Solar Power

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A solar photovoltaic system array on a rooftop in Hong Kong


The first three concentrated solar power (CSP) units of Spain’s Solnova Solar Power Station in the foreground, with the PS10 and PS20 solar power towers in the backgroundSolar_land_area

Average insolation. Note that this is for a horizontal surface, whereas solar panels are normally propped up at an angle and receive more energy per unit area, especially at high latitudes. Potential of solar energy. The small black dots show land area required to replace the world primary energy supply with solar power.

Solar power is the conversion of energy from sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics (PV), indirectly using concentrated solar power, or a combination. Concentrated solar power systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. Photovoltaic cells convert light into an electric current using the photovoltaic effect.

Photovoltaics were initially solely used as a source of electricity for small and medium-sized applications, from the calculator powered by a single solar cell to remote homes powered by an off-grid rooftop PV system. Commercial concentrated solar power plants were first developed in the 1980s. The 392 MW Ivanpah installation is the largest concentrating solar power plant in the world, located in the Mojave Desert of California.

As the cost of solar electricity has fallen, the number of grid-connected solar PV systems has grown into the millions and utility-scale solar power stations with hundreds of megawatts are being built. Solar PV is rapidly becoming an inexpensive, low-carbon technology to harness renewable energy from the Sun. The current largest photovoltaic power station in the world is the 850 MW Longyangxia Dam Solar Park, in Qinghai, China.

The International Energy Agency projected in 2014 that under its “high renewables” scenario, by 2050, solar photovoltaics and concentrated solar power would contribute about 16 and 11 percent, respectively, of the worldwide electricity consumption, and solar would be the world’s largest source of electricity. Most solar installations would be in China and India. Currently, as of 2016, solar power provides just 1% of total worldwide electricity production but is growing at 33% per annum.

Mainstream Technologies

Many industrialized nations have installed significant solar power capacity into their grids to supplement or provide an alternative to conventional energy sources while an increasing number of less developed nations have turned to solar to reduce dependence on expensive imported fuels (see solar power by country). Long distance transmission allows remote renewable energy resources to displace fossil fuel consumption. Solar power plants use one of two technologies:

  • Photovoltaic (PV) systems use solar panels, either on rooftops or in ground-mounted solar farms, converting sunlight directly into electric power.
  • Concentrated solar power (CSP, also known as “concentrated solar thermal”) plants use solar thermal energy to make steam, that is thereafter converted into electricity by a turbine.


Schematics of a grid-connected residential PV power system

A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell (PV), is a device that converts light into electric current using the photovoltaic effect. The first solar cell was constructed by Charles Fritts in the 1880s. The German industrialist Ernst Werner von Siemens was among those who recognized the importance of this discovery. In 1931, the German engineer Bruno Lange developed a photo cell using silver selenide in place of copper oxide, although the prototype selenium cells converted less than 1% of incident light into electricity. Following the work of Russell Ohl in the 1940s, researchers Gerald Pearson, Calvin Fuller and Daryl Chapin created the silicon solar cell in 1954. These early solar cells cost 286 USD/watt and reached efficiencies of 4.5–6%.

Conventional PV Systems

The array of a photovoltaic power system, or PV system, produces direct current (DC) power which fluctuates with the sunlight’s intensity. For practical use this usually requires conversion to certain desired voltages or alternating current (AC), through the use of inverters. Multiple solar cells are connected inside modules. Modules are wired together to form arrays, then tied to an inverter, which produces power at the desired voltage, and for AC, the desired frequency/phase.

Many residential PV systems are connected to the grid wherever available, especially in developed countries with large markets. In these grid-connected PV systems, use of energy storage is optional. In certain applications such as satellites, lighthouses, or in developing countries, batteries or additional power generators are often added as back-ups. Such stand-alone power systems permit operations at night and at other times of limited sunlight.

Concentrated Solar Power


A parabolic collector concentrates sunlight onto a tube in its focal point.

Concentrated solar power (CSP), also called “concentrated solar thermal”, uses lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. Contrary to photovoltaics – which converts light directly into electricity – CSP uses the heat of the sun’s radiation to generate electricity from conventional steam-driven turbines.

A wide range of concentrating technologies exists: among the best known are the parabolic trough, the compact linear Fresnel reflector, the Stirling dish and the solar power tower. Various techniques are used to track the sun and focus light. In all of these systems a working fluid is heated by the concentrated sunlight, and is then used for power generation or energy storage. Thermal storage efficiently allows up to 24-hour electricity generation.

A parabolic trough consists of a linear parabolic reflector that concentrates light onto a receiver positioned along the reflector’s focal line. The receiver is a tube positioned along the focal points of the linear parabolic mirror and is filled with a working fluid. The reflector is made to follow the sun during daylight hours by tracking along a single axis. Parabolic trough systems provide the best land-use factor of any solar technology. The SEGS plants in California and Acciona’s Nevada Solar One near Boulder City, Nevada are representatives of this technology.

Compact Linear Fresnel Reflectors are CSP-plants which use many thin mirror strips instead of parabolic mirrors to concentrate sunlight onto two tubes with working fluid. This has the advantage that flat mirrors can be used which are much cheaper than parabolic mirrors, and that more reflectors can be placed in the same amount of space, allowing more of the available sunlight to be used. Concentrating linear fresnel reflectors can be used in either large or more compact plants.

The Stirling solar dish combines a parabolic concentrating dish with a Stirling engine which normally drives an electric generator. The advantages of Stirling solar over photovoltaic cells are higher efficiency of converting sunlight into electricity and longer lifetime. Parabolic dish systems give the highest efficiency among CSP technologies. The 50 kW Big Dish in Canberra, Australia is an example of this technology.

A solar power tower uses an array of tracking reflectors (heliostats) to concentrate light on a central receiver atop a tower. Power towers can achieve higher (thermal-to-electricity conversion) efficiency than linear tracking CSP schemes and better energy storage capability than dish stirling technologies. The PS10 Solar Power Plant and PS20 solar power plant are examples of this technology.

Hybrid Systems

A hybrid system combines (C)PV and CSP with one another or with other forms of generation such as diesel, wind and biogas. The combined form of generation may enable the system to modulate power output as a function of demand or at least reduce the fluctuating nature of solar power and the consumption of non renewable fuel. Hybrid systems are most often found on islands.

CPV/CSP System

A novel solar CPV/CSP hybrid system has been proposed, combining concentrator photovoltaics with the non-PV technology of concentrated solar power, or also known as concentrated solar thermal.

ISCC System

The Hassi R’Mel power station in Algeria, is an example of combining CSP with a gas turbine, where a 25-megawatt CSP-parabolic trough array supplements a much larger 130 MW combined cycle gas turbine plant. Another example is the Yazd power station in Iran.

PVT System

Hybrid PV/T), also known as photovoltaic thermal hybrid solar collectors convert solar radiation into thermal and electrical energy. Such a system combines a solar (PV) module with a solar thermal collector in a complementary way.

CPVT System

A concentrated photovoltaic thermal hybrid (CPVT) system is similar to a PVT system. It uses concentrated photovoltaics (CPV) instead of conventional PV technology, and combines it with a solar thermal collector.

PV Diesel System

It combines a photovoltaic system with a diesel generator. Combinations with other renewables are possible and include wind turbines.

PV-Thermoelectric System

Thermoelectric, or “thermovoltaic” devices convert a temperature difference between dissimilar materials into an electric current. Solar cells use only the high frequency part of the radiation, while the low frequency heat energy is wasted. Several patents about the use of thermoelectric devices in tandem with solar cells have been filed. The idea is to increase the efficiency of the combined solar/thermoelectric system to convert the solar radiation into useful electricity.

Development and Deployment



Early Days

The early development of solar technologies starting in the 1860s was driven by an expectation that coal would soon become scarce. Charles Fritts installed the world’s first rooftop photovoltaic solar array, using 1%-efficient selenium cells, on a New York City roof in 1884. However, development of solar technologies stagnated in the early 20th century in the face of the increasing availability, economy, and utility of coal and petroleum. In 1974 it was estimated that only six private homes in all of North America were entirely heated or cooled by functional solar power systems. The 1973 oil embargo and 1979 energy crisis caused a reorganization of energy policies around the world and brought renewed attention to developing solar technologies. Deployment strategies focused on incentive programs such as the Federal Photovoltaic Utilization Program in the US and the Sunshine Program in Japan. Other efforts included the formation of research facilities in the United States (SERI, now NREL), Japan (NEDO), and Germany (Fraunhofer–ISE). Between 1970 and 1983 installations of photovoltaic systems grew rapidly, but falling oil prices in the early 1980s moderated the growth of photovoltaics from 1984 to 1996.

Mid-1990s to early 2010s

In the mid-1990s, development of both, residential and commercial rooftop solar as well as utility-scale photovoltaic power stations, began to accelerate again due to supply issues with oil and natural gas, global warming concerns, and the improving economic position of PV relative to other energy technologies. In the early 2000s, the adoption of feed-in tariffs—a policy mechanism, that gives renewables priority on the grid and defines a fixed price for the generated electricity—lead to a high level of investment security and to a soaring number of PV deployments in Europe.

Current Status

For several years, worldwide growth of solar PV was driven by European deployment, but has since shifted to Asia, especially China and Japan, and to a growing number of countries and regions all over the world, including, but not limited to, Australia, Canada, Chile, India, Israel, Mexico, South Africa, South Korea, Thailand, and the United States.

Worldwide growth of photovoltaics has averaged 40% per year from 2000 to 2013 and total installed capacity reached 303 GW at the end of 2016 with China having the most cumulative installations (78 GW) and Honduras having the highest theoretical percentage of annual electricity usage which could be generated by solar PV (12.5%). The largest manufacturers are located in China.

Concentrated solar power (CSP) also started to grow rapidly, increasing its capacity nearly tenfold from 2004 to 2013, albeit from a lower level and involving fewer countries than solar PV.:51 As of the end of 2013, worldwide cumulative CSP-capacity reached 3,425 MW.


In 2010, the International Energy Agency predicted that global solar PV capacity could reach 3,000 GW or 11% of projected global electricity generation by 2050—enough to generate 4,500 TWh of electricity. Four years later, in 2014, the agency projected that, under its “high renewables” scenario, solar power could supply 27% of global electricity generation by 2050 (16% from PV and 11% from CSP). In 2015, analysts predicted that one million homes in the U.S. will have solar power by the end of 2016.

