William James Sidis (/ˈsaɪdɪs/; April 1, 1898 – July 17, 1944) was an American child prodigy with exceptional mathematical and linguistic skills. He is notable for his 1920 book The Animate and the Inanimate, in which he postulates the existence of dark matter, entropy and the origin of life in the context of thermodynamics. Sidis was raised in a particular manner by his father, psychologist Boris Sidis, who wished his son to be gifted. Sidis first became famous for his precocity and later for his eccentricity and withdrawal from public life. Eventually, he avoided mathematics altogether, writing on other subjects under a number of pseudonyms. He entered Harvard at age 11 and, as an adult, was claimed to have an extremely high IQ, and to be conversant in about 25 languages and dialects. Some of these claims have not been verifiable, but peers such as Norbert Wiener supported the assertion that his intelligence was very high.
Parents and upbringing (1898–1908)
Harvard University and college life (1909–1915)
Teaching and further education (1915–1919)
Politics and arrest (1919–1921)
Later life (1921–1944)
Publications and subjects of research
In education discussions
Parents and upbringing (1898–1908)
William James Sidis was born to Jewish emigrants from Ukraine, on April 1, 1898, in New York City. His father, Boris Sidis, PhD, M.D., had emigrated in 1887 to escape political persecution. His mother, Sarah (Mandelbaum) Sidis, M.D., and her family had fled the pogroms in the late 1880s. Sarah attended Boston University and graduated from its School of Medicine in 1897.
William was named after his godfather, Boris’ friend and colleague, the American philosopher William James. Boris was a psychiatrist and published numerous books and articles, performing pioneering work in abnormal psychology. He was a polyglot, and his son William would become one at a young age.
Sidis’s parents believed in nurturing a precocious and fearless love of knowledge (but their methods of parenting were criticized in the media and retrospectively). Sidis could read The New York Times at 18 months. By age eight, he had reportedly taught himself eight languages (Latin, Greek, French, Russian, German, Hebrew, Turkish, and Armenian) and invented another, which he called “Vendergood”.
Harvard University and college life (1909–1915)
Although the University had previously refused to let his father enroll him at age 9 because he was still a child, Sidis set a record in 1909 by becoming the youngest person to enroll at Harvard University. In early 1910, Sidis’ mastery of higher mathematics was such that he lectured the Harvard Mathematical Club on four-dimensional bodies. Notable child prodigy, cybernetics pioneer Norbert Wiener, who also attended Harvard at the time and knew Sidis later stated in his book Ex-Prodigy: “The talk would have done credit to a first or second-year graduate student of any age…talk represented the triumph of the unaided efforts of a very brilliant child.” MIT Physics professor Daniel F. Comstock was full of praises. ‘His method of thinking is real intellect. He doesn’t cram his head with facts. He reasons. “Gauss is the only example in history, of all prodigies, whom Sidis resembles”. Further stating that Sidis would become the leading mathematician and a leader in that science in future. Sidis began taking a full-time course load in 1910 and earned his Bachelor of Arts degree, cum laude, on June 18, 1914, at age 16.
Shortly after graduation, he told reporters that he wanted to live the perfect life, which to him meant living in seclusion. He granted an interview to a reporter from the Boston Herald. The paper reported Sidis’s vows to remain celibate and never to marry, as he said women did not appeal to him. Later he developed a strong affection for a young woman named Martha Foley. He later enrolled at Harvard Graduate School of Arts and Sciences.
According to The Prodigy: a Biography of William James Sidis, he briefly served at the League of Nations before leaving because U.S. president Woodrow Wilson would not withdraw troops deployed during the Great War. He was outspoken about his pacifism.
Teaching and further education (1915–1919)
After a group of Harvard students threatened Sidis physically, his parents secured him a job at the William Marsh Rice Institute for the Advancement of Letters, Science, and Art (now Rice University) in Houston, Texas as a mathematics teaching assistant. He arrived at Rice in December 1915 at the age of 17. He was a graduate fellow working toward his doctorate.
Sidis taught three classes: Euclidean geometry, non-Euclidean geometry, and freshman math (he wrote a textbook for the Euclidean geometry course in Greek). After less than a year, frustrated with the department, his teaching requirements, and his treatment by students older than he was, Sidis left his post and returned to New England. When a friend later asked him why he had left, he replied, “I never knew why they gave me the job in the first place—I’m not much of a teacher. I didn’t leave—I was asked to go.” Sidis abandoned his pursuit of a graduate degree in mathematics and enrolled at the Harvard Law School in September 1916, but withdrew in good standing in his final year in March 1919.
Politics and arrest (1919–1921)
In 1919, shortly after his withdrawal from law school, Sidis was arrested for participating in a socialist May Day parade in Boston that turned violent. He was sentenced to 18 months in prison under the Sedition Act of 1918. Sidis’ arrest featured prominently in newspapers, as his early graduation from Harvard had garnered considerable local celebrity status. During the trial, Sidis stated that he had been a conscientious objector to the World War I draft, was a socialist, and did not believe in a god like the “big boss of the Christians,” but rather in something that is in a way apart from a human being. He later developed his own libertarian philosophy based on individual rights and “the American social continuity”. His father arranged with the district attorney to keep Sidis out of prison before his appeal came to trial; his parents, instead, held him in their sanatorium in New Hampshire for a year. They took him to California, where he spent another year. While at the sanatorium, his parents set about “reforming” him and threatened him with transfer to an insane asylum.
Later life (1921–1944)
After returning to the East Coast in 1921, Sidis was determined to live an independent and private life. He only took work running adding machines or other fairly menial tasks. He worked in New York City and became estranged from his parents. It took years before he was cleared legally to return to Massachusetts, and he was concerned about his risk of arrest for years. He obsessively collected streetcar transfers, wrote self-published periodicals, and taught small circles of interested friends his version of American history. In 1933, Sidis passed a Civil Service exam in New York, but scored a low ranking of 254. In a private letter, Sidis wrote that this was “not so encouraging”.
In 1944, Sidis won a settlement from The New Yorker for an article published in 1937. He had alleged it contained many false statements. Under the title “Where Are They Now?”, James Thurber pseudonymously described Sidis’s life as lonely, in a “hall bedroom in Boston’s shabby South End”. Lower courts had dismissed Sidis as a public figure with no right to challenge personal publicity. He lost an appeal of an invasion of privacy lawsuit at the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit in 1940 over the same article. Judge Charles Edward Clark expressed sympathy for Sidis—who claimed that the publication had exposed him to “public scorn, ridicule, and contempt” and caused him “grievous mental anguish [and] humiliation”—but found that the court was not disposed to “afford to all the intimate details of private life an absolute immunity from the prying of the press”.
Sidis died in 1944 from a cerebral hemorrhage in Boston at the age of 46. His father had died from the same malady in 1923 at age 56.
Publications and subjects of research
From writings on cosmology, to writings on American Indian history, to Notes on the Collection of Transfers, and several purported lost texts on anthropology, philology, and transportation systems, Sidis covered a broad range of subjects. Some of his ideas concerned cosmological reversibility and “social continuity”.
In The Animate and the Inanimate (1925), Sidis predicted the existence of regions of space where the second law of thermodynamics operated in reverse to the temporal direction that we experience in our local area. Everything outside of what we would today call a galaxy would be such a region. Sidis claimed that the matter in this region would not generate light. Sidis’s The Tribes and the States (ca. 1935) employs the pseudonym “John W. Shattuck”, purporting to give a 100,000-year history of the Settlement of the Americas, from prehistoric times to 1828. In this text, he suggests that “there were red men at one time in Europe as well as in America”.
Sidis was also a “peridromophile”, a term he coined for people fascinated with transportation research and streetcar systems. He wrote a treatise on streetcar transfers under the pseudonym of “Frank Folupa” that identified means of increasing public transport usage.
In 1930, Sidis received a patent for a rotary perpetual calendar that took into account leap years.
Sidis created a constructed language called Vendergood in his second book, the Book of Vendergood, which he wrote at the age of 8. The language was mostly based on Latin and Greek, but also drew on German and French and other Romance languages. It distinguished between eight moods: indicative, potential, imperative absolute, subjunctive, imperative, infinitive, optative, and Sidis’s own strongeable. One of its chapters is titled “Imperfect and Future Indicative Active”. Other parts explain the origin of Roman numerals. It uses base 12 instead of base 10.
After his death, Helena Sidis claimed that her brother had an IQ reported in Abraham Sperling’s 1946 book Psychology for the Millions as “the very highest that had ever been obtained”, but later authors found that some of his biographers, such as Amy Wallace, exaggerated how high his IQ actually was and exactly what Sperling had claimed. Sperling actually wrote:
Helena Sidis told me that a few years before his death, her brother Bill took an intelligence test with a psychologist. His score was the very highest that had ever been obtained. In terms of IQ, the psychologist related that the figure would be between 250 and 300. Late in life William Sidis took general intelligence tests for Civil Service positions in New York and Boston. His phenomenal ratings are matter of record.
It has been acknowledged that Helena and William’s mother Sarah had developed a reputation of exaggerated claims about the Sidis family. Helena had also falsely claimed that the Civil Service exam William took in 1933 was an IQ test and that his ranking was an IQ score of 254. It is speculated that the number “254” was actually William’s placement on the list after he passed the Civil Service exam, as he stated in a letter sent to his family. Helena also claimed that “Billy knew all the languages in the world, while my father only knew twenty-seven. I wonder if there were any Billy didn’t know.” This claim was not backed by any other source outside the Sidis family, and Sarah Sidis also made an improbable claim in her 1950 book The Sidis Story that William could learn a language in just one day. Boris Sidis had once dismissed tests of intelligence as “silly, pedantic, absurd, and grossly misleading”. Regardless of the exaggerations, Sidis is judged by other high IQ peers such as MIT Physics professor Daniel Frost Comstock and notable American mathematician Norbert Weiner to have had real ability.
Sidis’ life and work, particularly his ideas about Native Americans, are extensively discussed in Robert M. Pirsig’s book Lila: An Inquiry into Morals (1991). Sidis is also discussed in Ex-Prodigy, an autobiography by mathematician Norbert Wiener (1894–1964), who was a prodigy himself and a contemporary of Sidis at Harvard.
A Danish author Morten Brask wrote a fictional novel based on Sidis’ life; The Perfect Life of William Sidis was published in Denmark in 2011. Another novel based on his biography was published by the German author Klaus Cäsar Zehrer in 2017.
In education discussions
The debate about Sidis’ manner of upbringing occurred within a larger discourse about the best way to educate children. Newspapers criticized Boris Sidis’ child-rearing methods. Most educators of the day believed that schools should expose children to common experiences to create good citizens. Most psychologists thought intelligence was hereditary, a position that precluded early childhood education at home.
The difficulties Sidis encountered in dealing with the social structure of a collegiate setting may have shaped opinion against allowing such children to rapidly advance through higher education in his day. Research indicates that a challenging curriculum can relieve social and emotional difficulties commonly experienced by gifted children. Embracing these findings, several colleges now have procedures for early entrance. The Davidson Institute for Talent Development has developed a guidebook on the topic.
Sidis was portrayed derisively in the press of the day. The New York Times, for example, described him as “a wonderfully successful result of a scientific forcing experiment”.His mother later maintained that newspaper accounts of her son bore little resemblance to him.
William James Sidis, Manusia dengan IQ Tertinggi di Bumi
Jika berbicara tentang orang yang jenius, mungkin yang kita ketahui adalah nama-nama seperti Leonardo Da Vinci, Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein, Stephen Hawkins, dan lain-lain. Hal itu tidaklah keliru, namun ada satu nama yang kecerdasannya diakui melebihi orang-orang jenius itu, bahkan dinyatakan sebagai orang yang paling jenius yang pernah ada di muka bumi hingga saat ini. Nama tersebut adalah William James Sidis.
William James Sidis, lahir pada tanggal 1 april 1898 Di Amerika Serikat, James Sidis adalah manusia dengan IQ (tingkat Kecerdasan) di atas 250-300. Hal ini yang menjadikan kejeniusannya mengalahkan Da Vinci, Einstein, Newton dan ilmuwan lainnya. Nama James Sidis memang nyaris luput dari hingar bingar pemberitaan tentang para jenius di jagat ilmu pengetahuan karena memang belum ada karyanya yang bermanfaat untuk kemaslahatan umat manusia.
Kehebatan William James Sidis
Kehebatan Sidis diawali ketika usianya baru beranjak 8 bulan, pada usia ini dia bisa makan sendiri dengan menggunakan sendok. Kemudian pada usia belum genap 2 tahun, Sidis sudah menjadikan surat kabar New York Times sebagai teman sarapan paginya. Pada usia 8 tahun, Sidis sudah dapat menguasai 8 bahasa dan menulis beberapa buku tentang anatomi dan astronomi. Sejak saat itu namanya menjadi langganan headline surat kabar.
Pada usia 11 tahun Sidis diterima di Universitas Harvard sebagai murid termuda. Hal tersebut menjadikan dia mahasiswa termuda yang pernah di terima oleh Universitas Harvard.
Sebenarnya Sidis sudah didaftarkan ke Universitas Harvard pada usia 9 tahun oleh ayahnya namun ditolak oleh Harvard karena dianggap masih terlalu muda. Harvard terpesona dengan kejeniusannya ketika Sidis memberikan ceramah tentang Jasad Empat Dimensi di depan para professor matematika.
Banyak professor yang kemudian menganggap bahwa Sidis kelak menjadi ahli matematika terbaik di dunia. Sidis pun lulus cumlaude sebagai sarjana matematika di usia 16. Seharusnya Sidis dapat menyelesaikan kuliahnya lebih cepat, namun sempat tersendat karena diancam oleh sekelompok mahasiswa yang tidak menyukainya.
Pada usia 17 tahun, Sidis menerima tawaran sebagai asisten dosen sambil melanjutkan ke program doktor di Institut William Marsh Rice. Disana Sidis mengajar di kelas trigonometri, Euclidean Geometri dan non-euclidean geometri, namun ia tidak menyelesaikan studinya dengan alasan merasa frustasi oleh sistem pembelajaran dan perlakuan kakak kelasnya kepadanya. Sidis juga diketahui mengerti dan memahami 200 jenis bahasa di dunia dan bisa menerjamahkannya dengan amat cepat dan mudah. Bahkan Ia bisa mempelajari sebuah bahasa secara keseluruhan dalam waktu hanya sehari saja.
Pada tahun 1919, Sidis ditangkap dan ditahan selama 18 bulan karena keterlibatannya dalam demo Socialist May Day di Boston. Saat itu Ia membuat pernyataan menentang wajib militer pada perang Dunia I. Penangkapannya itu sempat menghebohkan media masa sebagaimana saat Ia mengawali kiprahnya sebagai bocah jenius. Saat keluar dari penjara, Sidis kemudian menghilang dan setelah sekian lama jejaknya terendus oleh seorang reporter yang bertemu dengan Sidis saat memulung besi tua.
Walaupun memiliki kecerdasan yang luar biasa, namun dalam kehidupan sosialnya Sidis diketahui hanya sedikit memiliki teman. Bahkan ketika dia melanjutkan ke jenjang kuliah, ia juga sering diasingkan oleh rekan-rekannya. Tidak banyak memiliki teman dan tidak juga pernah memiliki seorang kekasih membuat Sidis memutuskan hubungan dengan keluarganya, meninggalkan orang-orang yang ada di sekitarnya, kemudian mengasingkan diri dan bekerja dengan gaji seadanya.
Wafatnya William James Sidis
William James Sidis kemudian wafat karena pendarahan di otak pada tahun 1944 di Boston. Tokoh jenius dengan pemegang IQ tertinggi di muka bumi dan memiliki penguasaan pengetahuan di berbagai bidang pengetahuan seperti matematika, kedokteran, bahasa, astronomi, hukum, mesin, sipil, dan lain-lain wafat di usia 46 tahun dan dalam keadaan menganggur serta kondisi yang sangat miskin.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York (NY), is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles (784 km2), New York City is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world’s most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described uniquely as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world, and exerts a significant impact upon commerce, entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, fashion, and sports. The city’s fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world’s largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of which is a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. The city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product (GMP) of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world.
New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan; the post was named New Amsterdam in 1626. The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the country’s largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a world symbol of the United States and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, and environmental sustainability, and as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity.
Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world’s ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world’s “heart” and its “Crossroads”, is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world’s busiest pedestrian intersections, and a major center of the world’s entertainment industry. The names of many of the city’s landmarks, skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattan’s real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, it has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, and the city is home to the world’s two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ.
In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York, who would become King James II of England. James’s older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had recently seized from the Dutch.
During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet (300 m) in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of regolith, leaving the bedrock that serves as the geologic foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet contributed to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island.
In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the western portion of Long Island, including the area that would become Brooklyn and Queens; Manhattan; the Bronx; and the Lower Hudson Valley.
The first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême (New Angoulême). A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio (Saint Anthony’s River). The Padrón Real of 1527, the first scientific map to show the East Coast of North America continuously, was informed by Gomes’ expedition and labeled the northeastern United States as Tierra de Esteban Gómez in his honor.
Peter Minuit is credited with the purchase of the island of Manhattan in 1626.
In 1609, the English explorer Henry Hudson rediscovered the New York Harbor while searching for the Northwest Passage to the Orient for the Dutch East India Company. He proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River (now the Hudson River), named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange. Hudson’s first mate described the harbor as “a very good Harbour for all windes” and the river as “a mile broad” and “full of fish.” Hudson sailed roughly 150 miles (240 km) north, past the site of the present-day New York State capital city of Albany, in the belief that it might be an oceanic tributary before the river became too shallow to continue. He made a ten-day exploration of the area and claimed the region for the Dutch East India Company. In 1614, the area between Cape Cod and Delaware Bay was claimed by the Netherlands and called Nieuw-Nederland (New Netherland).
The first non-Native American inhabitant of what would eventually become New York City was Juan Rodriguez (transliterated to Dutch as Jan Rodrigues), a merchant from Santo Domingo. Born in Santo Domingo of Portuguese and African descent, he arrived in Manhattan during the winter of 1613–1614, trapping for pelts and trading with the local population as a representative of the Dutch. Broadway, from 159th Street to 218th Street in Upper Manhattan, is named Juan Rodriguez Way in his honor.
New Amsterdam, centered in the eventual Lower Manhattan, in 1664, the year England took control and renamed it “New York”.
A permanent European presence in New Netherland began in 1624 – making New York the 12th oldest continuously occupied European-established settlement in the continental United States – with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement on Governors Island. In 1625, construction was started on a citadel and Fort Amsterdam, later called Nieuw Amsterdam (New Amsterdam), on present-day Manhattan Island. The colony of New Amsterdam was centered at the site which would eventually become Lower Manhattan. In 1626, the Dutch colonial Director-General Peter Minuit, acting as charged by the Dutch West India Company, purchased the island of Manhattan from the Canarsie, a small Lenape band, for 60 guilders (about $1,000 in 2006). A disproved legend claims that Manhattan was purchased for $24 worth of glass beads.
Following the purchase, New Amsterdam grew slowly. To attract settlers, the Dutch instituted the patroon system in 1628, whereby wealthy Dutchmen (patroons, or patrons) who brought 50 colonists to New Netherland would be awarded swathes of land, along with local political autonomy and rights to participate in the lucrative fur trade. This program had little success.
Since 1621, the Dutch West India Company had operated as a monopoly in New Netherland, on authority granted by the Dutch States General. In 1639–1640, in an effort to bolster economic growth, the Dutch West India Company relinquished its monopoly over the fur trade, leading to growth in the production and trade of food, timber, tobacco, and slaves (particularly with the Dutch West Indies).
In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant began his tenure as the last Director-General of New Netherland. During his tenure, the population of New Netherland grew from 2,000 to 8,000. Stuyvesant has been credited with improving law and order in the colony; however, he also earned a reputation as a despotic leader. He instituted regulations on liquor sales, attempted to assert control over the Dutch Reformed Church, and blocked other religious groups (including Quakers, Jews, and Lutherans) from establishing houses of worship. The Dutch West India Company would eventually attempt to ease tensions between Stuyvesant and residents of New Amsterdam.
Fort George and the city of New York c. 1731
In 1664, unable to summon any significant resistance, Stuyvesant surrendered New Amsterdam to English troops, led by Colonel Richard Nicolls, without bloodshed. The terms of the surrender permitted Dutch residents to remain in the colony and allowed for religious freedom. The English promptly renamed the fledgling city “New York” after the Duke of York (the future King James II of England). The transfer was confirmed in 1667 by the Treaty of Breda, which concluded the Second Anglo-Dutch War.
On August 24, 1673, during the Third Anglo-Dutch War, Dutch captain Anthony Colve seized the colony of New York from England at the behest of Cornelis Evertsen the Youngest and rechristened it “New Orange” after William III, the Prince of Orange. The Dutch would soon return the island to England under the Treaty of Westminster of November 1674.
Several intertribal wars among the Native Americans and some epidemics brought on by contact with the Europeans caused sizeable population losses for the Lenape between the years 1660 and 1670. By 1700, the Lenape population had diminished to 200. New York experienced several yellow fever epidemics in the 18th century, losing ten percent of its population to the disease in 1702 alone.
New York grew in importance as a trading port while under British rule in the early 1700s. It also became a center of slavery, with 42% of households holding slaves by 1730, the highest percentage outside Charleston, South Carolina. Most slaveholders held a few or several domestic slaves, but others hired them out to work at labor. Slavery became integrally tied to New York’s economy through the labor of slaves throughout the port, and the banks and shipping tied to the American South. Discovery of the African Burying Ground in the 1990s, during construction of a new federal courthouse near Foley Square, revealed that tens of thousands of Africans had been buried in the area in the colonial years.
The 1735 trial and acquittal in Manhattan of John Peter Zenger, who had been accused of seditious libel after criticizing colonial governor William Cosby, helped to establish the freedom of the press in North America. In 1754, Columbia University was founded under charter by King George II as King’s College in Lower Manhattan.
The Battle of Long Island, the largest battle of the American Revolution, took place in Brooklyn in 1776.
The Stamp Act Congress met in New York in October 1765, as the Sons of Liberty, organized in the city, skirmished over the next ten years with British troops stationed there. The Battle of Long Island, the largest battle of the American Revolutionary War, was fought in August 1776 within the modern-day borough of Brooklyn. After the battle, in which the Americans were defeated, the British made the city their military and political base of operations in North America. The city was a haven for Loyalist refugees and escaped slaves who joined the British lines for freedom newly promised by the Crown for all fighters. As many as 10,000 escaped slaves crowded into the city during the British occupation. When the British forces evacuated at the close of the war in 1783, they transported 3,000 freedmen for resettlement in Nova Scotia. They resettled other freedmen in England and the Caribbean.
The only attempt at a peaceful solution to the war took place at the Conference House on Staten Island between American delegates, including Benjamin Franklin, and British general Lord Howe on September 11, 1776. Shortly after the British occupation began, the Great Fire of New York occurred, a large conflagration on the West Side of Lower Manhattan, which destroyed about a quarter of the buildings in the city, including Trinity Church.
In 1785, the assembly of the Congress of the Confederation made New York City the national capital shortly after the war. New York was the last capital of the U.S. under the Articles of Confederation and the first capital under the Constitution of the United States. In 1789, the first President of the United States, George Washington, was inaugurated; the first United States Congress and the Supreme Court of the United States each assembled for the first time, and the United States Bill of Rights was drafted, all at Federal Hall on Wall Street. By 1790, New York had surpassed Philadelphia as the largest city in the United States.
Broadway follows the Native American Wickquasgeck Trail through Manhattan.
