Forbidden City

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1280px-Forbidden_City_Beijing_Shenwumen_Gate

The Forbidden City is a palace complex in central Beijing, China. The former seat of Imperial Chinese Dragon Throne from the Ming dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty—the years 1420 to 1912, it now houses the Palace Museum. The Forbidden City served as the home of emperors and their households as well as the ceremonial and political center of Chinese government for almost 500 years.

Constructed from 1406 to 1420, the complex consists of 980 buildings and covers 72 ha (over 180 acres). The palace exemplifies traditional Chinese palatial architecture, and has influenced cultural and architectural developments in East Asia and elsewhere. The Forbidden City was declared a World Heritage Site in 1987, and is listed by UNESCO as the largest collection of preserved ancient wooden structures in the world.

Since 1925 the Forbidden City has been under the charge of the Palace Museum, whose extensive collection of artwork and artefacts were built upon the imperial collections of the Ming and Qing dynasties. Part of the museum’s former collection is now in the National Palace Museum in Taipei. Both museums descend from the same institution, but were split after the Chinese Civil War. Since 2012, the Forbidden City has seen an average of 15 million visitors annually, and had 16 million visitors in 2016.

Opera Snapshot_2017-12-11_212950_www.google.com

Opera Snapshot_2017-12-11_211905_www.google.com

Opera Snapshot_2017-12-11_210610_en.wikipedia.org

Contents
1 Name
2 History
3 Description
3.1 Walls and gates
3.2 Outer Court or the Southern Section
3.3 Inner Court or the Northern Section
3.4 Religion
3.5 Surroundings
3.6 Symbolism
4 Collections
5 Influence

Name


The common English name “Forbidden City” is a translation of the Chinese name Zijin Cheng (Chinese: 紫禁城; pinyin: Zíjinchéng; literally: “Purple Forbidden City“). The name Zijin Cheng first formally appeared in 1576. Another English name of similar origin is “Forbidden Palace”.

The name “Zijin Cheng” is a name with significance on many levels. Zi, or “Purple”, refers to the North Star, which in ancient China was called the Ziwei Star, and in traditional Chinese astrology was the heavenly abode of the Celestial Emperor. The surrounding celestial region, the Ziwei Enclosure (Chinese: 紫微垣; pinyin: Zǐwēiyuán), was the realm of the Celestial Emperor and his family. The Forbidden City, as the residence of the terrestrial emperor, was its earthly counterpart. Jin, or “Forbidden”, referred to the fact that no one could enter or leave the palace without the emperor’s permission. Cheng means a city.

Today, the site is most commonly known in Chinese as Gùgōng (故宫), which means the “Former Palace”. The museum which is based in these buildings is known as the “Palace Museum” (Chinese: 故宫博物院; pinyin: Gùgōng Bówùyùan).

History


Verbotene-Stadt1500 (1)

The Forbidden City as depicted in a Ming dynasty painting

When Hongwu Emperor’s son Zhu Di became the Yongle Emperor, he moved the capital from Nanjing to Beijing, and construction began in 1406 on what would become the Forbidden City.

Construction lasted 14 years and required more than a million workers. Material used include whole logs of precious Phoebe zhennan wood (Chinese: 楠木; pinyin: nánmù) found in the jungles of south-western China, and large blocks of marble from quarries near Beijing. The floors of major halls were paved with “golden bricks” (Chinese: 金砖; pinyin: jīnzhuān), specially baked paving bricks from Suzhou.

From 1420 to 1644, the Forbidden City was the seat of the Ming dynasty. In April 1644, it was captured by rebel forces led by Li Zicheng, who proclaimed himself emperor of the Shun dynasty. He soon fled before the combined armies of former Ming general Wu Sangui and Manchu forces, setting fire to parts of the Forbidden City in the process.

By October, the Manchus had achieved supremacy in northern China, and a ceremony was held at the Forbidden City to proclaim the young Shunzhi Emperor as ruler of all China under the Qing dynasty. The Qing rulers changed the names on some of the principal buildings, to emphasise “Harmony” rather than “Supremacy”, made the name plates bilingual (Chinese and Manchu), and introduced Shamanist elements to the palace.

In 1860, during the Second Opium War, Anglo-French forces took control of the Forbidden City and occupied it until the end of the war. In 1900 Empress Dowager Cixi fled from the Forbidden City during the Boxer Rebellion, leaving it to be occupied by forces of the treaty powers until the following year.

Forbiddencity_notopen06

The East Glorious Gate under renovation as part of the 16-year restoration process

After being the home of 24 emperors – 14 of the Ming dynasty and 10 of the Qing dynasty – the Forbidden City ceased being the political centre of China in 1912 with the abdication of Puyi, the last Emperor of China. Under an agreement with the new Republic of China government, Puyi remained in the Inner Court, while the Outer Court was given over to public use, until he was evicted after a coup in 1924. The Palace Museum was then established in the Forbidden City in 1925. In 1933, the Japanese invasion of China forced the evacuation of the national treasures in the Forbidden City. Part of the collection was returned at the end of World War II, but the other part was evacuated to Taiwan in 1948 under orders by Chiang Kai-shek, whose Kuomintang was losing the Chinese Civil War. This relatively small but high quality collection was kept in storage until 1965, when it again became public, as the core of the National Palace Museum in Taipei.

After the establishment of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, some damage was done to the Forbidden City as the country was swept up in revolutionary zeal. During the Cultural Revolution, however, further destruction was prevented when Premier Zhou Enlai sent an army battalion to guard the city.

The Forbidden City was declared a World Heritage Site in 1987 by UNESCO as the “Imperial Palace of the Ming and Qing Dynasties”, due to its significant place in the development of Chinese architecture and culture. It is currently administered by the Palace Museum, which is carrying out a sixteen-year restoration project to repair and restore all buildings in the Forbidden City to their pre-1912 state.

In recent years, the presence of commercial enterprises in the Forbidden City has become controversial. A Starbucks store that opened in 2000 sparked objections and eventually closed on 13 July 2007. Chinese media also took notice of a pair of souvenir shops that refused to admit Chinese citizens in order to price-gouge foreign customers in 2006.

On November 8, 2017, President of the United States Donald Trump was the first US President to be granted a state dinner in the Forbidden City since the founding of the People’s Republic of China.

Description


1280px-The_Forbidden_City_-_View_from_Coal_Hill

The Forbidden City viewed from Jingshan Hill

Opera Snapshot_2017-12-11_213622_en.wikipedia.org

Forbidden_city_map_wp_1

The Forbidden City is a rectangle, with 961 metres (3,153 ft) from north to south and 753 metres (2,470 ft) from east to west. It consists of 980 surviving buildings with 8,886 bays of rooms. A common myth states that there are 9,999 rooms including antechambers, based on oral tradition, and it is not supported by survey evidence. The Forbidden City was designed to be the centre of the ancient, walled city of Beijing. It is enclosed in a larger, walled area called the Imperial City. The Imperial City is, in turn, enclosed by the Inner City; to its south lies the Outer City.

The Forbidden City remains important in the civic scheme of Beijing. The central north–south axis remains the central axis of Beijing. This axis extends to the south through Tiananmen gate to Tiananmen Square, the ceremonial centre of the People’s Republic of China, and on to Yongdingmen. To the north, it extends through Jingshan Hill to the Bell and Drum Towers. This axis is not exactly aligned north–south, but is tilted by slightly more than two degrees. Researchers now believe that the axis was designed in the Yuan dynasty to be aligned with Xanadu, the other capital of their empire.

Walls and Gates

Meridian_Gate,_Beijing

The Meridian Gate, front entrance to the Forbidden City, with two protruding wings

Corner_Tower_of_Forbidden_City

The northwest corner tower

1280px-Gate_of_Supreme_Harmony

The Gate of Supreme Harmony

The Forbidden City is surrounded by a 7.9 metres (26 ft) high city wall and a 6 metres (20 ft) deep by 52 metres (171 ft) wide moat. The walls are 8.62 metres (28.3 ft) wide at the base, tapering to 6.66 metres (21.9 ft) at the top. These walls served as both defensive walls and retaining walls for the palace. They were constructed with a rammed earth core, and surfaced with three layers of specially baked bricks on both sides, with the interstices filled with mortar.

At the four corners of the wall sit towers (E) with intricate roofs boasting 72 ridges, reproducing the Pavilion of Prince Teng and the Yellow Crane Pavilion as they appeared in Song dynasty paintings. These towers are the most visible parts of the palace to commoners outside the walls, and much folklore is attached to them. According to one legend, artisans could not put a corner tower back together after it was dismantled for renovations in the early Qing dynasty, and it was only rebuilt after the intervention of carpenter-immortal Lu Ban.

The wall is pierced by a gate on each side. At the southern end is the main Meridian Gate (A). To the north is the Gate of Divine Might (B), which faces Jingshan Park. The east and west gates are called the “East Glorious Gate” (D) and “West Glorious Gate” (C). All gates in the Forbidden City are decorated with a nine-by-nine array of golden door nails, except for the East Glorious Gate, which has only eight rows.

