Resep Udang Goreng Mentega

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Bagi anda penggemar seafood, terutama udang pasti tidak asing lagi menyantap udang goreng mentega di warung seafood langganan anda. Namun tahukah anda, dengan resep udang goreng seafood yang kami sajikan berikut ini, anda bisa menyajikan olahan udang yang tidak kalah lezat dengan harga yang jauh lebih ekonomis dibandingkan membeli di warung atau restoran seafood? Dengan mengolah sendiri anda bisa memastikan udang yang anda olah masih dalam keadaan segar. Selain itu citarasa olahannya bisa anda sesuaikan dengan selera keluarga anda.

Tips untuk memilih udang segar, pastikan semua bagian tubuh udang masih lengkap, kepala masih melekat erat di badannya, tidak berbau busuk, dan daging berwarna merah atau abu-abu cerah. Jangan membeli udang yang sudah direndam air panas karena bisa saja itu udang yang sudah tidak segar, direbus sebentar oleh si pedagang untuk mencegah pembusukan berlanjut. Udang yang sudah tidak segar jika diolah tidak akan keluar rasa manisnya.

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Resep Cara Membuat Udang Goreng Mentega

Resep Udang Asam Manis

Resep-Udang-Asam-Manis

Mengolah masakan berbahan dasar udang tidaklah sulit. Karena cita rasa udang yang manis dan gurih, maka dengan bumbu simple pun akan terasa enak. Selain itu memasak udang tidak diperlukan waktu yang lama. Contohnya resep udang asam manis ini.

Udang bergizi tinggi karena mengandung asam lemak Omega-3, vitamin D dan vitamin B12. Selain itu juga memiliki protein rendah lemak dan rendah protein. Namun bagi orang yang memiliki kadar kolesterol tinggi, disarankan untuk tidak mengkonsumsi udang terlalu banyak.

Resep Udang Asam Manis

Udang

Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

Udang adalah binatang yang hidup di perairan, khususnya sungai, laut, atau danau. Udang dapat ditemukan di hampir semua “genangan” air yang berukuran besar baik air tawar, air payau, maupun air asin pada kedalaman bervariasi, dari dekat permukaan hingga beberapa ribu meter di bawah permukaan.

Taksonomi


Banyak crustaceae yang dikenal dengan nama “udang”. Misalnya mantis shrimp dan mysid shrimp, keduanya berasal dari kelas Malacostraca sebagai udang sejati, tetapi berasal dari ordo berbeda, yaitu Stomatopoda dan Mysidaceae. Triops longicaudatus dan Triops cancriformis juga merupakan hewan populer di air tawar, dan sering disebut udang, walaupun mereka berasal dari Notostraca, kelompok yang tidak berhubungan.

Daur Hidup Udang


Shrimp_nauplius

Larva nauplius udang.

Udang menjadi dewasa dan bertelur hanya di habitat air laut. Betina mampu menelurkan 50.000 hingga 1 juta telur, yang akan menetas setelah 24 jam menjadi larva (nauplius). Nauplius kemudian bermetamorfosis memasuki fase ke dua yaitu zoea (jamak zoeae). Zoea memakan ganggang liar. Setelah beberapa hari bermetamorfosis lagi menjadi mysis (jamak myses). Mysis memakan ganggang dan zooplankton. Setelah tiga sampai empat hari kemudian mereka bermetamorfosis terakhir kali memasuki tahap pascalarva: udang muda yang sudah memiliki ciri-ciri hewan dewasa. Seluruh proses memakan waktu sekitar 12 hari dari pertama kali menetas. Pada tahap ini, udang budidaya siap untuk diperdagangkan, dan disebut sebagai benur. Di alam liar, postlarvae kemudian bermigrasi ke estuari, yang sangat kaya akan nutrisi dan bersalinitas rendah. Di sana mereka tumbuh dan kadang-kadang bermigrasi lagi ke perairan terbuka di mana mereka menjadi dewasa. Udang dewasa merupakan hewan bentik yang utamanya tinggal di dasar laut, udang masih kerabat jauh dari serangga seperti ulat bulu, kupu-kupu, cencorang dsb.

Udang Konsumsi


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Udang sebagai makanan.

Banyak resep menggunakan udang dari berbagai kebudayaan: contoh jambalaya, okonomiyaki, poon choi, bagoong, dan scampi.

