Tsunami

Penjelasan tentang Tsunami


Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

2004_Indonesia_Tsunami_edit

Simulasi Tsunami Desember 2004

Tsunami (bahasa Jepang: 津波; tsu = pelabuhan, nami = gelombang, secara harafiah berarti “ombak besar di pelabuhan”) adalah perpindahan badan air yang disebakan oleh perubahan permukaan laut secara vertikal dengan tiba-tiba.

800px-The_Great_Wave_off_Kanagawa

Gambar Tsunami menurut Hokusai, seorang pelukis Jepang dari abad ke 19.

Perubahan permukaan laut tersebut bisa disebabkan oleh gempa bumi yang berpusat di bawah laut, letusan gunung berapi bawah laut, longsor bawah laut, atau hantaman meteor di laut. Gelombang tsunami dapat merambat ke segala arah. Tenaga yang dikandung dalam gelombang tsunami adalah tetap terhadap fungsi ketinggian dan kelajuannya.

Ombak

Tsunami yang menghantam Malé, Maladewa pada 26 Desember 2004

Di laut dalam, gelombang tsunami dapat merambat dengan kecepatan 500–1000 km per jam. Setara dengan kecepatan pesawat terbang. Ketinggian gelombang di laut dalam hanya sekitar 1 meter. Dengan demikian, laju gelombang tidak terasa oleh kapal yang sedang berada di tengah laut. Ketika mendekati pantai, kecepatan gelombang tsunami menurun hingga sekitar 30 km per jam, namun ketinggiannya sudah meningkat hingga mencapai puluhan meter.

Hantaman gelombang Tsunami bisa masuk hingga puluhan kilometer dari bibir pantai. Kerusakan dan korban jiwa yang terjadi karena Tsunami bisa diakibatkan karena hantaman air maupun material yang terbawa oleh aliran gelombang tsunami.

Dampak negatif yang diakibatkan tsunami adalah merusak apa saja yang dilaluinya. Bangunan, tumbuh-tumbuhan, dan mengakibatkan korban jiwa manusia serta menyebabkan genangan, pencemaran air asin lahan pertanian, tanah, dan air bersih.

Sejarawan Yunani bernama Thucydides merupakan orang pertama yang mengaitkan tsunami dengan gempa bawah laut. Namun hingga abad ke-20, pengetahuan mengenai penyebab tsunami masih sangat minim. Penelitian masih terus dilakukan untuk memahami penyebab tsunami.

geologi, geografi, dan oseanografi pada masa lalu menyebut tsunami sebagai “gelombang laut seismik”.

Beberapa kondisi meteorologis, seperti badai tropis, dapat menyebabkan gelombang badai yang disebut sebagai meteor tsunami yang ketinggiannya beberapa meter di atas gelombang laut normal. Ketika badai ini mencapai daratan, bentuknya bisa menyerupai tsunami, meski sebenarnya bukan tsunami. Gelombangnya bisa menggenangi daratan. Gelombang badai ini pernah menggenangi Burma (Myanmar) pada Mei 2008.

Wilayah di sekeliling Samudra Pasifik memiliki Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre (PTWC) yang mengeluarkan peringatan jika terdapat ancaman tsunami pada wilayah ini. Wilayah di sekeliling Samudera Hindia sedang membangun Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System (IOTWS) yang akan berpusat di Indonesia.

Bukti-bukti historis menunjukkan bahwa megatsunami mungkin saja terjadi, yang menyebabkan beberapa pulau dapat tenggelam

Daftar isi
1 Terminologi
2 Penyebab terjadinya tsunami
3 Sistem Peringatan Dini
3.1 Sistem Peringatan Dini Tsunami di Indonesia
3.1.1 Cara Kerja
4 Tsunami dalam sejarah

1 Terminologi


Kata Tsunami berasal dari bahasa Jepang. Tsu berarti pelabuhan, dan Nami berarti gelombang. Tsunami sering terjadi di Jepang. Sejarah Jepang mencatat setidaknya 196 tsunami telah terjadi.

Pada beberapa kesempatan, tsunami disamakan dengan gelombang pasang. Dalam tahun-tahun terakhir, persepsi ini telah dinyatakan tidak sesuai lagi, terutama dalam komunitas peneliti, karena gelombang pasang tidak ada hubungannya dengan tsunami. Persepsi ini dahulu populer karena penampakan tsunami yang menyerupai gelombang pasang yang tinggi.

Tsunami dan gelombang pasang sama-sama menghasilkan gelombang air yang bergerak ke daratan, namun dalam kejadian tsunami, gerakan gelombang jauh lebih besar dan lebih lama, sehingga memberika kesan seperti gelombang pasang yang sangat tinggi. Meskipun pengartian yang menyamakan dengan “pasang-surut” meliputi “kemiripan” atau “memiliki kesamaan karakter” dengan gelombang pasang, pengertian ini tidak lagi tepat. Tsunami tidak hanya terbatas pada pelabuhan. Karenanya para geologis dan oseanografis sangat tidak merekomendasikan untuk menggunakan istilah ini.

Hanya ada beberapa bahasa lokal yang memiliki arti yang sama dengan gelombang merusak ini. Aazhi Peralai dalam Bahasa Tamil, ië beuna atau alôn buluëk (menurut dialek) dalam Bahasa Aceh adalah contohnya. Sebagai catatan, dalam bahasa Tagalog versi Austronesia, bahasa utama di Filipina, alon berarti “gelombang”. Di Pulau Simeulue, daerah pesisir barat Sumatra, Indonesia, dalam Bahasa Defayan, smong berarti tsunami. Sementara dalam Bahasa Sigulai, emong berarti tsunami.

2 Penyebab terjadinya tsunami


Skema_tsunami

Skema terjadinya tsunami

Tsunami dapat terjadi jika terjadi gangguan yang menyebabkan perpindahan sejumlah besar air, seperti letusan gunung api, gempa bumi, longsor maupun meteor yang jatuh ke bumi. Namun, 90% tsunami adalah akibat gempa bumi bawah laut. Dalam rekaman sejarah beberapa tsunami diakibatkan oleh gunung meletus, misalnya ketika meletusnya Gunung Krakatau.

Gerakan vertikal pada kerak bumi, dapat mengakibatkan dasar laut naik atau turun secara tiba-tiba, yang mengakibatkan gangguan keseimbangan air yang berada di atasnya. Hal ini mengakibatkan terjadinya aliran energi air laut, yang ketika sampai di pantai menjadi gelombang besar yang mengakibatkan terjadinya tsunami.

Kecepatan gelombang tsunami tergantung pada kedalaman laut di mana gelombang terjadi, dimana kecepatannya bisa mencapai ratusan kilometer per jam. Bila tsunami mencapai pantai, kecepatannya akan menjadi kurang lebih 50 km/jam dan energinya sangat merusak daerah pantai yang dilaluinya. Di tengah laut tinggi gelombang tsunami hanya beberapa cm hingga beberapa meter, namun saat mencapai pantai tinggi gelombangnya bisa mencapai puluhan meter karena terjadi penumpukan masa air. Saat mencapai pantai tsunami akan merayap masuk daratan jauh dari garis pantai dengan jangkauan mencapai beberapa ratus meter bahkan bisa beberapa kilometer.

Gerakan vertikal ini dapat terjadi pada patahan bumi atau sesar. Gempa bumi juga banyak terjadi di daerah subduksi, dimana lempeng samudera menelusup ke bawah lempeng benua.

Tanah longsor yang terjadi di dasar laut serta runtuhan gunung api juga dapat mengakibatkan gangguan air laut yang dapat menghasilkan tsunami. Gempa yang menyebabkan gerakan tegak lurus lapisan bumi. Akibatnya, dasar laut naik-turun secara tiba-tiba sehingga keseimbangan air laut yang berada di atasnya terganggu. Demikian pula halnya dengan benda kosmis atau meteor yang jatuh dari atas. Jika ukuran meteor atau longsor ini cukup besar, dapat terjadi megatsunami yang tingginya mencapai ratusan meter.

Gempa yang menyebabkan tsunami


  • Gempa bumi yang berpusat di tengah laut dan dangkal (0 – 30 km)
  • Gempa bumi dengan kekuatan sekurang-kurangnya 6,5 Skala Richter
  • Gempa bumi dengan pola sesar naik atau sesar turun

3 Sistem Peringatan Dini


Banyak kota-kota di sekitar Pasifik, terutama di Jepang dan juga Hawaii, mempunyai sistem peringatan tsunami dan prosedur evakuasi untuk menangani kejadian tsunami. Bencana tsunami dapat diprediksi oleh berbagai institusi seismologi di berbagai penjuru dunia dan proses terjadinya tsunami dapat dimonitor melalui perangkat yang ada di dasar atau permukaan laut yang terhubung dengan satelit.

Perekam tekanan di dasar laut bersama-sama denganperangkat yang mengapung di laut buoy, dapat digunakan untuk mendeteksi gelombang yang tidak dapat dilihat oleh pengamat manusia pada laut dalam. Sistem sederhana yang pertama kali digunakan untuk memberikan peringatan awal akan terjadinya tsunami pernah dicoba di Hawaii pada tahun 1920-an. Kemudian, sistem yang lebih canggih dikembangkan lagi setelah terjadinya tsunami besar pada tanggal 1 April 1946 dan 23 Mei 1960. Amerika serikat membuat Pasific Tsunami Warning Center pada tahun 1949, dan menghubungkannya ke jaringan data dan peringatan internasional pada tahun 1965.

Salah satu sistem untuk menyediakan peringatan dini tsunami, CREST Project, dipasang di pantai Barat Amerika Serikat, Alaska, dan Hawai oleh USGS, NOAA, dan Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network, serta oleh tiga jaringan seismik universitas.

Hingga kini, ilmu tentang tsunami sudah cukup berkembang, meskipun proses terjadinya masih banyak yang belum diketahui dengan pasti. Episenter dari sebuah gempa bawah laut dan kemungkinan kejadian tsunami dapat cepat dihitung. Pemodelan tsunami yang baik telah berhasil memperkirakan seberapa besar tinggi gelombang tsunami di daerah sumber, kecepatan penjalarannya dan waktu sampai di pantai, berapa ketinggian tsunami di pantai dan seberapa jauh rendaman yang mungkin terjadi di daratan. Walaupun begitu, karena faktor alamiah, seperti kompleksitas topografi dan batimetri sekitar pantai dan adanya corak ragam tutupan lahan (baik tumbuhan, bangunan, dll), perkiraan waktu kedatangan tsunami, ketinggian dan jarak rendaman tsunami masih belum bisa dimodelkan secara akurat.

3.1 Sistem Peringatan Dini Tsunami di Indonesia


Pemerintah Indonesia, dengan bantuan negara-negara donor, telah mengembangkan Sistem Peringatan Dini Tsunami Indonesia (Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System – InaTEWS). Sistem ini berpusat pada Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika (BMKG) di Jakarta. Sistem ini memungkinkan BMKG mengirimkan peringatan tsunami jika terjadi gempa yang berpotensi mengakibatkan tsunami. Sistem yang ada sekarang ini sedang disempurnakan. Kedepannya, sistem ini akan dapat mengeluarkan 3 tingkat peringatan, sesuai dengan hasil perhitungan Sistem Pendukung Pengambilan Keputusan (Decision Support System – DSS).

Pengembangan Sistem Peringatan Dini Tsunami ini melibatkan banyak pihak, baik instansi pemerintah pusat, pemerintah daerah, lembaga internasional, lembaga non-pemerintah. Koordinator dari pihak Indonesia adalah Kementrian Negara Riset dan Teknologi (RISTEK). Sedangkan instansi yang ditunjuk dan bertanggung jawab untuk mengeluarkan INFO GEMPA dan PERINGATAN TSUNAMI adalah BMKG (Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi dan Geofisika). Sistem ini didesain untuk dapat mengeluarkan peringatan tsunami dalam waktu paling lama 5 menit setelah gempa terjadi.

Sistem Peringatan Dini memiliki 4 komponen: Pengetahuan mengenai Bahaya dan Risiko, Peramalan, Peringatan, dan Reaksi.Observasi (Monitoring gempa dan permukaan laut), Integrasi dan Diseminasi Informasi, Kesiapsiagaan.

3.1.1 Cara Kerja


Sebuah Sistem Peringatan Dini Tsunami adalah merupakan rangkaian sistem kerja yang rumit dan melibatkan banyak pihak secara internasional, regional, nasional, daerah dan bermuara di Masyarakat.

Apabila terjadi suatu Gempa, maka kejadian tersebut dicatat oleh alat Seismograf (pencatat gempa). Informasi gempa (kekuatan, lokasi, waktu kejadian) dikirimkan melalui satelit ke BMKG Jakarta. Selanjutnya BMKG akan mengeluarkan INFO GEMPA yang disampaikan melalui peralatan teknis secara simultan. Data gempa dimasukkan dalam DSS untuk memperhitungkan apakah gempa tersebut berpotensi menimbulkan tsunami. Perhitungan dilakukan berdasarkan jutaan skenario modelling yang sudah dibuat terlebih dahulu. Kemudian, BMKG dapat mengeluarkan INFO PERINGATAN TSUNAMI. Data gempa ini juga akan diintegrasikan dengan data dari peralatan sistem peringatan dini lainnya (GPS, BUOY, OBU, Tide Gauge) untuk memberikan konfirmasi apakah gelombang tsunami benar-benar sudah terbentuk. Informasi ini juga diteruskan oleh BMKG. BMKG menyampaikan info peringatan tsunami melalui beberapa institusi perantara, yang meliputi (Pemerintah Daerah dan Media). Institusi perantara inilah yang meneruskan informasi peringatan kepada masyarakat. BMKG juga menyampaikan info peringatan melalui SMS ke pengguna ponsel yang sudah terdaftar dalam database BMKG. Cara penyampaian Info Gempa tersebut untuk saat ini adalah melalui SMS, Facsimile, Telepon, Email, RANET (Radio Internet), FM RDS (Radio yang mempunyai fasilitas RDS/Radio Data System) dan melalui Website BMG (www.bmg.go.id).

