Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas . (Dialihkan dari Waduk Karangkates)
Waduk Ir. Sutami, disebut juga Bendungan Sutami, Waduk Karangkates, atau Bendungan Karangkates, merupakan bendungan yang menciptakan suatu waduk karena tertahannya aliran Sungai Brantas. Waduk ini terletak di Kecamatan Sumberpucung, Kabupaten Malang, Provinsi Jawa Timur, Indonesia. Bendungan ini dikelola oleh Perum Jasa Tirta I. Air waduk ini berasal dari mata air di Gunung Arjuno dan ditambah air hujan.
Cerobong Udara di Waduk Ir.Sutami
Waduk Ir. Sutami mempunyai fungsi sebagai:
Pengendali banjir dengan kala ulang 50 tahun setara 1.650 m3/detik,
Pembangkit listrik dengan daya 3 x 35.000 kWh (488 juta kWh/tahun),
Penyediaan air irigasi 24 m³/dt pada musim kemarau (seluas 34.000 ha) melalui pengaliran ke hilir,
Pariwisata dan perikanan darat.
Waduk dikelola oleh Jasa Tirta I , pengelolaan PLTA oleh Pembangkitan Jawa-Bali
Perikanan disini dilakukan oleh warga setempat dengan menggunakan jaring terampung yang biasa disebut kerramba (warga menyebut kerambak). Pemeliharaan ikan dengan memanfaatkan perairan di waduk Ir Sutami ini terjadi semenjak era reformasi, yang sebelumnya menangkap dan memelihara ikan di perairan ini dilarang oleh pihak pemilik bendungan.
Selain manfaat sebagai sarana pariwisata dan perikanan, Bendungan Sutami yang juga biasa disebut “dam” oleh masyarakat setempat ini juga memiliki manfaat lain, yaitu digunakan sebagai akses oleh para pengentara motor untuk melintas pada siang hari dengan membayar karcis. Mereka yang sering melintas mayoritas adalah warga yang tinggal di wilayah selatan waduk, seperti warga Kalipare dan Donomulyo.
Mau tahu manfaat dan gizi yang terkandung dalam buah yang setiap hari kita makan ? berikut ini adalah manfaat dan apa yang terkandung dalam buah-buah yang kita jus :
Lemak sehat oleat (omega-9), vitamin E, zat besi, tembaga, kalium, serat, asam folat, dan vitamin B6. Membantu pembentukan sel darah merah, melembutkan dan mengencangkan kulit melalui pembentukan kolagen, mencegah anemia, membentuk reaksi basa dalam tubuh sehingga kekebalan tubuh meningkat, mengendalikan kadar ekolesterol jahat LDL dan menaikkan kadar ekolesterol baik HDL, membantu meringankan luka lambung dan radang usus besar, merupakan pencahar ringan.
Gula alami levulosa, magnesium, fruktosa, zat besi, dan aneka antioksidan (antara lain glutation). Meningkatkan fungsi ginjal dan pencernaan, memacu proses pembuangan racun dalam hati, memperbaiki kekebalan tubuh, membantu pembentukan sel darah merah dan mencegah anemia, penyedia energi seketika, pencahar alami (terutama kulit buah dan bijinya), memacu peremajaan sel dan menghambat penuaan (khususnya anggur warma gelap, seperti ungu, biru, atau hitam).
Serat dan pektin, vitamin C, kuersetin. Pembersih racun dalam usus, meningkatkan kekebalan tubuh, mencegah flu dan penyakit infeksi lain, menjaga kesehatan mata, mengendalikan tekanan darah dan kadargula darah, mengurangi risiko stroke dan serangan jantung, menurunkan risiko kanker, menggiatkan sistem limfatik serta fungsi ginjal dan saluran kencing. jus apel berserat (diblender) baik untuk mengatasi gangguan pencernaan, baikdiare maupun sembelit.
Kalsium, fosfor, asam sitrat, asam tartarat, asam malat, asam pipekolat. Meningkatkan nafsu makan, membantu fungsi empedu dan organ pencernaan lainnya, mengontrol kadar kolesterol dan trigliserida darah, menggelontor kelebihan lendir (dahak, ingus,dll), pencahar ringan untuk mengatasi sembelit, serta meredakan sariawan.
Serat dan pektin, vitamin C, kalium, betakaroten. Menurunkan risiko kanker, mengatasi tekanan darah tinggi, membantu menyusutkan kadar kolesterol dan trigliserida darah, mengurangi risiko stroke dan serangan jantung, melancarkan buang air besar dan mengobati sembelit, mengatasi lendir berlebihan, memperbaiki kekebalan tubuh, dan mengatasi flu.
Vitamin C, kalium, polifenol, beragam antioksidan di antaranya flavonoid, asam punisat. Mencegah dan mengatasi pembentukan kerak lemak pada dinding pembuluh darah, mengendalikan hipertensi, menyusutkan risiko stroke dan serangan jantung, meredakan diabetes, memperkecil risiko kanker, meningkatkan sistem kekebalan tubuh dan mengatasi flu, meredakan demam, mengatasi gangguan menopause akibat ketidakseimbangan hormon estrogen.
Vitamin C, kalium, kalsium, fosfor, sulfur, klorin, pektin. Menaikkan kekebalan tubuh, menggiatkan sistem limfatik dan mengatasi kanker, mencegah keropos tulang dengan cara membantu penyerapan mineral. Khasiat pengobatan jambu biji merah lebih baik dari pada yang putih/ kuning, karena lebih kaya antioksidan betakaroten.
JERUK LEMON & JERUK NIPIS
Bioflavonoid, terpen, limonen, kalium, magnesium, kalsium, fosfor, tembaga, seng, zat besi, mangan, vitamin C, vitamin B1. Menggiatkan fungsi hati dan ginjal menguras racun, mengaktifkan fungsi otak, membuat rileks, meningkatkan kekebalan tubuh, mengatasi flu dan demam, memperkecil risiko kanker.
Vitamin C, pektin, limonen, hesperidin. Meningkatkan kekebalan tubuh, mengendalikan kadar kolesterol darah, memperkecil risiko stroke dan serangan jantung, mengatasi radang, mengurangi risiko kanker.
Gula buah, pati, serat dan pektin, vitamin C, betakaroten, fosfor, kalium. Mengatasi hipertensi, menaikkan kekebalan tubuh dan menangkal flu, membentuk kondisi basa dalam darah sehingga dapat menghilangkan lendir berlebihan (dahak, ingus, dll.), serta meredakan sembelit.