Sama seperti makanan laut lainnya, udang kaya akan kalsium dan protein tetapi rendah energi. Makanan yang bahan utamanya udang merupakan sumber kolesterol. sebagai tambahan, udang mengalami metamorfosis sempurna.

Beberapa jenis udang pangan telah dibudidayakan di tambak, seperti udang galah , udang windu, dan udang vaname. Udang-udang konsumsi lainnya masih ditangkap langsung dari alam.

Udang Hias


Udang juga dibudidayakan sebagai hewan peliharaan dalam akuarium. Beberapa jenis udang hias yang populer di antaranya:

  1. Cherry Shrimp (Neocaridina heteropoda) Ada beberapa varietas Cherry shrimp berdasarkan warna: Red, Black, Blue, dan Yellow (Golden). Grade dengan warna yg lebih pekat selalu diawali kata ‘Super’, misal Super Red Cherry shrimp, tentu harga lebih mahal dari grade biasa.
  2. Bee Shrimp (Caridina cantonensis sp.) Bee shrimp adalah spesies udang air tawar kecil yang berasal dari sungai di Cina selatan, memiliki masa hidup sekitar 18 bulan. Crystal/Bee adalah spesies udang hias yang relatif cukup mahal harganya, berkisar puluhan ribu hingga ratusan ribu per ekor. Ada beberapa varietas yang terkenal, yaitu Red Bee shrimp, Black Bee shrimp, White Bee shrimp, dan Golden Bee shrimp. Pada suhu air 22 derajat Celcius, waktu penetasan adalah 28 hari. Bee shrimp akan mengembangkan warna terbaiknya bila berada pada suhu sekitar 24–25 derajat Celcius.
  3. Udang Sulawesi Spesies endemik dari sebuah danau di Sulawesi. Terdapat 12 spesies udang Sulawesi yang terkenal di dunia, di antaranya: Celebes/Harlequin, Caridina Tigris, Orchid, Red Line, White Spot, Yellow Cheek, Yellow Nose.

Masih banyak jenis-jenis udang hias lainnya, seperti: Pinocchio/Red Long Nose shrimp, Amano/Yamato shrimp, Tiger shrimp, Bamboo/Fan shrimp, dan lain-lain.

Gallery


Cherry Shrimp (Neocaridina Heteropoda)

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Red Cherry Shrimp

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Neocaridina heteropoda female

Red_Cherry_Shrimp

Red cherry shrimp

KONICA MINOLTA DIGITAL CAMERA

Neocaridina_heteropoda._Femelle_avec_œufs.

Female with eggs

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Yellow Fire Shrimp

Bee Shrimp (Caridina Cantonensis sp.)

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Black bee pattern

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Red bee pattern

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Blue

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Black

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White

Udang Sulawesi

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Brown Camo Shrimp

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Caridina Tigris

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Cardinal Scrimp

 

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Celebes/Harlequin

Kandungan Nutrisi dan Manfaat Udang

udang-segar

Udang merupakan salah satu makanan laut yang cukup digemari di Indonesia. Dengan wilayah geografis Indonesia yang sebagian besar adalah lautan, tidak sulit untuk mendapatkan udang sebagai bahan makanan. Selain dikonsumsi dengan cara dimasak, udang juga diolah menjadi bahan lain seperti terasi atau kerupuk udang.

Nah, kalau salah satu yang gemar seafood pasti tidak asing dengan kelezatan udang ini. Namun tahukah Anda apa saja kandungan nutrisi dan zat gizi yang terdapat pada udang. Lalu apa saja manfaatnya bagi kesehatan? Oke, kita bahas sama-sama yuk, apa saja kandungan gizi dan manfaat udang bagi kesehatan.

Kandungan Nutrisi Udang


Sumber Vitamin

Berbagai vitamin baik jenis larut air dan lemak juga sangat tinggi pada udang sehingga sangat baik dikonsumsi. Kandungannya yang tertinggi berturut-turut sesuai dengan persentase kebutuhan harian (daily value) adalah vitamin D (38%), vitamin B12 (19%), Niacin (13%), vitamin E (5%), vitamin B6 (5%), vitamin A (4%), vitamin C (3%), dan lain-lain.