Under New York State’s gradual abolition act of 1799, children of slave mothers were to be eventually liberated but to be held in indentured servitude until their mid-to-late twenties. Together with slaves freed by their masters after the Revolutionary War and escaped slaves, a significant free-black population gradually developed in Manhattan. Under such influential United States founders as Alexander Hamilton and John Jay, the New York Manumission Society worked for abolition and established the African Free School to educate black children. It was not until 1827 that slavery was completely abolished in the state, and free blacks struggled afterward with discrimination. New York interracial abolitionist activism continued; among its leaders were graduates of the African Free School. The city’s black population reached more than 16,000 in 1840.
In the 19th century, the city was transformed by development relating to its status as a trading center, as well as by European immigration. The city adopted the Commissioners’ Plan of 1811, which expanded the city street grid to encompass all of Manhattan. The 1825 completion of the Erie Canal through central New York connected the Atlantic port to the agricultural markets and commodities of the North American interior via the Hudson River and the Great Lakes. Local politics became dominated by Tammany Hall, a political machine supported by Irish and German immigrants.
Several prominent American literary figures lived in New York during the 1830s and 1840s, including William Cullen Bryant, Washington Irving, Herman Melville, Rufus Wilmot Griswold, John Keese, Nathaniel Parker Willis, and Edgar Allan Poe. Public-minded members of the contemporaneous business elite lobbied for the establishment of Central Park, which in 1857 became the first landscaped park in an American city.
Manhattan’s Little Italy, Lower East Side, circa 1900.
The Great Irish Famine brought a large influx of Irish immigrants, of whom over 200,000 were living in New York by 1860, upwards of a quarter of the city’s population. There was also extensive immigration from the German provinces, where revolutions had disrupted societies, and Germans comprised another 25% of New York’s population by 1860.
Democratic Party candidates were consistently elected to local office, increasing the city’s ties to the South and its dominant party. In 1861, Mayor Fernando Wood called upon the aldermen to declare independence from Albany and the United States after the South seceded, but his proposal was not acted on. Anger at new military conscription laws during the American Civil War (1861–1865), which spared wealthier men who could afford to pay a $300 (equivalent to $5,963 in 2017) commutation fee to hire a substitute, led to the Draft Riots of 1863, whose most visible participants were ethnic Irish working class. The situation deteriorated into attacks on New York’s elite, followed by attacks on black New Yorkers and their property after fierce competition for a decade between Irish immigrants and black people for work. Rioters burned the Colored Orphan Asylum to the ground, with more than 200 children escaping harm due to efforts of the New York City Police Department, which was mainly made up of Irish immigrants. According to historian James M. McPherson (2001), at least 120 people were killed. In all, eleven black men were lynched over five days, and the riots forced hundreds of blacks to flee the city for Williamsburg, Brooklyn, and New Jersey; the black population in Manhattan fell below 10,000 by 1865, which it had last been in 1820. The white working class had established dominance. Violence by longshoremen against black men was especially fierce in the docks area. It was one of the worst incidents of civil unrest in American history.
A construction worker on top of the Empire State Building as it was being built in 1930. The Chrysler Building is behind him.
In 1898, the modern City of New York was formed with the consolidation of Brooklyn (until then a separate city), the County of New York (which then included parts of the Bronx), the County of Richmond, and the western portion of the County of Queens. The opening of the subway in 1904, first built as separate private systems, helped bind the new city together. Throughout the first half of the 20th century, the city became a world center for industry, commerce, and communication.
In 1904, the steamship General Slocum caught fire in the East River, killing 1,021 people on board. In 1911, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, the city’s worst industrial disaster, took the lives of 146 garment workers and spurred the growth of the International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union and major improvements in factory safety standards.
UN Secretary General Dag Hammarskjöld in front of the United Nations Headquarters building, completed in 1952
New York’s non-white population was 36,620 in 1890. New York City was a prime destination in the early twentieth century for African Americans during the Great Migration from the American South, and by 1916, New York City had become home to the largest urban African diaspora in North America. The Harlem Renaissance of literary and cultural life flourished during the era of Prohibition. The larger economic boom generated construction of skyscrapers competing in height and creating an identifiable skyline.
New York became the most populous urbanized area in the world in the early 1920s, overtaking London. The metropolitan area surpassed the 10 million mark in the early 1930s, becoming the first megacity in human history. The difficult years of the Great Depression saw the election of reformer Fiorello La Guardia as mayor and the fall of Tammany Hall after eighty years of political dominance.
Returning World War II veterans created a post-war economic boom and the development of large housing tracts in eastern Queens and Nassau County as well as similar suburban areas in New Jersey. New York emerged from the war unscathed as the leading city of the world, with Wall Street leading America’s place as the world’s dominant economic power. The United Nations Headquarters was completed in 1952, solidifying New York’s global geopolitical influence, and the rise of abstract expressionism in the city precipitated New York’s displacement of Paris as the center of the art world.
The Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village, a designated U.S. National Historic Landmark and National Monument, as the site of the June 1969 Stonewall riots.
The Stonewall riots were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the gay community against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan. They are widely considered to constitute the single most important event leading to the gay liberation movement and the modern fight for LGBT rights in the United States.
In the 1970s, job losses due to industrial restructuring caused New York City to suffer from economic problems and rising crime rates. While a resurgence in the financial industry greatly improved the city’s economic health in the 1980s, New York’s crime rate continued to increase through that decade and into the beginning of the 1990s. By the mid 1990s, crime rates started to drop dramatically due to revised police strategies, improving economic opportunities, gentrification, and new residents, both American transplants and new immigrants from Asia and Latin America. Important new sectors, such as Silicon Alley, emerged in the city’s economy. New York’s population reached all-time highs in the 2000 Census and then again in the 2010 Census.
United Airlines Flight 175 hits the South Tower of the original World Trade Center on September 11, 2001.
The city and surrounding area suffered the bulk of the economic damage and largest loss of human life in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 attacks when 10 of the 19 terrorists associated with Al-Qaeda piloted American Airlines Flight 11 into the North Tower of the World Trade Center and United Airlines Flight 175 into the South Tower of the World Trade Center, and later destroyed them, killing 2,192 civilians, 343 firefighters, and 71 law enforcement officers who were in the towers and in the surrounding area. The North Tower was subsequently the tallest building ever to be destroyed and still is. The rebuilding of the area, has created a new One World Trade Center, and a 9/11 memorial and museum along with other new buildings and infrastructure. The World Trade Center PATH station, which had opened on July 19, 1909 as the Hudson Terminal, was also destroyed in the attack. A temporary station was built and opened on November 23, 2003. An 800,000-square-foot (74,000 m2) permanent rail station designed by Santiago Calatrava, the World Trade Center Transportation Hub, the city’s third-largest hub, was completed in 2016. The new One World Trade Center is the tallest skyscraper in the Western Hemisphere and the sixth-tallest building in the world by pinnacle height, with its spire reaching a symbolic 1,776 feet (541.3 m) in reference to the year of U.S. independence.
The Occupy Wall Street protests in Zuccotti Park in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan began on September 17, 2011, receiving global attention and popularizing the Occupy movement against social and economic inequality worldwide.
The core of the New York City Metropolitan Area, with Manhattan Island at its center
New York City is situated in the Northeastern United States, in southeastern New York State, approximately halfway between Washington, D.C. and Boston. The location at the mouth of the Hudson River, which feeds into a naturally sheltered harbor and then into the Atlantic Ocean, has helped the city grow in significance as a trading port. Most of New York City is built on the three islands of Long Island, Manhattan, and Staten Island.
The Hudson River flows through the Hudson Valley into New York Bay. Between New York City and Troy, New York, the river is an estuary. The Hudson River separates the city from the U.S. state of New Jersey. The East River—a tidal strait—flows from Long Island Sound and separates the Bronx and Manhattan from Long Island. The Harlem River, another tidal strait between the East and Hudson Rivers, separates most of Manhattan from the Bronx. The Bronx River, which flows through the Bronx and Westchester County, is the only entirely fresh water river in the city.
The city’s land has been altered substantially by human intervention, with considerable land reclamation along the waterfronts since Dutch colonial times; reclamation is most prominent in Lower Manhattan, with developments such as Battery Park City in the 1970s and 1980s. Some of the natural relief in topography has been evened out, especially in Manhattan.
The city’s total area is 468.484 square miles (1,213.37 km2), including 302.643 sq mi (783.84 km2) of land and 165.841 sq mi (429.53 km2) of this is water. The highest point in the city is Todt Hill on Staten Island, which, at 409.8 feet (124.9 m) above sea level, is the highest point on the Eastern Seaboard south of Maine. The summit of the ridge is mostly covered in woodlands as part of the Staten Island Greenbelt.
Ten-mile (16km) Manhattan skyline panorama from 120th Street to the Battery, taken in February 2018 from across the Hudson River in Weehawken, New Jersey. 1. Riverside Church Time 2. Warner Center 3. 220 Central Park South 4. Central Park Tower 5. One57 6. 432 Park Avenue 7. 53W53 8. Chrysler Building 9. Bank of America Tower 11. Conde Nast Building 12. The New York Times Building 13. Empire State Building 13. Manhattan West 14a: 55 Hudson Yards, 14b: 35 Hudson Yards, 14c: 10 Hudson Yards, 14d: 15 Hudson Yards 15. 56 Leonard Street 16. 8 Spruce Street 17. Woolworth Building 18. 70 Pine Street 19. 30 Park Place 20. Trump Building 21. Three World Trade Center 22. Four World Trade Center 23. One World Trade Center
Downtown Brooklyn at the western end of Long Island. The Manhattan Bridge (far left) and the Brooklyn Bridge (near left) are seen across the East River from Lower Manhattan at in June 2013.
Long Island City, Queens, facing the East River at blue hour in May 2015. At left is the Queensboro Bridge, connecting Queens to Manhattan.
The Grand Concourse in The Bronx, foreground with Manhattan in the background in February 2018
The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, one of the world’s longest suspension bridges, connecting Brooklyn, foreground, to Staten Island, in the background, across The Narrows.
Modernist architecture juxtaposed with classical architecture is seen often in New York City.
The Chrysler Building, above, built in 1930, is an example of the Art Deco style, with ornamental hub caps and a spire. The Empire State Building is a solitary icon of New York. It was the world’s tallest building 1931–70 and is defined by its setbacks, Art Deco details and the spire.
Landmark 19th-century rowhouses, including brownstones, on tree-lined Kent Street in the Greenpoint Historic District, Brooklyn.
New York has architecturally noteworthy buildings in a wide range of styles and from distinct time periods, from the saltbox style Pieter Claesen Wyckoff House in Brooklyn, the oldest section of which dates to 1656, to the modern One World Trade Center, the skyscraper at Ground Zero in Lower Manhattan and the most expensive office tower in the world by construction cost.
Manhattan’s skyline, with its many skyscrapers, is universally recognized, and the city has been home to several of the tallest buildings in the world. As of 2011, New York City had 5,937 high-rise buildings, of which 550 completed structures were at least 330 feet (100 m) high, both second in the world after Hong Kong, with over 50 completed skyscrapers taller than 656 feet (200 m). These include the Woolworth Building, an early example of Gothic Revival architecture in skyscraper design, built with massively scaled Gothic detailing; completed in 1913, for 17 years it was the world’s tallest building.
The 1916 Zoning Resolution required setbacks in new buildings and restricted towers to a percentage of the lot size, to allow sunlight to reach the streets below. The Art Deco style of the Chrysler Building (1930) and Empire State Building (1931), with their tapered tops and steel spires, reflected the zoning requirements. The buildings have distinctive ornamentation, such as the eagles at the corners of the 61st floor on the Chrysler Building, and are considered some of the finest examples of the Art Deco style. A highly influential example of the international style in the United States is the Seagram Building (1957), distinctive for its façade using visible bronze-toned I-beams to evoke the building’s structure. The Condé Nast Building (2000) is a prominent example of green design in American skyscrapers and has received an award from the American Institute of Architects and AIA New York State for its design.
The character of New York’s large residential districts is often defined by the elegant brownstone rowhouses and townhouses and shabby tenements that were built during a period of rapid expansion from 1870 to 1930. In contrast, New York City also has neighborhoods that are less densely populated and feature free-standing dwellings. In neighborhoods such as Riverdale (in the Bronx), Ditmas Park (in Brooklyn), and Douglaston (in Queens), large single-family homes are common in various architectural styles such as Tudor Revival and Victorian.
Stone and brick became the city’s building materials of choice after the construction of wood-frame houses was limited in the aftermath of the Great Fire of 1835. A distinctive feature of many of the city’s buildings is the wooden roof-mounted water tower. In the 1800s, the city required their installation on buildings higher than six stories to prevent the need for excessively high water pressures at lower elevations, which could break municipal water pipes. Garden apartments became popular during the 1920s in outlying areas, such as Jackson Heights.
According to the United States Geological Survey, an updated analysis of seismic hazard in July 2014 revealed a “slightly lower hazard for tall buildings” in New York City than previously assessed. Scientists estimated this lessened risk based upon a lower likelihood than previously thought of slow shaking near the city, which would be more likely to cause damage to taller structures from an earthquake in the vicinity of the city.
New York City is often referred to collectively as the five boroughs, and in turn, there are hundreds of distinct neighborhoods throughout the boroughs, many with a definable history and character to call their own. If the boroughs were each independent cities, four of the boroughs (Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, and the Bronx) would be among the ten most populous cities in the United States (Staten island would be ranked 37th) ; these same boroughs are coterminous with the four most densely populated counties in the United States (New York [Manhattan], Kings [Brooklyn], Bronx, and Queens).
Manhattan (New York County) is the geographically smallest and most densely populated borough, is home to Central Park and most of the city’s skyscrapers, and may be locally known simply as The City. Manhattan’s (New York County’s) population density of 72,033 people per square mile (27,812/km²) in 2015 makes it the highest of any county in the United States and higher than the density of any individual American city. Manhattan is the cultural, administrative, and financial center of New York City and contains the headquarters of many major multinational corporations, the United Nations Headquarters, Wall Street, and a number of important universities. Manhattan is often described as the financial and cultural center of the world.
Most of the borough is situated on Manhattan Island, at the mouth of the Hudson River. Several small islands also compose part of the borough of Manhattan, including Randall’s Island, Wards Island, and Roosevelt Island in the East River, and Governors Island and Liberty Island to the south in New York Harbor. Manhattan Island is loosely divided into Lower, Midtown, and Uptown regions. Uptown Manhattan is divided by Central Park into the Upper East Side and the Upper West Side, and above the park is Harlem. The borough also includes a small neighborhood on the United States mainland, called Marble Hill, which is contiguous with The Bronx. New York City’s remaining four boroughs are collectively referred to as the outer boroughs.
Brooklyn (Kings County), on the western tip of Long Island, is the city’s most populous borough. Brooklyn is known for its cultural, social, and ethnic diversity, an independent art scene, distinct neighborhoods, and a distinctive architectural heritage. Downtown Brooklyn is the largest central core neighborhood in the outer boroughs. The borough has a long beachfront shoreline including Coney Island, established in the 1870s as one of the earliest amusement grounds in the country. Marine Park and Prospect Park are the two largest parks in Brooklyn. Since 2010, Brooklyn has evolved into a thriving hub of entrepreneurship and high technology startup firms, and of postmodern art and design.
Queens (Queens County), on Long Island north and east of Brooklyn, is geographically the largest borough, the most ethnically diverse county in the United States, and the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world. Historically a collection of small towns and villages founded by the Dutch, the borough has since developed both commercial and residential prominence. Downtown Flushing has become one of the busiest central core neighborhoods in the outer boroughs. Queens is the site of Citi Field, the baseball stadium of the New York Mets, and hosts the annual U.S. Open tennis tournament at Flushing Meadows-Corona Park. Additionally, two of the three busiest airports serving the New York metropolitan area, John F. Kennedy International Airport and LaGuardia Airport, are located in Queens. (The third is Newark Liberty International Airport in Newark, New Jersey.)
Staten Island (Richmond County) is the most suburban in character of the five boroughs. Staten Island is connected to Brooklyn by the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, and to Manhattan by way of the free Staten Island Ferry, a daily commuter ferry which provides unobstructed views of the Statue of Liberty, Ellis Island, and Lower Manhattan. In central Staten Island, the Staten Island Greenbelt spans approximately 2,500 acres (10 km2), including 28 miles (45 km) of walking trails and one of the last undisturbed forests in the city. Designated in 1984 to protect the island’s natural lands, the Greenbelt comprises seven city parks.
The Bronx (Bronx County) is New York City’s northernmost borough and the only New York City borough with a majority of it a part of the mainland United States. It is the location of Yankee Stadium, the baseball park of the New York Yankees, and home to the largest cooperatively owned housing complex in the United States, Co-op City. It is also home to the Bronx Zoo, the world’s largest metropolitan zoo, which spans 265 acres (1.07 km2) and houses over 6,000 animals. The Bronx is also the birthplace of rap and hip hop culture. Pelham Bay Park is the largest park in New York City, at 2,772 acres (1,122 ha).
Avenue C in Manhattan after flooding caused by Hurricane Sandy on October 29, 2012.
Under the Köppen climate classification, using the 0 °C (32 °F) isotherm, New York City features a humid subtropical climate (Cfa), and is thus the northernmost major city on the North American continent with this categorization. The suburbs to the immediate north and west lie in the transitional zone between humid subtropical and humid continental climates (Dfa). Annually, the city averages 234 days with at least some sunshine. The city lies in the USDA 7b plant hardiness zone.
Winters are cold and damp, and prevailing wind patterns that blow offshore temper the moderating effects of the Atlantic Ocean; yet the Atlantic and the partial shielding from colder air by the Appalachians keep the city warmer in the winter than inland North American cities at similar or lesser latitudes such as Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and Indianapolis. The daily mean temperature in January, the area’s coldest month, is 32.6 °F (0.3 °C); temperatures usually drop to 10 °F (−12 °C) several times per winter, and reach 60 °F (16 °C) several days in the coldest winter month. Spring and autumn are unpredictable and can range from chilly to warm, although they are usually mild with low humidity. Summers are typically warm to hot and humid, with a daily mean temperature of 76.5 °F (24.7 °C) in July. Nighttime conditions are often exacerbated by the urban heat island phenomenon, while daytime temperatures exceed 90 °F (32 °C) on average of 17 days each summer and in some years exceed 100 °F (38 °C). Extreme temperatures have ranged from −15 °F (−26 °C), recorded on February 9, 1934, up to 106 °F (41 °C) on July 9, 1936. The average water temperature of the nearby Atlantic Ocean ranges from 39.7 °F (4.3 °C) in February to 74.1 °F (23.4 °C) in August.
The city receives 49.9 inches (1,270 mm) of precipitation annually, which is relatively evenly spread throughout the year. Average winter snowfall between 1981 and 2010 has been 25.8 inches (66 cm); this varies considerably between years. Hurricanes and tropical storms are rare in the New York area. Hurricane Sandy brought a destructive storm surge to New York City on the evening of October 29, 2012, flooding numerous streets, tunnels, and subway lines in Lower Manhattan and other areas of the city and cutting off electricity in many parts of the city and its suburbs. The storm and its profound impacts have prompted the discussion of constructing seawalls and other coastal barriers around the shorelines of the city and the metropolitan area to minimize the risk of destructive consequences from another such event in the future.
Flushing Meadows–Corona Park was used in the 1964 New York World’s Fair, with the Unisphere as its centerpiece.
The City of New York has a complex park system, with various lands operated by the National Park Service, the New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation, and the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation.
In its 2013 ParkScore ranking, The Trust for Public Land reported that the park system in New York City was the second best park system among the 50 most populous US cities, behind the park system of Minneapolis. ParkScore ranks urban park systems by a formula that analyzes median park size, park acres as percent of city area, the percent of city residents within a half-mile of a park, spending of park services per resident, and the number of playgrounds per 10,000 residents.
The Statue of Liberty on Liberty Island in New York Harbor is a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom, democracy, and opportunity.
Gateway National Recreation Area contains over 26,000 acres (10,521.83 ha) in total, most of it surrounded by New York City, including the Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge. In Brooklyn and Queens, the park contains over 9,000 acres (36 km2) of salt marsh, wetlands, islands, and water, including most of Jamaica Bay. Also in Queens, the park includes a significant portion of the western Rockaway Peninsula, most notably Jacob Riis Park and Fort Tilden. In Staten Island, Gateway National Recreation Area includes Fort Wadsworth, with historic pre-Civil War era Battery Weed and Fort Tompkins, and Great Kills Park, with beaches, trails, and a marina.
The Statue of Liberty National Monument and Ellis Island Immigration Museum are managed by the National Park Service and are in both the states of New York and New Jersey. They are joined in the harbor by Governors Island National Monument, in New York. Historic sites under federal management on Manhattan Island include Castle Clinton National Monument; Federal Hall National Memorial; Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace National Historic Site; General Grant National Memorial (“Grant’s Tomb”); African Burial Ground National Monument; and Hamilton Grange National Memorial. Hundreds of private properties are listed on the National Register of Historic Places or as a National Historic Landmark such as, for example, the Stonewall Inn, part of the Stonewall National Monument in Greenwich Village, as the catalyst of the modern gay rights movement.
There are seven state parks within the confines of New York City, including Clay Pit Ponds State Park Preserve, a natural area that includes extensive riding trails, and Riverbank State Park, a 28-acre (110,000 m2) facility that rises 69 feet (21 m) over the Hudson River.
Reindeer at the Bronx Zoo, the world’s largest metropolitan zoo.
New York City has over 28,000 acres (110 km2) of municipal parkland and 14 miles (23 km) of public beaches. The largest municipal park in the city is Pelham Bay Park in the Bronx, with 2,772 acres (1,122 ha).
Central Park, an 843-acre (3.41 km2) park in middle-upper Manhattan, is the most visited urban park in the United States and one of the most filmed locations in the world, with 40 million visitors in 2013. The park contains a wide range of attractions; there are several lakes and ponds, two ice-skating rinks, the Central Park Zoo, the Central Park Conservatory Garden, and the 106-acre (0.43 km2) Jackie Onassis Reservoir. Indoor attractions include Belvedere Castle with its nature center, the Swedish Cottage Marionette Theater, and the historic Carousel. On October 23, 2012, hedge fund manager John A. Paulson announced a $100 million gift to the Central Park Conservancy, the largest ever monetary donation to New York City’s park system.
Washington Square Park is a prominent landmark in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan. The Washington Square Arch at the northern gateway to the park is an iconic symbol of both New York University and Greenwich Village.
Prospect Park in Brooklyn has a 90-acre (360,000 m2) meadow, a lake, and extensive woodlands. Within the park is the historic Battle Pass, prominent in the Battle of Long Island.
Flushing Meadows–Corona Park in Queens, with its 897 acres (363 ha) making it the city’s fourth largest park, was the setting for the 1939 World’s Fair and the 1964 World’s Fair and is host to the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center and the annual United States Open Tennis Championships tournament.
Over a fifth of the Bronx’s area, 7,000 acres (28 km2), is given over to open space and parks, including Pelham Bay Park, Van Cortlandt Park, the Bronx Zoo, and the New York Botanical Gardens.
In Staten Island, the Conference House Park contains the historic Conference House, site of the only attempt of a peaceful resolution to the American Revolution which was conducted in September 1775, attended by Benjamin Franklin representing the Americans and Lord Howe representing the British Crown. The historic Burial Ridge, the largest Native American burial ground within New York City, is within the park.
Central Park, as seen from Rockefeller Center, is the most visited city park in the United States.
New York City is home to Fort Hamilton, the U.S. military’s only active duty installation within the city. The Brooklyn facility was established in 1825 on the site of a small battery utilized during the American Revolution, and it is one of America’s longest serving military forts. Today Fort Hamilton serves as the headquarters of the North Atlantic Division of the United States Army Corps of Engineers and for the New York City Recruiting Battalion. It also houses the 1179th Transportation Brigade, the 722nd Aeromedical Staging Squadron, and a military entrance processing station. Other formerly active military reservations still utilized for National Guard and military training or reserve operations in the city include Fort Wadsworth in Staten Island and Fort Totten in Queens.