The Meridian Gate has two protruding wings forming three sides of a square (Wumen, or Meridian Gate, Square) before it. The gate has five gateways. The central gateway is part of the Imperial Way, a stone flagged path that forms the central axis of the Forbidden City and the ancient city of Beijing itself, and leads all the way from the Gate of China in the south to Jingshan in the north. Only the Emperor may walk or ride on the Imperial Way, except for the Empress on the occasion of her wedding, and successful students after the Imperial Examination.

Outer Court or the Southern Section

Hall_of_Supreme_Harmony,_Forbidden_City,_Beijing,_with_tourists_2

The Hall of Supreme Harmony

1280px-Sign_of_the_Hall_of_Supreme_Harmony

The name plate on the Hall of Supreme Harmony

Forbiddencitythroneroom01

The throne in the Hall of Preserving Harmony

Forbidden_city_05

The Hall of Central Harmony (foreground) and the Hall of Preserving Harmony

Traditionally, the Forbidden City is divided into two parts. The Outer Court (外朝) or Front Court (前朝) includes the southern sections, and was used for ceremonial purposes. The Inner Court (内廷) or Back Palace (后宫) includes the northern sections, and was the residence of the Emperor and his family, and was used for day-to-day affairs of state. (The approximate dividing line shown as red dash in the plan above.) Generally, the Forbidden City has three vertical axes. The most important buildings are situated on the central north–south axis.

Entering from the Meridian Gate, one encounters a large square, pierced by the meandering Inner Golden Water River, which is crossed by five bridges. Beyond the square stands the Gate of Supreme Harmony (F). Behind that is the Hall of Supreme Harmony Square. A three-tiered white marble terrace rises from this square. Three halls stand on top of this terrace, the focus of the palace complex. From the south, these are the Hall of Supreme Harmony (太和殿), the Hall of Central Harmony (中和殿), and the Hall of Preserving Harmony (保和殿).

The Hall of Supreme Harmony (G) is the largest, and rises some 30 metres (98 ft) above the level of the surrounding square. It is the ceremonial centre of imperial power, and the largest surviving wooden structure in China. It is nine bays wide and five bays deep, the numbers 9 and 5 being symbolically connected to the majesty of the Emperor. Set into the ceiling at the centre of the hall is an intricate caisson decorated with a coiled dragon, from the mouth of which issues a chandelier-like set of metal balls, called the “Xuanyuan Mirror”. In the Ming dynasty, the Emperor held court here to discuss affairs of state. During the Qing dynasty, as Emperors held court far more frequently, a less ceremonious location was used instead, and the Hall of Supreme Harmony was only used for ceremonial purposes, such as coronations, investitures, and imperial weddings.

The Hall of Central Harmony is a smaller, square hall, used by the Emperor to prepare and rest before and during ceremonies. Behind it, the Hall of Preserving Harmony, was used for rehearsing ceremonies, and was also the site of the final stage of the Imperial examination. All three halls feature imperial thrones, the largest and most elaborate one being that in the Hall of Supreme Harmony.

At the centre of the ramps leading up to the terraces from the northern and southern sides are ceremonial ramps, part of the Imperial Way, featuring elaborate and symbolic bas-relief carvings. The northern ramp, behind the Hall of Preserving Harmony, is carved from a single piece of stone 16.57 metres (54.4 ft) long, 3.07 metres (10.1 ft) wide, and 1.7 metres (5.6 ft) thick. It weighs some 200 tonnes and is the largest such carving in China. The southern ramp, in front of the Hall of Supreme Harmony, is even longer, but is made from two stone slabs joined together – the joint was ingeniously hidden using overlapping bas-relief carvings, and was only discovered when weathering widened the gap in the 20th century.

In the south west and south east of the Outer Court are the halls of Military Eminence (H) and Literary Glory (J). The former was used at various times for the Emperor to receive ministers and hold court, and later housed the Palace’s own printing house. The latter was used for ceremonial lectures by highly regarded Confucian scholars, and later became the office of the Grand Secretariat. A copy of the Siku Quanshu was stored there. To the north-east are the Southern Three Places (南三所) (K), which was the residence of the Crown Prince.

Inner Court or the Northern Section

The Inner Court is separated from the Outer Court by an oblong courtyard lying orthogonal to the City’s main axis. It was the home of the Emperor and his family. In the Qing dynasty, the Emperor lived and worked almost exclusively in the Inner Court, with the Outer Court used only for ceremonial purposes.

Gugong

The Palace of Heavenly Purity

Water_Spouts_in_the_Forbidden_City

Water spouts drain rainwater from upper level platforms on which the principal halls are built.

At the centre of the Inner Court is another set of three halls (L). From the south, these are the Palace of Heavenly Purity (乾清宮), Hall of Union, and the Palace of Earthly Tranquility. Smaller than the Outer Court halls, the three halls of the Inner Court were the official residences of the Emperor and the Empress. The Emperor, representing Yang and the Heavens, would occupy the Palace of Heavenly Purity. The Empress, representing Yin and the Earth, would occupy the Palace of Earthly Tranquility. In between them was the Hall of Union, where the Yin and Yang mixed to produce harmony.

Forbidden_City_August_2012_28

The throne in the Palace of Heavenly Purity

The Palace of Heavenly Purity is a double-eaved building, and set on a single-level white marble platform. It is connected to the Gate of Heavenly Purity to its south by a raised walkway. In the Ming dynasty, it was the residence of the Emperor. However, beginning from the Yongzheng Emperor of the Qing dynasty, the Emperor lived instead at the smaller Hall of Mental Cultivation (N) to the west, out of respect to the memory of the Kangxi Emperor. The Palace of Heavenly Purity then became the Emperor’s audience hall. A caisson is set into the roof, featuring a coiled dragon. Above the throne hangs a tablet reading “Justice and Honour” (Chinese: 正大光明; pinyin: zhèngdàguāngmíng).

The Palace of Earthly Tranquility (坤寧宮) is a double-eaved building, 9 bays wide and 3 bays deep. In the Ming dynasty, it was the residence of the Empress. In the Qing dynasty, large portions of the Palace were converted for Shamanist worship by the new Manchu rulers. From the reign of the Yongzheng Emperor, the Empress moved out of the Palace. However, two rooms in the Palace of Earthly Harmony were retained for use on the Emperor’s wedding night.

Between these two palaces is the Hall of Union, which is square in shape with a pyramidal roof. Stored here are the 25 Imperial Seals of the Qing dynasty, as well as other ceremonial items.

1280px-Neun-Drachen-Mauer

The Nine Dragons Screen in front of the Palace of Tranquil Longevity

Behind these three halls lies the Imperial Garden (M). Relatively small, and compact in design, the garden nevertheless contains several elaborate landscaping features. To the north of the garden is the Gate of Divine Might.

Directly to the west is the Hall of Mental Cultivation (N). Originally a minor palace, this became the de facto residence and office of the Emperor starting from Yongzheng. In the last decades of the Qing dynasty, empresses dowager, including Cixi, held court from the eastern partition of the hall. Located around the Hall of Mental Cultivation are the offices of the Grand Council and other key government bodies.

The north-eastern section of the Inner Court is taken up by the Palace of Tranquil Longevity (寧壽宮) (O), a complex built by the Qianlong Emperor in anticipation of his retirement. It mirrors the set-up of the Forbidden City proper and features an “outer court”, an “inner court”, and gardens and temples. The entrance to the Palace of Tranquil Longevity is marked by a glazed-tile Nine Dragons Screen. This section of the Forbidden City is being restored in a partnership between the Palace Museum and the World Monuments Fund, a long-term project expected to finish in 2017.

Religion

Religion was an important part of life for the imperial court. In the Qing dynasty, the Palace of Earthly Harmony became a place of Manchu Shamanist ceremony. At the same time, the native Chinese Taoist religion continued to have an important role throughout the Ming and Qing dynasties. There were two Taoist shrines, one in the imperial garden and another in the central area of the Inner Court.

Another prevalent form of religion in the Qing dynasty palace was Buddhism. A number of temples and shrines were scattered throughout the Inner Court, including that of Tibetan Buddhism or Lamaism. Buddhist iconography also proliferated in the interior decorations of many buildings. Of these, the Pavilion of the Rain of Flowers is one of the most important. It housed a large number of Buddhist statues, icons, and mandalas, placed in ritualistic arrangements.

Surroundings

Beijing_city_wall_map_vectorized.svg

Location of the Forbidden City in the historic centre of Beijing

The Forbidden City is surrounded on three sides by imperial gardens. To the north is Jingshan Park, also known as Prospect Hill, an artificial hill created from the soil excavated to build the moat and from nearby lakes.

To the west lies Zhongnanhai, a former royal garden centred on two connected lakes, which now serves as the central headquarters for the Communist Party of China and the State Council of the People’s Republic of China. To the north-west lies Beihai Park, also centred on a lake connected to the southern two, and a popular royal park.

To the south of the Forbidden City were two important shrines – the Imperial Shrine of Family or the Imperial Ancestral Temple (Chinese: 太廟; pinyin: Tàimiào) and the Imperial Shrine of State or Beijing Shejitan (Chinese: 社稷壇; pinyin: Shèjìtán), where the Emperor would venerate the spirits of his ancestors and the spirit of the nation, respectively. Today, these are the Beijing Labouring People’s Cultural Hall and Zhongshan Park (commemorating Sun Yat-sen) respectively.