Pengalaman serta banyak kejadian dilapangan membuktikan bahwa meskipun banyak peralatan canggih yang digunakan, tetapi alat yang paling efektif hingga saat ini untuk Sistem Peringatan Dini Tsunami adalah RADIO. Oleh sebab itu, kepada masyarakat yang tinggal didaerah rawan Tsunami diminta untuk selalu siaga mempersiapkan RADIO FM untuk mendengarkan berita peringatan dini Tsunami. Alat lainnya yang juga dikenal ampuh adalah Radio Komunikasi Antar Penduduk. Organisasi yang mengurusnya adalah RAPI (Radio Antar Penduduk Indonesia). Mengapa Radio ? jawabannya sederhana, karena ketika gempa seringkali mati lampu tidak ada listrik. Radio dapat beroperasi dengan baterai. Selain itu karena ukurannya kecil, dapat dibawa-bawa (mobile). Radius komunikasinyapun relatif cukup memadai.

4 Tsunami dalam sejarah


  • 1 November 1755 – Tsunami menghancurkan Lisbon, ibu kota Portugal, dan menelan 60.000 korban jiwa.
  • 1883 – Pada tanggal 26 Agustus, letusan gunung Krakatau dan tsunami menewaskan lebih dari 36.000 jiwa.
  • 2004 – Pada tanggal 26 Desember 2004, gempa besar yang menimbulkan tsunami menelan korban jiwa lebih dari 250.000 di Asia Selatan, Asia Tenggara dan Afrika. Ketinggian tsunami 35 m,
  • 2006 – 17 Juli, Gempa yang menyebabkan tsunami terjadi di selatan pulau Jawa, Indonesia, dan setinggi maksimum ditemukan 21 meter di Pulau Nusakambangan. Memakan korban jiwa lebih dari 500 orang. Dan berasal dari selatan kota Ciamis
  • 2007 – 12 September, Bengkulu, Memakan korban jiwa 3 orang. Ketinggian tsunami 3–4 m.
  • 2010 – 27 Februari, Santiago, Chili
  • 2010 – 26 Oktober, Kepulauan Mentawai, Indonesia
  • 2011 – 11 Maret, Sendai, Jepang

Berhubungan Seks Ternyata Bisa Meningkatkan Kepuasan Karier


ThinkstockPhotos-519425638

Apakah Anda tidak puas dengan pekerjaan Anda sekarang? Mungkin salah satu penyebabnya adalah Anda jarang berhubungan seks dengan pasangan Anda. Atau, bisa juga hubungan seksual yang Anda lakukan bersama kurang berkualitas.

Ya,  hubungan seksual bisa menjadi faktor penentu karier dan pekerjaan Anda. Mengapa bisa??

Berhubungan seks bikin Anda lebih puas dengan karier

Bermula dari hasil penelitian yang telah dimuat dalam Journal Management, para peneliti tersebut yakin bahwa hubungan seks memengaruhi kehidupan Anda di kantor, bahkan secara tidak langsung juga berpengauh terhadap kehidupan karier Anda.

Jadi, peneliti mengajak sebanyak 159 pasangan yang memiliki status pekerjaan sebagai karyawan di sebuah perusahaan. Dalam penelitian ini, para peserta diminta untuk mengisi kuesioner tentang frekuensi hubungan seks dengan pasangan, mood yang dimiliki setelah selesai berhubungan seks, serta apa yang mereka rasakan tentang pekerjaan mereka.

Kemudian, di akhir penelitian, diketahui bahwa peserta yang mengaku sering melakukan hubungan seks dengan pasangan, cenderung mempunyai kepuasaan pekerjaan dan kepercayaan terhadap perusahaan yang lebih besar ketimbang yang jarang berhubungan seks.

Bahkan dalam penelitian lain disebutkan jika berhubungan seks minimal empat kali dalam satu minggu, membuat seseorang lebih percaya diri dengan apa yang dikerjakan dan akhirnya mereka mengalami kenaikan gaji hingga 5%. Dari beberapa penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa manfaat berhubungan seks tidak hanya secara emosional antar-pasangan saja, namun juga baik untuk kesuksesan karier seseorang.

Bagaimana berhubungan seks bisa mempengaruhi pekerjaan?

Lalu, mengapa hubungan seks dapat membuat karier seseorang menjadi lebih baik? Sebenarnya, ketika Anda melakukan hubungan seksual dengan pasangan yang Anda, secara alami tubuh akan mengeluarkan hormon bahagia, yaitu hormon dopamin. Dopamin adalah hormon yang mengatur aliran darah, mengendalikan nafsu makan, berperan dalam kegiatan emosional dan motivasi. Hormon dopamin akan meningkat ketika Anda melakukan hal-hal yang menyenangkan – menurut Anda – seperti makan makanan enak, mendapatkan hadiah, dan termasuk berhubungan seks.

Manfaat berhubungan seks akan terlihat jika hormon ini muncul dan dikeluarkan tubuh. Hormon dopamin akan menjaga suasana hati tetap baik sehingga Anda tetap nyaman dan fokus dalam mengerjakan semua pekerjaan. Selain itu, Anda tidak mudah untuk stres atau tertekan akibat adanya tuntutan kerjaan. Berbagai hal tersebut yang dianggap peneliti sebagai alasan mengapa hubungan seks memiliki dampak baik bagi pekerjaan dan karier seseorang.

Apakah ada ketentuan yang ideal mengenai frekuensi berhubungan seksual?

Sampai saat ini tidak ada aturan yang pasti mengenai frekuensi yang ideal dalam berhubungan seks. Namun berhubungan seks pantas Anda prioritaskan dan jadwalkan di antara agenda Anda yang cukup padat tersebut.

Ada penelitian yang mengatakan bahwa idealnya melakukan hubungan seks sedikitnya dua kali dalam satu minggu agar mood tetap terjaga. Rasa bahagia yang ditimbulkan setelah berhubungan seksual tidak hanya berdampak baik saja bagi pekerjaan, namun juga bagi kehidupan Anda secara keseluruhan.

Source: Oleh Nimas Mita Etika M . Data medis direview oleh dr. Yusra Firdaus.

 

Cara Agar Istri Mencapai Multiorgasme Saat Seks

Khusus Pasutri


cara-mencapai-multiorgasme

Seks hebat tidak hanya bisa memberikan Anda sebuah orgasme, tapi juga mampu memberikan Anda multiorgasme. Meskipun multiorgasme ‘mitosnya’ sulit untuk didapatkan, sebenarnya ada cara mudah yang bisa membuat Anda mendapatkan multiorgasme berkali-kali.

016788700_1470127130-Women-Orgasm__constative_com_

Apa itu multiorgasme?


Untuk urusan ranjang, wanita memang terkenal rumit. Hilang mood sedikit maka mereka takkan bisa memuaskan pasangannya di ranjang, tapi sekali mereka tahu ‘potensinya’ maka mereka sanggup melakukan hal-hal luar biasa misalnya orgasme berkali-kali (multiple orgasme).

ScsUWOssGg

Multiorgasme atau orgasme berkali-kali adalah kemampuan seseorang untuk mencapai lebih dari satu orgasme dalam satu aktivitas seksual. Sebenarnya pria juga bisa melakukannya tapi kemampuan ini lebih banyak dimiliki oleh wanita, hanya saja tak banyak yang tahu bagaimana wanita bisa melakukan hal ini. Bagaimana caranya agar wanita mendapatkan multiorgasme? 

1660754_orgasmo_donna

Bagaimana cara mencapai multiorgasme?

1. Wanita harus tahu dulu jenis-jenis multiorgasme


Ternyata wanita bisa melakukan multiorgasme lebih sering dari yang dibayangkan banyak orang. Menurut penulis buku The Great Lover Playbook, Lou Paget mungkin sebagian orang punya gagasan khusus tentang apa itu multiorgasme tapi sebenarnya ada tiga jenis multiorgasme yang dapat dialami wanita.

Pertama, compound singles di mana ada jeda antar orgasme satu dengan orgasme berikutnya; kedua, sequential multiples yaitu orgasme yang terjadi setiap 2-3 menit dengan pendinginan di antaranya; dan ketiga, serial multiples yaitu orgasme berkali-kali yang hanya jeda dengan detik.

Dengan mengenali beberapa jenis multiorgasme ini, seorang wanita mungkin akan menyadari bahwa mereka pernah mengalaminya dan bahkan mereka tak tahu apa itu. Begitu mudah seorang wanita untuk mendapatkan multiorgasme ketimbang pria. Pasalnya wanita tak mengalami fase refraktori setelah ejakulasi seperti halnya pria sehingga orgasme masih bisa terjadi lagi setelah yang pertama.

Bahkan ketika seorang wanita telah mencapai satu orgasme maka ia tak perlu menunggu beberapa detik. Ia bisa terus melakukannya tanpa henti.

2. Memiliki kepercayaan diri yang tinggi


Menurut tim peneliti dari Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, wanita dewasa yang memiliki kepercayaan diri dan empati yang tinggi cenderung lebih sering mengalami kepuasan seksual dan orgasme rutin.

Itulah mengapa wanita yang merasa tegang saat melakukan aktivitas seksual atau merasa bersalah dan malucenderung kesulitan mencapai satu orgasme, apalagi sampai berkali-kali.

Kondisi ini juga berlaku bagi wanita yang dapat mengenali seksualitasnya dengan baik berpeluang lebih besar untuk mengalami peningkatan kepuasan seksual (dan terus-menerus). Dengan kata lain, belajarlah untuk mencintai diri Anda, termasuk sisi seksual Anda dan nantinya tubuh Anda akan menunjukkan seberapa hebat kemampuan Anda di atas ranjang dengan sendirinya.

3. Menemukan titik rangsang dengan masturbasi


Agar dapat mengenali kemampuan multiorgasmenya untuk pertama kali, seorang wanita dianjurkan untuk melakukan masturbasi. Hal ini karena saat ‘main sendiri’ wanita takkan memperoleh tekanan untuk menunjukkan performa seksualnya (misalnya tak perlu berpikir, ‘Saya harus segera orgasme, jika tidak si dia bisa kecewa’) sehingga Anda bisa terus mencoba sampai bisa memperoleh multiorgasme.

Jika Anda terlalu sensitif, lebih baik hindari kontak langsung dengan klitoris dan cobalah merangsang daerah tubuh lain, baik di sekitar kemaluan atau titik-titik sensitif Anda lainnya.

Apa yang biasa terjadi ketika wanita tengah memuaskan dirinya sendiri adalah mereka seringkali menemukanarea-area sensitif lain yang tak pernah mereka kira sebelumnya. Hingga akhirnya mereka merangsang saraf pada area-area lain itu, dan menemukan bagian paling sensitif dari tubuhnya.

4. Titik rangsang tidak hanya di satu tempat


G-spot bukanlah sekedar bagian yang perlu Anda rangsang untuk mencapai orgasme yang memuaskan atau orgasme berkali-kali. Wanita mampu memperoleh orgasme dari 10 jenis rangsangan yang berbeda, termasuk puting, klitoris, G-spot, anus dan vagina. Kapasitas wanita untuk memproduksi kepuasan seksual bisa didapatkan dari kesemuanya, baik sendiri-sendiri maupun sekaligus.

Ketika mencoba menggali berbagai sistem saraf dari beberapa titik rangsangan ini, biasanya akan terjadi orgasme yang campur-aduk. Kondisi ini merupakan akibat dari rangsangan terhadap lebih dari satu titik dalam waktu yang bersamaan untuk menciptakan respons orgasme.

5. Ritme dan goyangan pasangan yang lebih lambat


Dibanding pria, wanita lebih mampu menentukan kapan waktu yang tepat untuk memperoleh multiorgasme, terutama jika si wanita dan pasangannya tak terganggu banyak hal seperti di akhir pekan atau liburan, saat dimana mereka bisa menjajal hal-hal baru atau menghindari kontak dengan ‘dunia luar’ untuk sementara waktu.

Waktu yang tepat juga mengacu pada ritme yang diperlukan wanita saat bercinta. Wanita lebih suka jika ritual bercintanya memiliki ritme, karena hal itu akan membuat mereka rileks dan membuat mereka lebih bisa merasakan tubuhnya sehingga dapat memunculkan gairah yang lebih mendalam. Jika tidak, bagian otak yang memunculkan rasa khawatir akan memberi sinyal sehingga untuk mendapatkan satu orgasme saja akan terasa sulit.

Ketika menyamakan ritme bercinta dengan pasangan, goyangan pinggul yang lebih lambat, terkontrol dan konsisten dikombinasikan dengan tekanan yang nyaman pada titik-titik kepuasannya takkan hanya akan membuat wanita mencapai orgasme lebih cepat tapi juga memperluas orgasme sekaligus membuatnya tahan lama.

