processors.
Supported File Systems
Various versions of Windows support various file systems, including: FAT12, FAT16, FAT32, HPFS, or NTFS, along with network file systems shared from other computers, and the ISO 9660 and UDF file systems used for CDs, DVDs, and other optical discs such as Blu-ray. Each file system is usually limited in application to certain media, for example CDs must use ISO 9660 or UDF, and as of Windows Vista, NTFS is the only file system which the operating system can be installed on. Windows Embedded CE 6.0, Windows Vista Service Pack 1, and Windows Server 2008 onwards support exFAT, a file system more suitable for USB flash drives.
Installing Windows requires an internal or external optical drive. A keyboard and mouse are the recommended input devices, though some versions support a touchscreen. For operating systems prior to Vista, the drive must be capable of reading CD media, while in Windows Vista onwards, the drive must be DVD-compatible. The drive may be detached after installing Windows.
Physical Memory Limits
Maximum limits on physical memory (RAM) that Windows can address vary depending on both the Windows version and between IA-32 and x64versions.
- Windows 9x
- Windows 95: 480 MB
- Windows 98: 1 GB
- Windows Me: 1.5 GB