To the south, two nearly identical gatehouses stand along the main axis. They are the Upright Gate (Chinese: 端门; pinyin: Duānmén) and the more famous Tiananmen Gate, which is decorated with a portrait of Mao Zedong in the centre and two placards to the left and right: “Long Live the People’s Republic of China” and “Long live the Great Unity of the World’s Peoples”. The Tiananmen Gate connects the Forbidden City precinct with the modern, symbolic centre of the Chinese state, Tiananmen Square.

While development is now tightly controlled in the vicinity of the Forbidden City, throughout the past century uncontrolled and sometimes politically motivated demolition and reconstruction has changed the character of the areas surrounding the Forbidden City. Since 2000, the Beijing municipal government has worked to evict governmental and military institutions occupying some historical buildings, and has established a park around the remaining parts of the Imperial City wall. In 2004, an ordinance relating to building height and planning restriction was renewed to establish the Imperial City area and the northern city area as a buffer zone for the Forbidden City. In 2005, the Imperial City and Beihai (as an extension item to the Summer Palace) were included in the shortlist for the next World Heritage Site in Beijing.

Symbolism

HighStatusRoofDeco

Imperial roof decoration of the highest status on the roof ridge of the Hall of Supreme Harmony

The design of the Forbidden City, from its overall layout to the smallest detail, was meticulously planned to reflect philosophical and religious principles, and above all to symbolise the majesty of Imperial power. Some noted examples of symbolic designs include:

  • Yellow is the color of the Emperor. Thus almost all roofs in the Forbidden City bear yellow glazed tiles. There are only two exceptions. The library at the Pavilion of Literary Profundity (文渊阁) had black tiles because black was associated with water, and thus fire-prevention. Similarly, the Crown Prince’s residences have green tiles because green was associated with wood, and thus growth.
  • The main halls of the Outer and Inner courts are all arranged in groups of three – the shape of the Qian triagram, representing Heaven. The residences of the Inner Court on the other hand are arranged in groups of six – the shape of the Kun triagram, representing the Earth.
  • The sloping ridges of building roofs are decorated with a line of statuettes led by a man riding a phoenix and followed by an imperial dragon. The number of statuettes represents the status of the building – a minor building might have 3 or 5.
  • The Hall of Supreme Harmony has 10, the only building in the country to be permitted this in Imperial times. As a result, its 10th statuette, called a “Hangshi”, or “ranked tenth” (Chinese: 行十; pinyin: Hángshí), is also unique in the Forbidden City.
    The layout of buildings follows ancient customs laid down in the Classic of Rites. Thus, ancestral temples are in front of the palace. Storage areas are placed in the front part of the palace complex, and residences in the back.

Collections


1280px-北京故宫12

Palace Museum exhibits on display in the corridor connecting the Hall of Literary Glory and the Hall of Main Respect

1280px-China_qing_two_blue_ceramics

Two Qing dynasty “blue porcelain” wares

661px-China_ming_blue_dragons

A blue and white porcelain vase with cloud and dragon designs, marked with the word “Longevity” (寿), Jiajing period of Ming dynasty

1225px-9_Zhao_Mengfu._Bathing_Horses._28.1_x_155.5_cm_Detail_of_the_scroll._Palace_Museum,_Beijing

Bathing Horses (section) by Zhao Mengfu (1254–1322)

734px-The_Qianlong_Emperor_in_Ceremonial_Armour_on_Horseback

Equestrian painting of the Qianlong Emperor (r. 1735–1796) by Giuseppe Castiglione

The collections of the Palace Museum are based on the Qing imperial collection. According to the results of a 1925 audit, some 1.17 million pieces of art were stored in the Forbidden City. In addition, the imperial libraries housed a large collection of rare books and historical documents, including government documents of the Ming and Qing dynasties.

From 1933, the threat of Japanese invasion forced the evacuation of the most important parts of the Museum’s collection. After the end of World War II, this collection was returned to Nanjing. However, with the Communists’ victory imminent in the Chinese Civil War, the Nationalist government decided to ship the pick of this collection to Taiwan. Of the 13,491 boxes of evacuated artefacts, 2,972 boxes are now housed in the National Palace Museum in Taipei. More than 8,000 boxes were returned to Beijing, but 2,221 boxes remain today in storage under the charge of the Nanjing Museum.

After 1949, the Museum conducted a new audit as well as a thorough search of the Forbidden City, uncovering a number of important items. In addition, the government moved items from other museums around the country to replenish the Palace Museum’s collection. It also purchased and received donations from the public.

Today, there are over a million rare and valuable works of art in the permanent collection of the Palace Museum, including paintings, ceramics, seals, steles, sculptures, inscribed wares, bronze wares, enamel objects, etc. A new inventory of the Museum’s collections was conducted between 2004 and 2010. Subsequently, the Palace Museum was shown to hold a total of 1,807,558 artefacts and includes 1,684,490 items designated as nationally protected “valuable cultural relics.” At the end of 2016, the Palace Museum held a press conference, announcing that 55,132 previously unlisted items had been discovered in an inventory check carried out from 2014 to 2016. The total number of items in the Palace Museum collection is presently at 1,862,690 objects.

Ceramics

The Palace Museum holds 340,000 pieces of ceramics and porcelain. These include imperial collections from the Tang dynasty and the Song dynasty, as well as pieces commissioned by the Palace, and, sometimes, by the Emperor personally. The Palace Museum holds about 320,000 pieces of porcelain from the imperial collection. The rest are almost all held in the National Palace Museum in Taipei and the Nanjing Museum.

Painting

The Palace Museum holds close to 50,000 paintings. Of these, more than 400 date from before the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368). This is the largest such collection in China. The collection is based on the palace collection in the Ming and Qing dynasties. The personal interest of Emperors such as Qianlong meant that the palace held one of the most important collections of paintings in Chinese history. However, a significant portion of this collection was lost over the years. After his abdication, Puyi transferred paintings out of the palace, and many of these were subsequently lost or destroyed. In 1948, many of the works were moved to Taiwan. The collection has subsequently been replenished, through donations, purchases, and transfers from other museums.

Bronzeware

The Palace Museum’s bronze collection dates from the early Shang dynasty. Of the almost 10,000 pieces held, about 1,600 are inscribed items from the pre-Qin period (to 221 BC). A significant part of the collection is ceremonial bronzeware from the imperial court.

Timepieces

The Palace Museum has one of the largest collections of mechanical timepieces of the 18th and 19th centuries in the world, with more than 1,000 pieces. The collection contains both Chinese- and foreign-made pieces. Chinese pieces came from the palace’s own workshops, Guangzhou (Canton) and Suzhou (Suchow). Foreign pieces came from countries including Britain, France, Switzerland, the United States and Japan. Of these, the largest portion come from Britain.

Jade

Jade has a unique place in Chinese culture. The Museum’s collection, mostly derived from the imperial collection, includes some 30,000 pieces. The pre-Yuan dynasty part of the collection includes several pieces famed throughout history, as well as artefacts from more recent archaeological discoveries. The earliest pieces date from the Neolithic period. Ming dynasty and Qing dynasty pieces, on the other hand, include both items for palace use, as well as tribute items from around the Empire and beyond.

Palace Artefacts

In addition to works of art, a large proportion of the Museum’s collection consists of the artefacts of the imperial court. This includes items used by the imperial family and the palace in daily life, as well as various ceremonial and bureaucratic items important to government administration. This comprehensive collection preserves the daily life and ceremonial protocols of the imperial era.

Exhibition_of_architecture_of_the_Forbidden_City_2015_December.jpg

In the East Glorious Gate

Meridian_Gate_(Forbidden_City)_West_wing_interior_2015_December

In the West Wing of the Meridian Gate

Influence


Forbidden_City_Imperial_Guardian_Lions

A gilded lion in front of the Palace of Tranquil Longevity

BuildingDecoration

Glazed building decoration

The Forbidden City, the culmination of the two-thousand-year development of classical Chinese and East Asian architecture, has been influential in the subsequent development of Chinese architecture, as well as providing inspiration for many artistic works. Some specific examples include:

Depiction in art, film, literature and popular culture

The Forbidden City has served as the scene to many works of fiction. In recent years, it has been depicted in films and television series. Some notable examples include:

  • The Forbidden City (1918), a fiction film about a Chinese emperor and an American.
    The Last Emperor (1987), a biographical film about Puyi, was the first feature film ever authorised by the government of the People’s Republic of China to be filmed in the Forbidden City.
  • Forbidden City Cop (1996) a Hong Kong wuxia comedy film about an imperial secret agent
  • Marco Polo a joint NBC and RAI TV miniseries broadcast in the early 1980s, was filmed inside the Forbidden City. Note, however, that the present Forbidden City did not exist in the Yuan dynasty, when Marco Polo met Kublai Khan.
  • The 2003 real-time strategy game Rise of Nations depicts the Forbidden City as one of the great wonders of the world; in terms of game mechanics, it functions identically to a major city and provides additional resources to the player.

Live Performance concert venue

The Forbidden City has also served as a performance venue. However, its use for this purpose is strictly limited, due to the heavy impact of equipment and performance on the ancient structures. Almost all performances said to be “in the Forbidden City” are held outside the palace walls.