6. Pastikan vagina terlubrikasi


Lubrikasi atau pelumasan saat bercinta itu sangatlah penting. Pasalnya, untuk memperoleh multiorgasme, seorang wanita harus membuat daerah sensitifnya dapat menerima berbagai rangsangan selama proses intim berlangsung. Tapi yang tak boleh diabaikan selama proses ini adalah upaya agar vagina dan klitoris harus ‘terbasahi’ dengan baik. Hal ini juga mencegah ketidaknyamanan dan nyeri pada vagina.

7. Coba letakkan bantal di bawah punggung Anda


Dengan mengangkat kaki ke udara, seorang wanita sudah menemukan peluang yang lebih besar untuk memperoleh orgasme berkali-kali.

Memiringkan pinggul dan mengangkat panggul ke atas dapat memperpendek bukaan vagina Anda sehingga memudahkan pasangan mencapai daerah sensitif wanita yang selama ini tak bisa terjangkau sehingga keduanya merasakan kepuasan yang sama, baik secara fisik maupun psikologis.

Cobalah letakkan bantal di bawah punggung Anda untuk menciptakan sudut di mana pinggul berada di atas kepala dan bahu Anda. Atau dengan kata lain, Anda berbaring dengan posisi pinggul terangkat ke atas. Jangan salah, posisi ini dapat memicu orgasme luar biasa yang tak pernah Anda dan pasangan sangka sebelumnya.

Source: Oleh Yuliati Iswandiari. Informasi kesehatan ini sudah direview dan diedit oleh: dr. Tania Savitri – Dokter Umum.

Read also:

 

Liverpool Football Club

Liverpool F.C. is A Way of Life 


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Read also:

187px-Liverpool_FC.svg
anfield-1024-663

New Liverpool Football Club Anfield Stadium

LFC-01-1

Liverpool Football Club is a professional football club in Liverpool, England, that competes in the Premier League, the top tier of English football. The club has won 5 European Cups, more than any other English club, 3 UEFA Cups, 3 UEFA Super Cups, 18 League titles, 7 FA Cups, 8 League Cups, and 15 FA Community Shields.

Founded in 1892, the club joined the Football League the following year and has played at Anfield since its formation. Liverpool established itself as a major force in English and European football in the 1970s and 1980s when Bill Shankly and Bob Paisley led the club to 11 League titles and seven European trophies. Under the management of Rafael Benítez and captained by Steven Gerrard, Liverpool became European champions for the fifth time in 2005.

Liverpool was the ninth highest-earning football club in the world in 2016–17, with an annual revenue of €424.2 million, and the world’s eighth most valuable football club in 2018, valued at $1.944 billion. The club is one of the best supported teams in the world. Liverpool has long-standing rivalries with Manchester United and Everton.

The club’s supporters have been involved in two major tragedies:

  1. The Heysel Stadium disaster, where escaping fans were pressed against a collapsing wall at the 1985 European Cup Final in Brussels, with 39 people – mostly Italians and Juventus fans – dying, after which English clubs were given a five-year ban from European competition, and 
  2. The Hillsborough disaster in 1989, where 96 Liverpool supporters died in a crush against perimeter fencing.
2018StadiumMap_UpdatedFullColor-01-768x1024

New Liverpool Football Club Anfield Stadium Map

49adbe59baabfff0956ace788741589b8d73ad0e

The team changed from red shirts and white shorts to an all-red home strip in 1964 which has been used ever since. The club’s anthem is “You’ll Never Walk Alone”.

Opera Snapshot_2018-09-26_220149_en.wikipedia.org
Previous Data
The Latest Update 2019
The Latest Update 2019

Contents


1| History

2| Colours and badge

3| Stadium

4| Support

4.1| Rivalries

5| Ownership and finances

6| Liverpool in popular culture

7| Players

7.1| First-team squad

7.2| Out on loan

7.3| Reserves and Academy

7.4| Former players

7.5| Player records

7.6| Club captains

7.7| Player of the Season

8| Club Officials

9| Honours

9.1| Domestic

9.1.1| League

9.1.2| Cups

9.2| European

9.3| Doubles and Trebles

1| History


Liverpool F.C. was founded following a dispute between the Everton committee and John Houlding, club president and owner of the land at Anfield. After eight years at the stadium, Everton relocated to Goodison Park in 1892 and Houlding founded Liverpool F.C. to play at Anfield. Originally named “Everton F.C. and Athletic Grounds Ltd” (Everton Athletic for short), the club became Liverpool F.C. in March 1892 and gained official recognition three months later, after The Football Association refused to recognise the club as Everton. The team won the Lancashire League in its début season, and joined the Football League Second Division at the start of the 1893–94 season. After finishing in first place the club was promoted to the First Division, which it won in 1901 and again in 1906.

Liverpool reached its first FA Cup Final in 1914, losing 1–0 to Burnley. It won consecutive League championships in 1922 and 1923, but did not win another trophy until the 1946–47 season, when the club won the First Division for a fifth time under the control of ex-West Ham Utd centre half George Kay. Liverpool suffered its second Cup Final defeat in 1950, playing against Arsenal. The club was relegated to the Second Division in the 1953–54 season. Soon after Liverpool lost 2–1 to non-league Worcester City in the 1958–59 FA Cup, Bill Shankly was appointed manager. Upon his arrival he released 24 players and converted a boot storage room at Anfield into a room where the coaches could discuss strategy; here, Shankly and other “Boot Room” members Joe Fagan, Reuben Bennett, and Bob Paisley began reshaping the team.

John_Houlding

John Houlding, the founder of Liverpool F.C.

John Houlding – Founding father LFC
John Houlding Statue 3

Sculptor Tom Murphy alongside the John Houlding bronze bust

John Houlding Statue
John Houlding Statue 2

The club was promoted back into the First Division in 1962 and won it in 1964, for the first time in 17 years. In 1965, the club won its first FA Cup. In 1966, the club won the First Division but lost to Borussia Dortmund in the European Cup Winners’ Cup final. Liverpool won both the League and the UEFA Cup during the 1972–73 season, and the FA Cup again a year later. Shankly retired soon afterwards and was replaced by his assistant, Bob Paisley. In 1976, Paisley’s second season as manager, the club won another League and UEFA Cup double. The following season, the club retained the League title and won the European Cup for the first time, but it lost in the 1977 FA Cup Final. Liverpool retained the European Cup in 1978 and regained the First Division title in 1979. During Paisley’s nine seasons as manager Liverpool won 21 trophies, including three European Cups, a UEFA Cup, six League titles and three consecutive League Cups; the only domestic trophy he did not win was the FA Cup.

Paisley retired in 1983 and was replaced by his assistant, Joe Fagan. Liverpool won the League, League Cup and European Cup in Fagan’s first season, becoming the first English side to win three trophies in a season. Liverpool reached the European Cup final again in 1985, against Juventus at the Heysel Stadium. Before kick-off, Liverpool fans breached a fence which separated the two groups of supporters, and charged the Juventus fans. The resulting weight of people caused a retaining wall to collapse, killing 39 fans, mostly Italians. The incident became known as the Heysel Stadium disaster. The match was played in spite of protests by both managers, and Liverpool lost 1–0 to Juventus. As a result of the tragedy, English clubs were banned from participating in European competition for five years; Liverpool received a ten-year ban, which was later reduced to six years. Fourteen Liverpool fans received convictions for involuntary manslaughter.

Bill Shankly 1
Bill Shankly 3
Bill Shankly 2
Shankly_statue_out_front

Statue of Bill Shankly outside Anfield. Shankly won promotion to the First Division and the club’s first league title since 1947.

Fagan had announced his retirement just before the disaster and Kenny Dalglish was appointed as player-manager. During his tenure, the club won another three league titles and two FA Cups, including a League and Cup “Double” in the 1985–86 season. Liverpool’s success was overshadowed by the Hillsborough disaster: in an FA Cup semi-final against Nottingham Forest on 15 April 1989, hundreds of Liverpool fans were crushed against perimeter fencing. Ninety-four fans died that day; the 95th victim died in hospital from his injuries four days later and the 96th died nearly four years later, without regaining consciousness. After the Hillsborough disaster there was a government review of stadium safety. The resulting Taylor Report paved the way for legislation that required top-division teams to have all-seater stadiums. The report ruled that the main reason for the disaster was overcrowding due to a failure of police control.

Liverpool was involved in the closest finish to a league season during the 1988–89 season. Liverpool finished equal with Arsenal on both points and goal difference, but lost the title on total goals scored when Arsenal scored the final goal in the last minute of the season.

Dalglish cited the Hillsborough disaster and its repercussions as the reason for his resignation in 1991; he was replaced by former player Graeme Souness. Under his leadership Liverpool won the 1992 FA Cup Final, but their league performances slumped, with two consecutive sixth-place finishes, eventually resulting in his dismissal in January 1994. Souness was replaced by Roy Evans, and Liverpool went on to win the 1995 Football League Cup Final. While they made some title challenges under Evans, third-place finishes in 1996 and 1998 were the best they could manage, and so Gérard Houllier was appointed co-manager in the 1998–99 season, and became the sole manager in November 1998 after Evans resigned. In 2001, Houllier’s second full season in charge, Liverpool won a “Treble”: the FA Cup, League Cup and UEFA Cup. Houllier underwent major heart surgery during the 2001–02 season and Liverpool finished second in the League, behind Arsenal. They won a further League Cup in 2003, but failed to mount a title challenge in the two seasons that followed.

KONICA MINOLTA DIGITAL CAMERA

The Hillsborough memorial, which is engraved with the names of the 96 people who died in the Hillsborough disaster.

Houllier was replaced by Rafael Benítez at the end of the 2003–04 season. Despite finishing fifth in Benítez’s first season, Liverpool won the 2004–05 UEFA Champions League, beating A.C. Milan 3–2 in a penalty shootout after the match ended with a score of 3–3. The following season, Liverpool finished third in the Premier League and won the 2006 FA Cup Final, beating West Ham United in a penalty shootout after the match finished 3–3. American businessmen George Gillett and Tom Hicks became the owners of the club during the 2006–07 season, in a deal which valued the club and its outstanding debts at £218.9 million. The club reached the 2007 UEFA Champions League Final against Milan, as it had in 2005, but lost 2–1. During the 2008–09 season Liverpool achieved 86 points, its highest Premier League points total, and finished as runners up to Manchester United.

In the 2009–10 season, Liverpool finished seventh in the Premier League and failed to qualify for the Champions League. Benítez subsequently left by mutual consent and was replaced by Fulham manager Roy Hodgson. At the start of the 2010–11 season Liverpool was on the verge of bankruptcy and the club’s creditors asked the High Court to allow the sale of the club, overruling the wishes of Hicks and Gillett. John W. Henry, owner of the Boston Red Sox and of Fenway Sports Group, bid successfully for the club and took ownership in October 2010. Poor results during the start of that season led to Hodgson leaving the club by mutual consent and former player and manager Kenny Dalglish taking over. In the 2011–12 season, Liverpool secured a record 8th League Cup success and reached the FA Cup final, but finished in eighth position, the worst league finish in 18 years; this led to the sacking of Dalglish. He was replaced by Brendan Rodgers, whose Liverpool team in the 2013–14 season mounted an unexpected title charge to finish second behind champions Manchester City and subsequently return to the Champions League, scoring 101 goals in the process, the most since the 106 scored in the 1895–96 season. Following a disappointing 2014–15 season, where Liverpool finished sixth in the league, and a poor start to the following campaign, Rodgers was sacked in October 2015. He was replaced by Jürgen Klopp, who in his first season at Liverpool, took the club to the finals of both the Football League Cup and UEFA Europa League, finishing as runner-up in both competitions.

2005_European_Champion_Clubs'_Cup_(cropped)

The European Cup trophy won by Liverpool for a fifth time in 2005

2| Colours and Badge


For much of Liverpool’s history its home colours have been all red, but when the club was founded its kit was more like the contemporary Everton kit. The blue and white quartered shirts were used until 1894, when the club adopted the city’s colour of red. The city’s symbol of the liver bird was adopted as the club’s badge in 1901, although it was not incorporated into the kit until 1955. Liverpool continued to wear red shirts and white shorts until 1964, when manager Bill Shankly decided to change to an all red strip. Liverpool played in all red for the first time against Anderlecht, as Ian St. John recalled in his autobiography:

He [Shankly] thought the colour scheme would carry psychological impact – red for danger, red for power. He came into the dressing room one day and threw a pair of red shorts to Ronnie Yeats. “Get into those shorts and let’s see how you look”, he said. “Christ, Ronnie, you look awesome, terrifying. You look 7 ft tall.” “Why not go the whole hog, boss?” I suggested. “Why not wear red socks? Let’s go out all in red.” Shankly approved and an iconic kit was born.