Photovoltaic Power Stations

The Desert Sunlight Solar Farm is a 550 MW power plant in Riverside County, California, that uses thin-film CdTe-modules made by First Solar. As of November 2014, the 550 megawatt Topaz Solar Farm was the largest photovoltaic power plant in the world. This was surpassed by the 579 MW Solar Star complex. The current largest photovoltaic power station in the world is Longyangxia Dam Solar Park, in Gonghe County, Qinghai, China.


Concentrating Solar Power Stations

Commercial concentrating solar power (CSP) plants, also called “solar thermal power stations”, were first developed in the 1980s. The 377 MW Ivanpah Solar Power Facility, located in California’s Mojave Desert, is the world’s largest solar thermal power plant project. Other large CSP plants include the Solnova Solar Power Station (150 MW), the Andasol solar power station (150 MW), and Extresol Solar Power Station (150 MW), all in Spain. The principal advantage of CSP is the ability to efficiently add thermal storage, allowing the dispatching of electricity over up to a 24-hour period. Since peak electricity demand typically occurs at about 5 pm, many CSP power plants use 3 to 5 hours of thermal storage.

Largest operational solar thermal power stations



Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System with all three towers under load during February 2014, with the Clark Mountain Range seen in the distance


Part of the 354 MW Solar Energy Generating Systems (SEGS) parabolic trough solar complex in northern San Bernardino County, California




Swanson’s law – the PV learning curve


Solar PV – LCOE for Europe until 2020 (in euro-cts. per kWh)


Economic photovoltaic capacity vs installation cost, in the United States

Adjusting for inflation, it cost $96 per watt for a solar module in the mid-1970s. Process improvements and a very large boost in production have brought that figure down to 68 cents per watt in February 2016, according to data from Bloomberg New Energy Finance. Palo Alto California signed a wholesale purchase agreement in 2016 that secured solar power for 3.7 cents per kilowatt-hour. And in sunny Dubai large-scale solar generated electricity sold in 2016 for just 2.99 cents per kilowatt-hour — “competitive with any form of fossil-based electricity — and cheaper than most.”

Photovoltaic systems use no fuel, and modules typically last 25 to 40 years. Thus, capital costs make up most of the cost of solar power. Operations and maintenance costs for new utility-scale solar plants in the US are estimated to be 9 percent of the cost of photovoltaic electricity, and 17 percent of the cost of solar thermal electricity. Governments have created various financial incentives to encourage the use of solar power, such as feed-in tariff programs. Also, Renewable portfolio standards impose a government mandate that utilities generate or acquire a certain percentage of renewable power regardless of increased energy procurement costs. In most states, RPS goals can be achieved by any combination of solar, wind, biomass, landfill gas, ocean, geothermal, municipal solid waste, hydroelectric, hydrogen, or fuel cell technologies.

Levelized Cost of Electricity

The PV industry is beginning to adopt levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) as the unit of cost. The electrical energy generated is sold in units of kilowatt-hours (kWh). As a rule of thumb, and depending on the local insolation, 1 watt-peak of installed solar PV capacity generates about 1 to 2 kWh of electricity per year. This corresponds to a capacity factor of around 10–20%. The product of the local cost of electricity and the insolation determines the break even point for solar power. The International Conference on Solar Photovoltaic Investments, organized by EPIA, has estimated that PV systems will pay back their investors in 8 to 12 years. As a result, since 2006 it has been economical for investors to install photovoltaics for free in return for a long term power purchase agreement. Fifty percent of commercial systems in the United States were installed in this manner in 2007 and over 90% by 2009.

Shi Zhengrong has said that, as of 2012, unsubsidised solar power is already competitive with fossil fuels in India, Hawaii, Italy and Spain. He said “We are at a tipping point. No longer are renewable power sources like solar and wind a luxury of the rich. They are now starting to compete in the real world without subsidies”. “Solar power will be able to compete without subsidies against conventional power sources in half the world by 2015”.

Current installation Prices

In its 2014 edition of the Technology Roadmap: Solar Photovoltaic Energy report, the International Energy Agency (IEA) published prices for residential, commercial and utility-scale PV systems for eight major markets as of 2013 (see table below). However, DOE’s SunShot Initiative has reported much lower U.S. installation prices. In 2014, prices continued to decline. The SunShot Initiative modeled U.S. system prices to be in the range of $1.80 to $3.29 per watt. Other sources identify similar price ranges of $1.70 to $3.50 for the different market segments in the U.S., and in the highly penetrated German market, prices for residential and small commercial rooftop systems of up to 100 kW declined to $1.36 per watt (€1.24/W) by the end of 2014. In 2015, Deutsche Bank estimated costs for small residential rooftop systems in the U.S. around $2.90 per watt. Costs for utility-scale systems in China and India were estimated as low as $1.00 per watt.

Typical PV system prices in 2013 in selected countries (USD)


Grid Parity

Grid parity, the point at which the cost of photovoltaic electricity is equal to or cheaper than the price of grid power, is more easily achieved in areas with abundant sun and high costs for electricity such as in California and Japan. In 2008, The levelized cost of electricity for solar PV was $0.25/kWh or less in most of the OECD countries. By late 2011, the fully loaded cost was predicted to fall below $0.15/kWh for most of the OECD and to reach $0.10/kWh in sunnier regions. These cost levels are driving three emerging trends: vertical integration of the supply chain, origination of power purchase agreements (PPAs) by solar power companies, and unexpected risk for traditional power generation companies, grid operators and wind turbine manufacturers.

Grid parity was first reached in Spain in 2013, Hawaii and other islands that otherwise use fossil fuel (diesel fuel) to produce electricity, and most of the US is expected to reach grid parity by 2015.

In 2007, General Electric’s Chief Engineer predicted grid parity without subsidies in sunny parts of the United States by around 2015; other companies predicted an earlier date: the cost of solar power will be below grid parity for more than half of residential customers and 10% of commercial customers in the OECD, as long as grid electricity prices do not decrease through 2010.

Productivity by Location

The productivity of solar power in a region depends on solar irradiance, which varies through the day and is influenced by latitude and climate.

The locations with highest annual solar irradiance lie in the arid tropics and subtropics. Deserts lying in low latitudes usually have few clouds, and can receive sunshine for more than ten hours a day. These hot deserts form the Global Sun Belt circling the world. This belt consists of extensive swathes of land in Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Southwest Asia, Middle East, and Australia, as well as the much smaller deserts of North and South America. Africa’s eastern Sahara Desert, also known as the Libyan Desert, has been observed to be the sunniest place on Earth according to NASA.

Different measurements of solar irradiance (direct normal irradiance, global horizontal irradiance) are mapped below :


North America


South America




Africa and Middle East


South and South-East Asia





Self Consumption

In cases of self consumption of the solar energy, the payback time is calculated based on how much electricity is not purchased from the grid. For example, in Germany, with electricity prices of 0.25 €/kWh and insolation of 900 kWh/kW, one kWp will save €225 per year, and with an installation cost of 1700 €/KWp the system cost will be returned in less than seven years. However, in many cases, the patterns of generation and consumption do not coincide, and some or all of the energy is fed back into the grid. The electricity is sold, and at other times when energy is taken from the grid, electricity is bought. The relative costs and prices obtained affect the economics. In many markets, the price paid for sold PV electricity is significantly lower than the price of bought electricity, which incentivizes self consumption. Moreover, separate self consumption incentives have been used in e.g. Germany and Italy. Grid interaction regulation has also included limitations of grid feed-in in some regions in Germany with high amounts of installed PV capacity. By increasing self consumption, the grid feed-in can be limited without curtailment, which wastes electricity.

A good match between generation and consumption is key for high self consumption, and should be considered when deciding where to install solar power and how to dimension the installation. The match can be improved with batteries or controllable electricity consumption. However, batteries are expensive and profitability may require provision of other services from them besides self consumption increase. Hot water storage tanks with electric heating with heat pumps or resistance heaters can provide low-cost storage for self consumption of solar power. Shiftable loads, such as dishwashers, tumble dryers and washing machines, can provide controllable consumption with only a limited effect on the users, but their effect on self consumption of solar power may be limited.

Energy Pricing and Incentives

The political purpose of incentive policies for PV is to facilitate an initial small-scale deployment to begin to grow the industry, even where the cost of PV is significantly above grid parity, to allow the industry to achieve the economies of scale necessary to reach grid parity. The policies are implemented to promote national energy independence, high tech job creation and reduction of CO2 emissions. Three incentive mechanisms are often used in combination as investment subsidies: the authorities refund part of the cost of installation of the system, the electricity utility buys PV electricity from the producer under a multiyear contract at a guaranteed rate, and Solar Renewable Energy Certificates (SRECs)


With investment subsidies, the financial burden falls upon the taxpayer, while with feed-in tariffs the extra cost is distributed across the utilities’ customer bases. While the investment subsidy may be simpler to administer, the main argument in favour of feed-in tariffs is the encouragement of quality. Investment subsidies are paid out as a function of the nameplate capacity of the installed system and are independent of its actual power yield over time, thus rewarding the overstatement of power and tolerating poor durability and maintenance. Some electric companies offer rebates to their customers, such as Austin Energy in Texas, which offers $2.50/watt installed up to $15,000.

Net Metering


Net metering, unlike a feed-in tariff, requires only one meter, but it must be bi-directional.

In net metering the price of the electricity produced is the same as the price supplied to the consumer, and the consumer is billed on the difference between production and consumption. Net metering can usually be done with no changes to standard electricity meters, which accurately measure power in both directions and automatically report the difference, and because it allows homeowners and businesses to generate electricity at a different time from consumption, effectively using the grid as a giant storage battery. With net metering, deficits are billed each month while surpluses are rolled over to the following month. Best practices call for perpetual roll over of kWh credits. Excess credits upon termination of service are either lost, or paid for at a rate ranging from wholesale to retail rate or above, as can be excess annual credits. In New Jersey, annual excess credits are paid at the wholesale rate, as are left over credits when a customer terminates service.

Feed-in Tariffs (FIT)

With feed-in tariffs, the financial burden falls upon the consumer. They reward the number of kilowatt-hours produced over a long period of time, but because the rate is set by the authorities, it may result in perceived overpayment. The price paid per kilowatt-hour under a feed-in tariff exceeds the price of grid electricity. Net metering refers to the case where the price paid by the utility is the same as the price charged.