  • In 1997, Greek-born composer and keyboardist Yanni performed a live concert in front of the Forbidden City the first modern Western artist to perform at the historic Chinese site. The concert was recorded and later released as part of the Tribute album.
  • Giacomo Puccini’s opera, Turandot, the story of a Chinese princess, was performed at the Imperial Shrine just outside the Forbidden City for the first time in 1998.
  • In 2001, the Three Tenors, Plácido Domingo and José Carreras and Luciano Pavarotti, sang in front of Forbidden City main gate as one of their performances.
  • In 2004, the French musician Jean Michel Jarre performed a live concert in front of the Forbidden City, accompanied by 260 musicians, as part of the “Year of France in China” festivities.

Great Wall of China

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1280px-The_Great_Wall_of_China_at_Jinshanling-edit

The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-to-west line across the historical northern borders of China to protect the Chinese states and empires against the raids and invasions of the various nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe. Several walls were being built as early as the 7th century BC; these, later joined together and made bigger and stronger, are collectively referred to as the Great Wall. Especially famous is the wall built in 220–206 BC by Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China. Little of that wall remains. The Great Wall has been rebuilt, maintained, and enhanced over various dynasties; the majority of the existing wall is from the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644).

Opera Snapshot_2017-12-11_205453_www.google.com

Apart from defense, other purposes of the Great Wall have included border controls, allowing the imposition of duties on goods transported along the Silk Road, regulation or encouragement of trade and the control of immigration and emigration. Furthermore, the defensive characteristics of the Great Wall were enhanced by the construction of watch towers, troop barracks, garrison stations, signaling capabilities through the means of smoke or fire, and the fact that the path of the Great Wall also served as a transportation corridor.

The Great Wall stretches from Dandong in the east to Lop Lake in the west, along an arc that roughly delineates the southern edge of Inner Mongolia. A comprehensive archaeological survey, using advanced technologies, has concluded that the Ming walls measure 8,850 km (5,500 mi). This is made up of 6,259 km (3,889 mi) sections of actual wall, 359 km (223 mi) of trenches and 2,232 km (1,387 mi) of natural defensive barriers such as hills and rivers. Another archaeological survey found that the entire wall with all of its branches measure out to be 21,196 km (13,171 mi). Today, the Great Wall is generally recognized as one of the most impressive architectural feats in history.

1273px-Map_of_the_Great_Wall_of_China

Opera Snapshot_2017-12-11_194528_en.wikipedia.org

Contents
1 Names
2 History
2.1 Early walls
2.2 Ming era
2.3 Foreign accounts
3 Course
4 Characteristics
5 Condition
6 Visibility from space
6.1 From the Moon
6.2 From low Earth orbit
7 Gallery

Names


The collection of fortifications known as the Great Wall of China has historically had a number of different names in both Chinese and English.

In Chinese histories, the term “Long Wall(s)” (長城, changcheng) appears in Sima Qian’s Records of the Grand Historian, where it referred to both the separate great walls built between and north of the Warring States and to the more unified construction of the First Emperor. The Chinese character 城 is a phono-semantic compound of the “place” or “earth” radical 土 and 成, whose Old Chinese pronunciation has been reconstructed as *deŋ. It originally referred to the rampart which surrounded traditional Chinese cities and was used by extension for these walls around their respective states; today, however, it is much more often the Chinese word for “city”.

The longer Chinese name “Ten-Thousand Mile Long Wall” (萬里長城, Wanli Changcheng) came from Sima Qian’s description of it in the Records, though he did not name the walls as such. The ad 493 Book of Song quotes the frontier general Tan Daoji referring to “the long wall of 10,000 miles”, closer to the modern name, but the name rarely features in pre-modern times otherwise. The traditional Chinese mile (里, lǐ) was an often irregular distance that was intended to show the length of a standard village and varied with terrain but was usually standardized at distances around a third of an English mile (540 m). Since China’s metrication in 1930, it has been exactly equivalent to 500 metres or 1,600 feet, which would make the wall’s name describe a distance of 5,000 km (3,100 mi). However, this use of “ten-thousand” (wàn) is figurative in a similar manner to the Greek and English myriad and simply means “innumerable” or “immeasurable”.

Because of the wall’s association with the First Emperor’s supposed tyranny, the Chinese dynasties after Qin usually avoided referring to their own additions to the wall by the name “Long Wall”. Instead, various terms were used in medieval records, including “frontier(s)” (塞, sāi), “rampart(s)” (垣, yuán), “barrier(s)” (障, zhàng), “the outer fortresses” (外堡, wàibǎo), and “the border wall(s)” (t 邊牆, s 边墙, biānqiáng). Poetic and informal names for the wall included “the Purple Frontier” (紫塞, Zǐsāi) and “the Earth Dragon” (t 土龍, s 土龙, Tǔlóng). Only during the Qing period did “Long Wall” become the catch-all term to refer to the many border walls regardless of their location or dynastic origin, equivalent to the English “Great Wall”.

The current English name evolved from accounts of “the Chinese wall” from early modern European travelers. By the 19th century, “The Great Wall of China” had become standard in English, French, and German, although other European languages continued to refer to it as “the Chinese wall”.

History


Early walls

GreatWallofQinDynasty

The Great Wall of the Qin

GreatWallOfHanDynasty

The Great Wall of the Han

The Chinese were already familiar with the techniques of wall-building by the time of the Spring and Autumn period between the 8th and 5th centuries BC. During this time and the subsequent Warring States period, the states of Qin, Wei, Zhao, Qi, Yan, and Zhongshan all constructed extensive fortifications to defend their own borders. Built to withstand the attack of small arms such as swords and spears, these walls were made mostly by stamping earth and gravel between board frames.

King Zheng of Qin conquered the last of his opponents and unified China as the First Emperor of the Qin dynasty (“Qin Shi Huang”) in 221 BC. Intending to impose centralized rule and prevent the resurgence of feudal lords, he ordered the destruction of the sections of the walls that divided his empire among the former states. To position the empire against the Xiongnu people from the north, however, he ordered the building of new walls to connect the remaining fortifications along the empire’s northern frontier. Transporting the large quantity of materials required for construction was difficult, so builders always tried to use local resources. Stones from the mountains were used over mountain ranges, while rammed earth was used for construction in the plains. There are no surviving historical records indicating the exact length and course of the Qin walls. Most of the ancient walls have eroded away over the centuries, and very few sections remain today. The human cost of the construction is unknown, but it has been estimated by some authors that hundreds of thousands, if not up to a million, workers died building the Qin wall. Later, the Han, the Sui, and the Northern dynasties all repaired, rebuilt, or expanded sections of the Great Wall at great cost to defend themselves against northern invaders. The Tang and Song dynasties did not undertake any significant effort in the region. The Liao, Jin, and Yuan dynasties, who ruled Northern China throughout most of the 10th–13th centuries, constructed defensive walls in the 12th century but those were located much to the north of the Great Wall as we know it, within China’s province of Inner Mongolia and in Mongolia itself.

Ming Era

GreatWallChina4

The extent of the Ming Empire and its walls

The Great Wall concept was revived again under the Ming in the 14th century, and following the Ming army’s defeat by the Oirats in the Battle of Tumu. The Ming had failed to gain a clear upper hand over the Mongolian tribes after successive battles, and the long-drawn conflict was taking a toll on the empire. The Ming adopted a new strategy to keep the nomadic tribes out by constructing walls along the northern border of China. Acknowledging the Mongol control established in the Ordos Desert, the wall followed the desert’s southern edge instead of incorporating the bend of the Yellow River.

Unlike the earlier fortifications, the Ming construction was stronger and more elaborate due to the use of bricks and stone instead of rammed earth. Up to 25,000 watchtowers are estimated to have been constructed on the wall. As Mongol raids continued periodically over the years, the Ming devoted considerable resources to repair and reinforce the walls. Sections near the Ming capital of Beijing were especially strong. Qi Jiguang between 1567 and 1570 also repaired and reinforced the wall, faced sections of the ram-earth wall with bricks and constructed 1,200 watchtowers from Shanhaiguan Pass to Changping to warn of approaching Mongol raiders. During the 1440s–1460s, the Ming also built a so-called “Liaodong Wall”. Similar in function to the Great Wall (whose extension, in a sense, it was), but more basic in construction, the Liaodong Wall enclosed the agricultural heartland of the Liaodong province, protecting it against potential incursions by Jurched-Mongol Oriyanghan from the northwest and the Jianzhou Jurchens from the north. While stones and tiles were used in some parts of the Liaodong Wall, most of it was in fact simply an earth dike with moats on both sides.

Towards the end of the Ming, the Great Wall helped defend the empire against the Manchu invasions that began around 1600. Even after the loss of all of Liaodong, the Ming army held the heavily fortified Shanhai Pass, preventing the Manchus from conquering the Chinese heartland. The Manchus were finally able to cross the Great Wall in 1644, after Beijing had already fallen to Li Zicheng’s rebels. Before this time, the Manchus had crossed the Great Wall multiple times to raid, but this time it was for conquest. The gates at Shanhai Pass were opened on May 25 by the commanding Ming general, Wu Sangui, who formed an alliance with the Manchus, hoping to use the Manchus to expel the rebels from Beijing. The Manchus quickly seized Beijing, and eventually defeated both the rebel-founded Shun dynasty and the remaining Ming resistance, establishing the Qing dynasty rule over all of China.