Vitamin C, serat dan pektin, betakaroten, vitamin E, kalium, zat besi. Mengurangi risiko dan membantu mengatasi stroke dan penyakit jantung, mengendalikan hipertensi, membuat rileks, meningkatkan kekebalan tubuh, memacu peremajaan sel dan melembutkan kulit, dan mengatasi anemia.
Gula buah, asam galat, vitamin C, betakaroten, serat dan pektin. Memperbaiki pencernaan, menggiatkan fungsi pembersihan racun dalam tubuh, menyusutkan risiko stroke dan serangan jantung, mengurangi risiko kanker, meremajakan sel, meredakan demam, dan meredakan bau badan.
Serat dan pektin, gula buah fruktosa, vitamin C, vitamin E, asam folat, kalium, magnesium. Memperbaiki kekebalan tubuh, meningkatkan kesehatan tulang, mengefektifkan sistem pembersihan racun dalam tubuh, memacu peremajaan sel, menggiatkan fungsi hati dan ginjal, mengatasi radang saluran kencing.
MELON (MELON HIJAU, MELON JINGGA)
Serat, cairan kaya nutrisi dan zat fitokimiawi, antara lain kalium, karotenoid, klorofil, vitamin C. Memperbaiki kekebalan tubuh, memacu peremajaan kulit lewat kemampuannya menggiatkan pembentukan kolagen, memperlancar pembersihan racun dalam tubuh, mengendalikan hipertensi, memperkecil risiko kanker, menurunkan kadar kolesterol berlebihan, menyusutkan risiko strokedan serangan jantung, dan menghambat penuaan.
Vitamin C, betakaroten, enzim bromelin, iodium, kalium, mangan. Meningkatkan kekebalan tubuh, meredakan flu dan mempercepat penyembuhan penyakit, mengaktifkan fungsi pencernaan dan mengatasi sembelit, mengatasi gangguan lambung, memperlancar peredaran darah, menyusutkan risiko stroke dan serangan jantung.
Vitamin C, betakaroten, vitamin E, kalsium, fosfor, zat besi, serat dan pektin, enzim papain. Mengaktifkan fungsi lambung, mengatasi sembelit, meredakan demam, membersihkan kelebihan lendir (dahak, ingus, dll.) akibat kondisi tubuh terlalu asam, meremajakan sel, dan antikanker.
Kalium, vitamin C, zat besi. Melancarkan fungsi pencernaan, mengatasi gangguan lambung, meningkatkan pengurasan racun dalam tubuh, mengendalikan hipertensi.
Serat dan pektin, kalium, gula buah mudah cerna. Memperbaiki sistem pencernaan (pisang merupakan makanan alami bagi ibakteri baikT di dalam usus besar), mengatasi sembelit, diare, dan gangguan lambung, meredakan tekanan darah tinggi, membantu rileksasi dan memperbaiki mood, penyedia energi instan, segera memulihkan kesehatan ketika baru sembuh dari sakit, menyusutkan risiko stroke dan serangan jantung.
Vitamin C, kalsium, fosfor, zat besi, niasin, gula buah fruktosa. Meredakan demam, sumber alami energi seketika, meredakan stres pikiran dan ketegangan fisik.
Kalium, natrium, betakaroten, sitrulin. Meningkatkan kekebalan tubuh lewat kemampuannya sebagai pembentuk basa, memacu sistem pembuangan racun dalam tubuh, memacu gairah seks, meredakan tekanan darah tinggi, menggiatkan peremajaan sel.
Gula buah fruktosa, serat, vitamin C, vitamin B1 dan B2, kalsium, fosfor, kalium. Mengatasi gangguan asam urat, meningkatkan kekebalan tubuh dan menangkal flu, membantu pengobatan batu empedu, mengatasi kelebihan kolesterol dan trigliserida darah.
Vitamin C, pektin, betakaroten, antosianin, asam elagat, zat besi. Mengatasi diare, mengendalikan kadar kolesterol dan trigliserida darah, memacu peremajaan sel, mengatasi anemia, peluruh airseni, antikanker, meredakan nyeri sendi pada gangguan asam urat dan artritis rematoid.
Vitamin C, betakaroten, lutein, likopen, asam kumarat, serat dan pektin. Mening¬katkan peremajaan sel, menurunkan risiko kanker dan membantu mengatasi kanker, mengatasi flu, menggiatkan fungsi hati, mengurangi risiko stroke dan serangan jantung dengan cara menggagalkan pembentukan kerak lemak pada dinding pembuluh darah.
Semarang (formerly Dutch: Samarang), is a city on the north coast of the island of Java, Indonesia. It is the capital and largest city of the province of Central Java.
It has an area of 373.78 square kilometres (144.32 sq mi) and a population of approximately 1.8 million people, making it Indonesia’s fifth most populous city after Jakarta, Surabaya, Bandung and Medan. The built-up (metro) area had 3,183,516 inhabitants at the 2010 census spread on 2 cities and 26 districts. Greater Semarang (a.k.a. Kedungsapur) has a population of close to 6 million (see Greater Semarang section), and is located at 6°58′S 110°25′E. A major port during the Dutch colonial era, and still an important regional center and port today, the city has a dominant Javanese population.
In 1678, Sunan Amangkurat II promised to give control of Semarang to the Dutch East India Company (VOC) as a part of a debt payment. In 1682, the Semarang state was founded by the Dutch colonial power. On 5 October 1705 after years of occupations, Semarang officially became a VOC city when Susuhunan Pakubuwono I made a deal to give extensive trade rights to the VOC in exchange of wiping out Mataram’s debt. The VOC, and later, the Dutch East Indies government, established tobacco plantations in the region and built roads and railroads, making Semarang an important colonial trading centre.
The historic presence of a large Indo (Eurasian) community in the area of Semarang is also reflected by the fact a creole mix language called Javindo existed there.
Classical Indische Town (1678–1870)
The early VOC settlement of Semarang with its prominent pentagonal fortress.
Semarang was handed by the Sultan of Mataram to the Dutch East Indies in 1678. The city was pictured as a small settlement with a pious Muslim area called Kauman, a Chinese quarter, and a Dutch fortress. The fortress has a pentagonal form with only one gate in the south and five monitoring towers to protect the Dutch settlement from rebellion actions, segregating the spaces between Dutch settlement and other areas. In fact, the city of Semarang was only referred to the Dutch quarter while the other ethnic settlement were considered as villages outside the city boundary. The city, known as de Europeesche Buurt, was built in classical European style with church located in the centre, wide boulevards and streets skirted by beautiful villas. According to Purwanto (2005), the urban and architectural form of this settlement is very similar to the design principles applied in many Dutch cities, which begun to concern on the urban beautification.