Sumber Mineral

Udang juga mengandung berbagai mineral yang penting bagi tubuh. Mineral selenium dalam 100 gr udang segar cukup untuk memenuhi 54% kebutuhan harian, disusul fosfor (20%), zat besi dan tembaga (masing-masing 13%), magnesium (9%), zinc (7%), sodium (6%), potassium dan kalsium (masing-masing 5%), serta berbagai mineral penting lainnya yang dibutuhkan tubuh.Seperti yang sudah diketahui, mineral dari bahan makanan laut lebih mudah diserap tubuh dibandingkan yang berasal dari kacang-kacangan dan serealia.

Sumber Protein

Kandungan protein udang dikategorikan sebagai “complete protein” karena kadar asam amino yang tinggi, berprofil lengkap, dan sekitar 85-95 persen proteinnya mudah dicerna tubuh. 100 gr udang mentah mengandung 20,3 gr protein atau cukup untuk memenuhi kebutuhan protein harian sebanyak 41 %.

Asam Amino

Profil asam amino udang (per 100 gr) berturut-turut yang termasuk tinggi adalah asam gulamat (3465 mg), asam aspartat (2100 mg), arginine (1775 mg), lysine (1768 mg), leucine (1612 mg), glycine (1225 mg), isoleucine (985 mg), dan valine (956 mg). Artinya, udang sangat cocok dikonsumsi bagi mereka yang membutuhkan protein untuk membentuk otot.

Rendah Kalori

Kalori udang yang sangat rendah (hanya 106 kalori per 100 gr udang) menjadikannya salah satu makanan diet yang cukup baik. Udang juga hanya mengandung sedikit asam lemak jenuh. Bahkan seperti halnya makanan laut lain, kadar asam lemak sehat pada udang justru sangat tinggi yaitu Omega-3 dan Omega-6 masing-masing mencapai 540 mg dan 28 mg per 100 gr udang segar.

Manfaat Udang untuk Kesehatan


Beberapa manfaat keseahtan yang bisa Anda dapatkan dari mengonsumsi udang antara lain,

  1. Menjaga kesehatan kardiovaskular (jantung) karena kandungan asam lemak esensialnya akan menurunkan kolesterol jahat dan mencegah penggumpalan kepingan darah atau ateroskeloris.
  2. Memenuhi kebutuhan protein dengan asam amino berprofil lengkap yang mudah diserap tubuh. Baik dikonsumsi bagi Anda yang ingin menambah massa otot.
  3. Sangat cocok untuk menu diet karena tinggi protein dan rendah kalori.
  4. Memaksimalkan berbagai fungsi organ-organ vital tubuh karena berbagai kandungan vitaminnya.
  5. Sebagai antioksidan yang mampu menjaga kesehatan fungsi kekebalan tubuh, anti radikal bebas penyebab 50 macam penyakit degeneratif dan membantu produksi antibodi dengan kandungan selenium yang sangat tinggi.
  6. Membantu bekerjanya lebih dari 70 macam enzim, hormon, dan proses biosintesa dalam tubuh dengan kandungan zinc-nya
  7. Membantu meningkatkan kecerdasan dan pertumbuhan anak dengan kandungan vitamin D, B12 dan Omega 3
  8. Mencegah penyakit darah rendah (anemia) dan berperan dalam pembentukan sel darah merah karena kandungan besi dan zinc-nya yang tinggi.
  9. Menjaga kesehatan mata dengan kandungan vitamin A.
  10. Menjaga kesehatan kulit dan mencegah penyakit pellagra (kulit burik dan bersisik) dengan kandungan vitamin E (alpha tocopherol) dan niasin yang tinggi.
  11. Menjaga kesehatan tulang, gigi dan sendi dengan kandungan vitamin D, kalsium dan potassium yang tinggi.

Nah, itulah beberapa kandungan nutrisi udang dan manfaatnya bagi kesehatan tubuh. Namun perlu diingat, meskipun udang mengandung banyak gizi udang juga dapat menyebabkan alergi. Jadi buat anda yang alergi dengan udang, jangan coba-coba untuk mengkonsumsinya.

Source: Info Kesehatan

 

Human Body

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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The human body is the entire structure of a human being. It is composed of many different types of cells that together create tissues and subsequently organ systems. They ensure homeostasis and the viability of the human body.

It comprises a head, neck, trunk (which includes the thorax and abdomen), arms and hands, legs and feet.