Under Qing rule, China’s borders extended beyond the walls and Mongolia was annexed into the empire, so constructions on the Great Wall were discontinued. On the other hand, the so-called Willow Palisade, following a line similar to that of the Ming Liaodong Wall, was constructed by the Qing rulers in Manchuria. Its purpose, however, was not defense but rather migration control.

Foreign accounts

590px-Part_of_the_Great_Wall_of_China_(April_1853,_X,_p.41)_-_Copy

Part of the Great Wall of China (April 1853, X, p. 41)

Greatwall_large

The Great Wall in 1907

None of the Europeans who visited Yuan China or Mongolia, such as Marco Polo, Giovanni da Pian del Carpine, William of Rubruck, Giovanni de’ Marignolli and Odoric of Pordenone, mentioned the Great Wall.

The North African traveler Ibn Battuta, who also visited China during the Yuan dynasty ca. 1346, had heard about China’s Great Wall, possibly before he had arrived in China. He wrote that the wall is “sixty days’ travel” from Zeitun (modern Quanzhou) in his travelogue Gift to Those Who Contemplate the Wonders of Cities and the Marvels of Travelling. He associated it with the legend of the wall mentioned in the Qur’an, which Dhul-Qarnayn (commonly associated with Alexander the Great) was said to have erected to protect people near the land of the rising sun from the savages of Gog and Magog. However, Ibn Battuta could find no one who had either seen it or knew of anyone who had seen it, suggesting that although there were remnants of the wall at that time, they weren’t significant.

Soon after Europeans reached Ming China by ship in the early 16th century, accounts of the Great Wall started to circulate in Europe, even though no European was to see it for another century. Possibly one of the earliest European descriptions of the wall and of its significance for the defense of the country against the “Tartars” (i.e. Mongols), may be the one contained in João de Barros’s 1563 Asia. Other early accounts in Western sources include those of Gaspar da Cruz, Bento de Goes, Matteo Ricci, and Bishop Juan González de Mendoza. In 1559, in his work “A Treatise of China and the Adjoyning Regions,” Gaspar da Cruz offers an early discussion of the Great Wall. Perhaps the first recorded instance of a European actually entering China via the Great Wall came in 1605, when the Portuguese Jesuit brother Bento de Góis reached the northwestern Jiayu Pass from India. Early European accounts were mostly modest and empirical, closely mirroring contemporary Chinese understanding of the Wall, although later they slid into hyperbole, including the erroneous but ubiquitous claim that the Ming Walls were the same ones that were built by the First Emperor in the 3rd century BC.

When China opened its borders to foreign merchants and visitors after its defeat in the First and Second Opium Wars, the Great Wall became a main attraction for tourists. The travelogues of the later 19th century further enhanced the reputation and the mythology of the Great Wall, such that in the 20th century, a persistent misconception exists about the Great Wall of China being visible from the Moon or even Mars.

Course


Great_Wall_of_China_location_map

The main sections of the Great Wall that are still standing today

1280px-20090529_Great_Wall_8185

An area of the sections of the Great Wall at Jinshanling

Although a formal definition of what constitutes a “Great Wall” has not been agreed upon, making the full course of the Great Wall difficult to describe in its entirety, the course of the main Great Wall line following Ming constructions can be charted.

The Jiayu Pass, located in Gansu province, is the western terminus of the Ming Great Wall. Although Han fortifications such as Yumen Pass and the Yang Pass exist further west, the extant walls leading to those passes are difficult to trace. From Jiayu Pass the wall travels discontinuously down the Hexi Corridor and into the deserts of Ningxia, where it enters the western edge of the Yellow River loop at Yinchuan. Here the first major walls erected during the Ming dynasty cuts through the Ordos Desert to the eastern edge of the Yellow River loop. There at Piantou Pass (t 偏頭關, s 偏头关, Piāntóuguān) in Xinzhou, Shanxi province, the Great Wall splits in two with the “Outer Great Wall” (t 外長城, s 外长城, Wài Chǎngchéng) extending along the Inner Mongolia border with Shanxi into Hebei province, and the “inner Great Wall” (t 內長城, s 內长城, Nèi Chǎngchéng) running southeast from Piantou Pass for some 400 km (250 mi), passing through important passes like the Pingxing Pass and Yanmen Pass before joining the Outer Great Wall at Sihaiye (四海冶, Sìhǎiyě), in Beijing’s Yanqing County.

The sections of the Great Wall around Beijing municipality are especially famous: they were frequently renovated and are regularly visited by tourists today. The Badaling Great Wall near Zhangjiakou is the most famous stretch of the Wall, for this is the first section to be opened to the public in the People’s Republic of China, as well as the showpiece stretch for foreign dignitaries. South of Badaling is the Juyong Pass; when used by the Chinese to protect their land, this section of the wall had many guards to defend China’s capital Beijing. Made of stone and bricks from the hills, this portion of the Great Wall is 7.8 m (25 ft 7 in) high and 5 m (16 ft 5 in) wide.

One of the most striking sections of the Ming Great Wall is where it climbs extremely steep slopes in Jinshanling. There it runs 11 km (7 mi) long, ranges from 5 to 8 m (16 ft 5 in to 26 ft 3 in) in height, and 6 m (19 ft 8 in) across the bottom, narrowing up to 5 m (16 ft 5 in) across the top. Wangjinglou (t 望京樓, s 望京楼, Wàngjīng Lóu) is one of Jinshanling’s 67 watchtowers, 980 m (3,220 ft) above sea level. Southeast of Jinshanling is the Mutianyu Great Wall which winds along lofty, cragged mountains from the southeast to the northwest for 2.25 km (1.40 mi). It is connected with Juyongguan Pass to the west and Gubeikou to the east. This section was one of the first to be renovated following the turmoil of the Cultural Revolution.

At the edge of the Bohai Gulf is Shanhai Pass, considered the traditional end of the Great Wall and the “First Pass Under Heaven”. The part of the wall inside Shanhai Pass that meets the sea is named the “Old Dragon Head”. 3 km (2 mi) north of Shanhai Pass is Jiaoshan Great Wall (焦山長城), the site of the first mountain of the Great Wall. 15 km (9 mi) northeast from Shanhaiguan is Jiumenkou (t 九門口, s 九门口, Jiǔménkǒu), which is the only portion of the wall that was built as a bridge. Beyond Jiumenkou, an offshoot known as the Liaodong Wall continues through Liaoning province and terminates at the Hushan Great Wall, in the city of Dandong near the North Korean border.

In 2009, 180 km of previously unknown sections of the wall concealed by hills, trenches and rivers were discovered with the help of infrared range finders and GPS devices. In March and April 2015 nine sections with a total length of more than 10 km (6 mi), believed to be part of the Great Wall, were discovered along the border of Ningxia autonomous region and Gansu province.

Characteristics


1280px-Chemin_de_ronde_muraille_long

The Great Wall at Mutianyu, near Beijing

1280px-Great_Wall_of_China_in_tourist_season

Great Wall of China in tourist season

Before the use of bricks, the Great Wall was mainly built from rammed earth, stones, and wood. During the Ming, however, bricks were heavily used in many areas of the wall, as were materials such as tiles, lime, and stone. The size and weight of the bricks made them easier to work with than earth and stone, so construction quickened. Additionally, bricks could bear more weight and endure better than rammed earth. Stone can hold under its own weight better than brick, but is more difficult to use. Consequently, stones cut in rectangular shapes were used for the foundation, inner and outer brims, and gateways of the wall. Battlements line the uppermost portion of the vast majority of the wall, with defensive gaps a little over 30 cm (12 in) tall, and about 23 cm (9.1 in) wide. From the parapets, guards could survey the surrounding land. Communication between the army units along the length of the Great Wall, including the ability to call reinforcements and warn garrisons of enemy movements, was of high importance. Signal towers were built upon hill tops or other high points along the wall for their visibility. Wooden gates could be used as a trap against those going through. Barracks, stables, and armories were built near the wall’s inner surface.

Condition


A_long_stretch_of_the_Great_Wall

A more rural portion of the Great Wall that stretches throughout the mountains, here seen in slight disrepair

1280px-The_Great_Wall_of_China_in_a_clear_day_at_Badaling

The Great Wall of China at Badaling

While portions north of Beijing and near tourist centers have been preserved and even extensively renovated, in many other locations the Wall is in disrepair. Those parts might serve as a village playground or a source of stones to rebuild houses and roads. Sections of the Wall are also prone to graffiti and vandalism, while inscribed bricks were pilfered and sold on the market for up to 50 renminbi. Parts have been destroyed because the Wall is in the way of construction. A 2012 report by the State Administration of Cultural Heritage states that 22% of the Ming Great Wall has disappeared, while 1,961 km (1,219 mi) of wall have vanished. More than 60 km (37 mi) of the wall in Gansu province may disappear in the next 20 years, due to erosion from sandstorms. In some places, the height of the wall has been reduced from more than 5 m (16 ft 5 in) to less than 2 m (6 ft 7 in). Various square lookout towers that characterize the most famous images of the wall have disappeared. Many western sections of the wall are constructed from mud, rather than brick and stone, and thus are more susceptible to erosion. In 2014 a portion of the wall near the border of Liaoning and Hebei province was repaired with concrete. The work has been much criticized.