Due to the long and costly Java War, there were not much of funding from the Dutch East Indies government, effecting the development of Semarang. The majority of land was used for rice fields and the only small improvement was the development of surrounding fortress. Although less developed, Semarang has a fairly arranged city system, in which urban activities were concentrated along the river and the settlement was linked to a market where different ethnic groups met to trade. The existence of the market, in the later years, become a primary element and a generator of urban economic growths.
An important influence on urban growth was the Great Mail Road project in the 1847, which connected all the cities in northern coast of Central and East Java and made Semarang as the trade centre of agricultural production. The project was soon followed by the development of the Netherlands Indies railway and the connecting roads into the inner city of Semarang at the end of 19th century. Colombijn (2002) marked the development as the shift of urban functions, from the former river orientation to all services facing the roads.
The modern city (1870–1922)
Improved communication, as the result of the Mail and Railway projects, brought an economic boom to the city in the 1870s. There were hospitals, churches, hotels, and large houses built along new main roads; Bojongscheweg, Pontjolscheweg, and Mataram street, densified population in the ethnic settlements and created the urban kampong (village).
Urban growth densified the urban kampong, reaching 1,000 inhabitants per hectare and degrading the quality of living conditions. In the early 20th century, mortality rate were high due to the overcrowding and lack of hygiene that triggered cholera and tuberculosis outbreaks. Cobban (1993) noted the ethical movement of kampongverbetering led by Henry Tillema in 1913 and the concern of the Advisor for Decentralisation for kampong improvement through the betterment of public toilets, drainage, and the planning of public housing.
In 1917, a healthy housing project was implemented in the Southern part of Semarang called Candi Baru. Thomas Karsten, the advisor for city planning, transformed the concept of ethnic segregation that divided previous urban settlements into a new housing district plan based on economic classes. Although practically the three ethnic groups were also divided into three economic classes where the Dutch and rich Chinese occupied the largest lots in the housing district, Karsten had effectively emerged the developed district by integrating the road network, introducing newly improved public washing and bathing, squares and sporting facilities that could be used communally. Following the Candi Baru, there were three other housing plans between 1916–1919 to accommodate a 55% population increase in Semarang; 45,000 Javanese, 8500 Chinese and 7000 Europeans. Karsten marked a new approach to town planning with emphasis on the aesthetic, practical and social requirements, articulated not in terms of race but economic zones.
Driven by economic growth and spatial city planning, the city had doubled in size and expanded to the south by the 1920s, creating a nucleus of a metropolis where multi-ethnic groups lived and traded in the city. The villages in the suburbs such as Jomblang and Jatingaleh steadily became the satellite towns of Semarang, more populated with a bigger market area. Before the invasion of Japan in 1942, Semarang had already become the capital of Central Java Province, as the result of trade and industrial success and spatial planning.
NIS company head office (Gedung Lawang Sewu), Semarang, Dutch East Indies.
A Chinese house in Semarang at the turn of the 20th century.
Aerial picture of Old Semarang area in 1920s.
Old 0-6-0 locomotive next to the Lawang Sewu building.
Japanese occupation and early independence
The Japanese military occupied the city, along with the rest of Java, in 1942, during the Pacific War of World War II. During that time, Semarang was headed by a military governor called a Shiko, and two vice governors known as Fuku Shiko. One of the vice governors was appointed from Japan, and the other was chosen from the local population.
After Indonesian independence in 1945, Semarang became the capital of Central Java province
Semarang is located on the northern coast of Java.
Semarang features a tropical rainforest climate that borders on a tropical monsoon climate (Am). The city features distinctly wetter and drier months, with June through August being the driest months. However, in none of these months does average precipitation fall below 60 mm, hence the tropical rainforest categorization. Semarang on average sees approximately 2800 mm of rain annually. Average temperatures in the city are relatively consistent, hovering around 28 degrees Celsius.
The dominant Semarang ethnic is Javanese, followed by minorities of Chinese, India, Arab, and others (including local ethnics such as Sundanese, Batak, Madura, etc.).
There are only about 4-5 % of Chinese ethnic and around 139.878 in central java .Chinese Ethnicity in Semarang is centered on China town that are located in Gang Pinggir. China town warungs open every Friday, Saturday, and Sunday evening. Other similar warungs closed from Monday – Thursday. The Chinatown is called “Kampong Pecinan Semawis” and it offers a great variety of meals, Chinese accessories, and Chinese worship equipment.
In August 2011, a 421 metres (1,381 ft) tunnel dodger at Kreo river has been finished and Jatibarang Dam construction can begin, with completion targeted for July 2013. The dam is planned to ease 230 cubic metres (8,100 cu ft) per second of flood water and will generate 1.5 Megawatts of electricity, provide a drinking water resource and a boost to tourism.
Semarang’s Achmad Yani airport is served by a number of operators including Air Asia, Garuda Indonesia, Sriwijaya Air and Lion Air.
The primary means of public transportation is by minibus, called “bis.” Semarang’s largest bus terminals are Mangkang and Terboyo.
A bus rapid transit serves Semarang, called Trans Semarang. Although the system is called as “BRT System”, it has no resemblance to any BRT System in the world, or fulfilling the criteria of a BRT System.
Semarang has a toll road, the Semarang Toll Road. The Semarang–Solo Toll Road is under construction.
Semarang is on Indonesian National Route 1 that connects it to Merak and Ketapang (Banyuwangi). Indonesian National Route 14 toward Bawen starts here.
Semarang Old Town.
Semarang was connected to Surakarta (Solo) by a rail line in 1870.
There are two large train stations in Semarang: Semarang Poncol and Semarang Tawang.
The main seaport is the Tanjung Mas seaport.
The Great Mosque of Central Java, the largest mosque in the city.
Sights and Landmarks
Tugu Muda (English “Young Monument”) is a monument built to commemorate the services of the heroes who have fallen in the Battle of Five Days in Semarang. The height of Tugu Muda is 53 meters. Tugu Muda is located in front of Lawang Sewu at Pemuda street. It depicts the Tugu Muda fighting spirit and patriotism of Semarang residents, especially the youth who are persistent, self-sacrificing in high spirits maintaining the independence of Indonesia. The laying of the first stone took place on October 28, 1945, by Mr. Wongsonegoro (Governor of Central Java) at the originally planned location is near the square.