The study of the human body involves anatomy, physiology, histology and embryology. The body varies anatomically in known ways. Physiology focuses on the systems and organs of the human body and their functions. Many systems and mechanisms interact in order to maintain homeostasis, with safe levels of substances such as sugar and oxygen in the blood.

The body is studied by health professionals, physiologists, anatomists, and by artists to assist them in their work.

Opera Snapshot_2017-12-16_181044_en.wikipedia.org Human_Body

Contents
1 Composition
1.1 Cells
1.2 Tissues
1.3 Organs
1.4 Systems
2 Anatomy
3 Physiology
4 Development
5 Health and disease
6 Society and culture
6.1 Professional study
6.2 Depiction
6.3 History of anatomy
6.4 History of physiology

Composition


800px-201_Elements_of_the_Human_Body-01

Elements of the human body by mass. Trace elements are less than 1% combined (and each less than 0.1%).

The human body is composed of elements including hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, calcium and phosphorus. These elements reside in trillions of cells and non-cellular components of the body.

The adult male body is about 60% water for a total water content of some 42 litres. This is made up of about 19 litres of extracellular fluid including about 3.2 litres of blood plasma and about 8.4 litres of interstitial fluid, and about 23 litres of fluid inside cells. The content, acidity and composition of the water inside and outside cells is carefully maintained. The main electrolytes in body water outside cells are sodium and chloride, whereas within cells it is potassium and other phosphates.

Cells

The body contains trillions of cells, the fundamental unit of life. At maturity, there are roughly 30 trillion cells in the body, an estimate arrived at by totalling the cell numbers of all the organs of the body and cell types. The body is also host to about the same number of non-human cells as well as multicellular organisms which reside in the gastrointestinal tract and on the skin. Not all parts of the body are made from cells. Cells sit in an extracellular matrix that consists of proteins such as collagen, surrounded by extracellular fluids. Of the 70 kg weight of an average human body, nearly 25 kg is non-human cells or non-cellular material such as bone and connective tissue.

Cells in the body function because of DNA. DNA sits within the nucleus of a cell. Here, parts of DNA are copied and sent to the body of the cell via RNA. The RNA is then used to create proteins which form the basis for cells, their activity, and their products. Proteins dictate cell function and gene expression, a cell is able to self-regulate by the amount of proteins produced. However, not all cells have DNA – some cells such as mature red blood cells lose their nucleus as they mature.

Tissues

External Video

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Human Body 101, National Geographic, 5:10

The body consists of many different types of tissue, defined as cells that act with a specialised function. The study of tissues is called histology and often occurs with a microscope. The body consists of four main types of tissues – lining cells (epithelia), connective tissue, nervous tissue and muscle tissue.

Cells that lie on surfaces exposed to the outside world or gastrointestinal tract (epithelia) or internal cavities (endothelium) come in numerous shapes and forms – from single layers of flat cells, to cells with small beating hair-like cilia in the lungs, to column-like cells that line the stomach. Endothelial cells are cells that line internal cavities including blood vessels and glands. Lining cells regulate what can and can’t pass through them, protect internal structures, and function as sensory surfaces.

Organs

List of Organs of the Human Body

This article contains a list of organs of the human body. It is widely believed that there are 79 organs; however, there is no universally standard definition of what constitutes an organ, and some tissue groups’ status as one is debated. Since there is no single standard definition of what an organ is, the number of organs varies depending on how one defines an organ. For example, this list contains much more than 79 different organs.

Musculoskeletal System

  • Human skeleton
  • Joints
  • Ligaments
  • Muscular system
  • Tendons

Digestive System

  • Mouth
    • Teeth
    • Tongue
  • Salivary glands
    • Parotid glands
    • Submandibular glands
    • Sublingual glands
  • Pharynx
  • Esophagus
  • Stomach
  • Small intestine
    • Duodenum
    • Jejunum
    • Ileum
  • Large intestine
  • Liver
  • Gallbladder
  • Mesentery
  • Pancreas

Respiratory System

  • Nasal cavity
  • Pharynx
  • Larynx
  • Trachea
  • Bronchi
  • Lungs
  • Diaphragm