The complexity of approvals in California, Spain and Italy has prevented comparable growth to Germany even though the return on investment is better. In some countries, additional incentives are offered for BIPV compared to stand alone PV.

  • France + EUR 0.16 /kWh (compared to semi-integrated) or + EUR 0.27/kWh (compared to stand alone)
  • Italy + EUR 0.04-0.09 kWh
  • Germany + EUR 0.05/kWh (facades only)

Solar Renewable Energy Credits (SRECs)

Alternatively, SRECs allow for a market mechanism to set the price of the solar generated electricity subsity. In this mechanism, a renewable energy production or consumption target is set, and the utility (more technically the Load Serving Entity) is obliged to purchase renewable energy or face a fine (Alternative Compliance Payment or ACP). The producer is credited for an SREC for every 1,000 kWh of electricity produced. If the utility buys this SREC and retires it, they avoid paying the ACP. In principle this system delivers the cheapest renewable energy, since the all solar facilities are eligible and can be installed in the most economic locations. Uncertainties about the future value of SRECs have led to long-term SREC contract markets to give clarity to their prices and allow solar developers to pre-sell and hedge their credits.

Financial incentives for photovoltaics differ across countries, including Australia, China, Germany, Israel, Japan, and the United States and even across states within the US.

The Japanese government through its Ministry of International Trade and Industry ran a successful programme of subsidies from 1994 to 2003. By the end of 2004, Japan led the world in installed PV capacity with over 1.1 GW.

In 2004, the German government introduced the first large-scale feed-in tariff system, under the German Renewable Energy Act, which resulted in explosive growth of PV installations in Germany. At the outset the FIT was over 3x the retail price or 8x the industrial price. The principle behind the German system is a 20-year flat rate contract. The value of new contracts is programmed to decrease each year, in order to encourage the industry to pass on lower costs to the end users. The programme has been more successful than expected with over 1GW installed in 2006, and political pressure is mounting to decrease the tariff to lessen the future burden on consumers.

Subsequently, Spain, Italy, Greece—that enjoyed an early success with domestic solar-thermal installations for hot water needs—and France introduced feed-in tariffs. None have replicated the programmed decrease of FIT in new contracts though, making the German incentive relatively less and less attractive compared to other countries. The French and Greek FIT offer a high premium (EUR 0.55/kWh) for building integrated systems. California, Greece, France and Italy have 30-50% more insolation than Germany making them financially more attractive. The Greek domestic “solar roof” programme (adopted in June 2009 for installations up to 10 kW) has internal rates of return of 10-15% at current commercial installation costs, which, furthermore, is tax free.

In 2006 California approved the ‘California Solar Initiative’, offering a choice of investment subsidies or FIT for small and medium systems and a FIT for large systems. The small-system FIT of $0.39 per kWh (far less than EU countries) expires in just 5 years, and the alternate “EPBB” residential investment incentive is modest, averaging perhaps 20% of cost. All California incentives are scheduled to decrease in the future depending as a function of the amount of PV capacity installed.

At the end of 2006, the Ontario Power Authority (OPA, Canada) began its Standard Offer Program, a precursor to the Green Energy Act, and the first in North America for distributed renewable projects of less than 10 MW. The feed-in tariff guaranteed a fixed price of $0.42 CDN per kWh over a period of twenty years. Unlike net metering, all the electricity produced was sold to the OPA at the given rate.

Grid Integration


Construction of the Salt Tanks which provide efficient thermal energy storage so that output can be provided after the sun goes down, and output can be scheduled to meet demand requirements. The 280 MW Solana Generating Station is designed to provide six hours of energy storage. This allows the plant to generate about 38 percent of its rated capacity over the course of a year.


Thermal energy storage. The Andasol CSP plant uses tanks of molten salt to store solar energy.


Pumped-storage hydroelectricity (PSH). This facility in Geesthacht, Germany, also includes a solar array.

The overwhelming majority of electricity produced worldwide is used immediately, since storage is usually more expensive and because traditional generators can adapt to demand. However both solar power and wind power are variable renewable energy, meaning that all available output must be taken whenever it is available by moving through transmission lines to where it can be used now. Since solar energy is not available at night, storing its energy is potentially an important issue particularly in off-grid and for future 100% renewable energy scenarios to have continuous electricity availability.

Solar electricity is inherently variable and predictable by time of day, location, and seasons. In addition solar is intermittent due to day/night cycles and unpredictable weather. How much of a special challenge solar power is in any given electric utility varies significantly. In a summer peak utility, solar is well matched to daytime cooling demands. In winter peak utilities, solar displaces other forms of generation, reducing their capacity factors.

In an electricity system without grid energy storage, generation from stored fuels (coal, biomass, natural gas, nuclear) must be go up and down in reaction to the rise and fall of solar electricity (see load following power plant). While hydroelectric and natural gas plants can quickly follow solar being intermittent due to the weather, coal, biomass and nuclear plants usually take considerable time to respond to load and can only be scheduled to follow the predictable variation. Depending on local circumstances, beyond about 20–40% of total generation, grid-connected intermittent sources like solar tend to require investment in some combination of grid interconnections, energy storage or demand side management. Integrating large amounts of solar power with existing generation equipment has caused issues in some cases. For example, in Germany, California and Hawaii, electricity prices have been known to go negative when solar is generating a lot of power, displacing existing baseload generation contracts.

Conventional hydroelectricity works very well in conjunction with solar power, water can be held back or released from a reservoir behind a dam as required. Where a suitable river is not available, pumped-storage hydroelectricity uses solar power to pump water to a high reservoir on sunny days then the energy is recovered at night and in bad weather by releasing water via a hydroelectric plant to a low reservoir where the cycle can begin again. However, this cycle can lose 20% of the energy to round trip inefficiencies, this plus the construction costs add to the expense of implementing high levels of solar power.

Concentrated solar power plants may use thermal storage to store solar energy, such as in high-temperature molten salts. These salts are an effective storage medium because they are low-cost, have a high specific heat capacity, and can deliver heat at temperatures compatible with conventional power systems. This method of energy storage is used, for example, by the Solar Two power station, allowing it to store 1.44 TJ in its 68 m³ storage tank, enough to provide full output for close to 39 hours, with an efficiency of about 99%.

In stand alone PV systems batteries are traditionally used to store excess electricity. With grid-connected photovoltaic power system, excess electricity can be sent to the electrical grid. Net metering and feed-in tariff programs give these systems a credit for the electricity they produce. This credit offsets electricity provided from the grid when the system cannot meet demand, effectively trading with the grid instead of storing excess electricity. Credits are normally rolled over from month to month and any remaining surplus settled annually. When wind and solar are a small fraction of the grid power, other generation techniques can adjust their output appropriately, but as these forms of variable power grow, additional balance on the grid is needed. As prices are rapidly declining, PV systems increasingly use rechargeable batteries to store a surplus to be later used at night. Batteries used for grid-storage stabilize the electrical grid by leveling out peak loads usually for several minutes, and in rare cases for hours. In the future, less expensive batteries could play an important role on the electrical grid, as they can charge during periods when generation exceeds demand and feed their stored energy into the grid when demand is higher than generation.

Although not permitted under the US National Electric Code, it is technically possible to have a “plug and play” PV microinverter. A recent review article found that careful system design would enable such systems to meet all technical, though not all safety requirements. There are several companies selling plug and play solar systems available on the web, but there is a concern that if people install their own it will reduce the enormous employment advantage solar has over fossil fuels.

Common battery technologies used in today’s home PV systems include, the valve regulated lead-acid battery– a modified version of the conventional lead–acid battery, nickel–cadmium and lithium-ion batteries. Lead-acid batteries are currently the predominant technology used in small-scale, residential PV systems, due to their high reliability, low self discharge and investment and maintenance costs, despite shorter lifetime and lower energy density. However, lithium-ion batteries have the potential to replace lead-acid batteries in the near future, as they are being intensively developed and lower prices are expected due to economies of scale provided by large production facilities such as the Gigafactory 1. In addition, the Li-ion batteries of plug-in electric cars may serve as a future storage devices in a vehicle-to-grid system. Since most vehicles are parked an average of 95 percent of the time, their batteries could be used to let electricity flow from the car to the power lines and back. Other rechargeable batteries used for distributed PV systems include, sodium–sulfur and vanadium redox batteries, two prominent types of a molten salt and a flow battery, respectively.

The combination of wind and solar PV has the advantage that the two sources complement each other because the peak operating times for each system occur at different times of the day and year. The power generation of such solar hybrid power systems is therefore more constant and fluctuates less than each of the two component subsystems. Solar power is seasonal, particularly in northern/southern climates, away from the equator, suggesting a need for long term seasonal storage in a medium such as hydrogen or pumped hydroelectric. The Institute for Solar Energy Supply Technology of the University of Kassel pilot-tested a combined power plant linking solar, wind, biogas and hydrostorage to provide load-following power from renewable sources.

Research is also undertaken in this field of artificial photosynthesis. It involves the use of nanotechnology to store solar electromagnetic energy in chemical bonds, by splitting water to produce hydrogen fuel or then combining with carbon dioxide to make biopolymers such as methanol. Many large national and regional research projects on artificial photosynthesis are now trying to develop techniques integrating improved light capture, quantum coherence methods of electron transfer and cheap catalytic materials that operate under a variety of atmospheric conditions. Senior researchers in the field have made the public policy case for a Global Project on Artificial Photosynthesis to address critical energy security and environmental sustainability issues.

Environmental Impacts


Part of the Senftenberg Solarpark, a solar photovoltaic power plant located on former open-pit mining areas close to the city of Senftenberg, in Eastern Germany. The 78 MW Phase 1 of the plant was completed within three months.

Unlike fossil fuel based technologies, solar power does not lead to any harmful emissions during operation, but the production of the panels leads to some amount of pollution.