New York City is the most populous city in the United States, with an estimated record high of 8,622,698 residents as of 2017, incorporating more immigration into the city than outmigration since the 2010 United States Census. More than twice as many people live in New York City as in the second-most populous U.S. city (Los Angeles), and within a smaller area. New York City gained more residents between April 2010 and July 2014 (316,000) than any other U.S. city. New York City’s population is about 43% of New York State’s population and about 36% of the population of the New York metropolitan area.
New York City had an estimated population density of 28,491 people per square mile (11,000/km²) in 2017, with Manhattan alone at 72,918/sq mi (28,154/km²).
In 2017, the city had an estimated population density of 28,491 people per square mile (11,000/km²), rendering it the most densely populated of all municipalities housing over 100,000 residents in the United States, with several small cities (of fewer than 100,000) in adjacent Hudson County, New Jersey having greater density, as per the 2010 Census. Geographically co-extensive with New York County, the borough of Manhattan’s 2017 population density of 72,918 inhabitants per square mile (28,154/km2) makes it the highest of any county in the United States and higher than the density of any individual American city.
Race and ethnicity
The city’s population in 2010 was 44% white (33.3% non-Hispanic white), 25.5% black (23% non-Hispanic black), 0.7% Native American, and 12.7% Asian. Hispanics of any race represented 28.6% of the population, while Asians constituted the fastest-growing segment of the city’s population between 2000 and 2010; the non-Hispanic white population declined 3 percent, the smallest recorded decline in decades; and for the first time since the Civil War, the number of blacks declined over a decade.
From top: the Manhattan Chinatown; Lower Manhattan’s Little Italy; Upper Manhattan’s Spanish Harlem; Little India, Queens; Brooklyn’s Little Russia; Midtown Manhattan’s Koreatown.
Throughout its history, the city has been a major port of entry for immigrants into the United States; more than 12 million European immigrants were received at Ellis Island between 1892 and 1924. The term “melting pot” was first coined to describe densely populated immigrant neighborhoods on the Lower East Side. By 1900, Germans constituted the largest immigrant group, followed by the Irish, Jews, and Italians. In 1940, whites represented 92% of the city’s population.
Approximately 37% of the city’s population is foreign born and more than half of all children are born to mothers who are immigrants. In New York, no single country or region of origin dominates. The ten largest sources of foreign-born individuals in the city as of 2011 were the Dominican Republic, China, Mexico, Guyana, Jamaica, Ecuador, Haiti, India, Russia, and Trinidad and Tobago, while the Bangladeshi-born immigrant population has become one of the fastest growing in the city, counting over 74,000 by 2011.
Asian Americans in New York City, according to the 2010 Census, number more than one million, greater than the combined totals of San Francisco and Los Angeles. New York contains the highest total Asian population of any U.S. city proper. The New York City borough of Queens is home to the state’s largest Asian American population and the largest Andean (Colombian, Ecuadorian, Peruvian, and Bolivian) populations in the United States, and is also the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world. The Chinese population constitutes the fastest-growing nationality in New York State; multiple satellites of the original Manhattan Chinatown, in Brooklyn, and around Flushing, Queens, are thriving as traditionally urban enclaves – while also expanding rapidly eastward into suburban Nassau County on Long Island, as the New York metropolitan region and New York State have become the top destinations for new Chinese immigrants, respectively, and large-scale Chinese immigration continues into New York City and surrounding areas, with the largest metropolitan Chinese diaspora outside Asia, including an estimated 812,410 individuals in 2015. In 2012, 6.3% of New York City was of Chinese ethnicity, with nearly three-fourths living in either Queens or Brooklyn, geographically on Long Island. A community numbering 20,000 Korean-Chinese (Chaoxianzu or Joseonjok) is centered in Flushing, Queens, while New York City is also home to the largest Tibetan population outside China, India, and Nepal, also centered in Queens. Koreans made up 1.2% of the city’s population, and Japanese 0.3%. Filipinos were the largest Southeast Asian ethnic group at 0.8%, followed by Vietnamese, who made up 0.2% of New York City’s population in 2010. Indians are the largest South Asian group, comprising 2.4% of the city’s population, with Bangladeshis and Pakistanis at 0.7% and 0.5%, respectively. Queens is the preferred borough of settlement for Asian Indians, Koreans, Filipinos, and Malaysians and other Southeast Asians; while Brooklyn is receiving large numbers of both West Indian and Asian Indian immigrants.
Map of racial distribution in New York, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic or Other (yellow)
New York City has the largest European and non-Hispanic white population of any American city. At 2.7 million in 2012, New York’s non-Hispanic white population is larger than the non-Hispanic white populations of Los Angeles (1.1 million), Chicago (865,000), and Houston (550,000) combined. The non-Hispanic white population was 6.6 million in 1940. The non-Hispanic white population has begun to increase since 2010. The European diaspora residing in the city is very diverse. According to 2012 Census estimates, there were roughly 560,000 Italian Americans, 385,000 Irish Americans, 253,000 German Americans, 223,000 Russian Americans, 201,000 Polish Americans, and 137,000 English Americans. Additionally, Greek and French Americans numbered 65,000 each, with those of Hungarian descent estimated at 60,000 people. Ukrainian and Scottish Americans numbered 55,000 and 35,000, respectively. People identifying ancestry from Spain numbered 30,838 total in 2010. People of Norwegian and Swedish descent both stood at about 20,000 each, while people of Czech, Lithuanian, Portuguese, Scotch-Irish, and Welsh descent all numbered between 12,000–14,000 people. Arab Americans number over 160,000 in New York City, with the highest concentration in Brooklyn. Central Asians, primarily Uzbek Americans, are a rapidly growing segment of the city’s non-Hispanic white population, enumerating over 30,000, and including over half of all Central Asian immigrants to the United States, most settling in Queens or Brooklyn. Albanian Americans are most highly concentrated in the Bronx.
The wider New York City metropolitan statistical area, with over 20 million people, about 50% greater than the second-place Los Angeles metropolitan area in the United States, is also ethnically diverse, with the largest foreign-born population of any metropolitan region in the world. The New York region continues to be by far the leading metropolitan gateway for legal immigrants admitted into the United States, substantially exceeding the combined totals of Los Angeles and Miami. It is home to the largest Jewish and Israeli communities outside Israel, with the Jewish population in the region numbering over 1.5 million in 2012 and including many diverse Jewish sects predominantly from around the Middle East and Eastern Europe. The metropolitan area is also home to 20% of the nation’s Indian Americans and at least 20 Little India enclaves, and 15% of all Korean Americans and four Koreatowns; the largest Asian Indian population in the Western Hemisphere; the largest Russian American, Italian American, and African American populations; the largest Dominican American, Puerto Rican American, and South American and second-largest overall Hispanic population in the United States, numbering 4.8 million; and includes multiple established Chinatowns within New York City alone.
Ecuador, Colombia, Guyana, Peru, and Brazil were the top source countries from South America for legal immigrants to the New York City region in 2013; the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Haiti, and Trinidad and Tobago in the Caribbean; Egypt, Ghana, and Nigeria from Africa; and El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala in Central America. Amidst a resurgence of Puerto Rican migration to New York City, this population had increased to approximately 1.3 million in the metropolitan area as of 2013.
Sexual orientation and gender identity
International Transgender Day of Visibility introduced by Manila-born Geena Rocero in New York City, top. The scene at the 2015 LGBT Pride March, below. New York City is home to the largest LGBTQ community in the United States and one of the world’s largest.
The New York metropolitan area is home to a prominent self-identifying gay and bisexual community estimated at nearly 570,000 individuals, the largest in the United States and one of the world’s largest. Same-sex marriages in New York were legalized on June 24, 2011 and were authorized to take place beginning 30 days thereafter. Charles Kaiser, author of The Gay Metropolis: The Landmark History of Gay Life in America, wrote that in the era after World War II, “New York City became the literal gay metropolis for hundreds of thousands of immigrants from within and without the United States: the place they chose to learn how to live openly, honestly and without shame.” The annual New York City Pride March (or gay pride parade) traverses southward down Fifth Avenue and ends at Greenwich Village in Lower Manhattan; the parade rivals the Sao Paulo Gay Pride Parade as the largest pride parade in the world, attracting tens of thousands of participants and millions of sidewalk spectators each June.
Wayne R. Dynes, author of the Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, wrote that drag queens were the only “transgender folks around” during the June 1969 Stonewall riots. “None of them in fact made a major contribution to the movement.” Others say the transgender community in New York City played a significant role in fighting for LGBT equality during the period of the Stonewall riots and thereafter. New York City is home to the largest transgender population in the United States, estimated at 25,000 in 2016. However, until the Stonewall riots, this community had felt marginalized and neglected by the gay community.
Christianity (59%) — made up of Roman Catholicism (33%), Protestantism (23%), and other Christians (3%) — is the most prevalent religion in New York, as of 2014. It is followed by Judaism, with approximately 1.1 million adherents, over half of whom live in Brooklyn. The Jewish population makes up 18.4% of the city. Islam ranks third in New York City, with official estimates ranging between 600,000 and 1,000,000 observers, including 10% of the city’s public school children. These three largest groups are followed by Hinduism, Buddhism, and a variety of other religions, as well as atheism. In 2014, 24% of New Yorkers self-identified with no organized religious affiliation.
Wealth and income disparity
New York City has a high degree of income disparity as indicated by its Gini Coefficient of 0.5 for the city overall and 0.6 for Manhattan. In the first quarter of 2014, the average weekly wage in New York County (Manhattan) was $2,749, representing the highest total among large counties in the United States. As of 2017, New York City was home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world at 103, including former Mayor Michael Bloomberg. New York also had the highest density of millionaires per capita among major U.S. cities in 2014, at 4.6% of residents. New York City is one of the relatively few American cities levying an income tax (currently about 3%) on its residents.
City economic overview
New York is a global hub of business and commerce. The city is a major center for banking and finance, retailing, world trade, transportation, tourism, real estate, new media, traditional media, advertising, legal services, accountancy, insurance, theater, fashion, and the arts in the United States; while Silicon Alley, metonymous for New York’s broad-spectrum high technology sphere, continues to expand. The Port of New York and New Jersey is also a major economic engine, handling record cargo volume in 2017, over 6.7 million TEUs. New York City’s unemployment rate fell to its record low of 4.0% in September 2018.
Many Fortune 500 corporations are headquartered in New York City, as are a large number of multinational corporations. One out of ten private sector jobs in the city is with a foreign company. New York City has been ranked first among cities across the globe in attracting capital, business, and tourists. This ability to attract foreign investment helped New York City top the FDi Magazine American Cities of the Future ranking for 2013.
Real estate is a major force in the city’s economy, as the total value of all New York City property was assessed at US$1.072 trillion for the 2017 fiscal year, an increase of 10.6% from the previous year with 89% of the increase coming from market effects. The Time Warner Center is the property with the highest-listed market value in the city, at US$1.1 billion in 2006. New York City is home to some of the nation’s—and the world’s—most valuable real estate. 450 Park Avenue was sold on July 2, 2007 for US$510 million, about $1,589 per square foot ($17,104/m²), breaking the barely month-old record for an American office building of $1,476 per square foot ($15,887/m²) set in the June 2007 sale of 660 Madison Avenue. According to Forbes, in 2014, Manhattan was home to six of the top ten ZIP Codes in the United States by median housing price. Fifth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan commands the highest retail rents in the world, at US$3,000 per square foot ($32,000/m2) in 2017.
As of 2013, the global advertising agencies of Omnicom Group and Interpublic Group, both based in Manhattan, had combined annual revenues of approximately US$21 billion, reflecting New York City’s role as the top global center for the advertising industry, which is metonymously referred to as “Madison Avenue”. The city’s fashion industry provides approximately 180,000 employees with $11 billion in annual wages.
Other important sectors include medical research and technology, non-profit institutions, and universities. Manufacturing accounts for a significant but declining share of employment, although the city’s garment industry is showing a resurgence in Brooklyn. Food processing is a US$5 billion industry that employs more than 19,000 residents.
Chocolate is New York City’s leading specialty-food export, with up to US$234 million worth of exports each year. Entrepreneurs were forming a “Chocolate District” in Brooklyn as of 2014, while Godiva, one of the world’s largest chocolatiers, continues to be headquartered in Manhattan.
The New York Stock Exchange on Wall Street, the world’s largest stock exchange per total market capitalization of its listed companies.
New York City’s most important economic sector lies in its role as the headquarters for the U.S. financial industry, metonymously known as Wall Street. The city’s securities industry, enumerating 163,400 jobs in August 2013, continues to form the largest segment of the city’s financial sector and an important economic engine, accounting in 2012 for 5 percent of the city’s private sector jobs, 8.5 percent (US$3.8 billion) of its tax revenue, and 22 percent of the city’s total wages, including an average salary of US$360,700. Many large financial companies are headquartered in New York City, and the city is also home to a burgeoning number of financial startup companies.
Lower Manhattan is home to the New York Stock Exchange, on Wall Street, and the NASDAQ, at 165 Broadway, representing the world’s largest and second largest stock exchanges, respectively, when measured both by overall average daily trading volume and by total market capitalization of their listed companies in 2013. Investment banking fees on Wall Street totaled approximately $40 billion in 2012, while in 2013, senior New York City bank officers who manage risk and compliance functions earned as much as $324,000 annually. In fiscal year 2013–14, Wall Street’s securities industry generated 19% of New York State’s tax revenue. New York City remains the largest global center for trading in public equity and debt capital markets, driven in part by the size and financial development of the U.S. economy. In July 2013, NYSE Euronext, the operator of the New York Stock Exchange, took over the administration of the London interbank offered rate from the British Bankers Association. New York also leads in hedge fund management; private equity; and the monetary volume of mergers and acquisitions. Several investment banks and investment managers headquartered in Manhattan are important participants in other global financial centers. New York is also the principal commercial banking center of the United States.
Many of the world’s largest media conglomerates are also based in the city. Manhattan contained over 500 million square feet (46.5 million m2) of office space in 2015, making it the largest office market in the United States, while Midtown Manhattan, with nearly 400 million square feet (37.2 million m2) in 2015, is the largest central business district in the world.
Silicon Alley, once centered around the Flatiron District, is now metonymous for New York’s high tech sector, which has since expanded beyond the area.
Silicon Alley, centered in Manhattan, has evolved into a metonym for the sphere encompassing the New York City metropolitan region’s high technology industries involving the Internet, new media, telecommunications, digital media, software development, biotechnology, game design, financial technology (“FinTech”), and other fields within information technology that are supported by its entrepreneurship ecosystem and venture capital investments. In 2015, Silicon Alley generated over US$7.3 billion in venture capital investment across a broad spectrum of high technology enterprises, most based in Manhattan, with others in Brooklyn, Queens, and elsewhere in the region. High technology startup companies and employment are growing in New York City and the region, bolstered by the city’s position in North America as the leading Internet hub and telecommunications center, including its vicinity to several transatlantic fiber optic trunk lines, New York’s intellectual capital, and its extensive outdoor wireless connectivity. Verizon Communications, headquartered at 140 West Street in Lower Manhattan, was at the final stages in 2014 of completing a US$3 billion fiberoptic telecommunications upgrade throughout New York City. As of 2014, New York City hosted 300,000 employees in the tech sector.
The biotechnology sector is also growing in New York City, based upon the city’s strength in academic scientific research and public and commercial financial support. On December 19, 2011, then Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg announced his choice of Cornell University and Technion-Israel Institute of Technology to build a US$2 billion graduate school of applied sciences called Cornell Tech on Roosevelt Island with the goal of transforming New York City into the world’s premier technology capital. By mid-2014, Accelerator, a biotech investment firm, had raised more than US$30 million from investors, including Eli Lilly and Company, Pfizer, and Johnson & Johnson, for initial funding to create biotechnology startups at the Alexandria Center for Life Science, which encompasses more than 700,000 square feet (65,000 m2) on East 29th Street and promotes collaboration among scientists and entrepreneurs at the center and with nearby academic, medical, and research institutions. The New York City Economic Development Corporation’s Early Stage Life Sciences Funding Initiative and venture capital partners, including Celgene, General Electric Ventures, and Eli Lilly, committed a minimum of US$100 million to help launch 15 to 20 ventures in life sciences and biotechnology.
Times Square is the hub of the Broadway theater district and a media center. It also has one of the highest annual attendance rates of any tourist attraction in the world, estimated at 50 million.
The I Love New York logo, designed by Milton Glaser in 1977
Tourism is a vital industry for New York City, which has witnessed a growing combined volume of international and domestic tourists, receiving an eighth consecutive annual record of approximately 62.8 million visitors in 2017. Tourism had generated an all-time high US$61.3 billion in overall economic impact for New York City in 2014, pending 2015 statistics. Approximately 12 million visitors to New York City were from outside the United States, with the highest numbers from the United Kingdom, Canada, Brazil, and China.
I Love New York (stylized I ❤ NY) is both a logo and a song that are the basis of an advertising campaign and have been used since 1977 to promote tourism in New York City, and later to promote New York State as well. The trademarked logo, owned by New York State Empire State Development, appears in souvenir shops and brochures throughout the city and state, some licensed, many not. The song is the state song of New York.
Major tourist destinations include Times Square; Broadway theater productions; the Empire State Building; the Statue of Liberty; Ellis Island; the United Nations Headquarters; museums such as the Metropolitan Museum of Art; greenspaces such as Central Park and Washington Square Park; Rockefeller Center; the Manhattan Chinatown; luxury shopping along Fifth and Madison Avenues; and events such as the Halloween Parade in Greenwich Village; the Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade; the lighting of the Rockefeller Center Christmas Tree; the St. Patrick’s Day parade; seasonal activities such as ice skating in Central Park in the wintertime; the Tribeca Film Festival; and free performances in Central Park at Summerstage. Major attractions in the boroughs outside Manhattan include Flushing Meadows-Corona Park and the Unisphere in Queens; the Bronx Zoo; Coney Island, Brooklyn; and the New York Botanical Garden in the Bronx. The New York Wheel, a 630-foot ferris wheel, was under construction at the northern shore of Staten Island in 2015, overlooking the Statue of Liberty, New York Harbor, and the Lower Manhattan skyline.
Manhattan was on track to have an estimated 90,000 hotel rooms at the end of 2014, a 10% increase from 2013. In October 2014, the Anbang Insurance Group, based in China, purchased the Waldorf Astoria New York for US$1.95 billion, making it the world’s most expensive hotel ever sold.
Media and entertainment
Rockefeller Center is home to NBC Studios.
New York is a prominent location for the American entertainment industry, with many films, television series, books, and other media being set there. As of 2012, New York City was the second largest center for filmmaking and television production in the United States, producing about 200 feature films annually, employing 130,000 individuals; the filmed entertainment industry has been growing in New York, contributing nearly US$9 billion to the New York City economy alone as of 2015, and by volume, New York is the world leader in independent film production – one-third of all American independent films are produced in New York City. The Association of Independent Commercial Producers is also based in New York. In the first five months of 2014 alone, location filming for television pilots in New York City exceeded the record production levels for all of 2013, with New York surpassing Los Angeles as the top North American city for the same distinction during the 2013/2014 cycle.
New York City is additionally a center for the advertising, music, newspaper, digital media, and publishing industries and is also the largest media market in North America. Some of the city’s media conglomerates and institutions include Time Warner, the Thomson Reuters Corporation, the Associated Press, Bloomberg L.P., the News Corporation, The New York Times Company, NBCUniversal, the Hearst Corporation, AOL, and Viacom. Seven of the world’s top eight global advertising agency networks have their headquarters in New York. Two of the top three record labels’ headquarters are in New York: Sony Music Entertainment and Warner Music Group. Universal Music Group also has offices in New York. New media enterprises are contributing an increasingly important component to the city’s central role in the media sphere.
More than 200 newspapers and 350 consumer magazines have an office in the city, and the publishing industry employs about 25,000 people. Two of the three national daily newspapers in the United States are New York papers: The Wall Street Journal and The New York Times, which has won the most Pulitzer Prizes for journalism. Major tabloid newspapers in the city include: The New York Daily News, which was founded in 1919 by Joseph Medill Patterson and The New York Post, founded in 1801 by Alexander Hamilton. The city also has a comprehensive ethnic press, with 270 newspapers and magazines published in more than 40 languages. El Diario La Prensa is New York’s largest Spanish-language daily and the oldest in the nation. The New York Amsterdam News, published in Harlem, is a prominent African American newspaper. The Village Voice, historically the largest alternative newspaper in the United States, announced in 2017 that it would cease publication of its print edition and convert to a fully digital venture.
The television and radio industry developed in New York and is a significant employer in the city’s economy. The three major American broadcast networks are all headquartered in New York: ABC, CBS, and NBC. Many cable networks are based in the city as well, including MTV, Fox News, HBO, Showtime, Bravo, Food Network, AMC, and Comedy Central. The City of New York operates a public broadcast service, NYC Media, that has produced several original Emmy Award-winning shows covering music and culture in city neighborhoods and city government. WBAI, with news and information programming, is one of the few socialist radio stations operating in the United States.
New York is also a major center for non-commercial educational media. The oldest public-access television channel in the United States is the Manhattan Neighborhood Network, founded in 1971. WNET is the city’s major public television station and a primary source of national Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) television programming. WNYC, a public radio station owned by the city until 1997, has the largest public radio audience in the United States.
Education and scholarly activity
Primary and secondary education
The New York City Public Schools system, managed by the New York City Department of Education, is the largest public school system in the United States, serving about 1.1 million students in more than 1,700 separate primary and secondary schools. The city’s public school system includes nine specialized high schools to serve academically and artistically gifted students. The city government pays the Pelham Public Schools to educate a very small, detached section of the Bronx.
Butler Library at Columbia University, described as one of the most beautiful college libraries in the United States.
The Washington Square Arch, an unofficial icon of both New York University (NYU) and its Greenwich Village neighborhood.
The New York City Charter School Center assists the setup of new charter schools. There are approximately 900 additional privately run secular and religious schools in the city.
Higher education and research
Over 600,000 students are enrolled in New York City’s over 120 higher education institutions, the highest number of any city in the United States and higher than other major global cities like London and Tokyo, including over half million in the City University of New York (CUNY) system alone in 2014. In 2005, three out of five Manhattan residents were college graduates, and one out of four had a postgraduate degree, forming one of the highest concentrations of highly educated people in any American city. New York City is home to such notable private universities as Barnard College, Columbia University, Cooper Union, Fordham University, Mercy College, New York University, New York Institute of Technology, Pace University, Rockefeller University, and Yeshiva University; several of these universities are ranked among the top universities in the world. The public CUNY system is one of the largest universities in the nation, comprising 24 institutions across all five boroughs: senior colleges, community colleges, and other graduate/professional schools. The public State University of New York (SUNY) system serves New York City, as well as the rest of the state. The city also has other smaller private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions, such as St. John’s University, The Juilliard School, Manhattan College, The College of Mount Saint Vincent, Fashion Institute of Technology, Parsons School of Design, The New School, Pratt Institute, The School of Visual Arts, The King’s College, and Wagner College.
Much of the scientific research in the city is done in medicine and the life sciences. New York City has the most postgraduate life sciences degrees awarded annually in the United States, with 127 Nobel laureates having roots in local institutions as of 2005; while in 2012, 43,523 licensed physicians were practicing in New York City. Major biomedical research institutions include Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center, Rockefeller University, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, and Weill Cornell Medical College, being joined by the Cornell University/Technion-Israel Institute of Technology venture on Roosevelt Island. The graduates of SUNY Maritime College in the Bronx earned the highest average annual salary of any university graduates in the United States, US$144,000 as of 2017.
New York-Presbyterian Hospital, white complex at center, the largest hospital and largest private employer in New York City and one of the world’s busiest.