450px-Liverpool_FC_1892-1896_kit

Liverpool’s home colours worn from 1892 to 1896

The Liverpool away strip has more often than not been all yellow or white shirts and black shorts, but there have been several exceptions. An all grey kit was introduced in 1987, which was used until the 1991–92 centenary season, when it was replaced by a combination of green shirts and white shorts. After various colour combinations in the 1990s, including gold and navy, bright yellow, black and grey, and ecru, the club alternated between yellow and white away kits until the 2008–09 season, when it re-introduced the grey kit. A third kit is designed for European away matches, though it is also worn in domestic away matches on occasions when the current away kit clashes with a team’s home kit. Between 2012–15, the kits were designed by Warrior Sports, who became the club’s kit providers at the start of the 2012–13 season. In February 2015, Warrior’s parent company New Balance announced it would be entering the global football market, with teams sponsored by Warrior now being outfitted by New Balance. The only other branded shirts worn by the club were made by Umbro until 1985, when they were replaced by Adidas, who produced the kits until 1996 when Reebok took over. They produced the kits for 10 years before Adidas made the kits from 2006 to 2012.

Liverpool was the first English professional club to have a sponsor’s logo on its shirts, after agreeing a deal with Hitachi in 1979. Since then the club has been sponsored by Crown Paints, Candy, Carlsberg and Standard Chartered Bank. The contract with Carlsberg, which was signed in 1992, was the longest-lasting agreement in English top-flight football. The association with Carlsberg ended at the start of the 2010–11 season, when Standard Chartered Bank became the club’s sponsor.

The Liverpool badge is based on the city’s liver bird, which in the past had been placed inside a shield. In 1992, to commemorate the centennial of the club, a new badge was commissioned, including a representation of the Shankly Gates. The next year twin flames were added at either side, symbolic of the Hillsborough memorial outside Anfield, where an eternal flame burns in memory of those who died in the Hillsborough disaster. In 2012, Warrior Sports’ first Liverpool kit removed the shield and gates, returning the badge to what had adorned Liverpool shirts in the 1970s; the flames were moved to the back collar of the shirt, surrounding the number 96 for the number who died at Hillsborough.

800px-Liverpool_Crest

A version of Liverpool’s Crest as depicted on the Shankly Gates

3| Stadium


1280px-Panorama_of_Anfield_with_new_main_stand_(29676137824)

Anfield, home of Liverpool F.C.

Anfield was built in 1884 on land adjacent to Stanley Park. It was originally used by Everton before the club moved to Goodison Park after a dispute over rent with Anfield owner John Houlding.[56] Left with an empty ground, Houlding founded Liverpool in 1892 and the club has played at Anfield ever since. The capacity of the stadium at the time was 20,000, although only 100 spectators attended Liverpool’s first match at Anfield.

The Kop was built in 1906 due to the high turnout for matches and was called the Oakfield Road Embankment initially. Its first game was on 1 September 1906 when the home side beat Stoke City 1–0. In 1906 the banked stand at one end of the ground was formally renamed the Spion Kop after a hill in KwaZulu-Natal. The hill was the site of the Battle of Spion Kop in the Second Boer War, where over 300 men of the Lancashire Regiment died, many of them from Liverpool. At its peak, the stand could hold 28,000 spectators and was one of the largest single-tier stands in the world. Many stadia in England had stands named after Spion Kop, but Anfield’s was the largest of them at the time; it could hold more supporters than some entire football grounds.

Anfield could accommodate more than 60,000 supporters at its peak, and had a capacity of 55,000 until the 1990s. The Taylor Report and Premier League regulations obliged Liverpool to convert Anfield to an all-seater stadium in time for the 1993–94 season, reducing the capacity to 45,276. The findings of the Taylor Report precipitated the redevelopment of the Kemlyn Road Stand, which was rebuilt in 1992, coinciding with the centenary of the club, and was known as the Centenary Stand until 2017 when it was renamed the Kenny Dalglish Stand. An extra tier was added to the Anfield Road end in 1998, which further increased the capacity of the ground but gave rise to problems when it was opened. A series of support poles and stanchions were inserted to give extra stability to the top tier of the stand after movement of the tier was reported at the start of the 1999–2000 season.

Because of restrictions on expanding the capacity at Anfield, Liverpool announced plans to move to the proposed Stanley Park Stadium in May 2002. Planning permission was granted in July 2004, and in September 2006, Liverpool City Council agreed to grant Liverpool a 999-year lease on the proposed site. Following the takeover of the club by George Gillett and Tom Hicks in February 2007, the proposed stadium was redesigned. The new design was approved by the Council in November 2007. The stadium was scheduled to open in August 2011 and would hold 60,000 spectators, with HKS, Inc. contracted to build the stadium. Construction was halted in August 2008, as Gillett and Hicks had difficulty in financing the £300 million needed for the development. In October 2012, BBC Sport reported that Fenway Sports Group, the new owners of Liverpool FC, had decided to redevelop their current home at Anfield stadium, rather than building a new stadium in Stanley Park. As part of the redevelopment the capacity of Anfield was to increase from 45,276 to approximately 60,000 and would cost approximately £150m. When construction was completed on the new Main stand the capacity of Anfield was increased to 54,074. This £100 million expansion added a third tier to the stand. This was all part of a £260 million project to improve the Anfield area. Jurgen Klopp the manager at the time described the stand as “impressive.”

4| Support


Liverpool_v_Chelsea,_2005

Kopites in The Kop Stand

Liverpool is one of the best supported clubs in the world. The club states that its worldwide fan base includes more than 200 officially recognised Club of the LFC Official Supporters Clubs in at least 50 countries. Notable groups include Spirit of Shankly. The club takes advantage of this support through its worldwide summer tours, which has included playing in front of 101,000 in Michigan, U.S., and 95,000 in Melbourne, Australia. Liverpool fans often refer to themselves as Kopites, a reference to the fans who once stood, and now sit, on the Kop at Anfield. In 2008 a group of fans decided to form a splinter club, A.F.C. Liverpool, to play matches for fans who had been priced out of watching Premier League football.

The song “You’ll Never Walk Alone”, originally from the Rodgers and Hammerstein musical Carousel and later recorded by Liverpool musicians Gerry and the Pacemakers, is the club’s anthem and has been sung by the Anfield crowd since the early 1960s. It has since gained popularity among fans of other clubs around the world. The song’s title adorns the top of the Shankly Gates, which were unveiled on 2 August 1982 in memory of former manager Bill Shankly. The “You’ll Never Walk Alone” portion of the Shankly Gates is also reproduced on the club’s crest.

Shankly_Gates

The Shankly Gates, erected in honour of former manager Bill Shankly

The club’s supporters have been involved in two stadium disasters. The first was the 1985 Heysel Stadium disaster, in which 39 Juventus supporters were killed. They were confined to a corner by Liverpool fans who had charged in their direction; the weight of the cornered fans caused a wall to collapse. UEFA laid the blame for the incident solely on the Liverpool supporters, and banned all English clubs from European competition for five years. Liverpool was banned for an additional year, preventing it from participating in the 1990–91 European Cup, even though it won the League in 1990. Twenty-seven fans were arrested on suspicion of manslaughter and were extradited to Belgium in 1987 to face trial. In 1989, after a five-month trial in Belgium, 14 Liverpool fans were given three-year sentences for involuntary manslaughter; half of the terms were suspended.

The second disaster took place during an FA Cup semi-final between Liverpool and Nottingham Forest at Hillsborough Stadium, Sheffield, on 15 April 1989. Ninety-six Liverpool fans died as a consequence of overcrowding at the Leppings Lane end, in what became known as the Hillsborough disaster. In the following days The Sun newspaper published an article entitled “The Truth”, in which it claimed that Liverpool fans had robbed the dead and had urinated on and attacked the police. Subsequent investigations proved the allegations false, leading to a boycott of the newspaper by Liverpool fans across the city and elsewhere; many still refuse to buy The Sun more than 20 years later. Many support organisations were set up in the wake of the disaster, such as the Hillsborough Justice Campaign, which represents bereaved families, survivors and supporters in their efforts to secure justice.

4.1| Rivalries

800px-Merseyside_derby

The Merseyside derby at Anfield in 2006

Liverpool’s longest-established rivalry is with fellow Liverpool team Everton, against whom they contest the Merseyside derby. The rivalry stems from Liverpool’s formation and the dispute with Everton officials and the then owners of Anfield. The Merseyside derby is one of the few local derbies which do not enforce fan segregation, and hence has been known as the “friendly derby”. Since the mid-1980s, the rivalry has intensified both on and off the field and, since the inception of the Premier League in 1992, the Merseyside derby has had more players sent off than any other Premier League game. It has been referred to as “the most ill-disciplined and explosive fixture in the Premier League”.

Liverpool’s rivalry with Manchester United stems from the cities’ competition in the Industrial Revolution of the 19th century. The two clubs alternated as champions between 1964 and 1967, and Manchester United became the first English team to win the European Cup in 1968, followed by Liverpool’s four European Cup victories. Despite the 38 league titles and eight European Cups between them the two rivals have rarely been successful at the same time – Liverpool’s run of titles in the 1970s and 1980s coincided with Manchester United’s 26-year title drought, and United’s success in the Premier League-era has likewise coincided with Liverpool’s ongoing drought, and the two clubs have finished first and second in the league only five times. Nonetheless, former Manchester United manager Alex Ferguson said in 2002, “My greatest challenge was knocking Liverpool right off their fucking perch”, and the last player to be transferred between the two clubs was Phil Chisnall, who moved to Liverpool from Manchester United in 1964.

5| Ownership and Finances


450px-John_W_Henry-Fenway_(cropped)

John W. Henry of Fenway Sports Group, the parent company of Liverpool

As the owner of Anfield and founder of Liverpool, John Houlding was the club’s first chairman, a position he held from its founding in 1892 until 1904. John McKenna took over as chairman after Houlding’s departure. McKenna subsequently became President of the Football League. The chairmanship changed hands many times before John Smith, whose father was a shareholder of the club, took up the role in 1973. He oversaw the most successful period in Liverpool’s history before stepping down in 1990. His successor was Noel White who became chairman in 1990. In August 1991 David Moores, whose family had owned the club for more than 50 years became chairman. His uncle John Moores was also a shareholder at Liverpool and was chairman of Everton from 1961 to 1973. Moores owned 51 percent of the club, and in 2004 expressed his willingness to consider a bid for his shares in Liverpool.

Moores eventually sold the club to American businessmen George Gillett and Tom Hicks on 6 February 2007. The deal valued the club and its outstanding debts at £218.9 million. The pair paid £5,000 per share, or £174.1m for the total shareholding and £44.8m to cover the club’s debts. Disagreements between Gillett and Hicks, and the fans’ lack of support for them, resulted in the pair looking to sell the club. Martin Broughton was appointed chairman of the club on 16 April 2010 to oversee its sale. In May 2010, accounts were released showing the holding company of the club to be £350m in debt (due to leveraged takeover) with losses of £55m, causing auditor KPMG to qualify its audit opinion. The group’s creditors, including the Royal Bank of Scotland, took Gillett and Hicks to court to force them to allow the board to proceed with the sale of the club, the major asset of the holding company. A High Court judge, Mr Justice Floyd, ruled in favour of the creditors and paved the way for the sale of the club to Fenway Sports Group (formerly New England Sports Ventures), although Gillett and Hicks still had the option to appeal. Liverpool was sold to Fenway Sports Group on 15 October 2010 for £300m.

Liverpool has been described as a global brand; a 2010 report valued the club’s trademarks and associated intellectual property at £141m, an increase of £5m on the previous year. Liverpool was given a brand rating of AA (Very Strong). In April 2010 business magazine Forbes ranked Liverpool as the sixth most valuable football team in the world, behind Manchester United, Real Madrid, Arsenal, Barcelona and Bayern Munich; they valued the club at $822m (£532m), excluding debt. Accountants Deloitte ranked Liverpool eighth in the Deloitte Football Money League, which ranks the world’s football clubs in terms of revenue. Liverpool’s income in the 2009–10 season was €225.3m.

6| Liverpool in Popular Culture


Because of its successful history, Liverpool is often featured when football is depicted in British culture and has appeared in a number of media firsts. The club appeared in the first edition of the BBC’s Match of the Day, which screened highlights of its match against Arsenal at Anfield on 22 August 1964. The first football match to be televised in colour was between Liverpool and West Ham United, broadcast live in March 1967. Liverpool fans featured in the Pink Floyd song “Fearless”, in which they sang excerpts from “You’ll Never Walk Alone”. To mark the club’s appearance in the 1988 FA Cup Final, Liverpool released a song known as the “Anfield Rap”, featuring John Barnes and other members of the squad.

A documentary drama on the Hillsborough disaster, written by Jimmy McGovern, was screened in 1996. It featured Christopher Eccleston as Trevor Hicks, whose story is the focus of the script. Hicks, who lost two teenage daughters in the disaster, went on to campaign for safer stadiums and helped to form the Hillsborough Families Support Group. Liverpool featured in the film The 51st State (also known as Formula 51), in which ex-hitman Felix DeSouza (Robert Carlyle) is a keen supporter of the team and the last scene takes place at a match between Liverpool and Manchester United. The club was featured in a children’s television show called Scully; the plot revolved around a young boy, Francis Scully, who tried to gain a trial match with Liverpool. The show featured prominent Liverpool players of the time such as Kenny Dalglish.

7| Players


7.1| First-team squad

Opera Snapshot_2018-09-26_223130_en.wikipedia.org

As of 30 August 2018

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

7.2 | Out on loan

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

Opera Snapshot_2018-09-26_223210_en.wikipedia.org

7.3| Reserves and Academy

Further information on the academy squads: Liverpool F.C. Reserves and Academy § Academy squads

7.4| Former players

Further information: List of Liverpool F.C. players, List of Liverpool F.C. players (25–99 appearances), List of Liverpool F.C. players (1–24 appearances), and Category:Liverpool F.C. players

7.5| Player records

For player records, see List of Liverpool F.C. records and statistics.