Greenhouse Gases

The life-cycle greenhouse-gas emissions of solar power are in the range of 22 to 46 gram (g) per kilowatt-hour (kWh) depending on if solar thermal or solar PV is being analyzed, respectively. With this potentially being decreased to 15 g/kWh in the future. For comparison (of weighted averages), a combined cycle gas-fired power plant emits some 400–599 g/kWh, an oil-fired power plant 893 g/kWh, a coal-fired power plant 915–994 g/kWh or with carbon capture and storage some 200 g/kWh, and a geothermal high-temp. power plant 91–122 g/kWh. The life cycle emission intensity of hydro, wind and nuclear power are lower than solar’s as of 2011 as published by the IPCC, and discussed in the article Life-cycle greenhouse-gas emissions of energy sources. Similar to all energy sources were their total life cycle emissions primarily lay in the construction and transportation phase, the switch to low carbon power in the manufacturing and transportation of solar devices would further reduce carbon emissions. BP Solar owns two factories built by Solarex (one in Maryland, the other in Virginia) in which all of the energy used to manufacture solar panels is produced by solar panels. A 1-kilowatt system eliminates the burning of approximately 170 pounds of coal, 300 pounds of carbon dioxide from being released into the atmosphere, and saves up to 105 gallons of water consumption monthly.

The US National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), in harmonizing the disparate estimates of life-cycle GHG emissions for solar PV, found that the most critical parameter was the solar insolation of the site: GHG emissions factors for PV solar are inversely proportional to insolation. For a site with insolation of 1700 kWh/m2/year, typical of southern Europe, NREL researchers estimated GHG emissions of 45 gCO2e/kWh. Using the same assumptions, at Phoenix, USA, with insolation of 2400 kWh/m2/year, the GHG emissions factor would be reduced to 32 g of CO2e/kWh.

The New Zealand Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment found that the solar PV would have little impact on the country’s greenhouse gas emissions. The country already generates 80 percent of its electricity from renewable resources (primarily hydroelectricity and geothermal) and national electricity usage peaks on winter evenings whereas solar generation peaks on summer afternoons, meaning a large uptake of solar PV would end up displacing other renewable generators before fossil-fueled power plants.

Energy Payback

The energy payback time (EPBT) of a power generating system is the time required to generate as much energy as is consumed during production and lifetime operation of the system. Due to improving production technologies the payback time has been decreasing constantly since the introduction of PV systems in the energy market. In 2000 the energy payback time of PV systems was estimated as 8 to 11 years and in 2006 this was estimated to be 1.5 to 3.5 years for crystalline silicon silicon PV systems and 1–1.5 years for thin film technologies (S. Europe). These figures fell to 0.75–3.5 years in 2013, with an average of about 2 years for crystalline silicon PV and CIS systems.

Another economic measure, closely related to the energy payback time, is the energy returned on energy invested (EROEI) or energy return on investment (EROI), which is the ratio of electricity generated divided by the energy required to build and maintain the equipment. (This is not the same as the economic return on investment (ROI), which varies according to local energy prices, subsidies available and metering techniques.) With expected lifetimes of 30 years, the EROEI of PV systems are in the range of 10 to 30, thus generating enough energy over their lifetimes to reproduce themselves many times (6-31 reproductions) depending on what type of material, balance of system (BOS), and the geographic location of the system.

Water Use

Solar power includes plants with among the lowest water consumption per unit of electricity (photovoltaic), and also power plants with among the highest water consumption (concentrating solar power with wet-cooling systems).

Photovoltaic power plants use very little water for operations. Life-cycle water consumption for utility-scale operations is estimated to be 12 gallons per megawatt-hour for flat-panel PV solar. Only wind power, which consumes essentially no water during operations, has a lower water consumption intensity.

Concentrating solar power plants with wet-cooling systems, on the other hand, have the highest water-consumption intensities of any conventional type of electric power plant; only fossil-fuel plants with carbon-capture and storage may have higher water intensities. A 2013 study comparing various sources of electricity found that the median water consumption during operations of concentrating solar power plants with wet cooling was 810 ga/MWhr for power tower plants and 890 gal/MWhr for trough plants. This was higher than the operational water consumption (with cooling towers) for nuclear (720 gal/MWhr), coal (530 gal/MWhr), or natural gas (210). A 2011 study by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory came to similar conclusions: for power plants with cooling towers, water consumption during operations was 865 gal/MWhr for CSP trough, 786 gal/MWhr for CSP tower, 687 gal/MWhr for coal, 672 gal/MWhr for nuclear, and 198 gal/MWhr for natural gas. The Solar Energy Industries Association noted that the Nevada Solar One trough CSP plant consumes 850 gal/MWhr. The issue of water consumption is heightened because CSP plants are often located in arid environments where water is scarce.

In 2007, the US Congress directed the Department of Energy to report on ways to reduce water consumption by CSP. The subsequent report noted that dry cooling technology was available that, although more expensive to build and operate, could reduce water consumption by CSP by 91 to 95 percent. A hybrid wet/dry cooling system could reduce water consumption by 32 to 58 percent. A 2015 report by NREL noted that of the 24 operating CSP power plants in the US, 4 used dry cooling systems. The four dry-cooled systems were the three power plants at the Ivanpah Solar Power Facility near Barstow, California, and the Genesis Solar Energy Project in Riverside County, California. Of 15 CSP projects under construction or development in the US as of March 2015, 6 were wet systems, 7 were dry systems, 1 hybrid, and 1 unspecified.

Although many older thermoelectric power plants with once-through cooling or cooling ponds use more water than CSP, meaning that more water passes through their systems, most of the cooling water returns to the water body available for other uses, and they consume less water by evaporation. For instance, the median coal power plant in the US with once-through cooling uses 36,350 gal/MWhr, but only 250 gal/MWhr (less than one percent) is lost through evaporation. Since the 1970s, the majority of US power plants have used recirculating systems such as cooling towers rather than once-through systems.

Other Issues

One issue that has often raised concerns is the use of cadmium (Cd), a toxic heavy metal that has the tendency to accumulate in ecological food chains. It is used as semiconductor component in CdTe solar cells and as buffer layer for certain CIGS cells in the form of CdS. The amount of cadmium used in thin-film PV modules is relatively small (5–10 g/m²) and with proper recycling and emission control techniques in place the cadmium emissions from module production can be almost zero. Current PV technologies lead to cadmium emissions of 0.3–0.9 microgram/kWh over the whole life-cycle. Most of these emissions arise through the use of coal power for the manufacturing of the modules, and coal and lignite combustion leads to much higher emissions of cadmium. Life-cycle cadmium emissions from coal is 3.1 microgram/kWh, lignite 6.2, and natural gas 0.2 microgram/kWh.

In a life-cycle analysis it has been noted, that if electricity produced by photovoltaic panels were used to manufacture the modules instead of electricity from burning coal, cadmium emissions from coal power usage in the manufacturing process could be entirely eliminated.

In the case of crystalline silicon modules, the solder material, that joins together the copper strings of the cells, contains about 36 percent of lead (Pb). Moreover, the paste used for screen printing front and back contacts contains traces of Pb and sometimes Cd as well. It is estimated that about 1,000 metric tonnes of Pb have been used for 100 gigawatts of c-Si solar modules. However, there is no fundamental need for lead in the solder alloy.

Some media sources have reported that concentrated solar power plants have injured or killed large numbers of birds due to intense heat from the concentrated sunrays. This adverse effect does not apply to PV solar power plants, and some of the claims may have been overstated or exaggerated.

A 2014-published life-cycle analysis of land use for various sources of electricity concluded that the large-scale implementation of solar and wind potentially reduces pollution-related environmental impacts. The study found that the land-use footprint, given in square meter-years per megawatt-hour (m2a/MWh), was lowest for wind, natural gas and rooftop PV, with 0.26, 0.49 and 0.59, respectively, and followed by utility-scale solar PV with 7.9. For CSP, the footprint was 9 and 14, using parabolic troughs and solar towers, respectively. The largest footprint had coal-fired power plants with 18 m2a/MWh.

Emerging Technologies

Concentrator Photovoltaics


CPV modules on dual axis solar trackers in Golmud, China

Concentrator photovoltaics (CPV) systems employ sunlight concentrated onto photovoltaic surfaces for the purpose of electrical power production. Contrary to conventional photovoltaic systems, it uses lenses and curved mirrors to focus sunlight onto small, but highly efficient, multi-junction solar cells. Solar concentrators of all varieties may be used, and these are often mounted on a solar tracker in order to keep the focal point upon the cell as the sun moves across the sky. Luminescent solar concentrators (when combined with a PV-solar cell) can also be regarded as a CPV system. Concentrated photovoltaics are useful as they can improve efficiency of PV-solar panels drastically.
In addition, most solar panels on spacecraft are also made of high efficient multi-junction photovoltaic cells to derive electricity from sunlight when operating in the inner Solar System.


Floatovoltaics are an emerging form of PV systems that float on the surface of irrigation canals, water reservoirs, quarry lakes, and tailing ponds. Several systems exist in France, India, Japan, Korea, the United Kingdom and the United States. These systems reduce the need of valuable land area, save drinking water that would otherwise be lost through evaporation, and show a higher efficiency of solar energy conversion, as the panels are kept at a cooler temperature than they would be on land. Although not floating, other dual-use facilities with solar power include fisheries.

Peringkat Universitas Terbaik di Dunia

QS World University Rankings 2017-2018: Peringkat Universitas Terbaik di Dunia. Cek Posisi Perguruan Tinggi Indonesia!


Tahun ini, kembali dirilis QS (Quackquarelli Symonds) World University Rankings 2017-2018. Daftar peringkat universitas terbaik di seluruh dunia ini banyak menjadi acuan, termasuk oleh perguruan tinggi di Indonesia.

Jadi, QS World University Rankings ini memberikan penilaian pada berbagai perguruan tinggi di dunia untuk menentukan rankingnya, dengan metode survei kepada akademisi dan pekerja profesional, serta meriset kampus. Komponen penilaiannya antara lain reputasi akademik, reputasi lulusan perguruan tinggi di dunia kerja, serta publikasi, riset dan jurnal yang dikeluarkan kampus. Nah, QS World University Rankings 2017-2018 mengeluarkan ranking perguruan tinggi secara keseluruhan dan juga peringkat berdasarkan bidang yang dipelajari.

Cek 10 besar perguruan tinggi terbaik QS World University Rankings 2017 berdasarkan bidang studi, QS World University Rankings 2018 secara keseluruhan, dan juga peringkat perguruan tinggi Indonesia berikut ini.