Urinary System

  • Kidneys
  • Ureters
  • Bladder
  • Urethra

Reproductive Organs

Female Reproductive System

  • Internal reproductive organs
  • Ovaries
  • Fallopian tubes
  • Uterus
  • Vagina
  • External reproductive organs
  • Vulva
  • Clitoris
  • Placenta

Male Reproductive System

  • Internal reproductive organs
  • Testes
  • Epididymis
  • Vas deferens
  • Seminal vesicles
  • Prostate
  • Bulbourethral glands
  • External reproductive organs
  • Penis
  • Scrotum

Endocrine Glands

  • Pituitary gland
  • Pineal gland
  • Thyroid gland
  • Parathyroid glands
  • Adrenal glands
  • Pancreas

Circulatory System

Cardiovascular System

  • Heart
  • Arteries
  • Veins
  • Capillaries

Lymphatic System

  • Lymphatic vessel
  • Lymph node
  • Bone marrow
  • Thymus
  • Spleen
  • Gut-associated lymphoid tissue
  • Tonsils

Nervous System

  • Brain
  • Cerebrum
  • Cerebral hemispheres
  • Diencephalon
  • The brainstem
  • Midbrain
  • Pons
  • Medulla oblongata
  • Cerebellum
  • The spinal cord
  • The ventricular system
  • Choroid plexus

Peripheral Nervous System

  • Nerves
  • Cranial nerves
  • Spinal nerves
  • Ganglia
  • Enteric nervous system

Sensory Organs

  • Eye
    • Cornea
    • Iris
    • Ciliary body
    • Lens
    • Retina
  • Ear
    • Outer ear
      • Earlobe
    • Eardrum
    • Middle ear
      • Ossicles
    • Inner ear
      • Cochlea
      • Vestibule of the ear
      • Semicircular canals
  • Olfactory epithelium
  • Tongue
    • Taste buds

Integumentary System

  • Mammary glands
  • Skin
  • Subcutaneous tissue

Organs, structured collections of cells with a specific function, sit within the body. Examples include the heart, lungs and liver. Many organs reside within cavities within the body. These cavities include the abdomen and pleura.

Systems

List of systems of the human body

Opera Snapshot_2017-12-16_182924_en.wikipedia.org

The main systems of the human body are:

  1. Circulates Blood around the body via the heart, arteries and veins, delivering oxygen and nutrients to organs and cells and carrrying their waste products away.
  2. Digestive System / Excretory System:
    1. Mechanical and Chemical processes that provide nutrients via the mouth, esophagus, stomach and intestines.
    2. Eliminates waste from the body.
  3. Endocrine System:
    1. Provides Chemical communications within the body using hormones.
  4. Integumentary System/ Exocrine System:
    1. Skin, hair, nails, sweat and other exocrine glands.
  5. Lymphatic System / Immune System:
    1. The system comprising a network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph.
    2. Defends the body against pathogenic viruses that may endanger the body .
  6. Muscular System
    1. Enables the body to move using muscles.
  7. Nervous System:
    1. Collects and processes information from the senses via nerves and the brain and tells the muscles to contract to cause physical actions.
  8. Renal System / Urinary System:
    1. The system where the kidneys filter blood.
  9. Reproductive System:
    1. The sex organs required for the production of offspring.
  10. Respiratory System
    1. The lungs and the trachea that bring air into the body.
  11. Skeletal System
    1. Bones supporting the body and its organs.

Organ_Systems_I

Clockwise from top left: the integumentary skeleta nervous cardiovascular endocrine and muscular systems.

Organ_Systems_II

Clockwise from top left: the lymphatic respiratory urinary reproductive (female male) and digestive systems.

Circulatory System

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The circulatory system comprises the heart and blood vessels (arteries, veins and capillaries). The heart propels the circulation of the blood, which serves as a “transportation system” to transfer oxygen, fuel, nutrients, waste products, immune cells and signalling molecules (i.e., hormones) from one part of the body to another. The blood consists of fluid that carries cells in the circulation, including some that move from tissue to blood vessels and back, as well as the spleen and bone marrow.

Digestive System

Stomach_colon_rectum_diagram-en.svg

The digestive system consists of the mouth including the tongue and teeth, esophagus, stomach, (gastrointestinal tract, small and large intestines, and rectum), as well as the liver, pancreas, gallbladder, and salivary glands. It converts food into small, nutritional, non-toxic molecules for distribution and absorption into the body.