The New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation (HHC) operates the public hospitals and clinics in New York City. A public benefit corporation with $6.7 billion in annual revenues, HHC is the largest municipal healthcare system in the United States serving 1.4 million patients, including more than 475,000 uninsured city residents. HHC was created in 1969 by the New York State Legislature as a public benefit corporation (Chapter 1016 of the Laws 1969). HHC operates 11 acute care hospitals, five nursing homes, six diagnostic and treatment centers, and more than 70 community-based primary care sites, serving primarily the poor and working class. HHC’s MetroPlus Health Plan is one of the New York area’s largest providers of government-sponsored health insurance and is the plan of choice for nearly half million New Yorkers.
HHC’s facilities annually provide millions of New Yorkers services interpreted in more than 190 languages. The most well-known hospital in the HHC system is Bellevue Hospital, the oldest public hospital in the United States. Bellevue is the designated hospital for treatment of the President of the United States and other world leaders if they become sick or injured while in New York City. The president of HHC is Ramanathan Raju, MD, a surgeon and former CEO of the Cook County health system in Illinois. In August 2017, Mayor Bill de Blasio signed legislation outlawing pharmacies from selling cigarettes once their existing licenses to do so expired, beginning in 2018.
Police and law enforcement
The New York City Police Department (NYPD) represents the largest police force in the United States.
The New York City Police Department (NYPD) has been the largest police force in the United States by a significant margin, with over 35,000 sworn officers. Members of the NYPD are frequently referred to by politicians, the media, and their own police cars by the nickname, New York’s Finest.
Crime has continued an overall downward trend in New York City since the 1990s. In 2012, the NYPD came under scrutiny for its use of a stop-and-frisk program, which has undergone several policy revisions since then. In 2014, New York City had the third lowest murder rate among the largest U.S. cities, having become significantly safer after a spike in crime in the 1970s through 1990s. Violent crime in New York City decreased more than 75% from 1993 to 2005, and continued decreasing during periods when the nation as a whole saw increases. By 2002, New York City’s crime rate was similar to that of Provo, Utah, and was ranked 197th in crime among the 216 U.S. cities with populations greater than 100,000. In 2005, the homicide rate was at its lowest level since 1966, and in 2007, the city recorded fewer than 500 homicides for the first time ever since crime statistics were first published in 1963. In 2015, 50.5% of New York City misdemeanor assault suspects were black, 33.3% Hispanic, 11.1% white, 4.8% Asian/Pacific Islander and 0.3% Native American. New York City experienced 352 homicides in 2015, its second lowest number on record. In 2016 the murder rate fell to 3.9 per 100,000 residents, significantly below the US average of 5.3, and was projected to drop significantly in 2017.
Sociologists and criminologists have not reached consensus on the explanation for the dramatic decrease in the city’s crime rate. Some attribute the phenomenon to new tactics used by the NYPD, including its use of CompStat and the broken windows theory. Others cite the end of the crack epidemic and demographic changes, including from immigration. Another theory is that widespread exposure to lead pollution from automobile exhaust, which can lower intelligence and increase aggression levels, incited the initial crime wave in the mid-20th century, most acutely affecting heavily trafficked cities like New York. A strong correlation was found demonstrating that violent crime rates in New York and other big cities began to fall after lead was removed from American gasoline in the 1970s. Another theory cited to explain New York City’s falling homicide rate is the inverse correlation between the number of murders and the increasingly wetter climate in the city.
Organized crime has long been associated with New York City, beginning with the Forty Thieves and the Roach Guards in the Five Points in the 1820s. The 20th century saw a rise in the Mafia, dominated by the Five Families, as well as in gangs, including the Black Spades. The Mafia and gang presence has declined in the city in the 21st century.
The New York City Fire Department (FDNY) is the largest municipal fire department in the United States.
The New York City Fire Department (FDNY), provides fire protection, technical rescue, primary response to biological, chemical, and radioactive hazards, and emergency medical services for the five boroughs of New York City. The New York City Fire Department is the largest municipal fire department in the United States and the second largest in the world after the Tokyo Fire Department. The FDNY employs approximately 11,080 uniformed firefighters and over 3,300 uniformed EMTs and paramedics. The FDNY’s motto is New York’s Bravest.
The New York City Fire Department faces multifaceted firefighting challenges in many ways unique to New York. In addition to responding to building types that range from wood-frame single family homes to high-rise structures, there are many secluded bridges and tunnels, as well as large parks and wooded areas that can give rise to brush fires. New York is also home to one of the largest subway systems in the world, consisting of hundreds of miles of tunnel with electrified track.
The FDNY headquarters is located at 9 MetroTech Center in Downtown Brooklyn, and the FDNY Fire Academy is located on Randalls Island. There are three Bureau of Fire Communications alarm offices which receive and dispatch alarms to appropriate units. One office, at 11 Metrotech Center in Brooklyn, houses Manhattan/Citywide, Brooklyn, and Staten Island Fire Communications. The Bronx and Queens offices are in separate buildings.
Public library system
The Stephen A. Schwarzman Headquarters Building of the New York Public Library, at 5th Avenue and 42nd Street.
The New York Public Library, which has the largest collection of any public library system in the United States, serves Manhattan, the Bronx, and Staten Island. Queens is served by the Queens Borough Public Library, the nation’s second largest public library system, while the Brooklyn Public Library serves Brooklyn.
Culture and contemporary life
New York City has been described as the cultural capital of the world by the diplomatic consulates of Iceland and Latvia and by New York’s Baruch College. A book containing a series of essays titled New York, Culture Capital of the World, 1940–1965 has also been published as showcased by the National Library of Australia. In describing New York, author Tom Wolfe said, “Culture just seems to be in the air, like part of the weather.”
Numerous major American cultural movements began in the city, such as the Harlem Renaissance, which established the African-American literary canon in the United States. The city was a center of jazz in the 1940s, abstract expressionism in the 1950s, and the birthplace of hip hop in the 1970s. The city’s punk and hardcore scenes were influential in the 1970s and 1980s. New York has long had a flourishing scene for Jewish American literature.
The city is the birthplace of many cultural movements, including the Harlem Renaissance in literature and visual art; abstract expressionism (also known as the New York School) in painting; and hip hop, punk, salsa, freestyle, Tin Pan Alley, certain forms of jazz, and (along with Philadelphia) disco in music. New York City has been considered the dance capital of the world. The city is also frequently the setting for novels, movies (see List of films set in New York City), and television programs. New York Fashion Week is one of the world’s preeminent fashion events and is afforded extensive coverage by the media. New York has also frequently been ranked the top fashion capital of the world on the annual list compiled by the Global Language Monitor.
New York City has more than 2,000 arts and cultural organizations and more than 500 art galleries of all sizes. The city government funds the arts with a larger annual budget than the National Endowment for the Arts. Wealthy business magnates in the 19th century built a network of major cultural institutions, such as the famed Carnegie Hall and the Metropolitan Museum of Art, that would become internationally established. The advent of electric lighting led to elaborate theater productions, and in the 1880s, New York City theaters on Broadway and along 42nd Street began featuring a new stage form that became known as the Broadway musical. Strongly influenced by the city’s immigrants, productions such as those of Harrigan and Hart, George M. Cohan, and others used song in narratives that often reflected themes of hope and ambition. New York City itself is the subject or background of many plays and musicals.
Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts
Broadway theatre is one of the premier forms of English-language theatre in the world, named after Broadway, the major thoroughfare that crosses Times Square, also sometimes referred to as “The Great White Way”. Forty-one venues in Midtown Manhattan’s Theatre District, each with at least 500 seats, are classified as Broadway theatres. According to The Broadway League, Broadway shows sold approximately US$1.27 billion worth of tickets in the 2013–2014 season, an 11.4% increase from US$1.139 billion in the 2012–2013 season. Attendance in 2013–2014 stood at 12.21 million, representing a 5.5% increase from the 2012–2013 season’s 11.57 million. Performance artists displaying diverse skills are ubiquitous on the streets of Manhattan.
Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, anchoring Lincoln Square on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, is home to numerous influential arts organizations, including the Metropolitan Opera, New York City Opera, New York Philharmonic, and New York City Ballet, as well as the Vivian Beaumont Theater, the Juilliard School, Jazz at Lincoln Center, and Alice Tully Hall. The Lee Strasberg Theatre and Film Institute is in Union Square, and Tisch School of the Arts is based at New York University, while Central Park SummerStage presents free music concerts in Central Park.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, part of Museum Mile, is one of the largest museums in the world.
New York City is home to hundreds of cultural institutions and historic sites, many of which are internationally known. Museum Mile is the name for a section of Fifth Avenue running from 82nd to 105th streets on the Upper East Side of Manhattan, in an area sometimes called Upper Carnegie Hill. The Mile, which contains one of the densest displays of culture in the world, is actually three blocks longer than one mile (1.6 km). Ten museums occupy the length of this section of Fifth Avenue. The tenth museum, the Museum for African Art, joined the ensemble in 2009, although its museum at 110th Street, the first new museum constructed on the Mile since the Guggenheim in 1959, opened in late 2012. In addition to other programming, the museums collaborate for the annual Museum Mile Festival, held each year in June, to promote the museums and increase visitation. Many of the world’s most lucrative art auctions are held in New York City.
Smorgasburg opened in 2011 as an open-air food market and is part of the Brooklyn Flea.
New York City’s food culture includes an array of international cuisines influenced by the city’s immigrant history. Central and Eastern European immigrants, especially Jewish immigrants from those regions, brought bagels, cheesecake, hot dogs, knishes, and delicatessens (or delis) to the city. Italian immigrants brought New York-style pizza and Italian cuisine into the city, while Jewish immigrants and Irish immigrants brought pastrami and corned beef, respectively. Chinese and other Asian restaurants, sandwich joints, trattorias, diners, and coffeehouses are ubiquitous throughout the city. Some 4,000 mobile food vendors licensed by the city, many immigrant-owned, have made Middle Eastern foods such as falafel and kebabs examples of modern New York street food. The city is home to “nearly one thousand of the finest and most diverse haute cuisine restaurants in the world”, according to Michelin. The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene assigns letter grades to the city’s 24,000 restaurants based upon their inspection results.
From top: the annual Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade, the world’s largest parade; the annual Halloween Parade in Greenwich Village; the annual Philippine Independence Day Parade; and the ticker-tape parade for the Apollo 11 astronauts
New York City is well known for its street parades, which celebrate a broad array of themes, including holidays, nationalities, human rights, and major league sports team championship victories. The majority of parades are held in Manhattan. The primary orientation of the annual street parades is typically from north to south, marching along major avenues. The annual Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade is the world’s largest parade, beginning alongside Central Park and processing southward to the flagship Macy’s Herald Square store; the parade is viewed on telecasts worldwide and draws millions of spectators in person. Other notable parades including the annual St. Patrick’s Day Parade in March, the LGBT Pride March in June, the Greenwich Village Halloween Parade in October, and numerous parades commemorating the independence days of many nations. Ticker-tape parades celebrating championships won by sports teams as well as other heroic accomplishments march northward along the Canyon of Heroes on Broadway from Bowling Green to City Hall Park in Lower Manhattan.
Accent and dialect
The New York area is home to a distinctive regional speech pattern called the New York dialect, alternatively known as Brooklynese or New Yorkese. It has generally been considered one of the most recognizable accents within American English.
The traditional New York area accent is characterized as non-rhotic, so that the sound does not appear at the end of a syllable or immediately before a consonant; therefore the pronunciation of the city name as “New Yawk.” There is no [ɹ] in words like park [pɑək] or [pɒək] (with vowel backed and diphthongized due to the low-back chain shift), butter [bʌɾə], or here [hiə]. In another feature called the low back chain shift, the [ɔ] vowel sound of words like talk, law, cross, chocolate, and coffee and the often homophonous [ɔr] in core and more are tensed and usually raised more than in General American English. In the most old-fashioned and extreme versions of the New York dialect, the vowel sounds of words like “girl” and of words like “oil” became a diphthong [ɜɪ]. This is often misperceived by speakers of other accents as a reversal of the er and oy sounds, so that girl is pronounced “goil” and oil is pronounced “erl”; this leads to the caricature of New Yorkers saying things like “Joizey” (Jersey), “Toidy-Toid Street” (33rd St.) and “terlet” (toilet). The character Archie Bunker from the 1970s sitcom All in the Family (played by Carroll O’Connor) was an example of having used this pattern of speech.
The classic version of the New York City dialect is generally centered on middle and working-class New Yorkers. The influx of non-European immigrants in recent decades has led to changes in this distinctive dialect, and the traditional form of this speech pattern is no longer as prevalent among general New Yorkers as it has been in the past.
The New York Marathon is the largest marathon in the world.
The US Open Tennis Championships are held every August and September in Flushing Meadows-Corona Park, Queens.
Citi Field, also in Flushing Meadows-Corona Park, has been home to the New York Mets since 2009.
New York City is home to the headquarters of the National Football League, Major League Baseball, the National Basketball Association, the National Hockey League, and Major League Soccer. The New York metropolitan area hosts the most sports teams in these five professional leagues. Participation in professional sports in the city predates all professional leagues, and the city has been continuously hosting professional sports since the birth of the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1882. The city has played host to over forty major professional teams in the five sports and their respective competing leagues, both current and historic. Four of the ten most expensive stadiums ever built worldwide (MetLife Stadium, the new Yankee Stadium, Madison Square Garden, and Citi Field) are located in the New York metropolitan area. Madison Square Garden, its predecessor, the original Yankee Stadium and Ebbets Field, are sporting venues located in New York City, the latter two having been commemorated on U.S. postage stamps.
New York has been described as the “Capital of Baseball”. There have been 35 Major League Baseball World Series and 73 pennants won by New York teams. It is one of only five metro areas (Los Angeles, Chicago, Baltimore–Washington, and the San Francisco Bay Area being the others) to have two baseball teams. Additionally, there have been 14 World Series in which two New York City teams played each other, known as a Subway Series and occurring most recently in 2000. No other metropolitan area has had this happen more than once (Chicago in 1906, St. Louis in 1944, and the San Francisco Bay Area in 1989). The city’s two current Major League Baseball teams are the New York Mets, who play at Citi Field in Queens, and the New York Yankees, who play at Yankee Stadium in the Bronx. These teams compete in six games of interleague play every regular season that has also come to be called the Subway Series. The Yankees have won a record 27 championships, while the Mets have won the World Series twice. The city also was once home to the Brooklyn Dodgers (now the Los Angeles Dodgers), who won the World Series once, and the New York Giants (now the San Francisco Giants), who won the World Series five times. Both teams moved to California in 1958. There are also two Minor League Baseball teams in the city, the Brooklyn Cyclones and Staten Island Yankees.
The city is represented in the National Football League by the New York Giants and the New York Jets, although both teams play their home games at MetLife Stadium in nearby East Rutherford, New Jersey, which hosted Super Bowl XLVIII in 2014.
The metropolitan area is home to three National Hockey League teams. The New York Rangers, the traditional representative of the city itself and one of the league’s Original Six, play at Madison Square Garden in Manhattan. The New York Islanders, traditionally representing Nassau and Suffolk Counties of Long Island, currently play at Barclays Center in Brooklyn and are planning a return to Nassau County by way of a new arena just outside the border with Queens at Belmont Park. The New Jersey Devils play at Prudential Center in nearby Newark, New Jersey and traditionally represent the counties of neighboring New Jersey which are coextensive with the boundaries of the New York metropolitan area and media market.
The city’s National Basketball Association teams are the Brooklyn Nets and the New York Knicks, while the New York Liberty is the city’s Women’s National Basketball Association team. The first national college-level basketball championship, the National Invitation Tournament, was held in New York in 1938 and remains in the city. The city is well known for its links to basketball, which is played in nearly every park in the city by local youth, many of whom have gone on to play for major college programs and in the NBA.
In soccer, New York City is represented by New York City FC of Major League Soccer, who play their home games at Yankee Stadium and the New York Red Bulls, who play their home games at Red Bull Arena in nearby Harrison, New Jersey. Historically, the city is known for the New York Cosmos, the highly successful former professional soccer team which was the American home of Pelé. A new version of the New York Cosmos was formed in 2010, and began play in the second division North American Soccer League in 2013. The Cosmos play their home games at James M. Shuart Stadium on the campus of Hofstra University, just outside the New York City limits in Hempstead, New York.
The annual United States Open Tennis Championships is one of the world’s four Grand Slam tennis tournaments and is held at the National Tennis Center in Flushing Meadows-Corona Park, Queens. The New York City Marathon, which courses through all five boroughs, is the world’s largest running marathon, with 51,394 finishers in 2016 and 98,247 applicants for the 2017 race. The Millrose Games is an annual track and field meet whose featured event is the Wanamaker Mile. Boxing is also a prominent part of the city’s sporting scene, with events like the Amateur Boxing Golden Gloves being held at Madison Square Garden each year. The city is also considered the host of the Belmont Stakes, the last, longest and oldest of horse racing’s Triple Crown races, held just over the city’s border at Belmont Park on the first or second Sunday of June. The city also hosted the 1932 U.S. Open golf tournament and the 1930 and 1939 PGA Championships, and has been host city for both events several times, most notably for nearby Winged Foot Golf Club. The Gaelic games are played in Riverdale, Bronx at Gaelic Park, home to the New York GAA, the only North American team to compete at the senior inter-county level.
New York City is home to the two busiest rail stations in the US, including Grand Central Terminal.
New York City’s comprehensive transportation system is both complex and extensive.
The New York City Subway is the world’s largest rapid transit system by length of routes and by number of stations.
Mass transit in New York City, most of which runs 24 hours a day, accounts for one in every three users of mass transit in the United States, and two-thirds of the nation’s rail riders live in the New York City Metropolitan Area.
The New York City Subway is the world’s largest rapid transit system by length of routes and by number of stations.
The iconic New York City Subway system is the largest rapid transit system in the world when measured by stations in operation, with 472, and by length of routes. Nearly all of New York’s subway system is open 24 hours a day, in contrast to the overnight shutdown common to systems in most cities, including Hong Kong, London, Paris, Seoul, and Tokyo. The New York City Subway is also the busiest metropolitan rail transit system in the Western Hemisphere, with 1.76 billion passenger rides in 2015, while Grand Central Terminal, also referred to as “Grand Central Station”, is the world’s largest railway station by number of train platforms.
Public transport is essential in New York City. 54.6% of New Yorkers commuted to work in 2005 using mass transit. This is in contrast to the rest of the United States, where 91% of commuters travel in automobiles to their workplace. According to the New York City Comptroller, workers in the New York City area spend an average of 6 hours and 18 minutes getting to work each week, the longest commute time in the nation among large cities. New York is the only US city in which a majority (52%) of households do not have a car; only 22% of Manhattanites own a car. Due to their high usage of mass transit, New Yorkers spend less of their household income on transportation than the national average, saving $19 billion annually on transportation compared to other urban Americans.
New York City’s commuter rail network is the largest in North America. The rail network, connecting New York City to its suburbs, consists of the Long Island Rail Road, Metro-North Railroad, and New Jersey Transit. The combined systems converge at Grand Central Terminal and Pennsylvania Station and contain more than 250 stations and 20 rail lines. In Queens, the elevated AirTrain people mover system connects JFK International Airport to the New York City Subway and the Long Island Rail Road; a separate AirTrain system is planned alongside the Grand Central Parkway to connect LaGuardia Airport to these transit systems. For intercity rail, New York City is served by Amtrak, whose busiest station by a significant margin is Pennsylvania Station on the West Side of Manhattan, from which Amtrak provides connections to Boston, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C. along the Northeast Corridor, and long-distance train service to other North American cities.
The Staten Island Railway rapid transit system solely serves Staten Island, operating 24 hours a day. The Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH train) links Midtown and Lower Manhattan to northeastern New Jersey, primarily Hoboken, Jersey City, and Newark. Like the New York City Subway, the PATH operates 24 hours a day; meaning three of the six rapid transit systems in the world which operate on 24-hour schedules are wholly or partly in New York (the others are a portion of the Chicago ‘L’, the PATCO Speedline serving Philadelphia, and the Copenhagen Metro).
Multibillion-dollar heavy rail transit projects under construction in New York City include the Second Avenue Subway, the East Side Access project, and the 7 Subway Extension.
The Port Authority Bus Terminal, the world’s busiest bus station, at 8th Avenue and 42nd Street.
New York City’s public bus fleet is the largest in North America, and the Port Authority Bus Terminal, the main intercity bus terminal of the city, serves 7,000 buses and 200,000 commuters daily, making it the busiest bus station in the world.
John F. Kennedy Airport in Queens, the busiest international air passenger gateway to the United States.
New York’s airspace is the busiest in the United States and one of the world’s busiest air transportation corridors. The three busiest airports in the New York metropolitan area include John F. Kennedy International Airport, Newark Liberty International Airport, and LaGuardia Airport; 130.5 million travelers used these three airports in 2016, and the city’s airspace is the busiest in the nation. JFK and Newark Liberty were the busiest and fourth busiest U.S. gateways for international air passengers, respectively, in 2012; as of 2011, JFK was the busiest airport for international passengers in North America. Plans have advanced to expand passenger volume at a fourth airport, Stewart International Airport near Newburgh, New York, by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Plans were announced in July 2015 to entirely rebuild LaGuardia Airport in a multibillion-dollar project to replace its aging facilities. Other commercial airports in or serving the New York metropolitan area include Long Island MacArthur Airport, Trenton–Mercer Airport and Westchester County Airport. The primary general aviation airport serving the area is Teterboro Airport.
The Staten Island Ferry shuttles commuters between Manhattan and Staten Island.
The Staten Island Ferry is the world’s busiest ferry route, carrying over 23 million passengers from July 2015 through June 2016 on the 5.2-mile (8.4 km) route between Staten Island and Lower Manhattan and running 24 hours a day. Other ferry systems shuttle commuters between Manhattan and other locales within the city and the metropolitan area.
NYC Ferry, a NYCEDC initiative with routes planned to travel to all five boroughs, was launched in 2017, with second graders choosing the names of the ferries. Meanwhile, Seastreak ferry announced construction of a 600-passenger high-speed luxury ferry in September 2016, to shuttle riders between the Jersey Shore and Manhattan, anticipated to start service in 2017; this would be the largest vessel in its class.
Taxis, transport startups, and trams
Yellow medallion taxicabs are widely recognized icons of the city
Other features of the city’s transportation infrastructure encompass more than 12,000 yellow taxicabs; various competing startup transportation network companies; and an aerial tramway that transports commuters between Roosevelt Island and Manhattan Island. Ride-sharing services have become significant competition for cab drivers in New York.
Streets and highways
8th Avenue, looking northward (“uptown”). Most streets and avenues in Manhattan’s grid plan incorporate a one-way traffic configuration.
Despite New York’s heavy reliance on its vast public transit system, streets are a defining feature of the city. Manhattan’s street grid plan greatly influenced the city’s physical development. Several of the city’s streets and avenues, like Broadway, Wall Street, Madison Avenue, and Seventh Avenue are also used as metonyms for national industries there: the theater, finance, advertising, and fashion organizations, respectively.
New York City also has an extensive web of expressways and parkways, which link the city’s boroughs to each other and to northern New Jersey, Westchester County, Long Island, and southwestern Connecticut through various bridges and tunnels. Because these highways serve millions of outer borough and suburban residents who commute into Manhattan, it is quite common for motorists to be stranded for hours in traffic jams that are a daily occurrence, particularly during rush hour.
New York City is also known for its rules regarding turning at red lights. Unlike the rest of the United States, New York State prohibits right or left turns on red in cities with a population greater than one million, to reduce traffic collisions and increase pedestrian safety. In New York City, therefore, all turns at red lights are illegal unless a sign permitting such maneuvers is present.
The George Washington Bridge, connecting Upper Manhattan (background) from Fort Lee, New Jersey across the Hudson River, is the world’s busiest motor vehicle bridge.