7.6| Club captains

Since the establishment of the club in 1892, 45 players have been club captain of Liverpool F.C. Andrew Hannah became the first captain of the club after Liverpool separated from Everton and formed its own club. Initially Alex Raisbeck, who was club captain from 1899 to 1909, was the longest serving captain before being overtaken by Steven Gerrard who served 12 seasons as Liverpool captain starting from the 2003–04 season. The present captain is Jordan Henderson, who replaced Gerrard in the 2015–16 season following Gerrard’s move to LA Galaxy.

Opera Snapshot_2018-09-26_223520_en.wikipedia.org

7.7| Player of the Season

600px-Steven_Gerrard,_2014

Steven Gerrard, four-time winner of the award

449px-Luis_Suárez_Díaz_(cropped)

Luis Suárez, two-time winner of the award

Opera Snapshot_2018-09-26_223838_en.wikipedia.org

8| Club Officials


Opera Snapshot_2018-09-26_223920_en.wikipedia.org

9| Honours


Liverpool_4_European_Cups

Replicas of the four European Cups Liverpool won from 1977 to 1984 on display in the club’s museum

Liverpool’s first trophy was the Lancashire League, which it won in the club’s first season. In 1901, the club won its first League title, while its first success in the FA Cup was in 1965. In terms of the number of trophies won, Liverpool’s most successful decade was the 1980s, when the club won six League titles, two FA Cups, four League Cups, five Charity Shields (one shared) and two European Cups.

The club has accumulated more top-flight wins and points than any other English team. Liverpool also has the highest average league finishing position (3.3) for the 50-year period to 2015 and second-highest average league finishing position for the period 1900–1999 after Arsenal, with an average league placing of 8.7. Liverpool has won the European Cup, UEFA’s premier club competition, five times, an English record and only surpassed by Real Madrid and Milan. Liverpool’s fifth European Cup win, in 2005, meant that the club was awarded the trophy permanently and was also awarded a multiple-winner badge. Liverpool also hold the English record of three wins in the UEFA Cup, UEFA’s secondary club competition.

9.1| Domestic

9.1.1| League

First Division [English Premier]

0f094e3b69a211377d71721863b3578b3158e28f
  • Winners (18):
    • 1900–01
    • 1921–22
    • 1922–23
    • 1946–47
    • 1963–64
    • 1965–66
    • 1972–73
    • 1975–76
    • 1976–77
    • 1978–79
    • 1979–80
    • 1981–82
    • 1982–83
    • 1983–84
    • 1985–86
    • 1987–88
    • 1905–06
    • 1989–90

Second Division

  • Winners (4):
    • 1893–94
    • 1895–96
    • 1904–05
    • 1961–62
  • Lancashire League
    • Winners (1): 1892–93

9.1.2| Cups

FA Cup

  • Winners (7):
    • 1964–65
    • 1973–74
    • 1985–86
    • 1988–89
    • 1991–92
    • 2000–01
    • 2005–06

Football League Cup

  • Winners (8):
    • 1980–81
    • 1981–82
    • 1982–83
    • 1983–84
    • 1994–95
    • 2000–01
    • 2002–03
    • 2011–12 (record)

FA Charity / Community Shield

  • Winners (15):
    • 1964*
    • 1965*
    • 1966
    • 1974
    • 1976
    • 1977*
    • 1979
    • 1980
    • 1982
    • 1986*
    • 1988
    • 1989
    • 1990*
    • 2001
    • 2006
    • (* shared)

Sheriff of London Charity Shield

  • Winners (1): – 1906

Football League Super Cup

  • Winners (1): 1985–86

9.2| European

European Cup/UEFA Champions League

  • Winners (5):
    • 1976–1977 [Olympic Stadium, Rome, Italy – Bob Paisley] Liverpool 3-1 Borussia Mönchengladbach. Kevin Keegan
    • 1977–1978 [London, England – Bob Paisley] Liverpool 1-0 Real Madrid. Kenny Dalglish
    • 1980–1981 [Paris, France- Bob Paisley] Liverpool 1-0 Club Brugge. Kenny Dalglish
    • 1983–1984 [Olympic Stadium, Rome, Italy – Joe Fagan] Liverpool 1 – 1 Roma. Penalty Kick 4-2. Kenny Dalglish
    • 2004–2005 [Istambul, Turkey – Refail Benitez] Liverpool 3-3 AC Milan. Penalty Kick 3-2. Steven Gerrard
    • 2018-2019 [Wanda Metropolitano Stadium in Madrid, Spain 1st June 2019 Jurgen Klopp] Liverpool 2-0 Tottenham Hotspur. Mohamed Salah-Mane-Firmino.
  • Runner-up(3):
    • 1984-1985 [Heysel Stadium, Brussels] Juventus 1-0 Liverpool
    • 2006-2007 [Stadion Olimpiade, Athena. 23 Mei 2007 Rafael Benítez] AC Milan – Liverpool 2-1. Steven Gerrard
    • 2017-2018 [Kiev, Ukraine Jurgen Klopp] Liverpool-Real Madrid 3-1. Mohamed Salah-Mane-Firmino.

UEFA League Cup

  • Winners (3):
    • 1972–1973
    • 1975–1976
    • 2000–2001

UEFA Super Cup

  • Winners (3):
    • 1977
    • 2001
    • 2005
    • 2019

9.3| Doubles and Trebles

Doubles:

  • League and FA Cup: 1 – 1985–86
  • League and League Cup: 2
    • 1981–82
    • 1982–83
  • European Double (League and European Cup): 1 – 1976–77
  • League and UEFA Cup: 2
    • 1972–73
    • 1975–76
  • League Cup and European Cup: 1 – 1980–81

Trebles

  • League, League Cup and European Cup: 1 – 1983–84
  • FA Cup, League Cup and UEFA Cup: 1 – 2000–01

Especially short competitions, such as the FA Community Shield and the UEFA Super Cup, are not generally considered to contribute towards a Double or Treble.

LFC Honours Header
LFC Honours League Champions
LFC Honours European Cup

2019 CHAMPIONS LEAGUE CUP – MADRID, SPAIN

Wanda Metropolitano Stadium in Madrid, Spain. 1st June 2019
Liverpool the Champion of the 2018-2019 UEFA Champions League for the Sixth Times on June 1st 2019 after beating Tottenham Hotspur played at Wanda Metropolitano Stadium in Madrid, Spain
The Captain
Jurgen Klopp Liverpool FC Manager.
Liverpool Won the UEFA Champions League 2018-2019 by beating Tottehkam Hotspur 2-0 at Madrid, Spain.
Home coming celebration at the Liverpool City on June2, 2019

2019 SUPER CUP – ISTAMBUL, TURKEY

Beşiktaş Park, Istanbul
MO SALAH WITH SPECIAL FANS DURING TRAINING SESSION
JÜRGEN KLOPP WITH SPECIAL FANS DURING TRAINING SESSION
SADIO MANE MAN OF THE MATCH SUPER CUP 2019 IN ISTAMBUL, TURKEY
VIRGIL VAN DIJK WITH SPECIAL FAN AFTER THE FINAL MATCH
2019 STATISTICS

Kisah warga Belanda Chaim Fetter di Lombok

Kisah  Chaim Fetter mendirikan Yayasan Peduli Anak di Lombok


13 Desember 2014 11:05 – Penulis: Arai Amelya – kapanlagi[dot]com

kisah-mualaf-bule-ganteng-chaim-fetter--0a604f

Chaim Fetter ©Merdeka

Manusia memang mempunyai kisah kehidupan masing-masing yang berbeda. Apa yang kamu alami dalam hidup tentu berbeda dengan yang dialami orang lain. Beruntung mereka yang pernah merasakan pedih dan kerasnya hidup hingga bisa bangkit lebih kuat lagi. Hal itulah yang dialami oleh bule Belanda bernama Chaim Fetter.

Nama Fetter beberapa waktu lalu sempat ramai diperbincangkan karena dirinya dituding melakukan upaya Kristenisasi ketika hendak mendirikan Yayasan Peduli Anak di kota Lombok, Nusa Tenggara Barat. Selama ada di sana, Fetter harus rela merasakan getirnya hidup berjuang demi menunjukkan tekadnya yang sekeras baja, seperti dilansir Merdeka.

Kamu pasti akan merasa sangat sulit ketika menjadi orang asing dan harus menuju wilayah terpencil. Bisa saja niat baikmu itu ditanggapi berbeda oleh penduduk lokal, hal itulah yang dialami oleh Fetter. Fetter sampai menjelaskan kepada penduduk lokal di Lombok bahwa dirinya bukanlah Atheis atau Kristen. Dimana dirinya adalah seorang Believers (orang yang tak punya agama tapi percaya adanya Tuhan).

kisah-bule-belanda-rawat-anak-terlantar-di-lombok-kepincut-islam

Chaim Fetter. Pria Belanda dengan cinta besar ke Indonesia ©Merdeka

Jelas saja apa yang diungkapkan Fetter itu membuat para warga yang mayoritas Muslim takut sehingga menuding Fetter melakukan aksi permurtadan. Namun tekad Fetter untuk membantu anak-anak jalanan di Lombok memang begitu kuat. Dia membuka dialog dengan para warga dan tokoh agama setempat. Komunikasinya yang intens dengan penduduk lokal, membuat Fetter jatuh cinta dengan Islam. Setiap hari melihat warga salat dan mendengar azan, Fetter merasakan bahwa Islam memanggil dirinya hingga pria berusia 33 tahun ini memilih menjadi mualaf.

Fetter pun mengungkapkan tekadnya menjadi Muslim kepada ulama setempat. Proses perpindahan keyakinan itu disaksikan oleh banyak orang dan membuatnya gugup luar biasa kala harus membaca dua kalimat syahadat. Kendati gemetar, tekad Fetter pun kuat. Kini sembari membesarkan Yayasan Peduli Anak di Lombok, Fetter pun belajar sedikit demi sedikit menjadi Muslim yang taat seperti belajar salat dan mengaji.

Jalan hidup Fetter memang berliku. Namun pria Belanda ini membuktikan bahwa cintanya kepada Indonesia memberikannya kekuatan dan keberanian. Semoga saja aksi Fetter yang mencintai dan peduli anak-anak Indonesia ini bisa membuat kamu juga terinspirasi ya.

(mdk/aia) Editor: Arai Amelya

Opera Snapshot_2018-09-22_224108_www.google.com


Website Yayasan Peduli Anak Lombok yg didirikan Chaim Fetter:

Opera Snapshot_2018-09-22_224312_www.pedulianak.org

pedulianak[dot]org

Who we are?

When our founder was traveling through the rural areas of Indonesia in 2005, he was confronted with the lives of street children. Moved by the harsh conditions under which they grow up and their lack of any opportunity towards a better life, he decided to make a difference.

Together with his childhood friend he founded the Peduli Anak Foundation on the remote Indonesian island of Lombok. They bought 1.5 hectares of land in the middle of the rice fields and started to build a project area with shelters, schools and medical facilities from scratch. Currently, almost 10 years later, Peduli Anak employs almost 60 local staff and provides residential care, family care, medical and healthcare services to hundreds of underprivileged children. We were happy to see that over time the foundation became the example in Indonesia with regards to operating charity organisations.


This slideshow requires JavaScript.

Facebook Account Yayasan Pedui Anak Lombok

Opera Snapshot_2018-09-22_231711_www.facebook.com

facebook[dot]com/pedulianak/

Opera Snapshot_2018-09-22_232203_www.facebook.com

Our Story

PEDULI ANAK FOUNDATION·THURSDAY, 18 JANUARY 2018

Peduli Anak Foundation, also known as Yayasan Peduli Anak and LKSA Peduli Anak, helps underprivileged children and their families by providing them with the necessary residential care, family care, education, medical care and legal aid.

Preventing child abuse and exploitation and providing access to education and medical care are the fundamental goals of the Peduli Anak Foundation; goals that reflect the UN Millennium Goals and the assumptions as stated in the UN Convention of the Right of the Child.

How to Get in touch


Address :

Indonesia
Jalan Dharma Bakti
Desa Langko, Lingsar
Lombok Barat – NTB 83371

Phone : +62 370 6171993

Map of Location

Opera Snapshot_2018-09-22_233258_www.google.com

Andre Graff Warga Perancis yang Cinta Mati dengan Indonesia

Kisah Andre Graff, Warga Prancis yang Cinta Mati dengan Indonesia


Andre-Graff-di-acara-TV-swasta

Andre Graff di acara Black and white

Orang Indonesia mencintai negerinya setengah mati itu biasa. Namun, kalau ada bule asing yang cinta mati dengan negeri ini hingga rela berkorban. Itu baru luar biasa. Terlepas dari darah yang mengalir di dalam tubuhnya hingga kewarganegaraan yang dimiliki, mereka tetap saja berbakti pada negeri ini. Bahkan, bisa saja lebih cinta mereka dari pada kita semua.

Salah satu bule yang memiliki sifat mulia dengan banyak berkorban demi Indonesia adalah Andre Graff. Pria asli Prancis yang lebih memilih di Indonesia ini membuat sumur air bagi warga Sumba  Barat agar kehidupan mereka jadi lebih baik. Berikut kisah dari Andre Graff yang akan menginspirasi kita semua.