Blenduk Church, the oldest church in Central Java.
The Sam Poo Kong temple is the oldest Chinese temple in the city.
There are 593 elementary schools, 220 junior high schools, 106 senior high schools, and 88 vocational high schools, both public and private in Semarang.
There are 20 universities in Semarang, 12 of them private and 8 public. The most renowned universities of Semarang are Diponegoro University and Soegijapranata University.
Gedung Widya Puraya Universitas Diponegoro
Dipenegoro University (UNDIP) is one of national or state-owned universities in Semarang, founded in 1956. The university has 11 faculties: Faculty of Economics and Business, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, Faculty of Law, Faculty of Medicine, Faculty of Engineering, Faculty of Fishery and Marine Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Faculty of Public Health, Faculty of Animal Agriculture, and Faculty of Psychology. The university also offers a postgraduate program.
Soegijapranata Catholic University (UNIKA) is one of the private universities in Semarang, founded in 1982. There are 8 faculties in UNIKA: Faculty of Architecture and Design, Faculty of Law and Communication, Faculty of Engineering, Faculty of Language and Arts, Faculty of Economics and Business, Faculty of Agricultural and Technology, Faculty of Psychology, and Faculty of Computer Science.
There are several sport centres in Semarang. Jatidiri sport centre or Jatidiri Stadium is one of the biggest sport centres in Semarang, located in Karangrejo, Gajah Mungkur. The centre comprises a soccer field, in line skate track, tennis filed, climbing wall, swimming pool, and many others. The capacity of the centre is about 21.000 people.
Knight Stadium is a futsal and basketball centre in Semarang, located in Grand Marina complex. There is a café and fitness centre in Knight Stadium.
Like Singapore River, Semarang is constructing Semarang River at Banjir Kanal Barat (Garang River) near Karangayu Bridge. In the middle of July 2011, gardens in river banks and some traditional boats are available to use. The project will be finished in 2013 with river gardens, trotoars, garden lighting, water activities, art sites, sport sites and balconies and stairs for sightseeing.
Semarang is widely known for its Bandeng presto (pressure-cooked milkfish), Lumpia, Wingko, Tahu Gimbal, and Ganjel Rel. Semarang has also been called ‘The city of Jamu’ because it is an important centre for the production of jamu which are a wide range of Indonesian herbal medicines that are very popular across Indonesia.
Dugderan (id) is an annual festival in Semarang desecrated to welcome the Ramadan month (a fasting month for Moslems). The word “dug” describes the sound of bedug (traditional Indonesian musical instrument). The word “der” describes the sound of fireworks.
The icon of the festival is a special puppet dragon-like animal called Warak Ngendog. The word “warak“ stands for “holy” and the word “ngendog“ expresses a reward for Moslems. Warak Ngendog’s feet are chained, representing people’s desire that should be postponed during this holy month. As Dugderan is a festival unique for Semarang, it represents an important attraction for both local and non-residential people.
Semarang has got Adipura Award for 6 times in a row since 2012. Adipura Award is given for achievement in cleanliness and greenery at parks, streets, markets, shop buildings, premises, schools, even cleanliness of water ways and rivers.
Greater Semarang was initially defined by the government as Semarang, Semarang Regency, the newly carved Salatiga city, Kendal Regency, and Demak Regency. Despite the definition, this includes a lot of rural areas and the urban cores remain distinct; they have not amalgamated into a characterless metro area as in Greater Jakarta.
Sources: BPS Jateng
Notable people born in Semarang
Agung Laksono, politician and former Chairman of the House of Representatives.
Anindya Kusuma Putri, Puteri Indonesia 2015 and Top 15 of Miss Universe 2015.
Anne Avantie, fashion designer.
Conrad Emil Lambert Helfrich, Dutch admiral.
Daniel Sahuleka, Dutch musician.
Fuad Hassan, politician, former Minister of Education and Culture.
Hubertus van Mook, Dutch politician.
Liem Bwan Tjie, architect.
Oei Tiong Ham, Chinese Indonesian tycoon.
P. F. Dahler, politician, member of Investigating Committee for Preparatory Work for Independence (BPUPK).
Purnomo Yusgiantoro, politician and current Minister of Defence.
Raden Saleh, painter.
Rob Nieuwenhuys, literary historian and author.
Sutiyoso, chief of Indonesian Intelligence Bureau (BIN).
Tukul Arwana, comedian and television personality.
Willem Einthoven, medical doctor, invented electrocardiography (ECG), Nobel Prize winner.
Surabaya (Indonesian pronunciation: [suraˈbaja]) (formerly Dutch: Soerabaja/Soerabaia) is a port city and the capital of East Java (Jawa Timur) province of Indonesia. It is one of the earliest port cities in Southeast Asia. Located on northeastern Java on the Madura Strait, it is the second-largest-city in Indonesia. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population over 2.8 million, approximately 6 million in the metropolitan area, and the extended metropolitan area, which is known as Gerbangkertosusila is home for more than 9 million inhabitants. During 18th and 19th centuries, Surabaya was the largest city in Dutch East Indies, larger than Batavia (at present Jakarta) and the center of trading in the nation, which was then a competitor of Shanghai and Hong Kong. Today the city remains one of the important financial hubs of the Indonesian archipelago, arguably second only to Jakarta, and the Port of Tanjung Perak is Indonesia’s second busiest seaport.
Fighting shark and crocodile, the emblem of Surabaya city applied since colonial times, derived from local folk etymology
Surabaya (Suroboyo) is locally believed to derive its name from the words “suro” (shark) and “boyo” (crocodile), two creatures which, in a local myth, fought each other in order to gain the title of “the strongest and most powerful animal” in the area. It was said that the two powerful animals agreed a truce and set boundaries: the shark’s domain would be the sea while the crocodile’s domain would be the land. However one day the shark swam into the river estuary to hunt. This angered the crocodile, who declared it his territory. The shark argued that the river was a water realm which meant that it was shark territory, while the crocodile argued that the river flowed deep inland, so it was therefore crocodile territory. A ferocious fight resumed as the two animals bit each other’s tails. Neither of them won the fight.