New York City is located on one of the world’s largest natural harbors, and the boroughs of Manhattan and Staten Island are (primarily) coterminous with islands of the same names, while Queens and Brooklyn are located at the west end of the larger Long Island, and The Bronx is located at the southern tip of New York State’s mainland. This situation of boroughs separated by water led to the development of an extensive infrastructure of well-known bridges and tunnels.
The George Washington Bridge is the world’s busiest motor vehicle bridge, connecting Manhattan to Bergen County, New Jersey. The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge is the longest suspension bridge in the Americas and one of the world’s longest. The Brooklyn Bridge is an icon of the city itself. The towers of the Brooklyn Bridge are built of limestone, granite, and Rosendale cement, and their architectural style is neo-Gothic, with characteristic pointed arches above the passageways through the stone towers. This bridge was also the longest suspension bridge in the world from its opening until 1903, and is the first steel-wire suspension bridge. The Queensboro Bridge is an important piece of cantilever architecture. The Manhattan Bridge, opened in 1909, is considered to be the forerunner of modern suspension bridges, and its design served as the model for many of the long-span suspension bridges around the world; the Manhattan Bridge, Throgs Neck Bridge, Triborough Bridge, and Verrazano-Narrows Bridge are all examples of Structural Expressionism.
Manhattan Island is linked to New York City’s outer boroughs and New Jersey by several tunnels as well. The Lincoln Tunnel, which carries 120,000 vehicles a day under the Hudson River between New Jersey and Midtown Manhattan, is the busiest vehicular tunnel in the world. The tunnel was built instead of a bridge to allow unfettered passage of large passenger and cargo ships that sailed through New York Harbor and up the Hudson River to Manhattan’s piers. The Holland Tunnel, connecting Lower Manhattan to Jersey City, New Jersey, was the world’s first mechanically ventilated vehicular tunnel when it opened in 1927. The Queens-Midtown Tunnel, built to relieve congestion on the bridges connecting Manhattan with Queens and Brooklyn, was the largest non-federal project in its time when it was completed in 1940. President Franklin D. Roosevelt was the first person to drive through it. The Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel (officially known as the Hugh L. Carey Tunnel) runs underneath Battery Park and connects the Financial District at the southern tip of Manhattan to Red Hook in Brooklyn.
As of July 2010, the city had 3,715 hybrid taxis in service, the largest number of any city in North America.
Environmental impact reduction
New York City has focused on reducing its environmental impact and carbon footprint. Mass transit use in New York City is the highest in the United States. Also, by 2010, the city had 3,715 hybrid taxis and other clean diesel vehicles, representing around 28% of New York’s taxi fleet in service, the most of any city in North America.
New York’s high rate of public transit use, over 200,000 daily cyclists as of 2014, and many pedestrian commuters make it the most energy-efficient major city in the United States. Walk and bicycle modes of travel account for 21% of all modes for trips in the city; nationally the rate for metro regions is about 8%. In both its 2011 and 2015 rankings, Walk Score named New York City the most walkable large city in the United States, and in 2018, Stacker ranked New York the most walkable U.S. city. Citibank sponsored the introduction of 10,000 public bicycles for the city’s bike-share project in the summer of 2013. Research conducted by Quinnipiac University showed that a majority of New Yorkers support the initiative. New York City’s numerical “in-season cycling indicator” of bicycling in the city hit an all-time high in 2013.
The city government was a petitioner in the landmark Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency Supreme Court case forcing the EPA to regulate greenhouse gases as pollutants. The city is a leader in the construction of energy-efficient green office buildings, including the Hearst Tower among others. Mayor Bill de Blasio has committed to an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions between 2014 and 2050 to reduce the city’s contributions to climate change, beginning with a comprehensive “Green Buildings” plan.
Water purity and availability
New York City is supplied with drinking water by the protected Catskill Mountains watershed. As a result of the watershed’s integrity and undisturbed natural water filtration system, New York is one of only four major cities in the United States the majority of whose drinking water is pure enough not to require purification by water treatment plants. The city’s municipal water system is the largest in the United States, moving over one billion gallons of water per day. The Croton Watershed north of the city is undergoing construction of a US$3.2 billion water purification plant to augment New York City’s water supply by an estimated 290 million gallons daily, representing a greater than 20% addition to the city’s current availability of water. The ongoing expansion of New York City Water Tunnel No. 3, an integral part of the New York City water supply system, is the largest capital construction project in the city’s history, with segments serving Manhattan and The Bronx completed, and with segments serving Brooklyn and Queens planned for construction in 2020. In 2018, New York City announced a US$1 billion investment to protect the integrity of its water system and to maintain the purity of its unfiltered water supply.
Newtown Creek, a 3.5-mile (6-kilometer) a long estuary that forms part of the border between the boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens, has been designated a Superfund site for environmental clean-up and remediation of the waterway’s recreational and economic resources for many communities. One of the most heavily used bodies of water in the Port of New York and New Jersey, it had been one of the most contaminated industrial sites in the country, containing years of discarded toxins, an estimated 30 million US gallons (110,000 m3) of spilled oil, including the Greenpoint oil spill, raw sewage from New York City’s sewer system, and other accumulation.
Government and politics
New York City Hall is the oldest City Hall in the United States that still houses its original governmental functions.
New York City has been a metropolitan municipality with a mayor–council form of government since its consolidation in 1898. In New York City, the city government is responsible for public education, correctional institutions, public safety, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply, and welfare services.
The Mayor and council members are elected to four-year terms. The City Council is a unicameral body consisting of 51 council members whose districts are defined by geographic population boundaries. Each term for the mayor and council members lasts four years and has a three consecutive-term limit, which is reset after a four-year break. The New York City Administrative Code, the New York City Rules, and the City Record are the code of local laws, compilation of regulations, and official journal, respectively.
The New York County Courthouse houses the New York Supreme Court and other offices.
Each borough is coextensive with a judicial district of the state Unified Court System, of which the Criminal Court and the Civil Court are the local courts, while the New York Supreme Court conducts major trials and appeals. Manhattan hosts the First Department of the Supreme Court, Appellate Division while Brooklyn hosts the Second Department. There are also several extrajudicial administrative courts, which are executive agencies and not part of the state Unified Court System.
Uniquely among major American cities, New York is divided between, and is host to the main branches of, two different US district courts: the District Court for the Southern District of New York, whose main courthouse is on Foley Square near City Hall in Manhattan and whose jurisdiction includes Manhattan and the Bronx; and the District Court for the Eastern District of New York, whose main courthouse is in Brooklyn and whose jurisdiction includes Brooklyn, Queens, and Staten Island. The US Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit and US Court of International Trade are also based in New York, also on Foley Square in Manhattan.
Bill de Blasio, the current and 109th Mayor of New York City
The present mayor is Bill de Blasio, the first Democrat since 1993.He was elected in 2013 with over 73% of the vote, and assumed office on January 1, 2014.
The Democratic Party holds the majority of public offices. As of April 2016, 69% of registered voters in the city are Democrats and 10% are Republicans. New York City has not been carried by a Republican in a statewide or presidential election since President Calvin Coolidge won the five boroughs in 1924. In 2012, Democrat Barack Obama became the first presidential candidate of any party to receive more than 80% of the overall vote in New York City, sweeping all five boroughs. Party platforms center on affordable housing, education, and economic development, and labor politics are of importance in the city.
New York is the most important source of political fundraising in the United States, as four of the top five ZIP Codes in the nation for political contributions are in Manhattan. The top ZIP Code, 10021 on the Upper East Side, generated the most money for the 2004 presidential campaigns of George W. Bush and John Kerry. The city has a strong imbalance of payments with the national and state governments. It receives 83 cents in services for every $1 it sends to the federal government in taxes (or annually sends $11.4 billion more than it receives back). City residents and businesses also spent an additional $4.1 billion in the 2009–2010 fiscal year to the state of New York than the city received in return.
50 Cent (Curtis Jackson) – businessman and rapper
6ix9ine (Daniel Hernandez) – rapper
Aaliyah (Aaliyah Haughton, 1979–2001) singer, actress, model
Zaid Abdul-Aziz (born 1946) – professional basketball player
Kareem Abdul-Jabbar (born 1947) – basketball player
George Abernethy (1807–1877) – first provisional Governor of Oregon
Cecile Abish (born 1930) – sculptor
Oday Aboushi (born 1991) – football player
Garnett Adrain (1815–1878) – member of the United States House of
Representatives from New Jersey
Cornelius Rea Agnew (1830–1888) – ophthalmologist
Eliza Agnew (1807–1883) – Presbyterian missionary
Christina Aguilera (born 1980) – singer
Danny Aiello (born 1933) – actor
Marv Albert (born 1941) – sports announcer
Alan Alda (born 1936) – actor
Ira Aldridge (1805–1867) – stage actor
William Alexander, Lord Stirling (1726–1783) – major general in the American
Woody Allen (born 1935) – film director, actor, screenwriter
Vincent Alo (1904–2001) – mobster
Rafer Alston – basketball player
Lee J. Ames – illustrator and writer; known for the Draw 50… learn-to-draw books
Trey Anastasio (born 1964) – rock musician and member of the band, Phish
Kenny Anderson – professional basketball player
Charles Anthon – classical scholar
Carmelo Anthony – basketball player
Marc Anthony – singer and actor
Judd Apatow – producer, director, comedian, actor and screenwriter
Fiona Apple – singer-songwriter
Diane Arbus (1923–1971) – photographer
Nate Archibald (born 1948) – professional basketball player
Kenneth J. Arrow – economist; recipient, 1972 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences
Beatrice Arthur (1922–2009) – actress
William H. Aspinwall – railroad promoter
John Jacob Astor III (1822–1890) – businessman and member of the Astor family
Vincent Astor (1891–1959) – businessman, philanthropist and member of the Astor family
William Backhouse Astor, Sr. (1792–1875) – businessman and member of the Astor family
Jake T. Austin – actor, model, author
Awkwafina (Nora Lum, born 1988) – rapper, actress
AZ – rapper and former member of the rap group The Firm
Edwin Burr Babbitt – actor
Johnny Bach (1924–2016) – professional basketball player and coach
Evan Baken – musician, drummer and record company executive
William Bliss Baker – landscape artist
Azealia Banks (born 1991) – rapper, singer-songwriter, actress
Joseph Barbera (1911–2006) – animator, producer, director, MGM and co-founder of Hanna-Barbera
Bryan Bautista – Dominican-American musician, singer, and contestant from NBC’s The Voice season 10
Earl Beecham – football player
Bo Belinsky (1936–2001) – Major League Baseball player
Tony Bennett – iconic jazz singer and musician
Moe Berg (1902–1972) – Major League Baseball player and spy
Milton Berle – comedian
Paul Berlenbach (1901–1985) – light heavyweight boxing champion, 1925–1926
Dellin Betances – Major League Baseball pitcher
Bipolar Explorer – dreampop band
Joan Blondell – actress
Humphrey Bogart (1899–1957) – actor
William T. Bonniwell, Jr. – Wisconsin and Minnesota politician
Joseph Borelli – politician and conservative commentator
Francis Bouillon – National Hockey League defenseman playing for the Nashville Predators
Kate Parker Scott Boyd (1836–1922) – artist, journalist, temperance worker
Barbara Boxer – U.S. Senator from California
James J. Braddock – boxer (aka “Cinderella Man”)
Hermann Braun (1918–1945) – actor
Abigail Breslin – actress and musician
Jimmy Breslin – columnist
Spencer Breslin—actor and musician
Eben Britton – football player
Matthew Broderick – actor
Action Bronson – rapper
Mel Brooks – film director, screenwriter and actor
Julia Brown – madam and prostitute
Larry Brown – basketball player and coach
Tarell Brown (born 1985) – football player
Andrew Bryson (1822–1892) – United States Navy rear admiral
William F. Buckley, Jr. – author and conservative commentator
Sidney Jonas Budnick, abstract artist
George Burns (1896–1996) – comedian
Steve Buscemi – actor
Barbara Bush (1925–2018) – wife of George H. W. Bush
Gene Byrnes – cartoonist
James Caan – actor
Antón Cabaleiro – visual artist born in Spain
Adolph Caesar (1933–1986) – actor
Leslie Cagan (born 1947) – activist and writer
James Cagney (1899–1986) – actor
Eddie Cahill (born 1978) – actor
Edward L. Cahn (1899–1963) – film director known for the Our Gang comedies
Sarth Calhoun – electronic musician
Joseph A. Califano – Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare
Maria Callas (1923–1977) – Greek-American opera singer
Richard Camacho – singer, musician, member of Latin music band CNCO, Dominican-origin
Christian Camargo – actor
Schuyler V. Cammann – anthropologist
Chris Canty – football player
Al Capone (1899–1947) – Prohibition gangster, boss of Chicago Outfit
Mae Capone (1897–1986) – wife of Al Capone
Francis Capra (born 1983) – actor
Nestor Carbonell (born 1967) – actor
Cardi B (born 1992) – rapper
Benjamin Cardozo – Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court
Hugh Carey – Governor of New York
Timothy Carey (1929–1994) – actor
George Carlin (1937–2008) – comedian
Alan Carney (1909–1973) – actor and comedian
Caleb Carr (born 1955) – novelist and military historian
Eric Carr – rock musician, songwriter
John Carradine (1906–1988) – actor
Julian Casablancas – lead singer of rock band The Strokes; musician
Colin Cassady (born 1986) – professional wrestler working for WWE
John Cassavetes – actor
DJ Cassidy (born 1981) – DJ, record producer and MC
Luis Castillo – football player
Vinnie Caruana – musician, singer
Phoebe Cates – actress
Jose Ceballos – trade unionist and political campaign manager
Bennett Cerf (1898–1971) – publisher, TV personality
Jeff Chandler – actor
Frank Chanfrau – actor
James S.C. Chao – Chinese-American entrepreneur and philanthropist
Harry Chapin (1942–1981) – singer-songwriter
Paddy Chayefsky – author
Maury Chaykin – actor
Julie Chen – television personality
Edmund A. Chester – executive at CBS
Jennie Jerome Churchill – mother of Winston Churchill
Peter Cincotti – singer-songwriter
Robert Clohessy – actor
Evan Cole – CEO of H.D. Buttercup
Margaret Colin – actress
Irv Constantine – football player
Hugh E. Conway – labor economist
Anderson Cooper – television journalist
George H. Cooper (1821–1891) – United States Navy rear admiral
Shaun Cooper – rock musician, bassist
William R. Cosentini – mechanical engineer and founder of Cosentini Associates
Ann Coulter – conservative commentator, writer
Freddie Crawford – basketball player
Peter Criss – rock musician, songwriter
Billy Crystal – comedian, actor, director
George Cukor – film director
Kieran Culkin – actor
Kit Culkin – actor
Macaulay Culkin – actor
Rory Culkin – actor
Jermaine Cunningham – football player
Mario Cuomo – Governor of New York
Quentin Curry – landscape painter
Valerie Curtin – actress and screenwriter
Tony Curtis – actor
Alexandra Daddario – actress
Matthew Daddario – actor
Charles Patrick Daly – judge
Al D’Amato – politician
Claire Danes – actress
Rodney Dangerfield – comedian
Lloyd Daniels – basketball player
Ron Dante – singer-songwriter and record producer
Tony Danza – actor
Bobby Darin – singer, entertainer, actor, songwriter
Candy Darling actress and Warhol Superstar
Larry David – actor, writer, comedian, producer
Marion Davies – actress
Al “Bummy” Davis – boxer
Sammy Davis, Jr. (1925–1990) – singer and entertainer
Dawin (full name Dawin Polanco) – hip hop-R&B singer, musician, and record producer
Rosario Dawson – actress
Clarence Day (1874–1935) – author and humorist
Dorothy Day – Catholic social activist
Bill de Blasio – Mayor of New York City
Robert De Niro – actor
Éamon de Valera – Taoiseach (prime minister) and President of Ireland
Paul Stanley – hard-rock guitarist, singer and songwriter
Barbara Stanwyck (1907–1990) – actress
Joe Start – Major League Baseball player
James Steen – football player
Howard Stern – radio and television host
John Stevens – delegate to Continental Congress for New Jersey
Andrew Stewart – player of gridiron football
Foley Stewart – musician
Jon Stewart – writer, producer, political satirist, actor, television personality, comedian, and former host of The Daily Show (1999–2015); born in New York City, raised in New Jersey
Julia Stiles – actress
Ben Stiller – actor known for Madagascar, Night at the Museum and Zoolander
Henry L. Stimson – politician and diplomat
Oliver Stone – film director
Susan Strasberg – actress
Robert Strassburg – composer, conductor, musicologist
James Strauch (1921–1998) – Olympic fencer
Barbra Streisand – singer and actress
Meryl Streep – actress
Jill Stuart – fashion designer
Big Sue – shopkeeper and underworld figure
Ed Sullivan (1901–1974) – television variety show host
Susan Sullivan – actress
Kevin Sussman – actor known for The Big Bang Theory
Vic Tayback (1930–1990) – actor
Alma Tell (1898–1937) – stage and screen actress
Olive Tell (1894–1951) – stage and screen actress
Maurice Tempelsman (born 1929) – businessman
Chloe Temtchine (born 1982/1983) – singer-songwriter
The Tenderloins (born 1976) – an American comedy troupe currently composed of
Joseph “Joe” Gatto, James “Murr” Murray, Brian “Q” Quinn, and Salvatore “Sal” Vulcano
Studs Terkel (1912–2008) – author and historian
Milton Terris (1915–2002) – public health physician and epidemiologist
Roy M. Terry – Chief of Chaplains of the U.S. Air Force
Vinny Testaverde – football player
Irving Thalberg – film producer
Leon Thomas III – actor
Soren Thompson (born 1981) – two-time Olympic and team World Champion épée fencer
Johnny Thunders – rock musician
Gene Tierney (1920–1991) – actress
Harry Tietlebaum (born 1889) – organized crime figure
Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848–1933) – artist
Matt Titus – professional matchmaker
James Toback (born 1944) – screenwriter and director
Isabella Tobias (born 1991) – ice dancer
Lola Todd (1904–1995) – silent film actress
Bill Todman – game show producer
Michael Tolkin (born 1950) – filmmaker and novelist
Marisa Tomei (born 1964) – actress
Joe Torre – baseball player and manager
Douglas Townsend (1921–2012) – composer and musicologist
Michelle Trachtenberg – actress
Mary Travers – singer with Peter, Paul, and Mary
Alex Treves (born 1929) – Italian-born American Olympic fencer
Barron Trump – socialite
Donald Trump – 45th President of the United States
Donald Trump Jr. – businessman
Eric Trump – businessman
Fred Trump – real estate developer and philanthropist
Ivanka Trump – businesswoman
Tiffany Trump – socialite
Barbara Tuchman (1912–1989) – historian; author
Richard Tucker (1913–1975) – opera tenor
Gene Tunney – 1926–28 heavyweight boxing champion
John V. Tunney – former U.S. Senator
John Turturro – actor and director
William Tweed (1823–1878) – politician
Liv Tyler – actress
Steven Tyler (born 1948) – singer, Aerosmith
Mike Tyson (born 1966) – boxer
Neil deGrasse Tyson – astronomer, science communicator
Leslie Uggams – singer; actress
The Ultimate Warrior (born Jim Hellwig and also known as Warrior) – professional wrestler
Louis Untermeyer (1885–1977) – poet, anthologist, critic, and editor
Hikaru Utada – singer, musician
Andrew Vachss – lawyer and author
Cornelius Vanderbilt – businessman
Robert Vaughn (1932–2016) – actor
George Vergara – NFL player
Jennifer von Mayrhauser – costume designer
Stanley M. Wagner (1932–2013) – rabbi and academic
Josh Waitzkin (born 1976) – chess player, martial arts competitor, and author
Christopher Walken – actor
Adam Walker – football player
Hezekiah Walker – bishop and gospel artist
Jimmy Walker (1881–1946) – Mayor of New York City
Kemba Walker – basketball player
Eli Wallach – actor
Donald A. Wallance – industrial designer
Fats Waller – jazz pianist
Abby Wambach – soccer player
Charles B. Wang (born 1944) – businessman, philanthropist
Vera Wang – fashion designer
Raees Warsi – poet, journalist, social and worker
Kerry Washington – actress
Damon Wayans – actor and producer
Dwayne Wayans – director, producer and writer
Keenen Ivory Wayans – actor, director, producer and writer
Kim Wayans – actress
Marlon Wayans – actor and producer
Nadia Wayans – actress
Shawn Wayans – actor and producer
Michael Weatherly – actor
Sigourney Weaver – actress
Brian Wecht (born 1975) – musician, producer for Ninja Sex Party and Starbomb, and member of Game Grumps
Steven Weinberg – Nobel Prize-winning physicist
Leslie West – rock musician
Mae West (1893–1980) – actress
Nathanael West – author
Edith Wharton – author
Joss Whedon – screenwriter, film and television producer, author and composer
Maggie Wheeler – actress
White Light Motorcade –music group
Billy Whitlock – blackface performer
Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney – sculptor and art patron
Edward W. Whitson – Wisconsin State Assemblyman
Kristen Wiig – actress, comedian and writer
Charles Wilkes – naval officer and explorer
Lenny Wilkens – basketball player and coach
Billy Dee Williams (born 1937) – actor
Vanessa L. Williams – singer and actress
Walter Winchell (1897–1972) – newspaper and radio gossip commentator
Harry Winitsky – political activist; founding member of the Communist Party USA Dean Winters – actor
Mike Witteck – football player
George Worth – born György Woittitz (1915–2006), Olympic medalist saber fencer
James Hood Wright – businessman
William H. H. Wroe – member of the Wisconsin State Assembly
Charles Wuorinen – composer
Izzy Yablok – football player
Tony Yayo – rapper
Burt Young – actor
Tony Young – actor
In 2006, the Sister City Program of the City of New York, Inc. was restructured and renamed New York City Global Partners. Through this program, New York City has expanded its international outreach to a network of cities worldwide, promoting the exchange of ideas and innovation between their citizenry and policymakers. New York’s historic sister cities are denoted below by the year they joined New York City’s partnership network.
Ia Bekerja Sebagai Kuli dan Dijuluki Gadis Semen, Setelah Mandi, Perubahan Drastisnya Bikin Pangling!
Pekerjaan berat seperti tukang bangunan, kuli, dan pekerja kasar lainnya kebanyakan dilakukan oleh para pria. Namun, baru-baru ini di Tiongkok sempat viral pekerja kuli bangunan yang merupakan seorang wanita muda yang baru saja berusia 20 tahunan!
Wanita ini bahkan sampai dijuluki sebagai ‘gadis semen’ karena sekujur tubuh dan wajahnya yang kotor dan tertutup debu. Wanita bernama asli Wang Xueying ini tidak kalah dengan pekerja lainnya yang notabene adalah pria. Ia juga sama-sama mengangkut kantong semen yang begitu berat dan juga pekerjaan berat lainnya.
Wang Xueying sendiri sering kali membagikan kegiatannya saat tengah bekerja melalui salah satu platform sosial media di Tiongkok. Unggahan video miliknya sering kali mendapat respon positif dari netizen:
‘Berbeda dengan wanita lainnya, ia tidak tergila-gila pada kehidupan bak putri raja. Ia menjalani kehidupan sederhana dan bersedia melakukan pekerjaan yang paling tidak ingin dilakukan oleh wanita pada umumnya. Mengangkut semen? Pria saja terkadang ogah untuk menjadi kuli sepertinya. Tapi, ia tidak malu dan mengandalkan dirinya sendiri untuk menghidupi dirinya. Walau sekujur tubuhnya sudah begitu kotor dan dipenuhi dengan abu semen atau lumpur pun, ia tetap cuek. Ia bahkan terlihat begitu bahagia saat sedang beristirahat dengan rekan kerjanya.”