Kehidupan Andre Graff di Prancis

Andre Graff bukanlah siapa-siapa, dia hanyalah seorang pria yang lahir di Prancis pada tahun 1957. Kehidupannya berjalan lancar-lancar mulai dari sekolah, kuliah hingga akhirnya bekerja sebagai pilot balon udara. Berangkat dari pekerjaan yang menantang ini, Graff jadi memiliki banyak impian dan juga ambisi untuk kehidupannya.

Andre-Graff-medium-compress

Setelah bertahun-tahun menjalani profesi ini, bahkan telah menjadi pelatih senior, Graff memutuskan untuk pensiun karena masalah penyakit. Keadaan ini tentu memukul jiwa terlampau kuat. Apa yang sangat dia cinta mendadak harus dilepaskan begitu saja. Dilanda kegundahan dan tidak bisa beranjak dari pekerjaan lama, dia memilih untuk melakukan perjalanan wisata ke Indonesia. 

Perjalanan ke Sumba yang Penuh Arti

Perjalanan untuk menyembuhkan jiwa dilakukan oleh Graff ke Bali pada awal 90-an. Pada perjalanan ini, dia sempat berkeliling Bali lalu memutuskan untuk melancong ke kawasan Sumba Barat. Saat melakukan perjalanan ini, Graff melakukan dokumentasi terhadap kegiatan masyarakat setempat yang menghargai tradisi tapi selalu kesulitan dalam hidup.

 Andre-Graff-menggali-sumur

Melihat keadaan penduduk yang serba kekurangan, terutama air. Graff menjadi terenyuh. Dia merasa kasihan pada anak-anak yang harus melakukan hingga berjam-jam hanya untuk mandi atau mendapatkan air. Berangkat dari sini, Graff memiliki rencana untuk membangun sebuah sumur yang bisa digunakan oleh semua orang. 

Membuat Sumur untuk Kepentingan Masyarakat

Graff tidak pernah menyangka kalau semua usahanya sangat dihargai oleh masyarakat setempat. Bahkan dia dianggap seperti pahlawan hanya karena membangun sebuah sumur yang bisa digunakan oleh ribuan kepala keluarga. Bahkan selama dua tahun saja, dia sudah membangun setidaknya 25 sumur.

Banyaknya sumur yang dibangun oleh Graff membuat warga setempat menjulukinya Andre Sumur. Julukan ini bukanlah sebuah penghinaan, tapi sebuah pujian dan ucapan terima kasih dari para warga yang terbantu kehidupannya. Dengan hanya berbekal air saja, kehidupan warga jadi lebih baik dan bisa hidup dengan lebih sehat. 

Pengorbanan untuk Kebahagiaan Hakiki

Selain membangun sumur yang digunakan oleh warga, Graff juga membangun pembangkit tenaga matahari untuk menaikkan air dari bawah sumur. Semua hal terkait sumur, dia tidak pernah mencari dana dari sponsor. Semuanya murni dari uang yang didapatkan sendiri selama bekerja menjadi seorang pilot.

Bekerja-untuk-kebahagiaan

Bekerja untuk kebahagiaan

Saat tinggal di Indonesia, Graff masih harus membiayai hidupnya sendiri. Untuk perizinan seperti Visa tetap menggunakan uangnya sendiri. Graff tidak ingin mendapatkan apa-apa dari warga. Yang dia inginkan adalah kebahagiaan dengan membantu banyak orang yang membutuhkan. Bagi dia, buat apa menjadi seseorang yang kaya raya tapi tidak pernah beramal. Kebahagiaan tidak didapatkan dengan uang. Tapi seberapa besar peran dan pengorbanan kita pada masyarakat, di mana pun tempatnya. 

Andrea Graff membuktikan pada kita semua bahwa menjadi orang baik sebenarnya sangat mudah dan bisa dilakukan di mana saja. Meski dia bukan warga Indonesia, kecintaannya pada negeri ini sangat besar. Uang bisa dicari di kemudian hari, tapi kesempatan untuk beramal dan mendapatkan kebahagiaan dari sana, jarang ada.

Source: boombastis[dot]com
 

 

 

Moon Jae-in

Biography of Moon Jae-in President of South Korea since 2017


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Moon_Jae-in_(2017-10-01)_cropped225px-Flag_of_South_Korea.svg

Moon Jae-in (Hangul: 문재인; Hanja: 文在寅; Korean pronunciation: [mundʑɛin] or [mun] [t͡ɕɛin]; born 24 January 1953) is a South Korean politician serving as the 19th and current President of South Korea since 2017He was elected after the impeachment of Park Geun-hye as the candidate of the Democratic Party

A former student activist, human rights lawyer and chief of staff to then-President Roh Moo-hyun, Moon served as Leader of Democratic Party (2015–2016) and a member of the 19th National Assembly (2012–2016). He was also a candidate for the former Democratic United Party in the 2012 presidential election in which he lost narrowly to Park Geun-hye. As President, Moon Jae-in met with North Korean chairman Kim Jong-un in the April 2018 inter-Korean summit, May 2018 inter-Korean summit, and September 2018 inter-Korean summit.

Opera Snapshot_2018-09-20_165820_en.wikipedia.org

Opera Snapshot_2018-09-20_165917_en.wikipedia.org

Contents

  1. Early Life, Education and Military Service
  2. Early Career
    1. Human rights attorney
    2. Roh Moo-hyun administration
  3. Political Career before the presidency (2012–2017)
    1. Entrance to politics
    2. 2012 general election
    3. 2012 presidential campaign
    4. Leader of the Democratic Party
  4. 2017 Presidential Election
    1. Primary and general election
    2. Campaign positions on domestic policy
      1. Economic policy
      2. Transparency
      3. Social issues
    3. Campaign positions on foreign policy
  5. Presidency
    1. Domestic Policy
      1. Chaebol (Korean Inc.) reform
      2. Education
      3. Animal rights/adoption of “First Dog”
      4. Energy
    2. Foreign Policy
      1. International relations
      2. North Korea
  6. Electoral History
  7. Personal Life
    1. Family
    2. Pets
    3. Religion
  8. External Links

1| Early Life, Education and Military Service[edit]


Born in GeojeSouth Korea, during the last year of the Korean War, Moon Jae-in was the second child and oldest son among five children of father Moon Yong-hyung and mother Kang Han-ok. His parents were refugees from South Hamgyeong Province, North Korea, who fled their native city of Hungnam during the Hungnam evacuation during Korean War.

His family eventually settled in Busan. Since his father did not want to become a government employee, as he had been in North Korea, his father started a business selling socks, which left his family in great debt. His mother became the breadwinner by selling clothes received from relief organisations and delivering briquettes. Moon’s family became attached to the Catholic Church when his mother went to the local cathedral to receive whole milk powder. Moon once said in an interview that he didn’t know how to ride a bike since his family was too desperately poor to afford a bike or monthly school tuition.

Moon entered Kyungnam High School at the top of his class. He was accepted to study law at Kyung Hee University with a full scholarship. There he met his future wife, Kim Jung-sook. After he organized a student protest against the Yushin Constitution, he was arrested, convicted, imprisoned, and expelled from the university. Later, he was conscripted into the military and assigned to the South Korean special forces, where he participated in “Operation Paul Bunyan” during the Axe murder incident in Panmunjom. 

After his discharge, the death of his father influenced him to decide to take the Bar Exam. He went into Daeheungsa, the Buddhist temple, to study for the exam and passed the first of two rounds in 1979. In 1980 he returned to school to complete his remaining year of studies. Later that year, he passed the second round and was admitted to the Judicial Research and Training Institute. He graduated second in his class but was not admitted to become a judge or government prosecutor due to his history of activism against the Yushin dictatorship under Park Chung-hee’s rule as a student. Moon chose to go into private practice instead.

2| Early Career


2.1| Human Rights Attorney

After becoming a lawyer, he partnered and worked with future President Roh Moo-hyun in the 1980s. Along with Roh, he took cases involving human rights and civil rights issues defending labor rights activists and students persecuted for opposing Korea’s then military dictatorship. They remained friends up until Roh’s suicide in 2009.

He was a founding member of the progressive South Korean newspaper, The Hankyoreh, in 1988. 

2.2| Roh Moo-hyun Administration

Yielding to Roh’s insistence, Moon became Roh’s campaign manager during his presidential bid. After Roh’s victory, Moon became Roh’s chief presidential secretary and close aide holding various roles in a presidential administration. Moon held roles as Senior Presidential Secretary for Civil Affairs, Senior Presidential Secretary for Civil Society, Senior Presidential Secretary for Civil Affairs, and Chief Presidential Secretary (equivalent to Chief-of-Staff) from 2003-2008.

Moon was also the chairperson of the Promotion of the 2nd North-South Korea Summit.

3| Political Career before the presidency (2012–2017)


3.1| Entrance to Politics

Despite his earlier indifference, he began to get involved in politics. He published a memoir called Moon Jae-in: The Destiny which became a bestseller. His popularity had been rising steady against the likely opponent in the presidential race, Park Geun-hye. For instance, in a February 2012 poll, Moon rivaled Park in popularity.

Moon managed to capitalize on the conservatives’ decline in popularity amid a series of corruption scandals. As one pundit said, “Moon had managed to portray himself as a moderate and rational leader who has the backing of the younger generation”.

3.2| 2012 General Election

In 2012, Moon entered a bid for a seat in the National Assembly in the 19th legislative election. Moon won a seat in the Sasang District of Busan on 11 April 2012 as a member of the Democratic United Party with 55% of the vote.

3.3| 2012 Presidential Campaign

On September 16, 2012, Moon received the presidential nomination for the Democratic United Party.

He ran for the 2012 presidential election as the Democratic United Party’s candidate in a three-way race against Park Geun-hye, the incumbent ruling party’s candidate and daughter of the late president Park Chung-hee, as well as independent software mogul Ahn Cheol-soo. Ahn dropped out of the race and endorsed Moon after polls showed a most likely definitive loss for both candidates were there to be a three-way race against Park. Moon went on to lose the election.

3.4| Leader of the Democratic Party 

Moon was elected as the leader of New Politics Alliance for Democracy (NPAD) on February 2, 2015. Prior to his election, Moon and NPAD party leader and 2012 presidential candidate rival Ahn Cheol-soo had many public disputes over the direction of the party.

Moon’s official role led Ahn Cheol-soo to quit and form the centrist People’s Party. Ahn’s departure and Moon’s new tenure as party leader led to renaming the liberal, NPAD Party as the new Democratic Party.

During his leadership, Moon scouted several politically prominent people, including police studies/criminology expert Pyo Chang-won, political critic Lee Chul-hee, and former president Park’s secretary Cho Ung-chun to prepare for upcoming 2016 legislative elections. After his recruitment, Moon resigned his position for another scouted advisor/former Park advisor Kim Chong-in. 

South_Korea_Buddha's_Birthday_ceremony_2015

Moon Jae-in and Leader of the then-Saenuri Party Kim Moo-sung (centre) at the Buddha’s Birthday ceremony in May 2015

4| 2017 presidential election


4.1| Primary and general election

Moon was considered the frontrunner to win Korea’s 2017 presidential election, which would be the 19th term of the country’s presidency, following the Impeachment of Park Geun-hye.

He won the Democratic Party’s nomination against fellow party members Ahn Hee-jung, Lee Jae-myung, and Choi Sung with 57% of the votes.

The general election originally had 15 announced candidates. Moon faced four other major party nominees during the election, including 2012 presidential rival and past party colleague Ahn Cheol-soo of the People’s Party and Hong Jun-pyo of the Liberty Korea Party. He was elected the 19th President of South Korea in Korea’s 19th presidential election by a large plurality over two other major opponents, conservative Hong Joon-pyo and centrist Ahn Cheol-soo.

On May 10, 2017, Moon ended his campaign by winning 41.1% votes (with 13,423,800 votes) to win the plurality of votes. As Moon was elected in a special election, he did not have the 60 days of transitional period of previous administrations, but was instead inaugurated the day after the election.

4.2| Campaign positions on domestic policy

4.2.1| Economic Policy

Moon’s campaign promise in 2017 included intentions to put a 10 trillion won ($8.9 billion) fiscal stimulus to support job creation, start-ups, and small to mid-sized companies. His announced goal is to create 810,000 public sector jobs through raising taxes on the wealthy.

Moon’s policy against corporate corruption, specifically in regards to Korean conglomerates known as “chaebols ” is to give “minority shareholders more power in electing board members” of the companies.

4.2.2| Transparency

Moon also promised transparency in his presidency, moving the presidential residence from the palatial and isolated Blue House to an existing government complex in downtown Seoul. 

4.2.3| Social Issues 

In a televised presidential debate, Moon said he opposes homosexuality, in response to conservative candidate Hong Jun-pyo’s remarks that gay soldiers were a source of weakness in the South Korean military. Moon’s remark prompted immediate criticism during the debate from Sim Sang-jung, the sole presidential candidate to support LGBT rights and a member of the leftist Justice Party. The conservative remark also prompted outrage from gay rights activists, considering Moon’s representation as the leading liberal candidate and former human rights lawyer. Some of Moon’s supporters dismissed the comments as a necessity to win, as South Koreans tend to be conservative in social issues. Moon later clarified his comments suggesting that he still believes there should be no discrimination based on sexual orientation while opposing legalizing same-sex marriage.