Another source alludes to a prophecy of Jayabaya, a 12th-century psychic king of Kediri Kingdom, foreseeing a fight between a giant white shark and a giant white crocodile taking place in the area, which is sometimes interpreted as foretelling the Mongol invasion of Java, a major conflict between the forces of Kublai Khan, Mongol ruler of China, and those of Raden Wijaya’s Majapahit in 1293. The two animals are now used as the city’s symbol, with the two facing and circling each other, as depicted in a statue appropriately located near the entrance to the city zoo.
Alternate derivations proliferate: from the Javanese “sura ing baya”, meaning “bravely facing danger”; or from the use of “surya” to refer to the sun. Some people consider Jayabaya’s prophecy as being about the great war between native Surabayan people and foreign invaders at the start of the war of independence in 1945. Another story tells of two heroes who fought each other in order to be the king of the city. The two heroes were named Sura and Baya. These folk etymologies, though embraced enthusiastically by its people and city leaders, are unverifiable.
Dutch residenthuis (Resident House) along the water in Surabaya
Red Bridge area from the air in the 1920s.
Map of Surabaya from an 1897 English travel-guide
The earliest record of Surabaya was in the 1225 book Zhu fan zhi written by Zhao Rugua, in which it was called Jung-ya-lu. The name Janggala was probably originated from the name “Hujung Galuh” (Old Javanese lit: “Cape Diamond” or “Cape Gemstone”), or “Jung-ya-lu” according to Chinese source. Hujung Galuh was located on the estuarine of Brantas River and today is the part of modern Surabaya city and Sidoarjo Regency.
By the 14th to 15th century, Surabaya seems to be one of Majapahit ports or coastal settlements, together with Tuban, Gresik, and Hujung Galuh (Sidoarjo). Ma Huan documented the early fifteenth-century visit of Zheng He’s treasure ships in his 1433 book Yingya Shenglan: “after traveling south for more than twenty li, the ship reached Sulumayi, whose foreign name is Surabaya. At the estuary, the outflowing water is fresh”.
Ma Huan visited Java during Zheng He’s 4th expedition in the 1413, during the reign of Majapahit king Wikramawardhana. He describes his travel to Majapahit capital, first he arrived to the port of Tu-pan (Tuban) where he saw large numbers of Chinese settlers migrated from Guangdong and Chou Chang. Then he sailed east to thriving new trading town of Ko-erh-hsi (Gresik), Su-pa-erh-ya (Surabaya), and then sailing inland into the river by smaller boat to southwest until reached the Brantas river port of Chang-ku (Changgu). Continued travel by land to southwest he arrived in Man-che-po-I (Majapahit), where the Javanese king stay.
By late 15th century, Islam began to take its root in Surabaya. The settlement of Ampel Denta, located around Ampel Mosque in today Ampel sub-district, Semampir district, north Surabaya, was established by a charismatic Islamic proselytizer Sunan Ampel.
In the late fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, Surabaya grew to be a duchy, a major political and military power in eastern Java. The Portuguese writer Tomé Pires mentioned that a Muslim lord was in power in Surabaya in 1513 though likely still a vassal of the Hindu–Buddhist Majapahit. At that time, Surabaya was already a major trading port, owing to its location on the River Brantas delta and on the trade route between Malacca and the Spice Islands via the Java Sea. During the decline of Majapahit, the lord of Surabaya resisted the rise of the Demak Sultanate, and only submitted to its rule in 1530. Surabaya became independent after the death of Sultan Trenggana of Demak in 1546.
The Duchy of Surabaya entered a conflict with, and was later captured by, the more powerful Sultanate of Mataram in 1625 under Sultan Agung. It was one of Mataram’s fiercest campaigns, in which they had to conquer Surabaya’s allies, Sukadana and Madura, and to lay siege to the city before capturing it. With this conquest, Mataram then controlled almost the whole of Java, with the exception of the Sultanate of Banten and the Dutch settlement of Batavia.
Handelstraat, Surabaya in the 1930s: subsequently the Jembatan Merah area.
The expanding Dutch East India Company took the city over from a weakened Mataram in November 1743. In consolidating its rule over Surabaya and, in time, the rest of East Java, the Dutch collaborated with leading regional magnates, including Ngabehi Soero Pernollo (1720–1776), his brother Han Bwee Kong, Kapitein der Chinezen (1727–1778) and the latter’s son, Han Chan Piet, Majoor der Chinezen (1759–1827), all from the powerful Han family of Lasem.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, Surabaya was the largest city in Dutch East Indies. Surabaya became a major trading center under the Dutch colonial government, and hosted the largest naval base in the colony. Surabaya was also the largest city in the colony serving as the center of Java’s plantation economy, industry and were supported by its natural harbor. In 1920, a census recorded that Batavia had become the largest city. In 1917, a revolt occurred among the soldiers and sailors of Surabaya, led by the Indies Social Democratic Association. The revolt was firmly crushed and the insurgents given harsh sentences.
The burnt-out car of Brigadier Mallaby on the spot where he was killed by pro-independence Indonesian soldiers during the Battle of Surabaya on 31 October 1945
Japan occupied the city in 1942, as part of the occupation of Indonesia, and it was bombed by the Allies in 1944. After Japanese surrender at the end of World War II Surabaya was seized by Indonesian nationalists. The young nation soon came into conflict with the British, who had become caretakers of the Dutch colony after the surrender of the Japanese.
The Battle of Surabaya, one of the well-known battles of the Indonesian revolution, started after the Arek-Arek Suroboyo (Teenagers of Surabaya) assassinated the British Brigadier Mallaby on October 30, 1945 near Jembatan Merah (the “Red Bridge”), allegedly with a stray bullet. The Allies gave an ultimatum to the Republicans inside the city to surrender, but they refused. The ensuing battle, which cost thousands of lives, took place on November 10, which Indonesians subsequently celebrate as Hari Pahlawan (Heroes’ Day). The incident of the red-white flag (the Dutch flag at the top of Yamato Hotel’s tower that was torn into the Indonesian red-white flag) by Bung Tomo is also recorded as a heroic feat during the struggle of this city.
The city is known as Kota Pahlawan “city of heroes” due to the importance of the Battle of Surabaya in galvanizing Indonesian and international support for Indonesian independence during the Indonesian National Revolution.
In June 2011, Surabaya received the Adipura Kencana Award as number one among 20 cities in Indonesia. Surabaya was reported by a Singaporean as being clean and green.