Visibility from space


From the Moon

One of the earliest known references to the myth that the Great Wall can be seen from the moon appears in a letter written in 1754 by the English antiquary William Stukeley. Stukeley wrote that, “This mighty wall of four score miles km] in length is only exceeded by the Chinese Wall, which makes a considerable figure upon the terrestrial globe, and may be discerned at the Moon.” The claim was also mentioned by Henry Norman in 1895 where he states “besides its age it enjoys the reputation of being the only work of human hands on the globe visible from the Moon.” The issue of “canals” on Mars was prominent in the late 19th century and may have led to the belief that long, thin objects were visible from space. The claim that the Great Wall is visible from the moon also appears in 1932’s Ripley’s Believe It or Not! strip and in Richard Halliburton’s 1938 book Second Book of Marvels.

The claim the Great Wall is visible from the moon has been debunked many times, but is still ingrained in popular culture. The wall is a maximum 9.1 m (29 ft 10 in) wide, and is about the same color as the soil surrounding it. Based on the optics of resolving power (distance versus the width of the iris: a few millimeters for the human eye, meters for large telescopes) only an object of reasonable contrast to its surroundings which is 110 km (70 mi) or more in diameter (1 arc-minute) would be visible to the unaided eye from the Moon, whose average distance from Earth is 384,393 km (238,851 mi). The apparent width of the Great Wall from the Moon is the same as that of a human hair viewed from 3 km (2 mi) away. To see the wall from the Moon would require spatial resolution 17,000 times better than normal (20/20) vision. Unsurprisingly, no lunar astronaut has ever claimed to have seen the Great Wall from the Moon.

From low Earth orbit

Great_Wall_of_China,_Satellite_image

A satellite image of a section of the Great Wall in northern Shanxi, running diagonally from lower left to upper right and not to be confused with the more prominent river running from upper left to lower right. The region pictured is 12 km × 12 km (7 mi × 7 mi).

A more controversial question is whether the Wall is visible from low Earth orbit (an altitude of as little as 160 km (100 mi)). NASA claims that it is barely visible, and only under nearly perfect conditions; it is no more conspicuous than many other man-made objects. Other authors have argued that due to limitations of the optics of the eye and the spacing of photoreceptors on the retina, it is impossible to see the wall with the naked eye, even from low orbit, and would require visual acuity of 20/3 (7.7 times better than normal).

Astronaut William Pogue thought he had seen it from Skylab but discovered he was actually looking at the Grand Canal of China near Beijing. He spotted the Great Wall with binoculars, but said that “it wasn’t visible to the unaided eye.” U.S. Senator Jake Garn claimed to be able to see the Great Wall with the naked eye from a space shuttle orbit in the early 1980s, but his claim has been disputed by several U.S. astronauts. Veteran U.S. astronaut Gene Cernan has stated: “At Earth orbit of 100 to 200 miles 160 to 320 km] high, the Great Wall of China is, indeed, visible to the naked eye.” Ed Lu, Expedition 7 Science Officer aboard the International Space Station, adds that, “it’s less visible than a lot of other objects. And you have to know where to look.”

In 2001, Neil Armstrong stated about the view from Apollo 11: “I do not believe that, at least with my eyes, there would be any man-made object that I could see. I have not yet found somebody who has told me they’ve seen the Wall of China from Earth orbit. … I’ve asked various people, particularly Shuttle guys, that have been many orbits around China in the daytime, and the ones I’ve talked to didn’t see it.”

In October 2003, Chinese astronaut Yang Liwei stated that he had not been able to see the Great Wall of China. In response, the European Space Agency (ESA) issued a press release reporting that from an orbit between 160 and 320 km (100 and 200 mi), the Great Wall is visible to the naked eye, even though the ISS is in low Earth orbit, not space. In an attempt to further clarify things, the ESA published a picture of a part of the “Great Wall” photographed from low orbit. However, in a press release a week later, they acknowledged that the “Great Wall” in the picture was actually a river.

Leroy Chiao, a Chinese-American astronaut, took a photograph from the International Space Station that shows the wall. It was so indistinct that the photographer was not certain he had actually captured it. Based on the photograph, the China Daily later reported that the Great Wall can be seen from ‘space’ with the naked eye, under favorable viewing conditions, if one knows exactly where to look. However, the resolution of a camera can be much higher than the human visual system, and the optics much better, rendering photographic evidence irrelevant to the issue of whether it is visible to the naked eye.

Gallery


_The_First_Mound_--the_west_end_of_the_Great_Wall

GreatWall_2004_Summer_1A

1280px-Great_Wall_at_Simatai_overlooking_gorge (1).jpg

1280px-MutianyuGreatWallWildSection

1280px-Great_wall_stops_in_see

 

I Am A Newborn Photographer And I Create Sweet Images Of Sweet Babies

Source: boredpanda | 1K views 1 week ago by​ Mandy Marie

I love babies and I love food. Don’t we all? And what is better than a squishy baby sleeping on something sweet?

My name is Mandy and I am a newborn photographer with Tiny Times Photography.

These little “short stacks” were ideas I had in my head for a very long time. All I needed was the right babies for my strawberry and blueberry pancakes, giant donuts with sprinkles and peach waffles. Yum!

Don’t you just want to eat them up? Yes, all the food is REAL!

All the babies were safely handled and parents were present the entire time.

Yes, the donuts are REAL!! (these are from an amazing local bakery called @DotDonuts

FB_IMG_1512174111149-5a21f17d12714__880

Beautiful hand-made hat from @BostonBeanies

Sweet-sweet-baby-5a21f2d7dce00__880

Beautiful hand-made hat from @BostonBeanies

Sweet-sweet-baby-5a21f2e617662__880

Beautiful hand-made hat from @BostonBeanies

Sweet-sweet-baby-5a21f31d9d606__880

 

I Take Photos Of Seoul At Night

Source: boredpanda | 1Kviews | By​ Noe Alonzo

I enjoy going out at night to take photos around Seoul city. This is especially try when it is raining or afterwards since you can get many beautiful reflections and I think people walking around in umbrellas looks really nice. Funny enough, I started trying to take these kind of pictures after seeing other photographer’s photos of places like Japan or Hong Kong, but sadly not too many photographers come to Seoul. Hopefully, my photos will make others think about coming to Seoul sometime and enjoy its vibrant nightlife.

Business-Men-5a262c49e83dc__880

DDP-5a262c4e8fcaf__880

Euljiro-Late-5a262c58ee946__880

Jongro-Rainy-5a262c5ff1823__880

Donam-5a262c5176c77__880

Dongdaemun-5a262c54aaf62__880

Fish-Street-5a262c5c42868__880

Jongro-5a262c6358430__880

Namdaemun-5a262c6642772__880

Sungshin-Alley-5a262c683e134__880

 

Amazing Iceland Aerial Images Show Why The Country Is So Popular For Movies

Source: boredpanda By​ Albert | More info: albertdros__com

Everyone knows the classic images of Iceland. The famous Skogafoss, The Black Beach, The Blue Lagoon, you name it. On a recent trip to Iceland me and Serena Ho decided we wanted to shoot something a little bit different. While the Iceland Highlands are a popular area as well, it is much easier to get unique vantage points especially from a plane. For this series we flew over the highlands for a couple of hours with varied conditions that Iceland is known for. We ended up with a set of images of both wide landscapes and alien textures straight down to show Iceland’s amazing landscapes. It is of no wonder that a lot of movies and series were recorded in this area, one of them being Game of Thrones.

For this series we used the Sony A7R2 with the Sony 16-35 f/2.8 GM lens and the Canon 5DSr with the Canon 24-70 f/2.8.

Amazing-Iceland-Aerial-Images-Show-Why-The-Country-Is-So-Popular-For-Movies-599ef69567569__880

Amazing-Iceland-Aerial-Images-Show-Why-The-Country-Is-So-Popular-For-Movies-599ef5f27abf3__880

Amazing-Iceland-Aerial-Images-Show-Why-The-Country-Is-So-Popular-For-Movies-599ef5eb9e61a__880

Amazing-Iceland-Aerial-Images-Show-Why-The-Country-Is-So-Popular-For-Movies-599ef64e8fc59__880

Amazing-Iceland-Aerial-Images-Show-Why-The-Country-Is-So-Popular-For-Movies-599ef68956299__880

Amazing-Iceland-Aerial-Images-Show-Why-The-Country-Is-So-Popular-For-Movies-599ef68432595__880

Amazing-Iceland-Aerial-Images-Show-Why-The-Country-Is-So-Popular-For-Movies-599ef690af135__880

Amazing-Iceland-Aerial-Images-Show-Why-The-Country-Is-So-Popular-For-Movies-599ef67a0b60a__880

1-valley-of-the-gods-599ef52903bf3__880

 

I’ve Been Waiting For 5 Years For This Very Moment

boredpanda, 1K views, 2 weeks ago by​ Adam Freundlich

I’ve been chasing the morning fog rolling through my hometown for almost 5 years.
Today nature gave me everything I ever wanted to catch on camera, somehow giving credit for all the morning I woke up early to catch the misty sunrise, but all that I got was boring cloudy sky.