Bidang: Teknik dan Teknologi

(Teknik Sipil, Teknik Mesin, Teknik Elektro, Pertambangan, Ilmu Komputer, Teknologi Informasi, dll)

  1. Massacusetts Institute of Technology
  2. Standford University. AS
  3. University of Cambridge, Inggris
  4. Nanyang Technological University, Singapura
  5. ETH Zurich Federal Institute of Technology, Swiss
  6. Imperial College London, Inggris
  7. National University of Singapore
  8. University of California, Berkeley
  9. University of Oxford
  10. Tshingua University, China

215 Institut Teknologi Bandung‍
401-450 Universitas Gadjah Mada‍
401-450 Universitas Indonesia‍

Bidang: Seni dan Budaya

(Sejarah, Arkeologi, Seni, Desain, Arsitektur, Teologi, Sastra, Filsafat, Linguistik, Sejarah. dll)

  1. University of Oxford
  2. University of Cambridge
  3. Harvard University
  4. University of California, Berkeley
  5. Stanford University
  6. Yale University
  7. Princeton University
  8. University of California, Los Angeles UCLA
  9. Columbian University
  10. The Australian National University

Bidang: Ilmu Sosial dan Manajemen

(Komunikasi, Ekonomi, Komunikasi, Antropologi, Hukum, Politik, Pariwisata dan Perhotelan, dll)

  1. Harvard University
  2. London School of Economic and Political Science
  3. University of Oxford
  4. University of Cambridge
  5. Standford University
  6. Massacusetts Institute of Technology
  7. University of California, Berkeley
  8. National University of Singapore
  9. Yale University
  10. The University of Tokyo

207 Universitas Indonesia
293 Institut Teknologi Bandung
307 Universitas Gadjah Mada

Bidang: Kesehatan dan Life Science

(Kedokteran, Kedokteran Gigi, Farmasi, Psikologi, Biologi, Pertanian dan Kehutanan, dll)

  1. Harvard University, AS
  2. University of Cambridge, Inggris
  3. University of Oxford, Inggris
  4. Massacusetts Institute of Technology, AS
  5. Stanford University, AS
  6. John Hopkins, AS
  7. Karolinska Institutet, Swedia
  8. University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), AS
  9. University of California, AS
  10. Yale University, AS

451-500 Universitas Indonesia

Bidang: Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam

(Matematika, Kimia, Fisika, Geografi, Ilmu Bumi dan Kelautan, dll)

  1. Massacusetts Institute of Technology, AS
  2. University of Cambridge, Inggris
  3. Harvard University, AS
  4. Standford University, AS (peringkat tiga bersama Harvard University)
  5. University of Oxford, Inggris
  6. ETH Zurich Federal Institute of Technology, Swiss
  7. University of California, Berkeley, AS
  8. California Institute of Technology, AS
  9. University of Tokyo, Jepang
  10. Imperial College London, Inggris

Ranking 10 Besar Perguruan Tinggi Dunia 2018 (Keseluruhan)

  1. Massacusetts Institute of Technology, AS
  2. Standford University. AS
  3. Harvard University, AS
  4. California Insitute of Technology, AS
  5. University of Cambridge, Inggris,
  6. University of Oxford, Inggris
  7. University College London. Inggris
  8. Imperial College London, Inggris
  9. University of Chicago, AS
  10. ETH Zurich Federal Institute of Technology, Swiss

Peringkat Perguruan Tinggi Indonesia di Dunia

277 Universitas Indonesia‍ (Peringkat 151-200 untuk Akuntansi dan Keuangan)
331 Institut Teknologi Bandung‍ (Peringkat 51-100 untuk Seni Rupa dan Desain)
401-410 Universitas Gadjah Mada‍ (Peringkat 51-100 untuk Seni/Performing Arts)
701-750 Universitas Airlangga‍
751-800 Institut Pertanian Bogor‍
801-1000 Universitas Diponegoro‍
801-1000 Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember‍
801-1000 Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta‍
801-1000 Universitas Brawijaya‍

Ada 9 perguruan tinggi di Indonesia yang masuk daftar QS World University Rankings 2017-2018, yaitu 8 PTN dan satu perguruan tinggi swasta. Sayangnya peringkat Indonesia jauh di bawah, kalah dengan perguruan tinggi dari Singapura, Jepang, dan China yang masuk 10 besar. Bahkan, Malaysia menempatkan perguruan tingginya di atas Indonesia.

Posisi top 10 sendiri didominasi perguruan tinggi Amerika Serikat dan Inggris yang wara-wiri di 10 besar. Swiss, Swedia, dan Australia juga menempatkan kampus mereka di sepuluh besar berdasarkan bidang perkuliahan.

Universitas Indonesia yang tahun lalu di peringkaat 325, naik 48 peringkat ke posisi 277, sedangkan untuk Asia UI menduduki ranking 67. Ada yang berpendapat bahwa perguruan tinggi di Indonesia sulit meraih ranking yang bagus karena karya akademik, seperti riset dan publikasi yang dihasilkan masih sedikit.

Di sisi lain, QS World University Rankings 2017-2018 nggak bisa dijadikan patokan absolut kualitas suatu universitas. Tentunya tiap metode riset memiliki kelebihan dan kekurangan. Namun ranking ini bisa dijadikan salah satu parameter pencapaian kampus.

Source: youthmanual

7 PLTS Baru di NTB

PT PLN Persero menargetkan tujuh Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Surya (PLTS) baru di Kepulauan Sumbawa, NTB, akan beroperasi pada pertengahan 2013.

Tujuh lokasi tersebut berada di Kepulauan Sumbawa, antara lain Pulau Medang, Sekotok, Moyo, Bajo Pulo, Maringkik, dan tiga subranting, yaitu Lantung, Lebin dan Lawis.

“Pertengahan tahun depan tujuh PLTS ini sudah bisa operasi,” kata Deputi Manager Perencanaan PT PLN Wilayah NTB Anang Imam dalam publikasi PLN, di Jakarta, Rabu.

Menurut dia, sekarang ini sedang tahap proses lelang tujuh lokasi dengan kapasitas yang bervariasi dan diperkirakan masa kontruksi PLTS sekitar tiga bulan.

Investasi tujuh PLTS dengan kapasitas lebih dari 900 kiloWattpeak (kwp) mencapai Rp33 miliar.
“Tujuh PLTS baru dengan total sekitar 900 kWp mampu mengurangi konsumsi pemakaian BBM pembangkit listrik diesel cukup signifikan, yakni setara dengan penghematan biaya operasional penyediaan listrik sekitar Rp2 miliar per bulan,” ungkapnya.

Sebelumnya, PLN NTB sudah mengoperasikan tiga PLTS di tiga pulau kawasan wisata dengan total kapasitas 820 kWp, yaitu Gili Trawangan berkapasitas 600 kWp, Gili Air 160 kWp, serta Gili Meno berkapasitas 60 kWp. Dengan pengoperasian ini bisa menghemat biaya operasional sekitar Rp1,8 miliar per bulan.

Untuk PLTS Gili Trawangan tahap I berkapasitas 200 kWp sudah beroperasi sejak Maret 2011 dan tahap II berkapasitas 400 kWp beroperasi pada Mei 2012. Total investasi dua unit PLTS tersebut mencapai hampir Rp25 miliar.

“Dua unit PLTS dengan luas lahan 2,5 hektare ini terdiri dari 3.300 photovoltaic module. Sedangkan lahan PLTS disediakan pemerintah daerah sebagai dukungan terhadap program go green solution,”katanya.

Sumber: AntaraNews

Bali Digadang Untuk Kembangkan PLTS

[23 Mei] Dua kabupaten di Bali, yakni Kabupaten Karangasem dan Kabupaten Bangli, mendapat proyek Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Surya (PLTS). Kapasitas PLTS tesebut 2 X 1 MW yang terkoneksi dengan jaringan PLN.

”Ini sebuah terobosan untuk meningkatkan kesejahteraan warga Karangasem dan Bangli,” kata Menteri Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (ESDM), Jero Wacik, saat meresmikan dimilainya pembangunan projek tersebut di Karangasem, Senin, 25 Februari 2013.

Projek berdiri di atas lahan seluas 1,5 hektare dengan 100 panel solar cell. Adapun nilai investasinya mencapai Rp 26 miliar. ”Ini merupkan PLTS terbesar dan akan terus dikembangkan,” ujar Jero Wacik.

Menurutnya, pemerintah tidak terlalu menekankan perhitungan ekonomi dalam projek itu. Namun diharapkan akan menjadi percontohan untuk dikembangkan oleh pihak-pihak lain, seperti kalangan swasta, sehingga bisa ditebar di daerah lain Indonesia. ”Malah kami persilahkan untuk dijiplak,” ucapnya.

Jero Wacik mengatakan, Kementerian ESDM sangat fokus dalam mengembangkan sumber energi alternatif karena minyak bumi harganya semakin mahal dan cenderung merusak lingkungan.

Dia mencontohkan, harga listrik dengan minyak bumi sebagai pembangkitnya telah mencapai 40 sen dolar per kwh, sedangkan dengan solar cell hanya 20 sen dolar per kwh.

Direktur Aneka Energi Baru dan Energi Terbarukan Kementerian ESDM, Alihudin Sitompul, menjelaskan pembangunan PLTS dilakukan oleh PT Surya Energi Indotama yang pengelolaannya akan diserahkan kepada Pemerinah Kabupaten Karangasem.

Perusahaan tersebut merupakan bagian bisnis usaha dari PT LEN Industri Persero yang berbasis di Bandung, Jawa Barat.


Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Surya

Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas


Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Surya PS10 memfokuskan energi matahari ke menara matahari menggunakan rangkaian cermin yang tersebar di sekitarnya

Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Surya

Pembangkit listrik tenaga surya adalah pembangkit listrik yang mengubah energi surya menjadi energi listrik. Pembangkitan listrik bisa dilakukan dengan dua cara, yaitu secara langsung menggunakan fotovoltaik dan secara tidak langsung dengan pemusatan energi surya. Fotovoltaik mengubah secara langsung energi cahaya menjadi listrik menggunakan efek fotoelektrik.[1] Pemusatan energi surya menggunakan sistem lensa atau cermin dikombinasikan dengan sistem pelacak untuk memfokuskan energi matahari ke satu titik untuk menggerakan mesin kalor.