Surabaya locates on the northern coast of East Java province. It is mostly lowlands with a river estuary of Kalimas, one of two branches of Brantas River. Surabaya city borders Madura Strait in the north and east, Sidoarjo Regency in the south, and Gresik Regencyin the west. The regencies surrounding Surabaya are:
Lamongan Regency to the northwest
Gresik Regency to the west
Bangkalan Regency to the northeast (on Madura island)
Sidoarjo Regency to the south, and Mojokerto Regency
Jombang Regency to the southwest
Like many other large Indonesian metropolises, many residents reside outside the city limits in a metropolitan area called Gerbangkertosusila.
Under the Köppen climate classification system, Surabaya features a tropical wet and dry climate (Aw), with distinct wet and dry seasons. The city’s wet season runs from November through June, while the dry season covers the remaining five months. Unlike a number of cities and regions with a tropical wet and dry climate, average high and low temperatures are very consistent throughout the course of the year, with an average high temperature of around 31 degrees Celsius and average low temperatures of around 26 degrees Celsius.
Outskirt areas of Surabaya
The city has its own local government and legislative body. The mayor and members of representatives are locally elected by popular vote for a 5-year term.The city government enjoys greater decentralization of affairs than the provincial body, such as the provision of public schools, public health facilities and public transportation. Current Mayor of the city is Tri Rismaharini, who is the first female mayor in Surabaya and has led Surabaya to achieve multiple regional, national and international awards since her first term as Surabaya Mayor in 2010. In 2012 Surabaya was awarded the “ASEAN Environmentally Sustainable City Award”. Besides Mayor and Deputy Mayor, there is Surabaya Municipal People’s Representative Council, which is a legislative body of 50 council members directly elected by the people in legislative elections every five years.
Surabaya is divided into 31 kecamatan (districts), and 161 urban villages. The dirtricts are grouped into 5 areas of Central, North, South, East and West. The districts are as follows,
Surabaya is the second most populous city in Indonesia with 2,765,908 recorded in the chartered city limits (kota) in the 2010 census. With the extended metropolitan development area called Gerbangkertosusila (derived from Gresik-Bangkalan-Mojokerto-Surabaya-Sidoarjo-Lamongan) adding more than nine million inhabitants in several cities and approximately 50 districts spread over non-contiguous urban areas including Gresik, Sidoarjo, Mojokerto and Pasuruan regencies. Though central government of Indonesia recognizes only the metropolitan area (Surabaya, Gresik and Sidarjo) as Greater Surabaya (Zona Surabaya Raya) with a population of 6,484,206 (2010), making Surabaya now the third largest metropolitan area in Indonesia. The city is highly urbanized, with industries centralized in the city, and contains slums. As the main education center, the city is also home for students from around Indonesia.
Surabaya is an old city that has expanded over time, and its population continues to grow at approximately 1.2% per year. In recent years, more people have moved to Surabaya from nearby suburbs and villages in East Java
Kya-Kya or Kembang Jepun, The city’s Chinatown
Ethnic Javanese people are the majority in Surabaya, with Chinese Indonesians, Indian Indonesians and ethnic Madurese being significant minorities in the city. Surabaya also has ethnic populations from other parts of Indonesia: Sundanese, Minang, Batak, Banjar, Balinese, and Bugis.
Most citizens speak a dialect of Indonesian/Javanese called Suroboyoan, a sub-dialect of the Arekan dialect. A stereotype of this dialect concerns equality and directness in speech. The usage of register is less strict than the Central Java dialect. The Suroboyoan dialect is a mixture of both Bahasa Indonesia and Javanese, also with some significant influence from foreign languages such as Madurese etc., which has formed a special dialect known as Suroboyoan. The Suroboyoan dialect is actively promoted in local media, such as in local TV shows, radio, newspapers and traditional dramas called Ludruk.
Al-Akbar National Mosque
Although around 85% of citizens in Surabaya adhere to Sunni Islam, other major religions include Christianity (Roman Catholicism, Protestantism, and Orthodox), of whom the majority are Roman Catholics. The influence of Hinduism is strong in basic Surabayan culture, but only a minority of the population adheres to Hinduism mostly among the ethnic Indian minority. There is also significant population of Chinese Indonesians who adhere to Buddhism and Confucianism, and a small community of Dutch Jews who adhere to Judaism.
The city had an influential role as a major Islamic center in Java during the Wali Sanga era. The prominent and honored Islamic figure in Surabaya was Sunan Ampel (Raden Rahmat). His tomb is a sacred religious site in the city and is visited by Surabayans and pilgrims from different parts of Indonesia. The largest Muslim organization in Indonesia, Nahdlatul Ulama was established in Surabaya on 26 January 1926. Al-Akbar Mosque is the largest mosque in Surabaya.
Tian Ti Pagoda
Christianity as a whole in Surabaya is mainly practised by Chinese Indonesians as well as native Javanese, Bataks and Ambonese who attend either a Roman Catholic or Protestant church. A minority of Javanese practice at the Gereja Kejawen, a branch of native Christianity.There are around 15 churches in Surabaya, which vary in size. Gereja Katolik Kelahiran Santa Perawan Maria (The Church of The Nativity of Blessed Virgin Mary), also known as Gereja Kepanjen, built in 1815 as the first church in Surabaya and one of the oldest churches in Indonesia. The main Orthodox Church in Indonesia, St Nikolas Church, is also based in Surabaya. The Orthodox Christian Center Surabaya was opened on 15 October 2008.
Once the major religion in Surabaya and across the archipelago during the Majapahit era, Hinduism played a major role on traditional Surabayan culture. Small Hindu communities still exist in Surabaya most commonly in the eastern sections of the city. Surabaya was the location of the only synagogue in Java, but it rarely obtained a minyan (quorum). The synagogue was destroyed in protests and riots related to Palestine-Israeli conflict. There is still a Jewish cemetery in the city.
Since the early 1900s, Surabaya has been one of the most important and busiest trading city ports in Asia. Principal exports from the port, include sugar, tobacco and coffee. Its rich history as a trading port has led to a strong financial infrastructure with modern economic institutions such as banks, insurance and sound export-import companies. The economy is influenced by the recent growth in foreign industries and the completion of the Suramadu Bridge. The high potential and economic activities make the city an attractive destination to foreign investors. The city is home to a large shipyard, and numerous specialized naval schools.