Having these images of Oradea, for the first time I can that I have some truly unique images of my city!

“V” over the fog

IMG_0166-5a16ff95df7db__880

The Ray

IMG_0167-5a16ff9b0fc7e__880

Taller than the Fog

IMG_0161-5a16ffc799306__880

Colorful City

IMG_0168-5a16ffa088f4a__880

Smoke on the City

IMG_0165-5a16ff908bbfe__880

In God We Trust

IMG_0128-5a16ffaa49b8a__880

Stick Towers

IMG_0139-5a16ffae3ef7d__880

Colorful City II

IMG_0169-5a16ffa55fb36__880

Buildings in the Ocean

IMG_0145-5a16ffb16cbe6__880

Smoke on the City II

IMG_0152-5a16ffb7d41ef__880

Over the Clouds

IMG_0153-5a16ffbe307c5__880

Over the Clouds II

IMG_0162-5a16ffcc3a9ad__880

Hotel in the Clouds

IMG_0157-5a16ffc3ea09c__880

 

 

I Photographed The Exact Same Place During Different Times Of Year

Source: Boredpanda By​ Albert | More info: albertdros__com

Throughout the years I noticed that I visit the same locations around my house many times to see how they would look during different seasons and different times of a day. Sometimes the area where you live would not be motivating to photograph because you see these things every day. However, when I started photography I began to see the world (and my home area) in a different way.

I started looking for compositions everywhere and I now have a bunch of spots that I’d like to revisit. I am always surprised that these spots almost never look the same. This is an example of a tree lane about 5 minutes drive from my house. There are 7 shots taken throughout the year in different seasons and different times of the day. Even during specific seasons with only a few days difference, things can look totally different in a photograph.

#1 End Autumn Evening

lane3-5a2443917d60f__880

#2 Winter

lane4-5a244395239be__880

#3 Summer

lane6-5a24438953587__880

#4 Mid Autumn

lane7-5a24439e2f9de__880

#5 Evening Lights

lane5-5a24439939e90__880

#6 Spring

lane1-5a24438befa91__880

#7 End Autumn Morning

lane2-5a24438ef0bcf__880

Maps They Didn’t Teach You In School

6 years ago by​ Tom

Ever wondered how your penis or breast size compares to the rest of the world? Which countries smile and which countries don’t? How smart are your fellow countrymen compared to the other nations? And nobody taught you that in school? Well, we collected a list of offbeat and fun maps that will answer your questions!

World Map of The Penis Size Worldwide

penis-world-map-large

Data: everyoneweb

The Breast Cup Size Worldwide

breast-world-map-large

Data: targetmap

World Map of Happiness

world-map-of-happiness-large

The Gallup researchers found evidence of what many have long suspected: money does buy happiness–at least a certain kind of it. In a related report, they studied the reasons why countries with high gross domestic products won out for well-being, and found an association between life satisfaction and income. Data: Gallup World Poll (full table of The World’s Happiest Countries)

World Map of Social Networks

world-map-of-social-networks-large

Nuclear Power Plants Worldwide

nuclear-power-world-map

Data: nuclearinfo

World Map of National IQ Scores

iq-world-map-large

The intelligence scores came from work carried out earlier this decade by Richard Lynn, a British psychologist, and Tatu Vanhanen, a Finnish political scientist, who analysed IQ studies from 113 countries, and from subsequent work by Jelte Wicherts, a Dutch psychologist. (Data: photius)

Rupiah

Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

Rupiah adalah mata uang resmi Indonesia. Mata uang ini dicetak dan diatur penggunaannya oleh Bank Indonesia dengan kode ISO 4217 IDR. Secara tidak formal, orang Indonesia juga menyebut mata uang ini dengan nama “perak”. Satu rupiah dibagi menjadi 100 sen, walaupun inflasi telah membuatnya tidak digunakan lagi kecuali hanya pada pencatatan di pembukuan bank.

Opera Snapshot_2017-12-11_072433_id.wikipedia.org

677px-Indonesian_Rupiah_(IDR)_banknotes2009

Contoh rupiah dalam bentuk uang kertas (setelah tahun 2009).

Indonesian_Rupiah_2008

Contoh rupiah dalam bentuk uang kertas (sebelum tahun 2005).

WR_Soepratman

Wage Rudolf Soepratman pada uang kertas Rp50.000.

Daftar isi [sembunyikan]
1 Sejarah
1.1 Satuan di bawah rupiah
1.2 Satuan di atas rupiah
2 Sejarah nilai tukar rupiah terhadap 1 dolar Amerika Serikat
3 Redenominasi
4 Uang baru emisi tahun 2014
5 Uang baru emisi tahun 2016
6 Daftar mata uang bernama seperti rupiah
6.1 Sudah tidak ada
6.2 Fiksi
7 Referensi
8 Pranala luar

Sejarah


Nama rupiah sering dikaitkan dengan rupee mata uang India, yang berasal dari bahasa sansekerta rupya yang berarti koin perak. Namun sebagian berpendapat bahwa nama rupiah berasal langsung dari bahasa Sansekerta dan bukan turunan dari mata uang India tersebut. Kata rupiah sendiri merupakan pelafalan asli Indonesia karena adanya penambahan huruf ’h’ di akhir kata rupya, sangat khas sebagai pelafalan orang-orang Jawa.

Pada masa-masa awal kemerdekaan, Indonesia belum menggunakan mata uang rupiah namun menggunakan mata uang resmi yang dikenal sebagai ORI. ORI memiliki jangka waktu peredaran di Indonesia selama 4 tahun, ORI sudah mulai digunakan semenjak 1945-1949. Namun, penggunaan ORI secara sah baru dimulai semenjak diresmikannya mata uang ini oleh pemerintah sebagai mata uang Indonesia pada 30 Oktober 1946. Pada masa awal, ORI dicetak oleh Percetakan Canisius dengan bentuk dan desain yang sangat sederhana dan menggunakan pengaman serat halus. Bahkan dapat dikatakan ORI pada masa tersebut merupakan mata uang yang sangat sederhana, seadanya, dan cenderung berkualitas kurang, apalagi jika dibandingkan dengan mata uang lainnya yang beredar di Indonesia. Pada masa awal kemerdekaan tersebut, ORI beredar luas di masyarakat meskipun uang ini hanya dicetak di Yogyakarta. ORI sedikitnya sudah dicetak sebanyak lima kali dalam jangka waktu empat tahun antara lain, cetakan I pada 17 Oktober 1945, seri II pada 1 Januari 1947, seri III dikeluarkan pada 26 Juli 1947. Pada masa itu, ORI merupakan mata uang yang memiliki nilai yang sangat rendah jika dibandingkan dengan uang-uang yang dikeluarkan oleh de Javasche Bank. Padahal uang ORI adalah uang langka yang semestinya bernilai tinggi.

Pada 8 April 1947, gubernur provinsi Sumatera mengeluarkan rupiah Uang Republik Indonesia Provinsi Sumatera (URIPS). Sejak 2 November 1949, empat tahun setelah merdeka, Indonesia menetapkan rupiah sebagai mata uang kebangsaannya yang baru. Kepulauan Riau dan Irian Barat memiliki variasi rupiah mereka sendiri, tetapi penggunaannya dihapuskan pada tahun 1964 di Riau dan 1974 di Irian Barat. Krisis ekonomi Asia tahun 1998 menyebabkan nilai rupiah jatuh sebanyak 35% dan membawa kejatuhan pemerintahan Soeharto. Rupiah merupakan mata uang yang boleh ditukar dengan bebas tetapi diperdagangkan dengan penalti disebabkan kadar inflasi yang tinggi.

Satuan di bawah rupiah

Rupiah memiliki satuan di bawahnya. Pada masa awal kemerdekaan, rupiah disamakan nilainya dengan Gulden Hindia Belanda, sehingga dipakai pula satuan-satuan yang lebih kecil yang berlaku pada masa kolonial. Berikut adalah satuan-satuan yang pernah dipakai, namun tidak lagi dipakai karena penurunan nilai rupiah menyebabkan satuan itu tidak bernilai penting.

Opera Snapshot_2017-12-11_073022_id.wikipedia.org

Satuan di atas rupiah

Terdapat 2 satuan di atas rupiah yang sekarang juga tidak dipakai lagi.