Pemusatan Energi Surya

Sistem pemusatan energi surya (concentrated solar power, CSP) menggunakan lensa atau cermin dan sistem pelacak untuk memfokuskan energi matahari dari luasan area tertentu ke satu titik. Panas yang terkonsentrasikan lalu digunakan sebagai sumber panas untuk pembangkitan listrik biasa yang memanfaatkan panas untuk menggerakkan generator. Sistem cermin parabola, lensa reflektor Fresnel, dan menara surya adalah teknologi yang paling banyak digunakan. Fluida kerja yang dipanaskan bisa digunakan untuk menggerakan generator (turbin uap konvensional hingga mesin Stirling) atau menjadi media penyimpan panas.

Ivanpah Solar Plant yang terleak di Gurun Mojave akan menjadi pembangkit listrik tenaga surya tipe pemusatan energi surya terbesar dengan daya mencapai 377 MegaWatt. Meski pembangunan didukung oleh pendanaan Amerika Serikat atas visi Barrack Obama mengenai program 10000 MW energi terbarukan, namun pembangunan ini menuai kontroversi karena mengancam keberadaan satwa liar di sekitar gurun.


Sel surya atau sel fotovoltaik adalah alat yang mengubah energi cahaya menjadi energi listrik menggunakan efek fotoelektrik. Dibuat pertama kali pada tahun 1880 oleh Charles Fritts.

Pembangkit listrik tenaga surya tipe fotovoltaik adalah pembangkit listrik yang menggunakan perbedaan tegangan akibat efek fotoelektrik untuk menghasilkan listrik. Solar panel terdiri dari 3 lapisan, lapisan panel P di bagian atas, lapisan pembatas di tengah, dan lapisan panel N di bagian bawah. Efek fotoelektrik adalah di mana sinar matahari menyebabkan elektron di lapisan panel P terlepas, sehingga hal ini menyebabkan proton mengalir ke lapisan panel N di bagian bawah dan perpindahan arus proton ini adalah arus listrik.



Di Indonesia, PLTS terbesar pertama dengan kapasitas 2×1 MW terletak di Pulau Bali, tepatnya di dearah Karangasem dan Bangli. Pemerintah mempersilakan siapa saja untuk meniru dan membuatnya di daerah lain karena PLTS ini bersifat opensource atau tidak didaftarkan dalam hak cipta.


  • Bali
  • Nusa Tenggara Barat
  • Alor, Nusa Tenggara Timur
  • Sulawesi Selatan

Jejak Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Surya di Indonesia

Uni Lubis. Published 4:28 PM, December 28, 2015. Updated 6:54 PM, December 29, 2015

Dimulai di era Presiden SBY, Presiden Jokowi melanjutkan komitmen meningkatkan energi terbarukan. Mengapa di NTT?

Presiden Joko Widodo (tengah) berbincang dengan Menteri Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral Sudirman Said (kiri) dan Direktur PT. Len Industri (Persero) Ahraham Mose (kanan), saat meninjau Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Surya (PLTS) yang diresmikan di desa Oelpuah K

Presiden Jokowi (tengah) berbincang dengan Menteri ESDM Sudirman Said (kiri) dan Direktur PT Len Industri (Persero) Abraham Mose (kanan) saat meninjau Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Surya (PLTS) yang diresmikan di desa Oelpuah Kabupaten Kupang, NTT, pada 27 Desember 2015.Foto oleh Kornelis Kaha/Antara

Agustus lalu, saya dan beberapa jurnalis dari Indonesia dan Malaysia diundang ke Provinsi Xinjiang, Tiongkok. Sepanjang perjalanan dari satu tempat tujuan ke tujuan lain, dari tujuan peliputan bisnis dan ekonomi sampai tujuan wisata, ada satu hal yang menarik perhatian: Tiongkok giat mengembangkan energi listrik terbarukan melalui turbin angin dan panel surya.

Di Xinjiang, provinsi yang didominasi gurun pasir, sinar matahari melimpah sepanjang tahun. Rumah penduduk yang terletak menyebar di padang pasir, dilengkapi dengan lembaran panel penangkap sinar matahari atau solar home system (SHS) yang bisa memenuhi kebutuhan listrik sebuah keluarga.

Pemerintah Tiongkok tahun ini membangun pembangkit listrik tenaga surya terbesar di dunia, dengan kemampuan menghasilkan 200 Mega Watt peak (MWp). Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Surya (PLTS) yang dibangun di Gurun Gobi ini bakal menyuplai kebutuhan listrik untuk sekitar 1 juta rumah tangga.

Secara cepat, Tiongkok mengejar posisi Jerman sebagai produsen listrik tenaga surya terbesar di dunia. Dua pertiga dari panel surya dunia diproduksi di negeri Tirai Bambu itu.

Direktur Jenderal Energi Baru Terbarukan dan Konservasi Energi, di Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral, Rida Mulyana, mengatakan potensi PLTS di Indonesia sangat besar.

“Teman-teman di Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan ESDM pernah menghitung, katanya 560 Gigawattp,” kata Rida, ketika saya kontak Senin siang, 28 Desember. Dia baru saja pulang dari Kupang, menghadiri peresmian PLTS di Desa Oelpuah, Kabupaten Kupang.

Tahun 2014, total produksi listrik tenaga surya dengan sistem photovoltaic (PV) yang menggunakan panel pengangkat sinar surya untuk dikonversi secara langsung menjadi tenaga listrik menjadi 178 Gigawattp. Ada penambahan 40 Gigawattp dalam satu tahun saja. Kontribusi energi listrik tenaga surya sekitar 1 persen dari total bauran energi listrik dunia.

PLTS yang dibangun oleh PT LEN Industri sebagai Independent Power Producer (IPP) di Kabupaten Kupang berkapasitas 5 Megawattp. Uji coba sudah dilakukan dalam dua pekan sebelum diresmikan oleh Presiden Joko “Jokowi” Widodo pada Minggu, 27 Desember, dan berhasil memproduksi 4 MWp.

Proyek yang berdiri di atas tanah seluas tujuh hektare itu menelan investasi 11,2 juta dolar AS.

Menteri ESDM Sudirman Said mengatakan, meski hanya 5 MWp, bagi Kupang pasokan dari PLTS ini merupakan tambahan yang cukup signifikan.

“Daya efektif listrik di Kupang adalah 68 MW,yang sebenarnya sudah memasuki situasi krisis karena reserve margin-nya sangat minimal,” kata Sudirman sebagaimana ditulis dalam siaran persnya.
Saat ini juga masih terdapat antrian yang pemasangan listrik hingga 64 MW. Kawasan industri terpadu Kupang juga sebenarnya sudah siap. Hanya saja terkendala pasokan listrik.

Sistem PLTS Grid-Connected yang digunakan pada PLTS ini memungkinkan pembangkit tenaga surya ini bekerja secara paralel dan terhubung langsung dengan jaringan listrik utama sehingga tidak menggunakan sistem baterai karena listrik yang dihasilkan langsung dialirkan ke jaringan listrik eksisting pada siang hari.

“Karena sistem on-grid, maka listrik langsung bercampur dengan pasokan dari PLN. Tergantung kebutuhan. Rata-rata untuk rumah tangga sekitar 150 – 150 watt sehari kebutuhannya,” ujar Rida.

Dimulai di Bali pada era SBY

Mengingat potensinya, maka Indonesia tergolong terlambat masuk ke pengembangan PLTS. Padahal, Indonesia berada di garis khatulistiwa dengan sinar surya berlimpah.

Selama ini, pengembangan listrik tenaga surya dilakukan dengan skala rumah tangga menggunakan SHS. Yang memiliki skala besar terpusat, tersebar letaknya, kebanyakan di kawasan timur Indonesia.

Pada Februari 2013, Menteri ESDM saat itu, Jero Wacik, meresmikan dua PLTS sistem PLTS Grid-Connected di dua lokasi, yaitu Bangli dan Karangasem, Provinsi Bali, dengan total daya masing-masing sebesar 1 MWp. Saat itu keduanya menjadi PLTS dengan kapasitas terbesar.


PLTS Bangli dan Karangasem saat itu dinyatakan sebagai proyek percontohan bagi PLTS di provinsi lain. Pemerintah memulai proyek ini pada April 2012 sebagai bagian dari komitmen memanfaatkan sumber energi terbarukan.Sumber:

“Pembangunan listrik dengan menggunakan BBM saat ini sudah mahal sekali, yaitu 40 sen per KWh. Saya sudah perintahkan agar PLN jangan lagi membangkitkan listrik dengan menggunakan BBM. Kita beralih ke energi baru dan terbarukan,” kata Jero saat itu.

Menurut hitungan Jero, potensi tenaga matahari di Indonesia saat ini sekitar 50.000 MW. Yang diproduksi baru 10 MWp.

Dalam lima tahun terakhir, ketika isu pemanasan global menguat dan dampak bagi perubahan iklim justru lebih mahal bagi kelangsungan bumi dan penghuninya, adu cepat produksi energi terbarukan kita sambut gembira.

Dimulai di era Presiden Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (SBY), produksi listrik tenaga surya dan tenaga panas bumi dipercepat.

Jokowi melanjutkan komitmen itu dan berjanji di depan kepala pemerintahan sedunia bahwa Indonesia akan mencapai 23 persen energi terbarukan pada 2025. Jokowi menyampaikan itu di depan forum pemimpin di Konferensi Perubahan Iklim, atau (COP 21), di Paris, Perancis, pada 30 November 2015.

Juli lalu, Jokowi juga meresmikan PLTP Unit V Kamojang yang dioperasikan Pertamina. Pembangunan unit sebelumnya dilakukan di era SBY.

Listrik dari jaringan cerdas

Presiden Joko Widodo (kedua kiri) meresmikan Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Surya (PLTS) di desa Oelpuah Kabupaten Kupang, NTT, Minggu (27/12).

Presiden Jokowi meresmikan PLTS di desa Oelpuah Kabupaten Kupang, NTT, pada 27 Desember 2015. Foto oleh Kornelis Kaha/Antara

Menyediakan listrik bagi 250 jutaan penduduk Indonesia yang tersebar di pulau-pulau memang tidak mudah. Data tahun 2012 baru 73,4 persen wilayah Indonesia dialiri listrik. Tahun 2015, Kementerian ESDM mencantumkan angka 85,1 persen rasio elektrifikasi.