As the provincial capital, Surabaya has a number of offices and business centers. As a metropolitan city, Surabaya became the center of economic, financial and business activities in East Java and beyond. Also, Surabaya is the second largest port city in Indonesia after Jakarta. As a trading center, Surabaya is not only a trade center for East Java but also facilitates areas in Central Java, Kalimantan and Eastern Indonesia. Surabaya’s strategic location is almost in the center of Indonesia and just south of Asia makes it one of the important hubs for trading activities in Southeast Asia. Surabaya is currently in the process of building high rise skyscrapers, including apartments, condominiums, and hotels, by way of attracting foreign capital. Surabaya and the surrounding area is undergoing the most rapidly growing economic development in East Java and one of the most advanced in Indonesia. The city is also one of the most important cities in supporting Indonesia’s economy.
Most of the population is engaged in services, industry and trade. Surabaya is a fast growing trading center. Major industries include shipbuilding, heavy equipment, food processing and agriculture, electronics, home furnishings, and handicrafts. Many major multinational companies are based in Surabaya, such as PT Sampoerna Tbk, Maspion, Wing’s Group, Unilever Indonesia, Pakuwon Group, Jawa Pos Group and PT PAL Indonesia.
The area in between Jalan Basuki Rachmat, Jalan Embong Malang, and Jalan Bubutan has grown as a business center and has turned into one of the main heart of business and trade activities in Surabaya. Some of the important buildings in this area include Wisma BRI Surabaya, Hotel Bumi Surabaya, Wisma Dharmala Surabaya, The Peak Residence, Sheraton Hotel etc.
Another cluster around Jalan Mayjend Sungkono, Jalan Adityawarman, Jalan HR Muhammad, and Jalan Bukit Darmo has grown as a new business center of the city. This area has now grown as one of the most rapidly growing commercial and business centers in East Java, with high rise buildings. Some of the tallest buildings in Surabaya located in this area, such as Adhiwangsa Apartment, Waterplace Residence, Puri Matahari, Beverly Park Apartment, The Via & The Vue Apartment, Ciputra World Hotel, Puncak Permai Apartment, Rich Palace Hotel, and so forth.
Ciputra World Surabaya
Surabaya has plenty of shopping centers like other major cities of Indonesia, ranging from traditional markets to most modern shopping malls. Outlets of local and international brands have presence in modern shopping malls. There are many dedicated markets for electronic goods, gadgets and computer hardware.
Some important shopping malls of the city are:
Ciputra World Surabaya
City of Tomorrow
East Coast Center and Food Festival
Jembatan Merah Plaza
Pakuwon Trade Center
Pasar Atom Mall
Surabaya Town Square
World Trade Center Surabaya.
Cheng Hoo (Zheng He) Mosque, Surabaya
Majapahit Hotel building is a cultural heritage of Surabaya
Architecture in Surabaya is a mixture of colonial, Asian, Javanese, modern, and post-modern influences. There are still many colonial era relics still standing today, such as Hotel Majapahit and Surabaya Post Office. As a relatively old city in Indonesia and Southeast Asia, most colonial buildings in Surabaya were built around the 17th century to early 20th century. These buildings have influence of Dutch / European style in the Middle Ages. Before the Second World War, there were many shop houses in the old part of the city, mostly of two storey. These shop houses have influence of European and Chinese traditions. Although some have been dismantled for new construction, there are still many old buildings that are preserved as cultural heritage and city icons, which are around the area of Kembang Jepun Street, Karet Street, Gula Street, Slompretan Street, and Rajawali Street.
After independence of Indonesia, the center of Surabaya’s architectural development was concentrated only in the area of Jembatan Merah, and its surroundings. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, modern and post-modern style buildings were increasingly emerging in Surabaya. Along with the economic development, such buildings continue to grow in Surabaya until now. In the era of 2010s, Surabaya has become a region for high-rise buildings in East Java, such as The Peak Residence and One Icon Residence (200 meters).
Kebun Binatang Surabaya (Surabaya Zoo) opened in 1916. It was the first in the world to have successfully bred orangutans in captivity.
Zheng He Mosque, a recently built mosque, one of the unique mosques with Chinese-style architecture in Indonesia. Dedicated to the Hui Chinese diplomat, Zheng He.
Al-Akbar Mosque, the largest mosque in Jawa Timur.
Gereja Katolik Kelahiran Santa Perawan Maria, one of the first churches to be built in Indonesia, and the first one ever built in Jawa Timur.
Hero monument, a 41 metres (135 ft) high monument, is the main symbol of Surabaya and commemorates the heroes of the revolutionary struggle. There is a museum on location as well, exhibiting reminders of the struggle for independence.
Museum Nahdlatul Ulama, the resource center of the culture and history of Nahdlatul Ulama, an independent Islamic religious organization.
Museum Bank Indonesia, a bank museum occupying the former De Javasche Bank built in 1904.
House of Sampoerna, a museum devoted to the history of clove cigarette (kretek) manufacturing in Indonesia, housed in Dutch colonial buildings dating to 1864.
Jalesveva Jayamahe Monument, a large, admiral-like statue which commemorates the Indonesian Navy.
Monkasel, abbreviated from Monumen Kapal Selam (Submarine Monument) A Soviet-built Whiskey class submarine (named KRI Pasopati (410)), first launched in 1952, served in the Indonesian Navy from 1962 until decommissioned in 1990. After her decommissioning, Pasopati was dismantled and transferred to its present site in 1996. The submarine was reassembled on the current site and opened as a museum and tourist attraction in 1998.
Kenjeran Beach, located in the eastern of Surabaya, which also housed Sanggar Agung, a Chinese temple build over the sea.
Market of the Chinese Tomb, last resting place of Han Bwee Kong, Kapitein der Chinezen, magnate, mandarin and landlord in Surabaya and East Java, and patriarch of the patrician Han family of Lasem
Han Ancestral Hall, a historic house that serves as a memorial temple for the ancestors of the Han family of Lasem
Tomb of Sunan Ampel
The Eastern Fleet is headquartered here. It is one of two fleets in the Indonesian Navy. Its maritime heritage is also represented in a form of KRI Pasopati Submarine Monument, a retired Russian Whiskey class submarine.
Ujung passenger Port
Transportation in Surabaya is supported by land and sea infrastructure serving local, regional, and international journeys. Air transport is located at Juanda Airport, Sedati, Sidoarjo). Intracity transport is primarily by motor vehicles, motorcycles and taxis with limited public bus transport available. Surabaya is also a transit city between Jakarta and Bali for ground transportation. Another bus route is between Jakarta and the neighboring island of Madura.