‘Wanita ini sungguh luar biasa! Walau tertutup abu semen, aku bisa melihat kecantikannya.”
‘Walau kehidupannya terlihat begitu sulit, tapi ini adalah nilai kehidupan yang sesungguhnya, yaitu bekerja keras!’
‘Sungguh berbeda dengan gadis lainnya yang bisanya hanya meminta uang dari orang tua dan bermanja-manja. Kisahnya sungguh inspiratif sekali. Aku yakin kamu pasti akan sukses di kemudian hari.’
Melihat banyak orang yang mengomentari dirinya yang kotor dan penuh debu, beberapa waktu yang lalu Wang Xueying membuat netizen gempar. Ia mengunggah fotonya yang berbeda dengan biasanya! Ia mencuci bersih mukanya, mandi, berdandan dan memakai pakaian yang cantik. Melihat penampilannya yang begitu berbeda, netizen pun tercengang dibuat olehnya!
‘Dandanannya sangat cocok.’ ‘Inilah sosok wanita panutan yang sesungguhnya.’
‘Wanita pekerja keras dan tidak takut jelek, kenyataannya memang yang paling cantik!’
Melihat penampilan Wang Xueying yang begitu berbeda, banyak orang pun semakin kagum padanya. Wang Xueying adalah sosok gadis yang rajin, pekerja keras, hatinya cantik dan wajahnya pun cantik. Sungguh membuat orang pasti jatuh hati padanya.
Wajib Tau! Kenapa Es Batu Ada yang “Bening dan Putih”?
Kamu mungkin pecinta minuman dingin yang selalu menambahkan es batu ke dalam minuman kamu. Namun, kamu sebagai konsumen harus tahu juga apakah es batu yang ada di minuman kamu itu dibuat dari air matang atau mentah. Jangan asal meminumnya saja yaa.. Kamu sudah harus selektif dan hati-hati.
Walau terlihat sepele, es batu akan mencair dan menyatu dengan minumanmu. Jika kamu tidak selektif dan cuek, kamu juga yang akan rugi karena hal tersebut berbahaya untuk kesehatan. Kenali perbedaan es batu yang dibuat dari air matang atau mentah serta dampaknya di dalam artikel ini.
Es batu yang dibuat dari air matang warnanya bening seperti kristal.
Perhatikan es batu dalam minuman, apakah tampilannya bening seperti kristal? Jika iya, maka es batu tersebut dibuat dengan air matang. Alasannya, air mengikat udara dalam molekul-molekulnya sehingga saat proses pembekuan, molekul udara yang terperangkap di dalam es tidak terlalu banyak dan membuat warnanya menjadi bening.
Es batu yang dibuat dengan air mentah warnanya putih seperti susu.
Hal itu karena tidak adanya proses perebusan. Jika es batu yang dibuat dengan air matang berhasil melepaskan molekul udara yang diikat oleh air, maka jika tidak melalui proses perebusan alias pakai air mentah, molekul udara yang dilepaskan oleh air terperangkap dan akhirnya membentuk gelembung serta keruh.
Es batu yang dibuat dengan air mentah mengandung bakteri escherichia coli yang berbahaya bagi pencernaan, yaitu muntaber yang bisa menyebabkan tubuh menjadi lemah karena dehidrasi yang ditimbulkan dari bakteri ini.
Dehidrasi yang tidak mendapatkan cairan pengganti dengan cepat dapat mengakibatkan kerusakan ginjal dan organ tubuh lainnya yang berfungsi menghilangkan racun. Kamu tentu tidak mau mengalami penyakit ini. Untuk itu, alangkah baiknya untuk memilih es batu seperti apa yang kamu konsumsi.
Pabrik es batu menggunakan air mentah karena memang bukan untuk dikonsumsi, tapi untuk mengawetkan makanan seperti ikan dan makanan laut lainnya.
Pabrik es yang memproduksi es balok tentu tidak menggunakan air matang karena jumlahnya yang banyak. Namun, es balok dari pabrik ini bukan untuk dikonsumsi karena es balok tersebut di buat untuk mengawetkan makanan, bukan pendingin minuman. Jadi jika kamu merasa haus dan ingin membeli minum di pinggir jalan, kamu harus melihat apakah es batu yang digunakan menggunakan es batu atau tidak karena kalau iya, maka lebih baik jangan membelinya.
Jika kamu sudah mengetahui informasi ini, maka sebaiknya kamu waspada saat hendak membeli minuman dengan es batu. Jika bukan kamu sendiri yang peduli akan kesehatanmu, siapa lagi?
Basuki Tjahaja Purnama (born 29 June 1966) is an Indonesian politician and former governor of Jakarta. He is also known by his Hakka Chinese nickname Ahok (Chinese: 阿学).
Basuki was a legislator in the Indonesian People’s Representative Council and Regent of East Belitung. He was elected to the House of Representatives for the 2009–2014 term but resigned in 2012 to make a successful run for the deputy governorship of Jakarta. In November 2014, he became governor of Jakarta, as his predecessor Joko Widodo had become president. Allegations of blasphemy were commenced in October 2016 during which, he was defeated by Anies Baswedan in the 2017 Jakarta gubernatorial election and was then controversially jailed for insulting Islam.
Basuki was the second governor of Jakarta with Chinese ancestry and also the city’s second Christian governor, following Henk Ngantung, who was governor from 1964-65.
1 Personal Life
Early involvement with politics
2007 Bangka-Belitung governor election
Parliamentary career (2009–2012)
Jakarta’s deputy governor (2012–2014)
Jakarta governor election, 2017
Racism against Ahok
Allegations of religious blasphemy
Awards and Achievements
Eviction of illegal squatters
Basuki Tjahaja Purnama (EYD: Basuki Cahaya Purnama; Chinese: 钟万学; Tjung Ban Hok; pinyin: Zhōng Wànxué; Hakka Pha̍k-fa-sṳ: Chûng Van-ho̍k) was born on 29 June 1966 and grew up in Manggar, East Belitung. He is the first son of Buniarti Ningsih and the late Indra Tjahaja Purnama. Basuki has three siblings: Basuri Tjahaja Purnama, Fifi Lety, and Harry Basuki.
Basuki attended Trisakti University, majoring in mineral resources and technology. He graduated with a bachelor of science degree in geological engineering in 1989 and returned to his hometown in Belitung to build a company that dealt in mining contracts.
After two years of working in the company, he decided to pursue a master’s degree in financial management at Prasetiya Mulya Business School in Jakarta. He graduated with a Master of Business Administration.
Basuki married Veronica Tan on 6 September 1997, and the couple has three children: Nicolas Sean, Natania, and Daud Albeneer. He divorced her in 2018, gaining custody of the two younger children.
Early Involvement with Politics
Basuki entered politics in his home region of Belitung. He contested the 2005 East Belitung regent election with Khairul Effendi as his running mate and was elected with 37.13% of the vote. He was hopeful Indonesia was breaking with its long and often violent history of prejudice and resentment. He is nicknamed “The Father” and “The Law” for strong actions against corruption. After a month in office, Basuki confronted key issues related to traffic congestion, labor, corruption and bureaucracy. He mediated a minimum wage increase, proposed incentives for street vendors to move to designated markets in order to reduce congestion, migrated poor villagers to new flats, launched sudden inspections of government offices, and proposed installing closed circuit cameras to improve accountability.
2007 Bangka-Belitung Governor Election
Basuki resigned from his position as East Belitung regent on 11 December 2006 in order to run in the 2007 Bangka-Belitung gubernatorial election. He later credited former Indonesian president Abdurrahman Wahid, for convincing him to run for public office. Wahid supported Basuki’s candidacy and praised Ahok’s healthcare reforms. Basuki was defeated by Eko Maulana Ali.
In 2008, Basuki wrote a biography titled Merubah Indonesia (Reforming Indonesia).
Parliamentary Career (2009–2012)
In 2009, Basuki was elected to the House of Representatives, as a Golkar politician. He was elected with 119,232 votes, and was assigned to the Second Commission. In 2011, he created a controversy during a visit to his local constituency. He was recorded by the local media condemning local tin mining businesses for causing environmental damage. The comment was regarded as an insult by a local youth NGO, who reported him to the House Ethics Committee.
Jakarta’s Deputy Governor (2012–2014)
An election flyer from the campaign of Joko Widodo and Basuki during the 2012 Jakarta gubernatorial election.
In 2011, Basuki considered running for Jakarta governor as an independent candidate. However, he opted not to run, as he was pessimistic about his chances of receiving 250,000 signatures, a requirement for running as an independent gubernatorial candidate in Jakarta. He then became the running mate of Joko Widodo in the 2012 election. Jokowi and Basuki won 1,847,157 (42.6%) votes in the first round, and 2,472,130 (53.82%) in the second round, defeating incumbent governor Fauzi Bowo. The ticket was nominated by the Indonesian Democratic Party – Struggle (PDI-P) and the Great Indonesia Movement Party (Gerindra). On 10 September 2014, Basuki left Gerindra because he opposed the party’s proposal to scrap direct elections for local leaders. Since then, he has been politically unaffiliated.
When Joko Widodo took a temporary leave from his post as Jakarta governor to campaign for President, Basuki became the acting Governor of Jakarta from 1 June to 22 July 2014. Following Jokowi’s victory, he succeeded him as governor and was sworn into office on 18 November 2014.
Jakarta Governor Election, 2017
Basuki initially had declared to run for the 2017 Jakarta gubernatorial election as an independent candidate with Teman Ahok (Friends of Ahok), a group of volunteers responsible for collecting over one million Resident Identity Cards, representing over one million supporters required by Indonesian law to be eligible to run from independent ticket. Due to a new state regulation that stricken independent candidate’s requirements to run for gubernatorial election, Basuki is set to run from political party ticket from three political parties, who previously declared endorsements earlier in 2016. The three political parties consisting Golkar, People’s Conscience Party, and Nasdem Party. On 20 September 2016, Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (PDIP) declared its support for Basuki.
In the first round of voting on 15 February 2017, Ahok secured passage to the second round run-off between two candidates, having secured approximately 43 percent of the vote, ahead of Anies Baswedan on 40 percent, and well ahead of Agus Yudhoyono on 17 percent.
Quick counts for the 19 April runoff indicated that Anies Baswedan was elected as governor; Ahok conceded defeat hours after the polls closed. The official results of the runoff was published by General Elections Commissions (KPU) in May, and Anies Baswedan was elected as the new governor of Jakarta.
Racism against Ahok
A candidate and a member of a minority ethnic group, Basuki has become the subject of occasional racist comments. During the 2017 gubernatorial campaign, he was regularly targeted by ultra-conservatives and supporters of rival candidates for being of Chinese descent. Furthermore, Basuki’s “double minority” background, being both a Christian and of Chinese descent, makes him a target of the hardliner Islamic Defenders Front (FPI). The group called for the revision of the Jakarta constitution to remove some of the governor’s responsibilities for government-affiliated Islamic organizations.
On 15 March 2016, for instance, Indonesian Army General Surya Prabowo commented that Ahok should “know his place lest the Indonesian Chinese face the consequences of his action”. This controversial comment was considered to hearken back to previous violence against the Indonesian Chinese.
Allegations of religious blasphemy
Islamist protests against Basuki in Jakarta, 31 March 2017
On 27 September 2016, while introducing a government project through a speech in front of citizens of the Thousand Islands, Basuki realized and acknowledged that it is understandable if some citizens would not vote for him because they are being “threatened and deceived” by some groups using Verse 51 of Al-Ma’ida and variations of it,” referring to a verse that some groups have cited as grounds to oppose him.
The provincial government of Jakarta uploaded the video recording to YouTube in a channel which often feature Basuki’s activities. The video was later edited by Buni Yani and one word was omitted from that video to create a misinterpretation of Basuki’s statement, and went viral as some citizens were considering it an insult on the Quran. The video became viral, Basuki was receiving threats to be lynched, and widely criticized in social media such as Facebook and Twitter.
There are Change.org petitions about his case. Petitions initiated by alumni of Harvard, Stanford, Washington, Berkeley, Michigan, etc. and the general public supporting him garnered tens of thousands of signatures, while those criticizing him also gained tens of thousands of signatures.
Some groups, like several extremist organizations including the Islamic Defenders Front (Front Pembela Islam), or the local chapter of the Indonesian Ulema Council, reported Basuki to the police, accusing him blindly of having violated Indonesia’s Law on Misuse and Insult of Religion.
On 10 October 2016, Basuki publicly apologized to those he offended with his statement, stating that it was not his intention to do so, and that some of his policies that he said had benefited Muslims, such as granting permits for Islamic schools, providing Jakarta Smart Cards (KJP) to the students, and building a mosque in the City Hall complex.
He also pointed out that during his September 7 speech in the Thousand Islands in which he mentioned Surah al-Maidah, verse 51 of the Quran, the residents were not insulted, and even amused during his recitation.
Imam Mohammad Tawhidi of Australia made a request to defend Jakarta Governor Basuki during his blasphemy trial. Tawhidi argued that the aggrieved Islamic groups had incorrectly interpreted the verse of the Quran that Basuki had allegedly referenced in a blasphemous manner. Tawhidi stated that there is nothing wrong with non-Muslims leading a Muslim-majority country. Tawhidi said he has received death threats from Indonesia’s extremist Islamic Defenders Front.
On 9 May 2017, Ahok was sentenced to two years in prison by North Jakarta District Court after being found guilty of blasphemy and inciting violence. The panel of judges rejected Basuki’s defense that he made reference to a Quranic verse to highlight political discrimination.
Based on the court hearing, the panel of judges said that the speech by Basuki in Thousand Islands, North Jakarta on 27 September 2016[ contained elements of blasphemy. The chief judge maintained that Ahok’s statement considered the Al-Maidah verse as a tool to deceive or a source of lies. He said the verse is part of the Koran, and that anyone who quotes it should not have any intent of deception. The judges took into consideration a book Basuki had written in 2008 titled Changing Indonesia. His book was judged as proof that he understood the verse in question. They determined the word aulia in the verse could be defined as leader, thus declaring that Basuki’s remarks to be degrading and insulting to the Koran. They also agreed with expert witnesses in the trial that Basuki’s remarks were a blasphemous offense.
Because of this case, Basuki was unable to finish his term as governor of Jakarta and was replaced by his deputy, Djarot Saiful Hidayat, who was acting governor until the administration completed its term in October 2017. Basuki and his lawyers decided not to appeal against the verdict. In an unusual move, the prosecutors filed an appeal against the verdict, arguing the sentence was much heavier than the 1-year imprisonment they had requested.
The verdict delivered by the panel of judges was met with scrutiny, condemnation and heavy criticism by many Indonesians and observers in the international community, in a case widely seen as a test of religious tolerance and free speech. Many said the verdict was politically driven, retaliatory in nature, and the judges had succumbed to pressure from: extremist Islamic groups, disgruntled corrupt business groups, and politicians and officials who were previously criticized by Basuki’s administration. The promotion of three judges from the panel a few days after the verdict also raised suspicions and spurred criticism from many Indonesians.
The singing protest for Ahok arranged by Addie MS.
Basuki’s jailing has been condemned by several human rights groups, including Amnesty International. Several civil society groups protested his imprisonment. Renowned music composer and conductor Addie MS conducted a singing protest in front of the Balai Kota. Candle-lit vigils were lit in various cities. Many observers and individuals both inside and outside of Indonesia have also petitioned the Indonesian government to amend the blasphemy law on the basis that it is discriminatory and targets minorities.
Basuki initially wished to appeal his sentence, but withdrew his appeal on 22 May 2017. He is currently incarcerated at Cipinang. In February 2018, he filed a case review request to the Supreme Court, with his lawyers citing a conviction for tampering with the video footage which was used as evidence against him. On 26 March, the Supreme Court rejected his appeal.
Before his arrest, Ahok had said that one day he wanted to be president of Indonesia. Although a parole was possible in August 2018, Ahok stated that he would serve his entire sentence before leaving prison. Ahok is scheduled to be released in early 2019 because of a parole at the Indonesian Independence day.
Awards and Achievements
Eviction of Illegal Squatters
Basuki was accused by various human rights group and academics to have violated human rights in implementing his public housing programs by employing forced evictions to the illegal squatters who had been occupying public facilities & government lands, and moving them to newly-built modern public housings, improving their livelihood & living standards. Jakarta Legal Aid Foundation noted that at least 16,000 illegal squatters families have been displaced in the two years during his administration. There were 193 forced evictions alone in 2016, compared to 113 in 2015.
Human rights groups noted that Basuki’s forced evictions were not done in accordance to the United Nations Economic and Social Council (Ecosoc) convention. The covenant is ratified by Indonesia with the issuance of Law No 11/2005. One of the conditions of the covenant requires a dialogue prior to an eviction and compensation for any damaged property. Basuki also deployed police and military personnel in most of its evictions.
Basuki claimed that his policies only evicting illegal squatters to uphold Rule of Law, but human right groups have argued that according to Indonesian land policy, the so-called illegal squatters should have received land certificate instead for living there more than 30 years. Basuki relocated the evicted dwellers to the privately funded public housing, but the relocation has drawn criticism for not meeting basic standards of living and having a very expensive living expense. Living expenses jumped from the equivalent of about $10 to $20 a month to $70 to $100.
Basuki was also accused of employing double standards in the evictions. Rujak Center for Urban Studies researcher Dian Tri Irawaty said, Basuki’s harsh evictions did not apply to commercial areas and elite neighborhoods in Jakarta. She cited the Taman Anggrek mall in West Jakarta, the neighborhoods and commercial areas in Kelapa Gading and Pluit in North Jakarta. Those areas were also built on water catchment areas.
When confronted, Basuki firmly brushed it off. He claimed that he had a different concept of human rights. The leader of human rights group KontraS, Haris Azhar, criticized Basuki for this statement, claiming that his anti-corruption image was “nothing but a publicity gimmick” for Basuki’s lack of awareness in human rights.
Meskipun banyak band-band pendatang baru yang di Indonesia, ternyata tidak membuat grup band ini membanting harga agar tetap mendapatkan job manggung. Kepopulerannya serta lagu-lagu yang memiliki kualitas baik membuat band-band ini menjadi band terkaya di Indonesia. tak hanya itu saja, bahkan setiap mereka manggung, konser mereka tidak pernah sepi penontotn. Penasaran kan? Berikut adalah daftar band terkaya di Indonesia.
Grup band terkaya di Indonesia
Band terkaya di Indonesia yang pertama adalah Slank. Meskipun seringkali dibatalkan oleh pihak kepolisian karena tidak ingin konser berakhir ricuh, grup band ini tidak membuat harga penampilannya menurun. Dipatok Rp 500 juta dalam setiap shownya membuat Kaka dan kawan-kawan selalu totalitas dalam membawakan lagu-lagu mereka. Tak hanya itu saja, Slank juga merupakan salah satu grub band yang memiliki banyak penggemar, maka jangan heran saat Slank manggung, akan ada slankers-slankers yang datang untuk menyaksikan.
Yang kedua adalah Noah. Grup band yang mengubah nama Peterpan menjadi nama Noah ini mematok bayaran yaitu Rp 400 juta dalam setiap shownya. Meskipun sang vokalis pernah mengalami masalah dengan hukum, tak menyurutkan minat masyarakat untuk menyukai band yang digawangi oleh Ariel ini.
Ungu merupakan band Indonesia dengan bayaran termahal selanjutnya. Grup band yang satu ini dapat dikatakan sebagai grup band terlaris sepanjang masa. Hal ini dikarenakan setiap ada acara-acara televisi ataupun event lainnya, pasti salah satu bintang tamu mereka adalah Ungu. Untuk mengundang grup band ini, Anda harus mengeluarkan budget hingga Rp 350 juta setiap shownya.
Siapa yang tidak mengetahui grup band yang satu ini? Gaya bernyanyi dari band ini memiliki ciri khas yang berbeda dari band lainnya. Berkat ketenarannya, Nidji mematok harga Rp 270 juta hingga Rp 280 juta dalam setiap shownya.
Yovie and Nuno
Anak-anak muda pasti mengetahui lagu milik Yovie and Nuno ini. Lagu mereka yang sangat mudah diingat dan menggambarkan kehidupan remaja masa kini, membuat lagu dari grup band ini disukai oleh semua kalangan. Dalam sekali tampil, grup band ini mematok harga yaitu Rp. 250 jutahingga Rp. 275 juta.
Grup band terkaya di Indonesia selanjutnya adalah Gigi. Meskipun memiliki umur band yang sudah tidak muda lagi, tidak menyurutkan Gigi untuk berhenti berkarya. Bahkan hampir setiap bulan Ramadhan, band ini selalu merilis lagu-lagu religi. Tak hanya itu saja, jadwal show mereka yang tidak pernah sepi membuat band ini memiliki bayaran Rp 200 juta dalam setiap shownya.
Nah sekarang sudah tahukan apa saja grup band terkaya di Indonesia? Selain itu Setia Band juga merupakan salah satu band terkaya di Indonesia dengan bayaran Rp. 170 juta hingga Rp. 180 juta per show nya.
Dr. (HC) Drs. H. Mohammad Hatta (lahir dengan nama Mohammad Athar, populer sebagai Bung Hatta; lahir di Fort de Kock (sekarang Bukittinggi, Sumatera Barat), Hindia Belanda, 12 Agustus 1902 – meninggal di Jakarta, 14 Maret 1980 pada umur 77 tahun) adalah tokoh pejuang, negarawan, ekonom, dan juga Wakil Presiden Indonesia yang pertama. Ia bersama Soekarno memainkan peranan penting untuk memerdekakan bangsa Indonesia dari penjajahan Belanda sekaligus memproklamirkannya pada 17 Agustus 1945. Ia juga pernah menjabat sebagai Perdana Menteri dalam Kabinet Hatta I, Hatta II, dan RIS. Ia mundur dari jabatan wakil presiden pada tahun 1956, karena berselisih dengan Presiden Soekarno. Hatta juga dikenal sebagai Bapak Koperasi Indonesia.
Bandar udara internasional Tangerang Banten, Bandar Udara Soekarno-Hatta, menggunakan namanya sebagai penghormatan terhadap jasa-jasanya. Selain diabadikan di Indonesia, nama Mohammad Hatta juga diabadikan di Belanda yaitu sebagai nama jalan di kawasan perumahan Zuiderpolder, Haarlem dengan nama Mohammed Hattastraat. Pada tahun 1980, ia meninggal dan dimakamkan di Tanah Kusir, Jakarta. Bung Hatta ditetapkan sebagai salah satu Pahlawan Nasional Indonesia pada tanggal 23 Oktober 1986 melalui Keppres nomor 081/TK/1986.
Pendidikan dan pergaulan
Perjuangan dan Pergerakan
1921-1932: Sewaktu di Belanda
1942-1945: Penjajahan Jepang
1945: Mempersiapkan kemerdekaan Republik Indonesia
1945-1956: Menjadi Wakil Presiden pertama di Indonesia
1956-1980: Setelah pensiun
Mendapat Gelar Pahlawan
Bung Hatta Award
Rumah Kelahiran Bung Hatta yang sekarang terletak di Jalan Sukarno-Hatta, Kota Bukittinggi
Mohammad Hatta lahir dari pasangan Muhammad Djamil dan Siti Saleha yang berasal dari Minangkabau. Ayahnya merupakan seorang keturunan ulama tarekat di Batuhampar, dekat Payakumbuh, Sumatera Barat. Sedangkan ibunya berasal dari keluarga pedagang di Bukittinggi. Ia lahir dengan nama Muhammad Athar pada tanggal 12 Agustus 1902. Namanya, Athar berasal dari Bahasa Arab, yang berarti “harum”. Ia merupakan anak kedua, setelah Rafiah yang lahir pada tahun 1900. Sejak kecil, ia telah dididik dan dibesarkan dalam lingkungan keluarga yang taat melaksanakan ajaran agama Islam. Kakeknya dari pihak ayah, Abdurahman Batuhampar dikenal sebagai ulama pendiri Surau Batuhampar, sedikit dari surau yang bertahan pasca-Perang Padri. Sementara itu, ibunya berasal dari keturunan pedagang. Beberapa orang mamaknya adalah pengusaha besar di Jakarta.