Wilayah Timur seperti NTT dan Maluku menjadi prioritas pengembangan listrik tenaga surya karena ketergantungan akan listrik bertenaga diesel dan bahan bakar minyak terkendala transportasi. Belum lagi jika cuaca buruk, transportasi laut pasti terganggu.

Untuk wilayah seperti NTT dan Maluku, juga Papua yang konturnya bergunung, yang perlu dilakukan adalah pengembangan jaringan cerdas (smart-grid) yang bisa mengombinasikan beragam sumber listrik secara otomatis sesuai dengan permintaan. Listrik tenaga surya dioptimalkan di siang hari, misalnya, sementara di malam hari menggunakan tenaga baterei.

Dalam bukunya, Gelombang Ekonomi Inovasi, mantan Menteri Riset dan Teknologi yang juga mantan Ketua Komite Inovasi Nasional, Muhammad Zuhal, mengatakan bahwa sistem jaringan cerdas paling pas untuk Benua Maritim Indonesia.

Tahun 2012, pemerintah memulai teknologi jaringan cerdas energi di Pulau Sumba, NTT. Daerah ini memiliki keanekaragaman sumber energi terbarukan, seperti energi surya, angin, air, dan biogas kotoran ternak.

“Jaringan ini juga memanfaatkan komunikasi data satelit VSAT untuk sistem kontrol dan manajemen data,” tulis Zuhal.

Jaringan cerdas yang timbal-balik ini bisa secara otomatis menghitung berapa per Kwh listrik dari sumber tertentu pada saat periode beban puncak (peak hour) dan beban rendah (off-peak).

“Sistem ini memungkinkan komunikasi interaktif secara cerdas antara pelanggan dan pemasok,” kata Zuhal.

Misalnya, pelanggan rumah tangga dan industri yang menggunakan panel surya memiliki kelebihan pasokan listrik, mereka dapat melakukan transaksi jual beli Kwh secara otomatis. Ini menghindari pemborosan energi dalam bentuk membuangnya dalam bentuk panas sebagaimana dalam sistem sentralisasi energi.

Sistem ini dibangun oleh Pusat Konversi dan Konservasi Energi di Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi (BPPT).

Saya tidak tahu apakah Pak Jokowi tahu tentang informasi ini. Sayang kalau tidak diteruskan, karena kajian ini basisnya adalah ekonomi berbasis inovasi dan sudah bisa dikembangkan sendiri oleh anak bangsa sendiri.

PLTS di Kupang mencatat penggunaan tenaga kerja dan komponen dalam negeri sekitar 70 persen. Ini juga patut kita apresiasi. –Rappler-

Note: Uni Lubis adalah seorang jurnalis senior dan Eisenhower fellow

10 Universitas Terbaik di Dunia 2018

by hotcourses 26 Juni 2017


Setiap Tahun, QS (Quackquarelli Symonds) menilai universitas-universitas di seluruh dunia, kemudian merilis daftar peringkat berdasarkan reputasi akademi, reputasi alumni, kulitas tenaga pengajar dan penampilan internasional. Tahun ini, hampir 1,000 universitas dari 84 negara dinilai, dan berikut adalah 10 universitas dengan nilai teratas:



Selama 6 tahun berturut-turut, MIT menempati peringkat teratas sebagai universitas terbaik di dunia. Universitas Amerika ini memperoleh nilai yang luar biasa dalam peringkat kali ini, dan merupakan satu-satunya universitas di dunia yang diberikan nilai 5+ oleh QS. Berikut adalah perolehan nilai MIT:


Opera MIT_Seal.svg


MIT main campus seen from Vassar Street, as The Great Dome is visible in the distance and the Stata Center is at right



Stanford University yang berlokasi di Silicon Valley ini telah 2 tahun berturut-turut menggeser Harvard ke peringkat no. 3. Menurut table penilaian, semua indikator Standford sebenarnya tidak kalah dari MIT, tapi sayangnya jumlah mahasiswa internasionalnya kalah jauh jika dibandingkan dengan MIT:


Opera 480px-Stanford_University_seal_2003.svg


View of the main quadrangle of Stanford University with Memorial Church in the center background from across the grass covered Oval.



An aerial photograph of the center of the Stanford University campus in 2008.



Walau telah turun ke ranking 3 sejak 2 tahun berturut-turut, reputasi akademik dan prospek kerja lulusan dari universitas ini tetap mendapat skor 100.

Opera Harvard_Wreath_Logo_1.svg


Richard Rummell’s 1906 watercolor landscape view, facing northeast.


Harvard Yard as seen from Holyoke Center



Caltech yang 2 tahun sebelumnya berada di peringkat ke-5 tahun ini berhasil naik 1 peringkat. Mungkin ini adalah berkat perolehan nilai yang tinggi dalam kategori rasio dosen: mahasiswa dan publikasi dari tenaga pengajar.

Opera 482px-Seal_of_the_California_Institute_of_Technology.svg


Caltech entrance at 1200 E California Blvd. On the left is East Norman Bridge Laboratory of Physics and on the right is the Alfred Sloan Laboratory of Mathematics and Physics.



Berbeda dengan 4 peringkat sebelumnya, peringkat ke-5 ditempati oleh universitas Inggris: University of Cambridge. Walau posisi universitas ini terus bergeser turun dari peringkat ke-3 di tahun 2016 ke peringkat ke-4 di tahun 2017, dan kemudian ke peringkat ke-5 di tahun 2018, reputasi akademik dan prospek kerja lulusan masih tetap mendapatkan nilai sempurna.

Opera 518px-University_of_Cambridge_coat_of_arms_official_version.svg


Great Court of King’s College



Tidak ada perubahan dari University of Oxford yang selama 3 tahun berturut-turut masih menempati posisi ke-6. Walau demikian, jumlah mahasiswa dan dosen internasional di universitas ini lebih banyak dari University of Cambridge.

Opera 638px-Oxford_University_Coat_Of_Arms.svg




UCL logo since 2005

Walau masih berada di posisi yang sama seperti 2 tahun sebelumnya, UCL tahun ini berhasil meraih peringkat No.1 untuk kualitas pendidikan dan pelatihan.  UCL adalah salah satu universitas yang memiliki keberagaman mahasiswa tertinggi di dunia.





Naik 1 peringkat dari tahun sebelumnya, Imperial College London adalah universitas yang terkenal akan jurusan sains, teknik dan bisnis.

Opera 562px-Imperial_College_London_crest.svg




Setelah 2 tahun berturut-turut menempati peringkat ke-10, tahun ini University of Chicago berhasil naik 1 peringkat. Reputasi akademik dari universitas ini meraih skor yang nyaris sempurna, yaitu 99.9.

Opera University_of_Chicago_Coat_of_arms




Akhirnya ada universitas di luar Amerika dan Inggris yang mendominasi peringkat 10 besar, yaitu ETH Zurich. Hanya saja, universitas ini turun 2 peringkat dari tahun lalu, mungkin karena rasio mahasiswa:dosen yang belum ideal.


ETH Hönggerberg with the new HIT building


ETH Hönggerberg from the south, looking at the five “fingers” of the HCI and behind the high HPP building.


ETH Zurich at night.

PLTS Terapung Terbesar di Dunia Hadir di Cirata

by Fakta.News – 28 Des 2017 | 12:06 WIB

Energi Baru Terbarukan
Beroperasi 2019, PLTS Terapung Terbesar di Dunia Hadir di Cirata


Surabaya – PT Pembangkitan Jawa Bali (PJB) telah menargetkan Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Surya (PLTS) terapung di Cirata, Jawa Barat, akan beroperasi bertahap mulai kuartal I 2019. Pembangkit berkapasitas 200 megawatt (MW) ini disebut-sebut menjadi PLTS terapung terbesar di dunia.

“Pada tahap awal akan beroperasi 50 MW pada kuartal I 2019,” ungkap Direktur Utama PT PJB, Iwan Agung Firstantara, Kamis (28/12).

Anak usaha PT PLN (Persero) tersebut bekerja sama dengan perusahaan asal Uni Emirat Arab (UEA) Masdar. Penandatanganan perjanjian pengembangan PLTS oleh keduanya sudah dilakukan pada akhir November lalu dengan nilai investasi mencapai US$180 juta atau sekitar Rp2,4 triliun.

Menurut Iwan, pembangunan PLTS ini merupakan dukungan perseroan untuk mencapai target penggunaan energi baru terbarukan dalam bauran energi nasional sebesar 23 persen pada 2025. Nantinya, setelah beroperasi, kehadiran pembangkit ini bakal melengkapi pembangkit listrik tenaga air (PLTA) Cirata.

“Jadi siang hari listrik 200 MW bisa disuplai dari PLTS, cadangan air bisa ditahan. Kemudian malam hari PLTA bisa produksi listrik. Jadi ini kombinasi yang ideal,” tuturnya.

Tak cuma itu saja, selain pembangkit berbahan bakar surya, anak usaha PLN ini juga bakal membangun PLTA Batang Toru dengan kapasitas 110 megawatt (MW). Proyek ini masuk dalam proyek 35 ribu megawatt (MW) yang ditargetkan bakal beroperasi 5-6 tahun ke depan.

“Ini sudah financial closing dan pembebasan lahan,” ucapnya.

Untuk pembangkit EBT, saat ini PJB telah mengoperasikan pembangkit berbahan bakar air, yaitu PLTA Cirata dengan kapasitas 1.000 MW dan PLTA Brantas 250 MW. Mereka mengklaim selain ramah lingkungan, energi tersebut juga dapat diperbarui sehingga dapat berkelanjutan dan tak akan habis.

Sebelumnya, Wakil Menteri Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (ESDM), Arcandra Tahar, pernah menyatakan bahwa proyek PLTS ini akan menjadi PLTS terapung pertama di Indonesia dan diharapkan dapat menghasilkan tarif listrik di bawah Biaya Pokok Penyediaan (BPP) setempat.

“Untuk Jawa Barat di bawah US$6,5 sen per kilo Watt hour (kWh) karena apabila di atas BPP akan sulit untuk dijalankan,” kata Arcandra di Jakarta, November lalu.

Lalu Chief Executive Officer (CEO) Masdar, Mohammed Al Ramahi, mengungkapkan proyek PLTS terapung di Jawa Barat tersebut tidak hanya terbesar di Indonesia, tetapi juga akan menjadi yang terbesar di dunia.