Opera Snapshot_2017-12-11_073228_id.wikipedia.org

Sejarah nilai tukar rupiah terhadap 1 dolar Amerika Serikat


Opera Snapshot_2017-12-11_073337_id.wikipedia.org Opera Snapshot_2017-12-11_073501_id.wikipedia.org Opera Snapshot_2017-12-11_073414_id.wikipedia.org Opera Snapshot_2017-12-11_073556_id.wikipedia.org

Catatan:

  1. untuk tahun tahun 1965-2009
  2. untuk tahun 1945-1949 rupiah masih dalam taraf mencari pengakuan dari luar negeri
  3. untuk tahun 1950-an, rupiah dipatok tinggi tetapi sebenarnya di pasar gelap rupiah diperdagangkan jauh lebih rendah
    untuk tahun 1950 nilai Rp7,6 per USD adalah untuk ekspor dan Rp11,4 per USD adalah untuk impor
  4. untuk tahun 1964 dasarnya adalah UU No. 32/1964
    tahun 1965 diperkenalkan rupiah baru dengan mencoret 3 angka nol
  5. untuk tahun 1970, 1971, 1978 adalah devaluasi yang dilakukan dalam keadaan mata uang ditentukan nilainya terhadap dolar oleh pemerintah
  6. diberlakukan sistem Nilai Tukar Mengambang Terkendali mulai tahun 1978 sampai Juli 1997
  7. IMF yang dikutip Nation Master pada 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005[4]
  8. untuk tahun 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004 
  9. untuk perkiraan tahun 2006
  10. untuk perkiraan tahun 2007
  11. untuk tahun 2008[8]
  12. untuk tahun 2009-sekarang

Redenominasi


Bank Indonesia sebagai otoritas moneter di Indonesia merencanakan kebijakan pengurangan nilai pecahan mata uang rupiah tanpa mengurangi nilainya dengan cara menghilangkan 3 angka 0 terakhir (x000 menjadi x). Rencana kebijakan ini dilontarkan oleh Bank Indonesia pada awal Mei 2010 dan dikonfirmasikan oleh Gubernur BI terpilih, Darmin Nasution pada 31 Juli 2010. Kebijakan redenominasi ini diambil setelah hasil riset Bank Dunia menyebutkan bahwa uang pecahan Rupiah Indonesia Rp100.000 adalah yang terbesar kedua di dunia setelah Dong Vietnam (VND) 500.000. Proses redenominasi akan mundur dari rencana yang semula akan direalisasikan pada 14 Agustus 2014.

Opera Snapshot_2017-12-11_074159_id.wikipedia.org

Uang baru emisi tahun 2014


Rencana semula Bank Indonesia meredenominasikan rupiah terganjal kondisi perekonomian global yang belum stabil dan pembahasan Undang-undang Redenominasi yang terhenti akibat agenda Pemilu 2014. Target semula realisasi redenominasi pada 14 Agustus 2014 akan berubah dengan wajah uang baru, yaitu Uang Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia (Uang NKRI).

Sesuai amanat Undang-undang Nomor 7 Tahun 2011 Tentang Mata Uang, Rupiah ditempatkan sebagai salah satu simbol kedaulatan negara yang harus dihormati dan dibanggakan seluruh warga negara Indonesia. Dengan demikian, Bank Indonesia tidak lagi menjadi institusi tunggal yang berwenang mencetak uang Rupiah. Nantinya Bank Indonesia harus selalu berkoordinasi dengan pemerintah, yakni kementerian keuangan dalam hal rencana mencetak uang, penerbitan uang, hingga penarikan dan pemusnahan uang yang lama.

Setelah tidak lagi menjadi institusi tunggal pencetak uang Rupiah, frasa Bank Indonesia yang terdapat di setiap pecahan Rupiah saat ini akan diganti menjadi Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia. Selain itu, perubahan lainnya pada uang NKRI nantinya adalah akan adanya tanda tangan Menteri Keuangan dan Gubernur Bank Indonesia dan sistem pengamanan baru anti pemalsuan pada uang kertas.

Uang baru emisi tahun 2016


Rupiah_Baru

Desain baru uang kertas rupiah

Pada tanggal 19 Desember 2016, Bank Indonesia (BI) resmi meluncurkan 11 desain baru rupiah yang terdiri dari 7 pecahan uang kertas dan 4 pecahan uang logam. Rupiah kertas yang diterbitkan terdiri dari nominal Rp 100.000, Rp 50.000, Rp 20.000, Rp 10.000, Rp 5.000, Rp 2.000, dan Rp 1.000. Sementara rupiah logam terdiri atas pecahan Rp 1.000, Rp 500, Rp 200, dan Rp 100.

Desain uang baru ini sejalan dengan rencana BI menerbitkan uang Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia (NKRI). Hampir semua wajah pahlawan di uang tunai berganti, kecuali pecahan Rp 100.000.

Pecahan Rp 100.000 tetap menampilkan wajah dua proklamator RI, yaitu Presiden dan Wakil Presiden pertama RI, Soekarno dan Mohammad Hatta.

Bertepatan dengan Hari Bela Negara Indonesia, BI menerbitkan 11 desain baru rupiah yang terdiri dari 7 pecahan rupiah kertas dan 4 pecahan rupiah logam. Setelah diterbitkannya rupiah baru, maka uang rupiah yang sudah beredar di masyarakat masih berlaku dan masih bisa digunakan sebagai alat transaksi yang sah sampai BI menarik peredaran rupiah lama.

Penggunaan gambar pahlawan pada rupiah baru juga sebelumnya sudah disetujui oleh Presiden Joko Widodo (Jokowi).

Opera Snapshot_2017-12-11_074757_id.wikipedia.org

Emisi_2016_1000-5000_a-horz

Emisi_2016_10000-100000_a-horz

Ultraungu (UV-A)

Opera Snapshot_2017-12-11_075441_id.wikipedia.org

Kode Tuna Netra (Blind Code)

Opera Snapshot_2017-12-11_075656_id.wikipedia.org

Uang kertas

Berikut adalah gambar pahlawan di uang kertas rupiah baru dengan tahun emisi 2016.

  • Rp 1.000 bergambar Tjut Meutia
  • Rp 2.000 bergambar Mohammad Hoesni Thamrin
  • Rp 5.000 bergambar KH Idham Chalid
  • Rp 10.000 bergambar Frans Kaisepo
  • Rp 20.000 bergambar Dr. G.S.S.J Ratulangi
  • Rp 50.000 bergambar Ir. Djuanda Kartawidjaja
  • Rp 100.000 bergambar Presiden RI Dr.(H.C.) Ir. H. Soekarno dan Wakil Presiden RI Drs. Mohammad Hatta

Uang logam

  • Rp 100 bergambar Prof. Dr. Ir. Herman Johannes [14]
  • Rp 200 bergambar Dr. Tjiptomangunkusumo
  • Rp 500 bergambar Letjend TNI Purn. TB Simatupang
  • Rp 1.000 bergambar I Gusti Ketut Pudja

Selain menampilkan gambar pahlawan dan tarian tradisional, sebagai bentuk melestarikan karakteristik sebuah bangsa, uang kertas rupiah baru dengan tahun emisi 2016 ini juga menampilkan gambar destinasi wisata unggulan yang ada di Indonesia.

Berikut beberapa destinasi wisata yang ditampilkan dalam uang kertas rupiah baru dengan tahun emisi 2016.

  • Rp 1.000, Banda Neira
  • Rp 2.000, Ngarai Sianok
  • Rp 5.000, Gunung Bromo
  • Rp 10.000, Taman Nasional Wakatobi
  • Rp 20.000, Kepulauan Derawan
  • Rp 50.000, Pulau Padar, Taman Nasional Komodo
  • Rp 100.000, Kepulauan Wayag, Raja Ampat

Berikut beberapa tarian tradisional yang ditampilkan dalam uang kertas rupiah baru dengan tahun emisi 2016.

  • Rp 1.000, Tari Tifa
  • Rp 2.000, Tari Piring
  • Rp 5.000, Tari Gambyong
  • Rp 10.000, Tari Pakarena
  • Rp 20.000, Tari Kancet Ledo
  • Rp 50.000, Tari Legong
  • Rp 100.000, Tari Topeng Betawi

Berikut 7 gambar bunga yang ada di uang kertas baru rupiah dengan tahun emisi 2016.

  • Rp 1.000, Bunga Anggrek Larat
  • Rp 2.000, Bunga Jeumpa
  • Rp 5.000, Bunga Sedap Malam
  • Rp 10.000, Bunga Cempaka Hutan Kasar
  • Rp 20.000, Bunga Anggrek Hitam
  • Rp 50.000, Bunga Jepun Bali
  • Rp 100.000, Bunga Anggrek Bulan

Tanda air yang sama dengan seri sebelumnya.

Opera Snapshot_2017-12-11_075939_id.wikipedia.org

Daftar mata uang bernama seperti rupiah


  • Rupee India (रुपया)
  • Rufiyaa Maladewa (ދިވެހި ރުފިޔ)
  • Rupee Mauritius (roupie)
  • Rupee Nepal (रूपैयाँ)
  • Rupee Pakistan (روپي‎)
  • Rupee Seychelles (roupi, roupie)
  • Rupee Sri Lanka (ரூபாய்)

Sudah tidak ada

  • Rupee Afghanistan
  • Rupee Bhutan
  • Rupee Burma
  • Rupee Hindia Denmark
  • Rupee Afrika Timur (Britania)
  • Rupee Hindia Perancis (roupie)
  • Rupee Afrika Timur (Jerman) (rupie)
  • Rupee Teluk
  • Rupee Hyderabad
  • Rupia Somaliland Italia
  • Ripis Jawa
  • Roepiah Hindia Belanda
  • Rúpia Hindia Portugis
  • Rupiah Riau
  • Rupee Travancore
  • Rupiah Papua Barat
  • Rupee Zanzibar

Fiksi

  • Rupee Hylia

Opera Snapshot_2017-12-11_080307_id.wikipedia.org