4.3| Campaign positions on foreign policy

Moon has favored a peaceful reunification between the two Koreas. He was both widely criticized and widely praised for his comments stating that his first visit if elected president would be to visit North Korea, a visit that would be not unlike Roh Moo-hyun’s visit to the country in 2007. Similarly, Moon’s foreign policy towards North Korea is considered to closely align with the Sunshine Policy embraced by former liberal presidents Kim Dae-jung and Roh Moo-hyun. 

His 2017 presidential campaign has supported re-opening of the Kaesong industrial park. 

Moon’s relatively liberal stance in foreign policy is reflected as he is quoted in a book: “I’m pro-U.S., but now South Korea should adopt diplomacy in which it can discuss a U.S. request and say no to the Americans.”  He opposes a re-balance of the security alliance with the United States, but has also stated that he would like South Korea “to be able to take the lead on matters on the Korean Peninsula.” At the same time, Moon has stated that he considers America as a “friend” for its role in helping South Korea avoid communism while helping its economic growth.

Inauguration_of_Moon_Jae-in_06

Inauguration of Moon Jae-in, May 10, 2017.

5| Presidency


Moon was sworn into office immediately after official votes were counted on May 10, replacing Acting President and Prime Minister Hwang Kyo-ahn. There was no transition period between the election and inauguration, unlike other presidential elections due to the nature of an election following a presidential impeachment. He will serve out the typical single five-year term with his presidential term concluding in 2022.

5.1| Domestic policy

5.1.1| Chaebol (Korean Inc.) reform

South Korea’s economic growth has been attributed in large part to Chaebols, or family-owned conglomerates. Prominent examples of conglomerates include Samsung and Hyundai. Following various corruption scandals (Samsung’s vice-chairman Lee Jae-yongserving a suspended jail sentence), concentrated power (collusion), connections with the government including most recently the 2016 Choi Soon-sil scandal which ultimately led to the special election Moon won, one of Moon’s biggest areas of focus during the campaign was reforms at chaebols including greater transparency in the companies’ corporate governance structure. Moon appointed “chaebol sniper” Kim Sang-jo, a well-known shareholder activist, to the role of fair-trade commissioner aimed at reforming chaebols.

5.1.2| Education

Moon’s predecessor and daughter of Park Chung-hee, Park Geun-hye, originally planned to mandate usage of state-issued history textbooks in 2018. Moon reversed these plans in May 2017 in one of his first major acts as president. Critics of Park’s original plan saw this as a way for Park to mitigate some representations of her father’s oppressive policies under a dictatorial rule, only highlighting the positive accomplishments of the past. Park had stated she wanted to replace the “left-leaning” books with those created from the government that would instill greater patriotism. Although the Park government had responded to backlash by switching its official position on requiring the textbooks and allowing schools to choose the state-issued, Moon’s action scrapped the program altogether. Schools will continue to choose privately published, government-approved textbooks written under educational guidelines instead.

5.1.3| Animal rights/adoption of “First Dog”

Moon had promised during his campaign to adopt a dog from an animal sanctuary. This was considered relevant to South Korean politics as the country allows for consumption of dog meat. His administration adopted Tory, a four-year-old black mongrel who was saved from a dog meat farm, from an animal rights group. The move was considered to send “a strong message against the [dog meat] trade”.

5.1.4| Energy

Moon’s administration has focused on increasing South Korea’s consumption of natural gas, away from nuclear and coal as sources of energy. These plans include delaying construction on nuclear reactors as well as re-opening dialogue around a natural gas pipeline that would come from Russia and pass through North Korea. At the event on June 19, 2017 marking the end of operations at South Korea’s oldest nuclear reactor, Kori Unit 1, Moon outlined his plan for the future of energy in Korea, saying “we will abandon the development policy centred on nuclear power plants and exit the era of nuclear energy.” This would be implemented by canceling plans for new nuclear power plants and not renewing licenses for operating plants. In addition, he shut down eight coal-fired power plants upon assuming office in May 2017, and pledged to shut down the remaining ten coal plants by the end of his term. In the long term, he envisioned renewable sources would eventually be able to meet Korea’s demand, but in the interim, proposed liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a stopgap measure while coal and nuclear were taken offline in the coming decades.

1024px-Moon_Jae-in_Presidential_Approval_Rating.svg

Moon Jae-in’s Presidential Job Approval rating

800px-President_Donald_J._Trump_welcomes_President_Moon_Jae-in_of_the_Republic_of_Korea_to_the_White_House_(34809235764)

U.S. President Donald Trump welcomes President Moon on June 30, 2017, in the White House Rose Garden

5.2| Foreign Policy

5.2.1| International Relations

Moon visited the United States to meet with U.S. President Donald Trump in June 2017, discussing U.S.-Korea trade relations as well as North Korea’s missile programs. Moon revealed in a joint news conference that President Trump accepted an invitation to visit South Korea. 

800px-KOREA_US_CheongWaDae_Summit_13

Moon with U.S. President Donald Trump at the height of the North Korea crisis in November 2017

5.2.2| North Korea 

Outlining his North Korea strategy in a speech in Berlin, Germany, on July 6, 2017, Moon characterized the process leading to unification as a long-term project, rather than laying out any detailed plans for a unified Korea. He emphasized alliance with the United States and specified the need to assure dismantlement of North Korea’s nuclear weapons program. At the same time he presented the question of unification in a regional context and signaled his hopes of working in cooperation with the international community. He supported sanctions against North Korea, while leaving open the possibility of their being rescinded, and indicated that it is crucial to establish a peace treaty with North Korea to end the Korean War officially in exchange for denuclearization. 

800px-Samjiyon_02112018

Moon watches a performance of the Samjiyon Band with North Korea’s nominal head of state Kim Yong-nam, 11 February 2018

Moon opposed the full deployment of THAAD (Terminal High Altitude Area Defense) systems during his presidential campaign and called for more peace talks engaging with North Korea.

As of late July, following North Korea’s latest missile launch and increasingly aggressive actions, Moon asked the U.S. permission to build up its domestic defense systems and temporarily set up a full THAAD system. 

Moon met with Kim Jong-un, Chairman of the Workers’ Party of Korea, on 27 April 2018. 

800px-2018_inter-Korean_summit_01

North Korean Leader Kim Jong-un and Moon shake hands inside the Peace House.

Kim and Moon met again on 26 May. The second meeting was also at the DMZ, this time on the North Korean side of the Panmunjom village. The meeting took two hours. The meeting had not been publicly announced beforehand. The meeting was largely centered around the cancelled summit with Donald Trump.

In September 2018, Moon Jae-in visited Pyongyang in the September 2018 inter-Korean summit. He and 150 delegates– including prominent figures in business, culture, and religion– flew to the Sunan Airport in Pyeongyang and met with Kim Jong-un. The two Korean leaders announced an agreement to decrease hostilities on the DMZ, further joint-economic projects, and open North Korean weapons facilities to international experts. The leaders also gave a speech to 150,000 North Korean citizens in the Rungrado 1st of May Stadium with themes of unification, lasting peace, and friendship. Moon fulfilled his dream by trekking Mount Paektu.

2018_inter-Korean_summit_square

Kim and Moon shake hands in greeting at the demarcation line.

6| Electoral History


Opera Snapshot_2018-09-20_164639_en.wikipedia.org

7| Personal Life


7.1| Family

800px-Ivanka_Trump_28337772

Kim Jung-sook with Ivanka Trump at the 2018 Winter Olympics, 24 February 2018

Moon married Kim Jung-sook, a vocalist from the same university he attended. He and Kim both individually revealed in separate Korean talk shows that they both met each other when Moon was a student activist protesting the Yushin Constitution. 

7.2| Pets

Moon has three pets: two dogs (Korean: 마루, translit. Maru, a Pungsan dog, and Korean: 토리, translit. Tory, a mixed-breed) and one cat (Korean: 찡찡, translit. Jjing-jjing). Jjing-jjing is the country’s first-ever “first cat”, and Tory was adopted from a shelter, in contrast with other “first dogs”, which had traditionally been purebred Jindo dogs. Moon stated at Tory’s adoption that “we need to pay more attention to abandoned animals and care for them as a society” and that he wanted to remove the stigma against Tory’s dark coat, which contributed to him being virtually unadoptable for two years after he was rescued in 2015.

7.3| Religion

Moon is a practicing Roman Catholic, the third leader after the late former President Kim Dae-jung (Roh Moo-hyun was a lapsed Catholic). His baptismal (or Christian) name is “Timothy”.[citation needed]

8| External Links


Opera Snapshot_2018-09-20_170240_en.wikipedia.org

Opera Snapshot_2018-09-20_170122_en.wikipedia.org

Konsep Tol Laut untuk Efisiensi Logistik Nasional

RANCANGAN ARSITEKTUR TOL LAUT INDONESIA – PENDULUM NUSANTARA


3 Juli 2015 13:48 . Resource: Supply Chain Indonesia. kompasiana[dot]com

rancangan-arsitektur-tol-laut-indonesia-02-07-2015-5599c5d3579773b307f680a9

Konsep Tol Laut diharapkan dapat mewujudkan sistem distribusi barang yang efisien. Dengan menggunakan kapal berkapasitas besar, maka pengangkutan barang akan menjadi efisien. Selain itu, kepastian jadwal pelayaran juga akan mengefisienkan biaya para pelaku logistik.

Tol Laut menjadi salah satu konsep penting pengembangan transportasi laut untuk Indonesia yang merupakan negara kepulauan atau negara maritim. Konsep tol laut perlu dikembangkan dan diimplementasikan agar transportasi laut menjadi backbone sistem transportasi multimoda Indonesia yang terintegrasi.

Konsep Tol Laut diharapkan dapat mewujudkan sistem distribusi barang yang efisien. Dengan menggunakan kapal berkapasitas besar, maka pengangkutan barang akan menjadi efisien. Selain itu, kepastian jadwal pelayaran juga akan mengefisienkan biaya para pelaku logistik.

Dalam implementasi Konsep Tol Laut di Indonesia terdapat beberapa kendala utama. Salah satu masalah penting adalah ketidakseimbangan arus muatan. Arus muatan dari Kawasan Timur Indonesia (KTI) ke barat sangat kurang dibandingkan dengan arus muatan kebalikannya, sehingga dikuatirkan kapal dalam tol laut akan kekurangan muatan dalam pelayaran dari arah timur. Ketidakseimbangan arus muatan ini terkait dengan ketidakseimbangan pertumbuhan wilayah.

Sebagai lembaga pengkajian dalam bidang logistik di Indonesia, Supply Chain Indonesia (SCI) telah membuat Rancangan Arsitektur Tol Laut Indonesia yang diharapkan bisa menjadi masukan penting untuk salah satu program Pemerintahan Jokowi-JK dalam menurunkan biaya logistik nasional.

Dalam rancangan tersebut terdapat tujuh Pelabuhan Utama yang dilewati Jalur Tol Laut, yaitu Pelabuhan Kuala Tanjung, Pelabuhan Batam, Pelabuhan Tanjung Priok, Pelabuhan Tanjung Perak, Pelabuhan Makassar, Pelabuhan Bitung, dan Pelabuhan Sorong. 

Ketujuh Pelabuhan Utama tersebut terhubung dengan 67 Pelabuhan Short Sea Shipping (SSS). Pelabuhan-pelabuhan SSS itu terdiri dari beberapa pelabuhan yang pada saat ini masih berbeda-beda kelasnya, yaitu Pelabuhan Utama, Pelabuhan Pengumpul, dan Pelabuhan Pengumpan. 

Berkaitan dengan ketidakseimbangan arus muatan antara barat dan timur, penyeimbangan arus muatan dilakukan dengan penentuan/pemisahan pintu ekspor/impor berdasarkan negara tujuan/asal.

  • Pelabuhan Kuala Tanjung, sebagai pintu di wilayah barat, diperuntukan bagi Negara-negara
    • Eropa
    • Timur Tengah
    • Asia
    • dan sebagainya
  • Pelabuhan Bitung, sebagai pintu di wilayah timur, khusus untuk Negara-negara
    • China
    • Korea
    • Jepang
    • USA
    • dan sebagainya.

Selain itu, Pemerintah sebaiknya memberikan berbagai kebijakan untuk mendorong implementasi tol laut tersebut. Salah satunya dengan memberikan insentif sebagai kompensasi bagi industri pelayaran atas kerugian ketika arus muatan itu belum seimbang. 

Ketidakseimbangan pertumbuhan wilayah baik ekonomi maupun industri, yang berdampak terhadap ketidakseimbangan arus muatan, hendaknya tidak menghalangi implementasi Konsep Tol Laut. Justru implementasi Konsep ini akan menjadi pendorong pertumbuhan wilayah melalui semakin terbukanya akses pengiriman barang, baik ke Kawasan Timur Indonesia (KTI) maupun sebaliknya. Selanjutnya, dengan pertumbuhan KTI, maka volume pengiriman barang akan meningkat dan balik mendorong implementasi Konsep Tol Laut.

Note:

Setijadi: Chairman of Supply Chain Indonesia (SCI), Head of Logistics & Supply Chain Center (LOGIC) – Universitas Widyatama Bandung, Anggota Dewan Pengurus Pusat – Asosiasi Logistik dan Forwarder Indonesia (ALFI). Anggota Tim Implementasi Sistem Logistik Nasional (Sislognas) dan aktif memberikan kontribusi dalam pengembangan logistik nasional di Kementerian Koordinator Bidang Perekonomian, Kementerian Perdagangan, Kementerian Perhubungan, Kementerian Perindustrian, dan Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral. Konsultan bidang logistik & supply chain di beberapa perusahaan nasional dan multi-nasional.