Endocrine System

Illu_endocrine_system

The endocrine system consists of the principal endocrine glands: the pituitary, thyroid, adrenals, pancreas, parathyroids, and gonads, but nearly all organs and tissues produce specific endocrine hormones as well. The endocrine hormones serve as signals from one body system to another regarding an enormous array of conditions, and resulting in variety of changes of function.

Immune System

PBNeutrophil

The immune system consists of the white blood cells, the thymus, lymph nodes and lymph channels, which are also part of the lymphatic system. The immune system provides a mechanism for the body to distinguish its own cells and tissues from outside cells and substances and to neutralize or destroy the latter by using specialized proteins such as antibodies, cytokines, and toll-like receptors, among many others.

Integumentary System

Skin-no_language

The integumentary system consists of the covering of the body (the skin), including hair and nails as well as other functionally important structures such as the sweat glands and sebaceous glands. The skin provides containment, structure, and protection for other organs, and serves as a major sensory interface with the outside world.

Lymphatic System

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The lymphatic system extracts, transports and metabolizes lymph, the fluid found in between cells. The lymphatic system is similar to the circulatory system in terms of both its structure and its most basic function, to carry a body fluid.

Musculoskeletal System

Skelett-Mensch-drawing

The musculoskeletal system consists of the human skeleton (which includes bones, ligaments, tendons, and cartilage) and attached muscles. It gives the body basic structure and the ability for movement. In addition to their structural role, the larger bones in the body contain bone marrow, the site of production of blood cells. Also, all bones are major storage sites for calcium and phosphate. This system can be split up into the muscular system and the skeletal system.

Nervous System

Human_brain_NIH

The nervous system consists of the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system consists of the nerves and ganglia outside the brain and spinal cord. The brain is the organ of thought, emotion, memory, and sensory processing, and serves many aspects of communication and controls various systems and functions. The special senses consist of vision, hearing, taste, and smell. The eyes, ears, tongue, and nose gather information about the body’s environment.

Reproductive System

Male_anatomy

The reproductive system consists of the gonads and the internal and external sex organs. The reproductive system produces gametes in each sex, a mechanism for their combination, and in the female a nurturing environment for the first 9 months of development of the infant.

Respiratory System

Heart-and-lungs

The respiratory system consists of the nose, nasopharynx, trachea, and lungs. It brings oxygen from the air and excretes carbon dioxide and water back into the air.

Urinary System

Gray1120

The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. It removes toxic materials from the blood to produce urine, which carries a variety of waste molecules and excess ions and water out of the body.

Anatomy


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Cavities of human body

Human anatomy is the study of the shape and form of the human body. The human body has four limbs (two arms and two legs), a head and a neck which connect to the torso. The body’s shape is determined by a strong skeleton made of bone and cartilage, surrounded by fat, muscle, connective tissue, organs, and other structures. The spine at the back of the skeleton contains the flexible vertebral column which surrounds the spinal cord, which is a collection of nerve fibres connecting the brain to the rest of the body. Nerves connect the spinal cord and brain to the rest of the body. All major bones, muscles, and nerves in the body are named, with the exception of anatomical variations such as sesamoid bones and accessory muscles.

Blood vessels carry blood throughout the body, which moves because of the beating of the heart. Venules and veins collect blood low in oxygen from tissues throughout the body. These collect in progressively larger veins until they reach the body’s two largest veins, the superior and inferior vena cava, which drain blood into the right side of the heart. From here, the blood is pumped into the lungs where it receives oxygen and drains back into the left side of the heart. From here, it is pumped into the body’s largest artery, the aorta, and then progressively smaller arteries and arterioles until it reaches tissue. Here blood passes from small arteries into capillaries, then small veins and the process begins again. Blood carries oxygen, waste products, and hormones from one place in the body to another. Blood is filtered at the kidneys and liver.

The body consists of a number of different cavities, separated areas which house different organ systems. The brain and central nervous system reside in an area protected from the rest of the body by the blood brain barrier. The lungs sit in the pleural cavity. The intestines, liver, and spleen sit in the abdominal cavity

Height, weight, shape and other body proportions vary individually and with age and sex. Body shape is influenced by the distribution of muscle and fat tissue.