Ayahnya meninggal pada saat ia masih berumur tujuh bulan. Setelah kematian ayahnya, ibunya menikah dengan Agus Haji Ning, seorang pedagang dari Palembang, Haji Ning sering berhubungan dagang dengan Ilyas Bagindo Marah, kakeknya dari pihak ibu. Dari perkawinan Siti Saleha dengan Haji Ning, mereka dikaruniai empat orang anak, yang semuanya adalah perempuan.
Pendidikan dan pergaulan
Mohammad Hatta pertama kali mengenyam pendidikan formal di sekolah swasta. Setelah enam bulan, ia pindah ke sekolah rakyat dan sekelas dengan Rafiah, kakaknya. Namun, pelajarannya berhenti pada pertengahan semester kelas tiga. Ia lalu pindah ke ELS di Padang (kini SMA Negeri 1 Padang) sampai tahun 1913, kemudian melanjutkan ke MULO sampai tahun 1917. Selain pengetahuan umum, ia telah ditempa ilmu-ilmu agama sejak kecil. Ia pernah belajar agama kepada Muhammad Jamil Jambek, Abdullah Ahmad, dan beberapa ulama lainnya. Selain keluarga, perdagangan memengaruhi perhatian Hatta terhadap perekonomian. Di Padang, ia mengenal pedagang-pedagang yang masuk anggota Serikat Usaha dan juga aktif dalam Jong Sumatranen Bond sebagai bendahara. Kegiatannya ini tetap dilanjutkannya ketika ia bersekolah di Prins Hendrik School. Mohammad Hatta tetap menjadi bendahara di Jakarta.
Kakeknya bermaksud akan ke Mekkah, dan pada kesempatan tersebut, ia dapat membawa Mohammad Hatta melanjutkan pelajaran di bidang agama, yakni ke Mesir (Al-Azhar). Ini dilakukan untuk meningkatkan kualitas surau di Batu Hampar yang memang sudah menurun semenjak ditinggalkan Syaikh Abdurrahman. Tapi, hal ini diprotes dan mengusulkan pamannya, Idris untuk menggantikannya. Menurut catatan Amrin Imran, Pak Gaeknya kecewa dan Syekh Arsyad pada akhirnya menyerahkan kepada Tuhan.
Pada 18 November 1945, Hatta menikah dengan Rahmi Hatta dan tiga hari setelah menikah, mereka bertempat tinggal di Yogyakarta. Kemudian, dikarunai 3 anak perempuan yang bernama Meutia Farida Hatta, Gemala Rabi’ah Hatta, dan Halida Nuriah Hatta.
Perjuangan dan Pergerakan
1921-1932: Sewaktu di Belanda
Hatta (berdiri, kedua dari kanan) bersama para pengurus Perhimpunan Indonesia, pada waktu itu (tahun 1925) Hatta masih berstatus seorang bendahara di situ
Pergerakan politik ia mulai sewaktu bersekolah di Belanda dari 1921-1932. Ia bersekolah di Handels Hogeschool (kelak sekolah ini disebut Economische Hogeschool, sekarang menjadi Universitas Erasmus Rotterdam), selama bersekolah di sana, ia masuk organisasi sosial Indische Vereeniging yang kemudian menjadi organisasi politik dengan adanya pengaruh Ki Hadjar Dewantara, Cipto Mangunkusumo, dan Douwes Dekker. Pada tahun 1923, Hatta menjadi bendahara dan mengasuh majalah Hindia Putera yang berganti nama menjadi Indonesia Merdeka. Pada tahun 1924, organisasi ini berubah nama menjadi Indische Vereeniging (Perhimpunan Indonesia; PI).
Pada tahun 1926, ia menjadi pimpinan Perhimpunan Indonesia. Sebagai akibatnya, ia terlambat menyelesaikan studi. Di bawah kepemimpinannya, PI mendapatkan perubahan. Perhimpunan ini lebih banyak memperhatikan perkembangan pergerakan di Indonesia dengan memberikan banyak komentar, dan banyak ulasan di media massa di Indonesia. Setahun kemudian, ia seharusnya sudah berhenti dari jabatan ketua, namun ia dipilih kembali hingga tahun 1930. Pada Desember 1926, Semaun dari PKI datang kepada Hatta untuk menawarkan pimpinan pergerakan nasional secara umum kepada PI, selain itu dia dan Semaun membuat suatu perjanjian bernama “Konvensi Semaun-Hatta”. Inilah yang dijadikan alasan Pemerintah Belanda ingin menangkap Hatta. Waktu itu, Hatta belum meyetujui paham komunis. Stalin membatalkan keinginan Semaun, sehingga hubungan Hatta dengan komunisme mulai memburuk. Sikap Hatta ini ditentang oleh anggota PI yang sudah dikuasai komunis.
Pada tahun 1927, ia mengikuti sidang “Liga Menentang Imperialisme, Penindasan Kolonial dan untuk Kemerdekaan Nasional” di Frankfurt. Dalam sidang ini, pihak komunis dan utusan dari Rusia tampak ingin menguasai sidang ini, sehingga Hatta tidak bisa percaya terhadap komunis. Pada waktu itu, majalah PI, Indonesia Merdeka masuk dengan mudah ke Indonesia lewat penyelundupan, karena banyak penggeledahan oleh pihak kepolisian terhadap kaum pergerakan yang dicurigai.
Mohammad Hatta bersama Abdulmadjid Djojohadiningrat, Nazir Datuk Pamuntjak, dan Ali Sastroamidjojo
Pada 25 September 1927, Hatta bersama Ali Sastroamidjojo, Nazir Datuk Pamuntjak, dan Madjid Djojohadiningrat ditangkap oleh penguasa Belanda atas tuduhan mengikuti partai terlarang yang dikait-kaitkan dengan Semaun, terlibat pemberontakan di Indonesia yang dilakukan PKI dari tahun 1926-1927, dan menghasut (opruiing) supaya menentang Kerajaan Belanda. Moh. Hatta sendiri dihukum tiga tahun penjara. Mereka semua dipenjara di Rotterdam. Dia juga dituduh akan melarikan diri, sehingga dia yang sedang memperkenalkan Indonesia ke kota-kota di Eropa sengaja pulang lebih cepat begitu berita ini tersebar.
Semua tuduhan tersebut, ia tolak dalam pidatonya “Indonesia Merdeka” (Indonesie Vrij) pada sidang kedua tanggal 22 Maret 1928. Pidato ini sampai ke Indonesia dengan cara penyelundupan. Ia juga dibela 3 orang pengacara Belanda yang salah satunya berasal dari parlemen. Yang dari parlemen, bernama J.E.W. Duys. Tokoh ini memang bersimpati padanya. Setelah ditahan beberapa bulan, mereka berempat dibebaskan dari tuduhan, karena tuduhan tidak bisa dibuktikan.
Sampai pada tahun 1931, Mohammad Hatta mundur dari kedudukannya sebagai ketua karena hendak mengikuti ujian sarjana, sehingga ia berhenti dari PI; namun demikian ia akan tetap membantu PI. Akibatnya, PI jatuh ke tangan komunis, dan mendapat arahan dari partai komunis Belanda dan juga dari Moskow. Setelah tahun 1931, PI mengecam keras kebijakan Hatta dan mengeluarkannya dari organisasi ini. PI di Belanda mengecam sikap Hatta sebab ia bersama Soedjadi mengkritik secara terbuka terhadap PI. Perhimpunan menahan sikap terhadap kedua orang ini.
Pada Desember 1931, para pengikut Hatta segera membuat gerakan tandingan yang disebut Gerakan Merdeka yang kemudian bernama Pendidikan Nasional Indonesia yang kelak disebut PNI Baru. Ini mendorong Hatta dan Syahrir yang pada saat itu sedang bersekolah di Belanda untuk mengambil langkah kongkret untuk mempersiapkan kepemimpinan di sana. Hatta sendiri merasa perlu untuk menyelesaikan studinya terlebih dahulu. Oleh karenanya, Syahrir terpaksa pulang dan untuk memimpin PNI. Kalau Hatta kembali pada 1932, diharapkan Syahrir dapat melanjutkan studinya.
Sekembalinya ia dari Belanda, ia ditawarkan masuk kalangan Sosialis Merdeka (Onafhankelijke Socialistische Partij, OSP) untuk menjadi anggota parlemen Belanda, dan menjadi perdebatan hangat di Indonesia pada saat itu. Pihak OSP mengiriminya telegram pada 6 Desember 1932, yang berisi kesediaannya menerima pencalonan anggota Parlemen. Ini dikarenakan ia berpendapat bahwa ia tidak setuju orang Indonesia menjadi anggota dalam parlemen Belanda. Sebenarnya dia menolak masuk, dengan alasan ia perlu berada dan berjuang di Indonesia. Namun, pemberitaan di Indonesia mengatakan bahwa Hatta menerima kedudukan tersebut, sehingga Soekarno menuduhnya tidak konsisten dalam menjalankan sistem non-kooperatif.
Setelah Hatta kembali dari Belanda, Syahrir tidak bisa ke Belanda karena keduanya keburu ditangkap Belanda pada 25 Februari 1934 dan dibuang ke Digul, dan selanjutnya ke Banda Neira. Baik di Digul maupun Banda Neira, ia banyak menulis di koran-koran Jakarta, dan ada juga untuk majalah-majalah di Medan. Artikelnya tidak terlalu politis, namun bersifat lebih menganalisis dan mendidik pembaca. Ia juga banyak membahas pertarungan kekuasaan di Pasifik.
Semasa diasingkan ke Digul, ia membawa semua buku-bukunya ke tempat pengasingannya. Di sana, ia mengatur waktunya sehari-hari. Pada saat hendak membaca, ia tak mau diganggu. Sehingga, beberapa kawannya menganggap dia sombong. Ia juga merupakan sosok yang peduli terhadap tahanan. Ia menolak bekerja sama dengan penguasa setempat, misalnya memberantas malaria. Apabila ia mau bekerja sama, ia diberi gaji f 7.50 sebulan. Namun, kalau tidak, ia hanya diberi gaji f 2.50 saja. Gajinya itu tidak ia habiskan sendiri. Ia juga peduli terhadap kawannya yang kekurangan.
Di Digul, selain bercocok tanam, ia juga membuat kursus kepada para tahanan. Di antara tahanan tersebut, ada beberapa orang yang ibadah shalat dan puasanya teratur; baik dari Minangkabau maupun Banten. Tapi, mereka ditangkap karena -pada umumnya- terlibat pemberontakan komunis. Pada masa itu, ia menulis surat untuk iparnya untuk dikirimi alat-alat pertukangan seperti paku dan gergaji. Selain itu, dia juga menceritakan nasib orang-orang buangan dalam surat itu. Kemudian, ipar Hatta mengirim surat itu ke koran Pemandangan di Jakarta dan segera surat itu dimuat. Surat itu dibaca menteri jajahan pada saat itu, Colijn. Colijn mengecam pemerintah dan segera mengirim residen Ambon untuk menemui Hatta di Digul. Maka uang diberikan untuknya, Hatta menolak dan ia juga meminta supaya kalau mau ditambah, diberikan juga kepada pemimpin lain yang hidup dalam pembuangan.
Pada 1937, ia menerima telegram yang mengatakan dia dipindah dari Digul ke Banda Neira. Hatta pindah bersama Syahrir pada bulan Februari pada tahun itu, dan mereka menyewa sebuah rumah yang cukup besar. Di situ, ada beberapa kamar dan ruangan yang cukup besar. Adapun ruangan besar itu digunakannya untuk menyimpan bukunya dan tempat bekerjanya.
Sewaktu di Banda Neira, ia bercocok tanam dan menulis di koran “Sin Tit Po” (dipimpin Liem Koen Hian; bulanan ini berhenti pada 1938) dengan honorarium f 75 dalam Bahasa Belanda. Kemudian, ia menulis di Nationale Commantaren (Komentar Nasional; dipimpin Sam Ratulangi) dan juga, ia menulis di koran Pemandangan dengan honorarium f 50 sebulan per satu/dua tulisan. Hatta juga pernah menerima tawaran Kiai Haji Mas Mansur untuk ke Makassar, dia menolak dengan alasan kalaupun dirinya ke Makassara dia masih berstatus tahanan juga. Waktu itu, sudah ada Cipto Mangunkusumo dan Iwa Kusumasumantri. Mereka semua sudah saling mengenal.
Selain itu, di Banda Neira, Hatta juga mengajar kepada beberapa orang pemuda. Anak dr. Cipto belajar tata-buku dan sejarah. Ada juga anak asli daerah Banda Neira yang belajar kepada Hatta. Ada seorang kenalan Hatta dari Sumatera Barat yang mengirimkan dua orang kemenakannya untuk belajar ekonomi dan juga sejarah. Selain itu, dari Bukittinggi dikirim Anwar Sutan Saidi sebanyak empat orang pemuda yang belajar kepada Hatta.
Pada tahun 1941, Mohammad Hatta menulis artikel di koran Pemandangan yang isinya supaya rakyat Indonesia jangan memihak kepada baik ke pihak Barat ataupun fasisme Jepang. Kelak, pada zaman Jepang tulisan Hatta dijadikan bahan oleh penguasa Jepang untuk tidak percaya Hatta selama Perang Pasifik. Yang mana, kelak tulisan Hatta dibaca Murase, seorang Wakil Kepala Kenpeitei (dinas intelijen) dan menyarankan Hatta agar mengikuti Nippon Sheisin di Tokyo pada November 1943.
1942-1945: Penjajahan Jepang
Pada tanggal 8 Desember 1941, angkatan perang Jepang menyerang Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Ini memicu Perang Pasifik, dan setelah Pearl Harbor, Jepang segera menguasai sejumlah daerah, termasuk Indonesia. Dalam keadaan genting tersebut, Pemerintah Belanda memerintahkan untuk memindahkan orang-orang buangan dari Digul ke Australia, karena khawatir kerjasama dengan Jepang. Hatta dan Syahrir dipindahkan pada Februari 1942, ke Sukabumi setelah menginap sehari di Surabaya dan naik kereta api ke Jakarta. Bersama kedua orang ini, turut pula 3 orang anak-anak dari Banda yang dijadikan anak angkat oleh Syahrir.
Setelah itu, ia dibawa kembali ke Jakarta. Ia bertemu Mayor Jenderal Harada. Hatta menanyakan keinginan Jepang datang ke Indonesia. Harada menawarkan kerjasama dengan Hatta. Kalau mau, ia akan diberi jabatan penting. Hatta menolak, dan memilih menjadi penasihat. Ia dijadikan penasihat dan diberi kantor di Pegangsaan Timur dan rumah di Oranje Boulevard (Jalan Diponegoro). Orang terkenal pada masa sebelum perang, baik orang pergerakan, atau mereka yang bekerja sama dengan Belanda, diikutsertakan seperti Abdul Karim Pringgodigdo, Surachman, Sujitno Mangunkususmo, Sunarjo Kolopaking, Supomo, dan Sumargo Djojohadikusumo. Pada masa ini, ia banyak mendapat tenaga-tenaga baru. Pekerjaan di sini, merupakan tempat saran oleh pihak Jepang. Jepang mengharapkan agar Hatta memberikan nasihat yang menguntungkan mereka, malah Hatta memanfaatkan itu untuk membela kepentingan rakyat.
1945: Mempersiapkan kemerdekaan Republik Indonesia
Saat-saat mendekati Proklamasi pada 22 Juni 1945, Badan Penyelidik Usaha Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia (BPUPKI) membentuk panitia kecil yang disebut Panitia Sembilan dengan tugas mengolah usul dan konsep para anggota mengenai dasar negara Indonesia. Panitia kecil itu beranggotakan 9 orang dan diketuai oleh Ir. Soekarno. Anggota lainnya Bung Hatta, Mohammad Yamin, Achmad Soebardjo, A.A. Maramis, Abdulkahar Muzakir, Wahid Hasyim, H. Agus Salim, dan Abikusno Tjokrosujoso.
Kemudian pada 9 Agustus 1945, Bung Hatta bersama Bung Karno dan Radjiman Wedyodiningrat diundang ke Dalat (Vietnam) untuk dilantik sebagai Ketua dan Wakil Ketua Panitia Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia (PPKI). Badan ini bertugas melanjutkan hasil kerja BPUPKI dan menyiapkan pemindahan kekuasaan dari pihak Jepang kepada Indonesia. Pelantikan dilakukan secara langsung oleh Panglima Asia Tenggara Jenderal Terauchi. Puncaknya pada 16 Agustus 1945, terjadilah Peristiwa Rengasdengklok hari dimana Bung Karno bersama Bung Hatta diculik kemudian dibawa ke sebuah rumah milik salah seorang pimpinan PETA, Djiaw Kie Siong, di sebuah kota kecil Rengasdengklok (dekat Karawang, Jawa Barat).
Penculikan itu dilakukan oleh kalangan pemuda, dalam rangka mempercepat tanggal proklamasi kemerdekaan Indonesia. Malam hari, mereka mengadakan rapat untuk persiapan proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia di kediaman Laksamana Tadashi Maeda di Jalan Imam Bonjol 1 Jakarta. Sebelum rapat, mereka menemui somabuco (kepala pemerintahan umum) Mayjen Nishimura untuk mengetahui sikapnya mengenai pelaksanaan proklamasi kemerdekaan Indonesia. Pertemuan tersebut tidak menghasilkan kesepahaman sehingga tidak adanya kesepahaman itu meyakinkan mereka berdua untuk melaksanakan proklamasi kemerdekaan itu tanpa kaitan lagi dengan Jepang.
1945-1956: Menjadi Wakil Presiden pertama di Indonesia
Pada 17 Agustus 1945, hari yang sangat ditunggu-tunggu oleh seluruh rakyat Indonesia dia bersama Soekarno resmi memproklamasikan kemerdekaan di Jalan Pegangsaan Timur 56 Jakarta pukul 10.00 WIB. Dan keesokan harinya pada tanggal 18 Agustus 1945, dia resmi dipilih sebagai Wakil Presiden RI yang pertama mendampingi Presiden Soekarno.
Selama menjadi Wakil Presiden, Bung Hatta amat gigih bahkan dengan nada sangat marah, menyelamatkan Republik dengan mempertahankan naskah Linggarjati di Sidang Pleno KNIP di Malang yang diselenggarakan pada 25 Februari – 6 Maret 1947 dan hasilnya Persetujuan Linggajati diterima oleh Komite Nasional Indonesia Pusat (KNIP) sehingga anggota KNIP menjadi agak lunak pada 6 Maret 1947.
Pada saat terjadinya Agresi Militer Belanda I pada 21 Juli 1947, Hatta dapat meloloskan diri dari kepungan Belanda dan pada saat itu dia masih berada di Pematangsiantar. Dia dengan selamat bersama dengan Gubernur Sumatera Mr. T. Hassan tiba di Bukittinggi. Sebelumnya pada 12 Juli 1947 Bung Hatta mengadakan Kongres Koperasi I di Tasikmalaya yang menetapkan tanggal 12 Juli sebagai Hari Koperasi di Indonesia. Kemudian dalam Kongres Koperasi II di Bandung tanggal 12 Juli 1953, Bung Hatta diangkat sebagai Bapak Koperasi Indonesia.
Kemudian, Bung Hatta dengan kewibawaannya sebagai Wakil Presiden hendak memperjuangkan sampai berhasil Perjanjian Renville dengan berakibat jatuhnya Kabinet Amir dan digantikan oleh Kabinet Hatta. Pada era Kabinet Hatta yang dibentuk pada 29 Januari 1948, Bung Hatta menjadi Perdana Menteri dan merangkap jabatan sebagai Menteri Pertahanan.
Suasana panas waktu timbul Pemberontakan PKI Madiun dalam bulan September 1948, memuncak pada penyerbuan tentara Belanda ke Yogyakarta pada 19 Desember 1948. Bung Hatta bersama Bung Karno diangkut oleh tentara Belanda pada hari itu juga. Pada tahun yang sama, Bung Hatta bersama Bung Karno diasingkan ke Menumbing, Bangka. Beberapa waktu setelah pengasingan karena mengalami adanya sebuah perundingan Komisi Tiga Negara (KTN) di Kaliurang, di mana Critchley datang mewakili Australia dan Cochran mewakili Amerika.
Mohammad Hatta berpidato di hadapan para peserta Konferensi Persiapan Nasional di Jakarta pada 26 November 1949. Tampak Sartono (duduk deretan depan no.2 dari kiri) mendengarkan dengan saksama.
Pada Juli 1949, terjadi kemenangan Cochran dalam menyelesaikan perundingan Indonesia. Tahun ini, terjadilah sebuah perundingan penting, Konferensi Meja Bundar (KMB) yang diadakan di Den Haag sesudah berunding selama 3 bulan, pada 27 Desember 1949 kedaulatan NKRI kita miliki untuk selamanya. Ratu Juliana memberi tanda pengakuan Belanda atas kedaulatan negara Indonesia tanpa syarat kecuali Irian Barat yang akan dirundingkan lagi dalam waktu setahun setelah Pengakuan Kedaulatan kepada Bung Hatta yang bertindak sebagai Ketua Delegasi Republik Indonesia di Amsterdam dan di Jakarta.
Di Amsterdam dari Ratu Juliana kepada Drs. Mohammad Hatta dan di Jakarta dari Dr. Lovink yang mewakili Belanda kepada Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono IX. Sehingga pada akhirnya negara Indonesia menjadi negara Republik Indonesia Serikat (RIS), Bung Hatta terpilih menjadi Perdana Menteri RIS juga merangkap sebagai Menteri Luar Negeri RIS dan berkedudukan di Jakarta dan Bung Karno menjadi Presiden RIS. Ternyata RIS tidak berlangsung lama, dan pada 17 Agustus 1950, Indonesia menjadi Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia (NKRI) dengan ibu kota Jakarta dan Perdana Menteri Mohammad Natsir. Bung Hatta menjadi Wakil Presiden RI lagi dan berdinas di Jalan Medan Merdeka Selatan 13 Jakarta.
Kunjungan kerja Wakil Presiden Moh.Hatta ke Yogyakarta tahun 1950. Tampak dalam gambar,paling kiri, Mayor Pranoto Reksosamodra sebagai Komandan Militer Kota Besar Yogyakarta.
Pada tahun 1955, Mohammad Hatta membuat pernyataan bahwa bila parlemen dan konstituante pilihan rakyat sudah terbentuk, dia akan mengundurkan diri sebagai wakil presiden. Menurutnya, dalam negara yang mempunyai kabinet parlementer, Kepala Negara adalah sekadar simbol saja, sehingga Wakil Presiden tidak diperlukan lagi.
Pada tanggal 20 Juli 1956, Mohammad Hatta menulis sepucuk surat kepada Ketua DPR pada saat itu, Sartono yang isinya antara lain, “Merdeka, Bersama ini saya beritahukan dengan hormat, bahwa sekarang, setelah Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat yang dipilih rakyat mulai bekerja, dan Konstituante menurut pilihan rakyat sudah tersusun, sudah tiba waktunya bagi saya untuk mengundurkan diri sebagai wakil presiden. Segera, setelah Konstituante dilantik, saya akan meletakkan jabatan itu secara resmi.”
DPR menolak secara halus permintaan Mohammad Hatta tersebut, dengan cara mendiamkan surat tersebut. Kemudian, pada tanggal 23 November 1956, Bung Hatta menulis surat susulan yang isinya sama, bahwa tanggal 1 Desember 1956, dia akan berhenti sebagai Wakil Presiden RI. Akhirnya, pada sidang DPR pada 30 November 1956, DPR akhirnya menyetujui permintaan Mohammad Hatta untuk mengundurkan diri dari jabatan sebagai Wakil Presiden, jabatan yang telah dipegangnya selama 11 tahun.