Dukung Tol Laut Lewat Empat Fokus Kerja Kemenhub


Biro Komunikasi dan Informasi Publik – DIREKTORAT JENDERAL PERHUBUNGAN LAUT – Selasa, 26 April 2016

pendulum

logo_idKementerian Perhubungan terus melakukan pembangunan sarana dan prasarana transportasi laut dalam rangka mendukung program Tol Laut. Pembangunan tol laut bertujuan untuk mewujudkan konektivitas dan menekan kesenjangan harga antara wilayah Barat dan Timur Indonesia yang disebabkan tidak adanya kepastian ketersediaan barang.

“Memecahkan masalah konektivitas antar pulau dan mewujudkan aspek keadilan pembangunan dengan menekan kesenjangan antara wilayah barat dan timur Indonesia adalah tujuan dilaksanakannya program Tol Laut” jelas Menhub Ignasius Jonan di Jakarta beberapa waktu lalu ketika berdiskusi dengan kalangan media massa.

Jonan menjelaskan, tingginya harga barang seperti harga 1 sak semen yang mencapai ratusan ribu rupiah di daerah puncak Jaya Wijaya, disebabkan tidak adanya barang dan tidak adanya kepastian kapan barang itu ada. Sekarang, dengan adanya kapal laut yang datang sesuai dengan jadwal menjadikan harga terkontrol.

Untuk itu Kemenhub dengan empat fokus kerjanya yaitu, peningkatan keselamatan dan keamanan, peningkatan kapasitas, peningkatan kualitas layanan, dan peningkatan tata kelola regulasi sejak tahun 2015 terus melakukan pembangunan sarana dan prasarana pendukung Tol Laut agar Tol Laut secara konkrit dapat dirasakan manfaatnya.

Upaya Kemenhub untuk mendukung program tol laut melalui program peningkatan keselamatan dan keamanan diantaranya: meng-upgrade peralatan pendukung pelayaran seperti, pemasangan Vehicle Traffic System sebanyak 5 unit, dan pemasangan Sarana Bantu Navigasi Pelayaran (SBNP) sebanyak 122 unit yang tersebar di wilayah laut Indonesia.

Selain itu, dilakukan pula pembangunan kapal-kapal yang difungsikan untuk keselamatan dan keamanan pelayaran seperti, pembangunan kapal navigasi sebanyak 15 unit, Kapal Patroli KPLP sebanyak 43 unit, dan Kapal Rigid Inflatable Boat/RIB sebanyak 66 unit.

Untuk meningkatkan kompetensi Sumber Daya Manusia terkait Keselamatan dan Keamanan Pelayaran, telah dilakukan pula berbagai Pelatihan Safety dan Security baik di dalam maupun di luar negeri sebanyak 22 Pendidikan dan pelatihan/diklat.

Sementara, upaya yang dilakukan melalui program peningkatan kapasitas yaitu dengan membangun berbagai prasarana dan sarana perhubungan laut diantaranya, pembangunan parsarana seperti, pelabuhan di 89 lokasi dengan konsentrasi pembangunan pelabuhan di wilayah Timur Indonesia, dan peningkatan kapasitas pelabuhan di 6 lokasi.

Sedangkan, pembangunan sarana perhubungan laut untuk mendukung aksesibilitas transportasi laut meliputi, pembangunan kapal perintis sebanyak 95 unit, dan pembangunan kapal ternak sebanyak 5 unit. Selain itu, penyelenggaraan rute perintis sebanyak 96 trayek, penyelenggaraan angkutan barang tetap dan teratur/Freight Linersebanyak 6 trayek,

Pada program peningkatan kualitas layanan, beberapa perbaikan pelayanan sektor perhubungan laut yang dilakukan yaitu, perbaikan terminal penumpang di 26 lokasi; penujukkan PT PELNI menjadi operator tunggal kapal perintis; pengadaan peralatan bongkar muat sebanyak 26 unit; dan penyelenggaraan pelayanan secara online seperti pendaftaran kapal, SIM LALA, dan INAPORTNET.

Upaya mendukung perwujudan tol laut yang menjadi program strategis Presiden RI ini juga dilakukan melalui program peningkatan tata kelola regulasi di sektor perhubungan laut seperti, penyederhanaan/deregulasi peraturan. Tercatat sebanyak 8 peraturan di sektor perhubungan laut yang telah disederhanakan.

Lainnya, peningkatanan tata kelola regulasi yang dilakukan diantaranya, pelimpahan perizinan melalui BKPM sebanyak 6 perizinan, penerbitan SIUPAL dan SIOPSUS sebanyak 3286 perizinan, izin pengoperasian pelabuhan umum sebanyak 2 perizinan, izin pembangunan dan pengoperasian tersus sebanyak 153 perizinan, izin pengelolaan TUKS sebanyak 159 perizinan, dan kerjasama terkait Tol Laut sebanyak 2 perjanjian. (RDL/BU/SR/HP)

Daftar Pelabuhan Tol Laut Jokowi


Daftar Pelabuhan Tol Laut Jokowi – Pembangunan Tol Laut Libatkan 24 Pelabuhan di Indonesia – Program pembangunan tol laut Jokowi untuk menciptakan konektivitas antar pulau yang optimal dan efektif secara rutin dari barat Indonesia sampai timur wilayah Indonesia melibatkan 24 pelabuhan.

Ke-24 program pelabuhan tol laut jokowi tersebut terdiri dari lima Pelabuhan sebagai Hub (pengumpul) meliputi 

  1. Pelabuhan Belawan/Kuala Tanjung
  2. Pelabuhan Tanjung Priok
  3. Pelabuhan Tanjung Perak
  4. Pelabuhan Makassar
  5. Pelabuhan Bitung

Sedangkan 19 Pelabuhan sebagai Feeder (pengumpan) bagi Pelabuhan Hub.

Ke-19 Pelabuhan Feeder tersebut adalah 

  1. Pelabuhan Malahayati
  2. Pelabuhan Batam
  3. Jambi (Talang Duku)
  4. Palembang
  5. Panjang
  6. Pelabuhan Teluk Bayur
  7. Tanjung Emas
  8. Pontianak
  9. Banjarmasin
  10. Sampit
  11. Balikpapan/Kanangau
  12. Samarinda/Palaran
  13. Tanau/Kupang
  14. Pantoloan
  15. Ternate
  16. Kendari
  17. Sorong
  18. Ambon
  19. Jayapura

Dirjen Perhubungan Laut Kemenhub Bobby R. Mamahit berpendapat , pembangunan Poros Maritim Nasional atau Tol Laut jokowi memiliki tujuan untuk membongkar akses pelayaran petikemas regional dengan membangun sebuah pelabuhan besar berskala hub internasional yang memiliki kemampuan melayani kapal-kapal niaga besar di atas 3.000 TEUs hingga 6.000 TEUs.

Pengertian program Tol Laut Jokowi

Konsep Tol Laut bukan membuat jalan tol di atas laut. Namun merupakan jalur distribusi logistik menggunakan kapal laut dari ujung Pulau Sumatera hingga ujung Papua,” ungkap Bobby dalam lokakarya Wartawan Perhubungan “Menata Transportasi, Meningkatkan Daya Saing” di Aula Pemerintahan Kabupaten Belitung, Tanjungpandan, Jumat (22/5).

Bobby memaparkan, poros maritim Indonesia merupakan bagian poros maritim dunia. Untuk mewujudkannya, maka di wilayah Indonesia harus terdapat pusat-pusat kegiatan maritim dan kelautan berkelas dunia yang melayani dan mengakomodasi kegiatan kemaritiman ke seluruh dunia.

“Kegiatan maritim domestik harus menjadi penggerak ekonomi dan pembangunan utama,” kata Bobby.

Pada prinsipnya, pembangunan Tol Laut atau Pendulum Nusantara merupakan penataan rute tetap (linier), terhadap rute yang sudah ada. Untuk mencapai keberhasilannya, diperlukan langkah-langkah antara lain; mengefisienkan sistem transportasi maritim Indonesia, kelembagaan regulasi dan pendanaan serta dukungan lintas sektoral.

Karya Sal Alfarisi Kategori Ekonomi . dipublikasikan 20 Mei 2018

 

 

39 Bendungan Bakal Rampung di Era Jokowi

Pembangunan Bendungan


Jumat, 23 Sep 2016 15:05 WIB

df86ca5c-2b5c-49ce-8362-416514ccd588_169

Dua bendungan ditargetkan selesai konstruksinya pada tahun 2016 ini, melengkapi 5 bendungan yang selesai konstruksi pada 2015 lalu.

Dalam rencana Direktorat Jenderal Sumber Daya Air (SDA), Kementerian Pekerjaan Umum dan Perumahan Rakyat, akan ada 39 bendungan akan selesai konstruksi secara bertahap dalam periode 2015-2019.

Rinciannya, 5 bendungan selesai konstruksi di tahun 2015 terdiri dari:

  1. Bendungan Rajui
  2. Bendungan Jatigede
  3. Bendungan Bajulmati
  4. Bendungan Nipah
  5. Bendungan Titab

2 bendungan selesai konstruksi di 2016 terdiri dari:

  1. Bendungan Payaseunara
  2. Bendungan Teritip

4 bendungan selesai konstruksi di 2017 terdiri dari:

  1. Bendungan Raknamo
  2. Bendungan Tanju
  3. Bendungan Mila
  4. Menudngan Marangkayu

7 bendungan selesai konstruksi di 2018 terdiri dari:

  1. Bendungan Gondang
  2. Bendungan Tugu
  3. Bendungan Logung
  4. Bendungan Rotiklod
  5. Bendungan Muara Sei Gong
  6. Bendungan Bintang Bano
  7. Bendungan Kuningan

11 bendungan selesai konstruksi di 2019 terdiri dari:

  1. Bendungan Passeloreng
  2. Bendungan Tapin
  3. Bendungan Ciawi
  4. Bendungan Sukamahi
  5. Bendungan Karalloe
  6. Bendungan Sindang Heula
  7. Bendungan Keureuto
  8. Bendungan Bendo
  9. Bendungan Gongseng
  10. Bendungan Tukul
  11. Bendungan Pidekso

Sebanyak 39 bedungan tersebut, merupakan bagian dari rencana pembangunan 65 bendungan selama periode Pemerintahan Presiden Joko Widodo.

“Bendungan yang belum selesai di 2019 bukan karena mangkrak. Tetapi memang kan pembangunannya butuh waktu. Kalau baru mulai dibangun 2019, berarti 2-4 tahun berikutnya baru selesai. Semoga tetap jadi prioritas di periode berikutnya,” kata Direktur Jenderal SDA, Imam Santoso kepada detikFinance, Jumat (23/9/2016).  

Source: detik[dot]com . (dna/dna) . Dana Aditiasari – detikFinance . Jumat, 23 Sep 2016 15:05 WIB

Rahasia Pohon Berbuah Lebat Sepanjang Tahun

Ini Rahasia Pohon Berbuah Lebat Sepanjang Tahun, Ternyata Sederhana Banget


buah (1)

Banyak diantara kita yang belum tahu, ternyata dalam proses penanaman dan pertumbuhan pohon ada hal-hal yang harus diperhatikan.

Contohnya saja dalam perangsang dan penumpukan, kalian akan mendapatkan hasil yang maksimal dengan menggunakan cara injeksi atau suntikan.

Hal ini disebabkan nutrisi akan langsung meresap pada jaringan pembuluh dan tak hilang begitu saja.

Jika kalian mempunyai beberapa pohon buah-buahan atau yang lainnya disekitaran rumah yang nggak mau berbuah, kalian dapat mempraktekkan teknik berikut ini.

1. Cobalah untuk melubangi pohon dengan bor atau alat lainnya dengan berdiameter 1cm dengan posisi miring 45° sedalam 7 cm.

2. Lakukan injeksi dengan 10 cc larutan campuran dari pupuk NPK dan hormon yang telah mengandung giberelin.

3. Selanjutnya sumbat lubang menggunakan styrofoam atau alat lainnya.

4. Setelah menunggu sekitar sebulan kemudian, saat pohon tersebut telah berbunga berikanlah pupuk kandang secukupnya sesuai dengan ukuran pohon tersebut.

5. Untuk mendapatkan hasil yang maksimal, gunakanlah cara tadi seperti infus setiap hari selama pohon tersebut berbunga.

injeksi-1-640x432 (1)

Jika kalian masih bingung untuk cara infusnya tersebut, perhatikan penjelasan berikut ini.

Persiapkan drum yang berisi 200 L air dan masukan sekitar sekarung pupuk kandang, 33 gram NPK lalu 17 gram bahan KNO3.

Langkah selanjutnya yaitu melubangi drum dengan paku dan larutan biasanya akan habis dalam 2-3 hari. Ulangi terus pemupukan hingga panen.

lengkeng-new-kristal

Nah, mudah bukan? Semoga artikel ini bermanfaat untuk pohon buah kalian, dan jangan lupa untuk share artikel ini agar dapat bermanfaat bagi orang lain. 

Source: wajibbaca[dot]com