Physiology


Human physiology is the study of how the human body functions. This includes the mechanical, physical, bioelectrical, and biochemical functions of humans in good health, from organs to the cells of which they are composed. The human body consists of many interacting systems of organs. These interact to maintain homeostasis, keeping the body in a stable state with safe levels of substances such as sugar and oxygen in the blood.

Each system contributes to homeostasis, of itself, other systems, and the entire body. Some combined systems are referred to by joint names. For example, the nervous system and the endocrine system operate together as the neuroendocrine system. The nervous system receives information from the body, and transmits this to the brain via nerve impulses and neurotransmitters. At the same time, the endocrine system releases hormones, such as to help regulate blood pressure and volume. Together, these systems regulate the internal environment of the body, maintaining blood flow, posture, energy supply, temperature, and acid balance (pH).

Development


This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2016)

Health and Disease


Health is a difficult state to define, but relates to the self-defined perception of an individual and includes physical, mental, social and cultural factors. The absence or deficit of health is illness which includes disease and injury. Diseases cause symptoms felt, seen or perceived by a person, and signs which may be visible on a medical examination. Illnesses may be from birth (congenital) or arise later in life (acquired). Acquired diseases may be contagious, caused or provoked by lifestyle factors such as smoking, alcohol use and diet, arise as the result of injury or trauma, or have a number of different mechanisms or provoking factors. As life expectancy increases, many forms of cancer are becoming more common. Cancer refers to the uncontrolled proliferation of one or more cell types and occurs more commonly in some tissue types than others. Some forms of cancer have strong or known risk factors, whereas others may arise spontaneously. Depending on the type of cancer, risk factors can include exposure to carcinogens and radiation, excessive alcohol or tobacco intake, age, and hormone imbalances in the body.

Society and Culture


Professional Study

429px-Anatomical_Male_Figure_Showing_Heart,_Lungs,_and_Main_Arteries

Anatomical study by Leonardo da Vinci

Further information: History of anatomy, History of medicine, and History of physiology
Health professionals learn about the human body from illustrations, models, and demonstrations. Medical and dental students in addition gain practical experience, for example by dissection of cadavers. Human anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry are basic medical sciences, generally taught to medical students in their first year at medical school.

Depiction

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Figure drawing by Lovis Corinth (before 1925)

Anatomy has served the visual arts since Ancient Greek times, when the 5th century BC sculptor Polykleitos wrote his Canon on the ideal proportions of the male nude. In the Italian Renaissance, artists from Piero della Francesca (c. 1415–1492) onwards, including Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) and his collaborator Luca Pacioli (c. 1447–1517), learnt and wrote about the rules of art, including visual perspective and the proportions of the human body.

History of Anatomy

Externarvm_hvmani_corporis_sedivm_partivmve,_1543.

Two facing pages of text with woodcuts of naked male and female figures, in the Epitome by Andreas Vesalius, 1543

In Ancient Greece, the Hippocratic Corpus described the anatomy of the skeleton and muscles. The 2nd century physician Galen of Pergamum compiled classical knowledge of anatomy into a text that was used throughout the Middle Ages. In the Renaissance, Andreas Vesalius (1514–1564) pioneered the modern study of human anatomy by dissection, writing the influential book De humani corporis fabrica. Anatomy advanced further with the invention of the microscope and the study of the cellular structure of tissues and organs. Modern anatomy uses techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, fluoroscopy and ultrasound imaging to study the body in unprecedented detail.

History of Physiology

The study of human physiology began with Hippocrates in Ancient Greece, around 420 BC, and with Aristotle (384–322 BC) who applied critical thinking and emphasis on the relationship between structure and function. Galen (c. 126–199) was the first to use experiments to probe the body’s functions. The term physiology was introduced by the French physician Jean Fernel (1497–1558). In the 17th century, William Harvey (1578–1657) described the circulatory system, pioneering the combination of close observation with careful experiment. In the 19th century, physiological knowledge began to accumulate at a rapid rate with the cell theory of Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann in 1838, that organisms are made up of cells. Claude Bernard (1813–1878) created the concept of the milieu interieur (internal environment), which Walter Cannon (1871–1945) later said was regulated to a steady state in homeostasis. In the 20th century, the physiologists Knut Schmidt-Nielsen and George Bartholomew extended their studies to comparative physiology and ecophysiology. Most recently, evolutionary physiology has become a distinct subdiscipline.