Surabaya’s Juanda International Airport is a passenger and cargo airport which also serves as Surabaya’s Navy Airbase, operated by the TNI-AL (Indonesian Navy) and located just outside Surabaya, on the outskirts of Sidoarjo. This airport has served Surabaya for many years, and currently has 2 terminals, with domestic flights served from Terminal 1 and all international flights and Garuda Indonesia’s domestic flights serviced from Terminal 2. Although considered smaller than Kuala Namu International Airport in Medan and Ngurah Rai International Airport in Denpasar, Bali, Juanda International Airport is still regarded as Indonesia’s second busiest airport right after Jakarta’s Soekarno Hatta International Airport
Port of Tanjung Perak is the trading port in East Java and is one of the busiest ports in the country. It is the second largest port of trade, container and passenger in Indonesia after the Port of Tanjung Priok in Jakarta. There is also Teluk Lamong Port Terminal, which is the main buffer terminal terminal of Tanjung Perak Port. The port terminal of Lamong Bay is the first green port in Indonesia and is one of the most sophisticated port terminals in the world where the entire operating system is automated.
The city has three major train stations, being Surabaya Kota (also known as Semut), Pasar Turi, and Gubeng. Surabaya’s main train station is Pasar Turi Station. The Argo Bromo Anggrek operated by PT Kereta Api (Indonesia’s main rail operator) connects Surabaya from this station to Gambir Station (Jakarta). Both economy and executive class trains are served to and from Surabaya.
Pedicabs (becak) in the street in Surabaya
The main bus terminal is Terminal Purabaya (located in Bungurasih, Waru, Sidoarjo), the other major terminal is Osowilangon in Tambak, Surabaya.
There are various kinds of local transport including: taxi-cabs, shuttle bus, city bus, Angguna, pedicab and commuter trains. Online transportation services like GO-JEK, Uber, and Grab are also available in Surabaya.
Suramadu Bridge, The longest bridge in Indonesia
The Suramadu Bridge (derived from Surabaya-Madura) connects Surabaya and Madura Island over the Madura Strait. A 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) highway has been proposed to be built from the Suramadu Bridge to Madura International Seaport-City in Pernajuh village, Kocah district, Bangkalan, Madura at a cost of approximately Rp. 60 billion (US$7 billion). This container port was built to ease the burden on Surabaya’s overloaded Tanjung Perak Port.
The city has one professional football club, Persebaya. The club has won the Indonesian Premier Division three times–twice when the division was the first tier and once as the second tier. Fans refer to themselves as Bonek, an abbreviation for Bondo Nekat (which translates as “equipped by bravery”). The city is the home of CLS Knights Indonesia, a basketball club which participated in Asean Basketball League.
Surabaya has a multi-purpose stadium, Gelora Bung Tomo Stadium. The stadium is used mostly for football matches. It is the new home stadium of Persebaya, replacing Gelora 10 November Stadium. It was the venue of a match between Persebaya 1927 against then–English Premier League club Queens Park Rangers, held on 23 July 2012.
Universities and post-secondary institutions
Surabaya has several major universities and institutions, including those with religious or technical specialties:
Airlangga University (UNAIR), a major public research university in Indonesia based in Surabaya and Banyuwangi.
Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology (ITS), a public technological institute teaches robotics and mechanics, and is the center of Ship and Ocean Structure Design to support offshore exploration.
State University of Surabaya (UNESA), a university educating teachers; also with programs in Economics, Technology, and Law.
State Islamic University of Sunan Ampel (UINSA), a public university for Islamic studies.
Narotama University (UNNAR), Surabaya
Electronic Engineering Polytechnic Institute of Surabaya (PENS-PPNS), a technical institution located in Surabaya.
Adhi Tama Institute of Technology Surabaya, an institute specializing in Technical Studies.
Hang Tuah University Surabaya, a private university specializing in Maritime Studies.
Universitas Pembangunan Nasional “Veteran” Jawa Timur
Institut Sains Terapan dan Teknologi Surabaya, an institute specializing in Computer Programming.
Universitas Kristen Petra, a Christian university in Indonesia.
Pelita Harapan University
Widya Mandala Catholic University (3 campuses), a Catholic private university in Surabaya with facilities for Healthcare Studies at a newly opened third campus in the eastern part of the city
University of Surabaya, a private university teaching Pharmacy and Psychology.
Universitas Bhayangkara, a university affiliated with Indonesian Police Department of East Java.
Wijaya Kusuma University Surabaya, a university which is the oldest private faculty of medicine in eastern Indonesia. Established in 1981, The Faculty of Medicine was founded in 1986.
Wijaya Putra University a Public University established in 1984
Ciputra University, a private entrepreneurial-oriented university founded in 2006 by the Ciputra Group.
Primary and secondary schools
International schools include:
Surabaya Intercultural School
Surabaya Japanese School (スラバヤ日本人学校)
Surabaya Taipei International School; 印尼泗水臺灣學校)
Surabaya European School
Private schools include:
St. Louis Catholic School
Angelus Custos Catholic School
GLORIA Christian School
Petra Christian School
IPH Christian School
Rujak cingur, specialty of Surabaya.
As a metropolitan city all types of Indonesian cuisine and other international restaurants have presence in the city. However, as the capital of East Java, cuisines from the province dominates the culinary culture of the city. East Javanese cuisines include, variety of processed fruits, crisps temph, Bakpao telo, Bakso Malang, Rawan, Tahu campur lamongan, Cwie noodles, tahu takwa, tahu pong, and getuk pisang, pecel madiun, wingko, tape, nasi krawu, otak-otak bandeng, bonggolan, shrimp crackers, shrimp paste, and petis, Tempeh Chips, tahu tepo, and Nasi lethok, sego tempong, salad soup, and pecel rawon, Suwar-suwir, tape proll, gaplek, lodho, goat satay and pecel tulungagung.
Surabaya is famous for Rawon, Rojak cingur, Semanggi, Lontong Balap, clams satay, mussels and rice cake.
Rujak cingur: a marinated cow snout or lips and noses (cingur), served with boiled vegetables and shrimp crackers. It is then dressed in a sauce made of caramelized fermented shrimp paste (petis), peanuts, chili, and spices. It is usually served with lontong, a boiled rice cake. Rujak cingur is considered traditional food of Surabaya.
Rawon: a dark beef soup, served with mung bean sprouts and the ubiquitous sambal. The dark (almost black) color comes from the kluwak (Pangium edule) nuts.
Lontong kupang: lontong with small cockles in petis sauce.
Semanggi: a salad made of boiled semanggi (M. crenata) leaves that grow in paddy fields. It is dressed in a spicy peanut sauce.