“Kami tidak hanya membangun PLTS terapung yang terbesar di Indonesia, tapi juga yang terbesar di dunia. Dengan adanya perjanjian kerja sama ini mempermudah jalan agar cepat beroperasi,” ungkapnya.


How Much Does It Really Cost to Build a WordPress Website?

Last updated on December 19th, 2017 by Editorial Staff

One of the questions we often get asked is: how much does it cost to build a WordPress website? While the core WordPress software is free, the cost of a WordPress site depends entirely on your budget and goals. In this article, we will break it all down to answer the ultimate question: How much does it really cost to build a WordPress website? We’ll also show you how to avoid overspending and minimize cost when building a website.


What Do You Need to Build a WordPress Website?

WordPress is free for anyone to download and use. It is an open source software which gives you freedom to install it on any kind of website.

So if WordPress is free, then where is the cost coming from?

The cost of a WordPress site can be broken down into following categories:

  • WordPress Hosting
  • Domain Name
  • Design
  • Plugins and Extensions (Apps)

To create a Self Hosted WordPress site, you need web hosting to store your files. Every website on the internet needs hosting. This is your website’s home on the internet.

Next, you will need a Domain Name. This will be your website’s address on the internet, and this is what your users will type in the browser to reach your website (example, wpbeginner dot com or google dot com).

With WordPress, there are tons of free website templates available that you can use. However if you want something more advanced / custom, then you can purchase a premium template or have one custom made which will raise the cost.

There are 40,000+ free plugins for WordPress. These are apps and extensions for your websites. Think features like contact form, gallery, etc.

So while you can build a website with just the hosting and domain cost, based on your situation, you may end up paying for additional tools and services. That’s why it’s often confusing for people to find out the real cost of a WordPress website.

Let us walk you through the real cost of building a WordPress site.

Estimating The Real Cost of Building a WordPress Site


Depending on your needs, your cost to start a WordPress website can range from $100 to $500 to $3000, to even as high as $30,000 or more.

It’s important to know what type of website you are building, and what you’ll need for it because that will directly affect your cost.

But don’t worry, we’ll show you how to avoid a financial disaster and make the best decisions.

For the sake of this article, let’s break down websites into different budget categories:

  • Building a WordPress website (low budget)
  • Building a WordPress website (with more features)
  • Building a WordPress eCommerce website
  • Building a custom WordPress website

Now let’s see how much each of these projects cost and how you can avoid spending any more than necessary.

What’s the Cost of a WordPress Website (Low Budget)?


You can build a fully functional WordPress website for yourself and keep your costs under $100. Here is the cost break down of a WordPress website on low budget.

First, you will need a domain name and web hosting.

A domain name typically costs $14.99 / year, and web hosting normally costs $7.99 / month.

Thankfully, Bluehost, an official WordPress recommended hosting provider, has agreed to offer our users a free domain name and over 60% off on web hosting.

For more hosting recommendations check out our guide on how to choose the best WordPress hosting.

Next, you will need to install WordPress on your hosting account. See our step by step guide on how to start a WordPress blog for complete instructions.

Once you have installed WordPress, you can choose a design for your website using a free template.

There are thousands of free and professionally designed templates available for WordPress that you can install. See our expert-pick of 43 beautiful free WordPress blog themes for some examples.

Once you have chosen a WordPress template, follow the instructions in our step by step guide on how to install a WordPress theme.

Next, you may want to add certain features to your website like adding a contact form, a photo gallery, a slider, etc. Don’t worry there are more than 40,000 WordPress plugins available that will help you do that.

Plugins are like apps or extensions for your WordPress site. See our step by step guide on how to install a WordPress plugin.

Below is our selection of the essentials WordPress plugins that you should install on your website. All of them are available for free.


  • WPForms Lite – Add contact forms to your WordPress site
  • Envira Gallery Lite – Add beautiful image galleries to your site
  • Soliloquy Lite – Add beautiful image sliders in WordPress

Website Optimization

  • Yoast SEO – Improve your WordPress SEO and get more traffic from Google
  • MonsterInsights (Free) – Helps you track visitor stats using Google Analytics
  • WP Super Cache – Improves your website’s speed by adding cache

Website Security

  • UpdraftPlus – Free WordPress backup plugin
  • Sucuri – Free website malware scanner

There are many more free WordPress plugins to add different features and extend your WordPress site. See our best WordPress plugins category where we have reviewed hundreds of WordPress plugins.

Total Cost of website: $46 – $100 per year

What’s the Cost of a WordPress Site (with More Features)?


We always recommend our users to start small and then add more features as their website grow. This way you will not be paying for anything that you don’t really need.
As you add more features to your website, your website cost will start to increase.
You can continue to use Bluehost for WordPress hosting to keep the cost low and get a free domain name.

However since you will be adding more features to your website, it may make sense to get a more powerful hosting configuration like SiteGround’s GoGeek plan. This will cost you a little more, but it comes with premium features like staging, faster performance, and can handle up to 100,000 visitors per month.

You can use our SiteGround coupon to get 60% off for the first year of your hosting.

You can also go for a premium WordPress template for your site. Unlike free WordPress templates, these templates come with extra features and priority support. See our expert selection of 40 best responsive WordPress themes for some great premium templates that you can use.

For more website features you need to use a combination of free + paid plugin addons.

Here are some essential premium WordPress plugins and extensions that you’ll need as your site grows:


  • WPForms (Pro) – Adds a drag drop form builder to your WordPress site
  • Envira Gallery – WordPress image gallery plugin for photography or portfolio websites
  • Beaver Builder – Adds a drag and drop WordPress page builder


  • Constant Contact – One of the best Email marketing services
  • OptinMonster – Converts abandoning website visitors into subscribers. Lead generation for WordPress.
  • MonsterInsights Pro – See how visitors find and use your website.


  • BackupBuddy – For automatic WordPress backups
  • Sucuri Firewall – Website firewall and malware protection

There are many more WordPress plugins and services that you can add. Each paid service or addon that you add will increase the cost of your WordPress site.

Total cost of website: Depending on the premium WordPress plugins and services that you add, it can be anywhere between $500 and $1000 per year.

What’s the Cost of a WordPress Ecommerce Website?


WordPress powers millions of eCommerce websites around the world.

The cost of building a WordPress eCommerce website can be significantly higher, but we will show you how to build a WordPress eCommerce website while avoiding potential losses and overspending.

In addition to hosting and domain, your eCommerce site will also need an SSL certificate which costs around $69.99/year. SSL is required to securely transfer customer data such as credit card information, usernames, passwords, etc.

We recommend using Bluehost Ecommerce plan. It gives you a free domain and SSL certificate, plus discount on hosting.

After that, you need to select a WordPress eCommerce plugin.

There are several eCommerce plugins for WordPress, but none comes even close to WooCommerce. It is the most popular WordPress eCommerce plugin that allows you to build robust online stores to sell your products/services.

Next, you will need to install WordPress and WooCommerce on your website. We have a step by step guide on how to start an online store.

While WooCommerce is free, you will need to use paid addons for additional features. The cost of your website will go up depending on how many addons you need to add on your website.

Once you are up and running, you will need to choose a WooCommerce ready WordPress template for your site. There are several paid and free WordPress templates with full WooCommerce support. Choosing a premium or paid template gives you access to support and extra features.

We have a list of the best free WooCommerce addons, but depending on your needs, you may have to use some paid extensions as well.

Here are some other paid services that you’ll need on your eCommerce website.


  • WPForms – To add customer inquiries and feedback forms
  • Beaver Builder – To create stunning landing pages using a drag and drop page builder
  • Soliloquy – Create beautiful product sliders with their WooCommerce addon


  • OptinMonster – Convert visitors into customers with this powerful lead generation tool
  • Constant Contact – powerful email marketing service
  • MonsterInsights – Ecommerce tracking with real time stats using Google Analytics


  • BackupBuddy – Automatic WordPress backups
  • Sucuri – Website firewall and malware scanner

Remember the best way to keep your costs down is by starting small and adding extensions and services as your business grows.

Total cost of building a WordPress eCommerce website: $1000 – $3000. It could be higher depending on how many paid addons and services you add to your site.

What’s the Cost of a Custom WordPress Site?


A custom WordPress site is when you hire a WordPress developer to create a unique design and build specific features for it.

Usually well established, large to medium sized businesses choose this route.

To support a custom WordPress site, you may also want to go for a managed WordPress hosting provider. This is WordPress centric hosting environment, with managed updates, premium support, strict security, and developer friendly tools.

In addition to your hosting and domain name, you will also be paying the developer that’s building your website.

The cost of a custom website depends on your requirements, budget, and the rates of the developer or agency you hire.

A standard custom WordPress theme alone can cost you upto $5000. More robust WordPress sites with specific custom features can cost up to $15000 or even higher.

Update: Since several of you asked for a more details on this section, we have created a comprehensive guide on how much does a custom WordPress theme cost, and tips on how you can save money.

How to Avoid Overpaying and Cut Down Spending?

We always recommend our users to start small and then scale their WordPress site as it grows. In many cases you don’t need all the premium features that you see on many well established websites in your industry.

Keep in mind that those websites had a head start, and it likely took them time to figure out how to manage costs and grow their business.

You can start with a budget website using free plugins and template. Once you start getting visitors, you can consider adding premium features like a premium template, email marketing, paid backup plugin, website firewall and so on.

Same goes for your eCommerce website. Start with bare minimum and then as you start selling, you will find out exactly the tools that will help you and your customers.

Look for best WordPress deals and coupons to get additional discounts whenever you can.

Even for robust WordPress sites you don’t always need to hire a developer. We have step by step tutorials on how to create different types of WordPress websites such as:

  • How to create a business directory with WordPress
  • How to create an online review website with WordPress
  • How to build an auction website using WordPress
  • How to build a coupons website with WordPress
  • How to create a multilingual website with WordPress
  • How to create a job board with WordPress
  • How to create a questions & answers website with WordPress
  • How to create a portfolio website with WordPress
  • How to create a wiki knowledge base website using WordPress

We hope this article answered your questions about how much does it cost to build a WordPress website. You may also want to see our list of 25 legit ways to make money online blogging with WordPress.

If you liked this article, then please subscribe to our YouTube Channel for WordPress video tutorials. You can also find us on Twitter and Facebook.