Di akhir tahun 1956 juga, Hatta tidak sejalan lagi dengan Bung Karno karena dia tidak ingin memasukkan unsur komunis dalam kabinet pada waktu itu. Sebelum ia mundur, dia mendapatkan gelar Doctor Honoris Causa dari Universitas Gajah Mada, Yogyakarta. Sebenarnya gelar Doctor Honoris Causa ingin diberikan pada tahun 1951. Namun, gelar tersebut baru diberikan pada 27 November 1956. Demikian pula Universitas Indonesia pada tahun 1951 telah menyampaikan keinginan itu tetapi Bung Hatta belum bersedia menerimanya. Kata dia, “Nanti saja kalau saya telah berusia 60 tahun.”.
1956-1980: Setelah pensiun
Foto terakhir Bung Hatta sebelum masuk rumah sakit, tanggal 1 Maret 1980. Di sebelah kanan adalah Ny. Moenadji Soerjohadikoesoemo.
Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX yang juga pernah menjabat sebagai Wakil Presiden RI tampak serius berbicara dengan Mohammad Hatta.
Setelah mundur dari jabatannya sebagai Wakil Presiden RI pada 1 Desember 1956, dia dan keluarga berpindah rumah dari Jalan Medan Merdeka Selatan 13 ke Jalan Diponegoro 57. Bung Hatta tak pernah menyesal atas keputusan yang telah ia buat. Kegiatan sehari-hari Bung Hatta setelah pensiun adalah menambah dari penghasilan menulis buku dan mengajar. Meskipun sudah tak menjabat lagi sebagai Wakil Presiden, pada tahun 1957 dia berangkat ke Cina karena mendapat undangan dari Pemerintah RRC. Rakyat sana masih menganggap dia sebagai “a great son of his country”, terbukti dari penyambutan yang seharusnya diberikan kepada seorang kepala negara di mana PM Zhou Enlai sendiri menyambut dia yang bukan lagi sebagai wakil presiden.
Mereka yang sibuk pada masa Revolusi berkumpul kembali tahun 1979 ketika Richard C. Kirby, yang dulu mewakili Australia dalam Komite Jasa Baik PBB untuk Indonesia (KTN), berkunjung ke Jakarta. Dari kanan : Ali Budiardjo (pembantu politik Hamengkubuwono IX menjelang RIS), Mohammad Hatta, Richard C. Kirby, Mohammad Roem, Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX, Subadio Sastrosatomo, Mohammad Natsir, Tamzil, dan Thomas K. Critchley yang menggantikan Kirby dalam Komite PBB.
Tahun 1963 Bung Hatta pertama kali mengalami jatuh sakit dan mendapatkan perawatan di Stockholm, Swedia atas perintah Soekarno, dengan biaya negara, karena perlengkapan medis di sana lebih lengkap.
Pada 31 Januari 1970, melalui Keppres No. 12/1970 telah dibentuk Komisi Empat yang bertugas mengusut masalah korupsi. Untuk keperluan itu Dr. Moh. Hatta (mantan Wakil Presiden RI) telah diangkat menjadi Penasehat Presiden dalam masalah pemberantasan Korupsi. Komisi Empat ini diketuai oleh Wilopo, SH, dengan anggota-anggota: IJ Kasimo, Prof. Dr. Yohanes, H. Anwar Tjokroaminoto, dengan sekretaris Kepala Bakin/Sekretaris Kopkamtib, Mayjen. Sutopo Juwono. Dr. Moh. Hatta juga ditunjuk sebagai Penasehat Komisi Empat tersebut. Tetapi secara kontroversial, Presiden Suharto membubarkan komisi tersebut dan hanya memberikan izin untuk mengusut tuntas 2 kasus korupsi saja.
Hatta dipercaya oleh Presiden Soeharto untuk menjadi Anggota Dewan Penasehat Presiden. Pada 15 Agustus 1972, Bung Hatta mendapat anugerah Bintang Republik Indonesia Kelas I dari Pemerintah Republik Indonesia. Kemudian, pada tahun yang sama Pemerintah Provinsi DKI Jakarta mengangkat dia sebagai warga utama Ibukota Jakarta dengan segala fasilitasnya, seperti perbaikan besarnya pensiun dan penetapan rumah dia menjadi salah satu gedung yang bersejarah di Jakarta.
Kemudian, pada tahun 1975, Bung Hatta menjadi anggota Panitia Lima bersama Prof Mr. Soebardjo, Prof Mr. Sunario, A.A. Maramis, dan Prof Mr. Pringgodigdo untuk memberi pengertian mengenai Pancasila sesuai dengan alam pikiran dan semangat lahir dan batin para penyusun UUD 1945 dengan Pancasilanya. Ternyata, Bung Hatta resmi menjadi Ketua Panitia Lima. Tak hanya itu, Bung Hatta kembali mendapatkan gelar doctor honouris causa sebagai tokoh proklamator dari Universitas Indonesia yang seharusnya diberikan pada tahun 1951. Pemberian gelar tersebut dilakukan di Jakarta pada 30 Juli 1975 dan diberikan secara langsung oleh Rektor Mahar Mardjono.
Pada Tahun 1978 bersama-sama Jenderal Abdul Haris Nasution, Bung Hatta mendirikan Yayasan Lembaga Kesadaran Berkonstitusi yang bertujuan mengkritik penggunaan Pancasila dan UUD 1945 untuk kepentingan rezim otoriter Suharto.
Dan pada tahun 1979, dimana tahun tersebut merupakan tahun ke-5 Bung Hatta masuk ke rumah sakit. Kesehatan Bung Hatta semakin menurun. Walaupun begitu, semangatnya tetap saja tinggi. Ia masih mengikuti perkembangan politik dunia.
Logo Bung Hatta Anti-Corruption Award (BHACA).
Hatta wafat pada tanggal 14 Maret 1980 pk18.56 di Rumah Sakit Cipto Mangunkusumo Jakarta setelah sebelas hari ia dirawat di sana. Selama hidupnya, Bung Hatta telah dirawat di rumah sakit sebanyak 6 kali pada tahun 1963, 1967, 1971, 1976, 1979, dan terakhir pada 3 Maret 1980. Keesokan harinya, dia disemayamkan di kediamannya Jalan Diponegoro 57, Jakarta dan dikebumikan di TPU Tanah Kusir, Jakarta disambut dengan upacara kenegaraan yang dipimpin secara langsung oleh Wakil Presiden pada saat itu, Adam Malik. Ia ditetapkan sebagai pahlawan proklamator pada tahun 1986 oleh pemerintahan Soeharto.
Mendapat Gelar Pahlawan
Setelah wafat, Pemerintah memberikan gelar Pahlawan Proklamator kepada Bung Hatta pada 23 Oktober 1986 bersama dengan mendiang Bung Karno. Pada 7 November 2012, Bung Hatta secara resmi bersama dengan Bung Karno ditetapkan oleh Presiden Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono sebagai Pahlawan Nasional.
Bung Hatta Award
Artikel utama untuk bagian ini adalah: Bung Hatta Award
Sejak 9 April 2003, Perkumpulan BHACA yang diprakarsai oleh Theodore Permadi Rachmat dan Teten Masduki menyelenggarakan perhelatan penganugerahan Bung Hatta Award yang diserahkan kepada para tokoh Indonesia dari berbagai latar belakang profesi yang dinilai memiliki komitmen anti-korupsi. Beberapa tokoh yang pernah menerima penghargaan tersebut antara lain Tri Risma Harini, Basuki Tjahaja Purnama, dan Joko Widodo.
Hatta, Mohammad, Mohammad Hatta Memoir, Tinta Mas Jakarta, 1979
Deliar Noer. 1990. Mohammad Hatta, Biografi Politik. Jakarta: LP3ES.
Greta O. Wilson (ed.). 1978. Regents, reformers, and revolutionaries: Indonesian
Voices of Colonial Days. Asian Studies at Hawaii, no 21. The University Press of Hawaii.
George McTurnan Kahin. 1952. Nationalism and Revolution in Indonesia. Cornell University Press.
Sekretariat Negara Republik Indonesia. 1975. 30 Tahun Indonesia Merdeka. Jakarta: PT Citra Lamtoro Gung Persada
Swasono, Meutia Farida. 1981. Bung Hatta Pribadinya Dalam Kenangan. Jakarta: Sinar Harapan
Team Dokumentasi Presiden RI. 2003. Jejak Langkah Pak Harto 28 Maret 1968-23 Maret 1973. Jakarta: PT. Citra Kharisma Bunda
Tim Penyusun. 1981. Bung Hatta. Jakarta: (unknown)
Wahyu, Christoporus. 2012. Pemerintah Akhirnya Akui Bung Karno-Bung Hatta Pahlawan Nasional.
CHRISTOPORUS WAHYU HARYO P Kompas 06/11/2012, 18:30 WIB
Pemerintah akhirnya menganugerahi proklamator Republik Indonesia, Soekarno dan Muhammad Hatta, sebagai pahlawan nasional.
Penganugerahan gelar pahlawan nasional akan diberikan Presiden Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono kepada keluarga Bung Karno dan Bung Hatta, Rabu (7/11/2012) di Istana Negara.
“Kami tadi melaporkan kepada Presiden hasil sidang Dewan Gelar dan Kehormatan. Besok akan dilakukan penganugerahan gelar pahawan nasional kepada Ir Soekarno dan Muhammad Hatta.
Keppres akan segera ditandatangani sore ini, dan besok akan dilakukan penganugerahan pukul 11.00 WIB di Istana Negara,” kata Menteri Koordinator Bidang Politik, Hukum, dan Keamanan Djoko Suyanto yang juga Ketua Dewan Gelar dan Kehormatan, Selasa (6/11/2012) di Jakarta.
Djoko tidak menyebutkan alasan pemberian gelar pahlawan itu, termasuk mengapa baru diberikan sekarang. “Alasan mengapa akan disampaikan Presiden sendiri. Saya tidak akan banyak membahas mengenai hal itu,” kata Djoko.
Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
H. Mochamad Ridwan Kamil, S.T., M.U.D. (lahir di Bandung, Jawa Barat, 4 Oktober 1971; umur 47 tahun) adalah seorang arsitek dan politikus Indonesia yang menjabat sebagai Gubernur Jawa Barat sejak 5 September 2018. Sebelum menjadi pejabat, pria yang akrab dipanggil Kang Emil ini memiliki karier sebagai seorang arsitek merangkap dosen tidak tetap di Institut Teknologi Bandung. Emil merupakan putra dari pasangan Atje Misbach Muhjiddin dan Tjutju Sukaesih. Pada tahun 2013 Emil yang dari kalangan profesional dicalonkan oleh Partai Keadilan Sejahtera dan Partai Gerakan Indonesia Raya sebagai wali kota Bandung dengan didampingi oleh Oded Muhammad Danial sebagai calon wakil wali kota. Dalam rapat pleno Komisi Pemilihan Umum Kota Bandung pada 28 Juni 2013, pasangan ini unggul telak dari tujuh pasangan lainnya dengan meraih 45,24% suara sehingga pasangan Ridwan dan Oded menjadi pemenang dalam Pemilihan umum Wali Kota Bandung 2013.
Pada pemilihan umum Gubernur Jawa Barat 2018, Ridwan Kamil diusung sebagai calon gubernur, berpasangan dengan Uu Ruzhanul Ulum oleh PPP, PKB, Partai Nasdem, dan Partai Hanura.
SDN Banjarsari III Bandung 1978-1984
SMP Negeri 2 Bandung 1984-1987
SMA Negeri 3 Bandung 1987-1990
Sarjana S-1 Teknik Arsitektur Institut Teknologi Bandung 1990-1995
Master of Urban Design University of California, Berkeley 1999-2001
Setelah lulus S-2 dari University of California, Berkeley, Ridwan Kamil melanjutkan pekerjaan profesional sebagai arsitek di berbagai firma di Amerika Serikat.
Sebelumnya Ridwan Kamil memulai karier bekerjanya di Amerika sesaat setelah lulus S-1, akan tetapi hanya berkisar empat bulan ia pun berhenti kerja karena terkena dampak krisis moneter yang melanda Indonesia saat itu.
Tidak langsung pulang ke Indonesia, dia bertahan di Amerika sebelum akhirnya mendapat beasiswa di University of California, Berkeley.
Selagi mengambil S-2 di Universitas tersebut Ridwan Kamil bekerja paruh waktu di Departemen Perencanaan Kota Berkeley. Pada tahun 2002 Ridwan Kamil pulang ke tanah kelahirannya Indonesia dan dua tahun kemudian mendirikan Urbane, perusahaan yang bergerak dalam bidang jasa konsultan perencanaan, arsitektur dan desain.
Kini Ridwan Kamil aktif menjabat sebagai Prinsipal PT. Urbane Indonesia, Dosen Jurusan Teknik Arsitektur Institut Teknologi Bandung, serta Senior Urban Design Consultant SOM, EDAW (Hong Kong & San Francisco), dan SAA (Singapura).
Urbane adalah perusahaan yang didirikan oleh Ridwan Kamil pada tahun 2004 bersama teman-temannya seperti Achmad D. Tardiyana, Reza Nurtjahja dan Irvan W. Darwis. Reputasi Internasional sudah mereka bangun dengan mengerjakan projek-projek di luar Indonesia seperti Syria Al-Noor Ecopolis di negara Syria dan Suzhou Financial District di China.
Tim Urbane sendiri terdiri dari para profesional muda yang kreatif dan berpikir idealis untuk mencari dan menciptakan solusi mengenai masalah desain lingkungan dan perkotaan.
Urbane juga memiliki projek berbasis komunitas dalam Urbane Projek Komunitas di mana visi dan misinya adalah membantu orang-orang dalam sebuah komunitas perkotaan untuk memberikan donasi dan keahlian-keahlian dalam meningkatkan daerah sekitarnya.
Urbane telah banyak dianugerahi penghargaan dari media internasional seperti BCI Asia Awards tiga tahun berturut-turut pada tahun 2008, 2009 dan 2010 dan juga BCI Green Award pada tahun 2009 atas projek desain Rumah Botol (dari botol bekas).
Urbane juga sering mengikuti kompetisi di bidang desian arsitektur tingkat nasional seperti Juara 1 kompetisi desain Museum Tsunami di Nangro Aceh Darrussalam tahun 2007, Juara 1 kompetisi desain kampus 1 Universitas Tarumanegara tahun 2007, Juara 1 kompetisi desain Fakultas Ilmu Budaya di Universitas Indonesia tahun 2009, juara 1 kompetisi desain Sanggar Nagari di Kota Baru Parahyangan di Kabupaten Bandung Barat dan juara 1 kompetisi desain Pusat Seni dan Sekolah Seni di Universitas Indonesia tahun 2009.
Hasil-hasil karya Urbane:
Universitas Tarumanegara Kampus 1, Jakarta (2005)
Mesjid Agung Sumatra Barat, Mahligai Minang (2006)
Paramount Lakes Gading Serpong, (2006)
Gramedia Expo Surabaya (2006)
Masjid Cibubur, Bogor (2007)
Bintaro X-Change, Tangerang (2007)
Kota Jababeka Remasterplan, Cikarang (2007)
Kampus UMN, Serpong (2007)
Area 24, Jakarta (2007)
Hotel Santika Premiere, Medan (2007)
Jembatan Westdrain Ancol, Jakarta (2007)
Kuningan City, Jakarta (2007)
Bottle House (Rumah Botol), Bandung (2008)
Paramount Gateaway, Serpong (2008)
Masjid Al-Irsyad Kota Baru Parahyangan, Kab. Bandung Barat (2008)
Springhill Royal Residences, Jakarta (2008)
Kantor BUMN, Jakarta (2008)
The Convergence, Jakarta (2008)
Rusunami Sentra Timur, Cakung (2008)
Pusat Kesenian dan Kebudayaan Universitas Indonesia, Depok (2009)
The Magix Box, Fakultas Seni Budaya Universitas Indonesia (2009)
Medan Focal Point, Medan (2009)
Museum Taufik Hidayat, Jakarta (2009)
Masjid Semarang, Semarang (2010)
Masjid Suramadu, Madura (2010)
Masjid Gegerkalong, Bandung (2010)
Museum Tsunami Aceh-Rumoh Aceh, NAD (2010)
Harris Hotel Bogor, Bogor (2011)
Masjid Antapani, Bandung (2011)
Heteropia Office Tower, Jakarta (2011)
Kantor Persatuan Insinyur Indonesia (PII), Jakarta (2012)
Allium Tangerang Hotel, Banten (2011)
Hotel Horison Ultima, Purwokerto (2011)
Hotel Tijili Seminyak, Bali (2011)
18 Office Park, Jakarta (2011)
Discovery World Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Cibubur, Bogor (2011)
United Tractors office, Bekasi (2012)
LKPP Office, Jakarta (2012)
Bank Saudara Office, Bandung (2012)
Essence Apartment, Jakarta (2012)
Kirana Two, Jakarta (2012)
Senayan Aquatic Stadium, Jakarta (2012)
Masjid Al-Azhar, Summarecon, Bekasi (2013)
Masjid Emerald Bintaro, Tangerang (2013)
Sosial dan Komunitas.
Taman Bermain Babakan Asih Kopo Bandung. Ini adalah program perbaikan kampung dengan cara membeli sepetak tanah untuk menjadi taman bermain anak dan kegiatan lomba mewarnai dinding kampung dengan gambar-gambar kreatif.
Komunitas Bandung Berkebun. Kegiatan ini adalah cara warga Bandung memanfaatkan lahan-lahan kosong untuk dihijaukan oleh tanaman pertanian seperti sayur-sayuran. Lokasi kebun-kebun ini juga menjadi ruang sosial sebagai alternatif akhir pekan bagi anak-anak. Hasil panen sebagian di jual untuk penghasilan tambahan anggota komunitas.
Gerakan indonesia Bersepeda (Bike Bdg). Kegiatan ini memberikan pilihan kepada warga kota bandung untuk beraktifitas sehari-hari dengan sepeda sewa (Bike Sharing).
Deklarasi Babakan Siliwangi sebagai Hutan Kota Dunia PBB.
Bandung Creative Park Project : Taman Cikapayang Dago
Masjid Merapi, merupakan proyek sosial yang menggunakan abu letusan gunung merapi dikonversi menjadi batako.
Rumah Gempa Padang, Proyek sosial ini merupakan pembangunan rumah-rumah tahan gempa dengan material kayu dan bambu lokal.
Lampu Botol (Walking Brain).
Bottle House, rumah yang dirancang dengan konsep ‘courtyard house’ dibangun dengan lebih dari 30000 botol bekas.
Museum Tsunami Aceh. Museum ini merupakan hasil desain karya sayembara pada tahun 2007 untuk memperingati musibah Tsunami
Penghargaan kepada Ridwan Kamil
Urban Leadership Award dari Univ Pensylvania, AS
Pikiran Rakyat Award 2012 untuk Tokoh Muda Kreatif
Winner International Young Design Entrepreneur of the Year from British Council Indonesia
Google Chrome l Web Heroes for Indonesia Berkebun
Indonesia Green Awards “Penghargaan Penginspirasi Bumi”, Penggagas Indonesia Berkebun
Indonesia Green Awards “Penghargaan Penginspirasi Bumi”, Green Building Rasuna Epicentrum
Green Leadership Award for Al-Irsyad Mosque from BCI Asia
Top 5, Best Building of The Year 2010 from ArchDaily for Al-Irsyad Mosque
BCI Asia Top Ten Architecture Business Award
Winner third prize : Design Competition Suramadu Mosque
The 6th Winner of The Best Design Architecture Consultant, Citradata Award
Architect of the Year from Elle Décor Magazine.
BCI Asia Top Ten Architecture Business Award
Winner first prize : Design Competition University of Indonesia Cultural Center
Winner first prize : Design competition for Tangerang Gateway, 2008
BCI Asia Top Ten Architecture Business Award 2007
Winner first prize : International Design competition for Aceh Tsunami Museum
Winner first prize : Design competition Bintaro CBD Master Plan, Jakarta
Winner first prize : Design competition Jakarta Stock Exchange, Jakarta
Winner first prize : International Design competition for Aceh Tsunami Museum
Winner first prize : Design competition Bintaro CBD Master Plan, Jakarta
Winner first prize : Design competition Jakarta Stock Exchange, Jakarta
Winner International Young Design Entrepreneur of the Year from British Council Indonesia
Winner Best Commercial/Superblock Project for Rasuna Epicentrum by Property&Bank Magazine
Winner Mowilex Design Awards (Al-Azhar International School)
Winner first prize : Design competition Kemayoran Urban Gateway
Winner second prize : National design competition – Penabur International School, Jakarta
Winner first prize : International Design competition Waterfront Retail Masterplan, Suzhou, RRC
Winner first prize : International Design competition Kunming Tech Park, Kunming, RRC
Winner first prize : National design competition – University of Tarumanagara
Winner second prize : National design competition – Agung Sedayu Club House, Jakarta
Winner third prize : National design competition Jatinegara District Revitalization, Jakarta
Winner first prize : International Design competition – Islamic Center, Beijing, RRC,
Winner second prize : Design competition Senen District Revitalization
Urban Architecture di Universitas Tarumanegara, Rasuna Epicentrum, dan Area Expo Surabaya.
Gan and Oil Tower, Jakarta.
Sahid Twin Tower, Jakarta.
Beijing Finance Street superblock.
Masjid Al Irsyad Kota Baru parahyangan, Jawa barat.
Urban Design di Jedah Town, dan Al Noor Ecopolis di Syria.
Ridwan Kamil tampil sebagai cameo dalam beberapa produksi film dan televisi, khususnya yang ber-setting di kota Bandung. Penampilannya antara lain adalah di sinetron serial Preman Pensiun serta film The Wedding & Bebek Betutu , film Total Chaos dan Dilan 1990
Ternyata Asam Lambung Bisa Diobati dengan Bahan Rumahan Ini Loh, Bisa Bikin Sendiri Nih!
Di rumah, Anda juga dapat mencoba membuat ramuan alami sendiri. Inilah beberapa contoh ramuan alami untuk mengobati asam lambung:
Jahe memiliki sifat antiradang yang secara alami dapat mengatasi nyeri ulu hati dan masalah pencernaan lainnya. Penggunaan jahe untuk mengatasi gejala GERD atau refuks asam lambung adalah dengan mengolahnya sebagai minuman hangat. Selain jahe mentah, Anda bisa menikmati minuman jahe hangat dari produk jahe bubuk yang dijual di pasaran.
Licorice atau akar manis
Licorice atau disebut juga akar manis, dipercaya dapat mengatasi masalah pada sistem pencernaan, seperti nyeri ulu hati atau heartburn. Bahan kimia yang terkandung di dalam tanaman ini disebut dapat mengurangi pembengkakan, dan menyembuhkan peradangan atau luka dalam tubuh.
Daun dan akar marshmallow biasa digunakan untuk mengobati sakit maag, diare, konstipasi, peradangan pada lapisan lambung, juga nyeri serta pembengkakan selaput lendir yang melapisi saluran pernapasan.
Marshmallow mengandung bahan kimia yang dapat meredakan batuk dan membantu menyembuhkan luka, dengan mengurangi peradangan dan melawan mikroba tertentu. Marshmallow juga membentuk lapisan pelindung pada kulit dan lapisan saluran pencernaan.
Teh chamomile sudah sering digunakan untuk meredakan nyeri perut dan ulu hati, mual, muntah, serta secara tradisional dipercaya dapat mengatasi susah tidur.
Ramuan herbal tersebut mungkin dapat menjadi cara alami dan efektif untuk mengurangi gejala GERD. Namun, perlu Anda ketahui bahwa khasiat dan efektivitas ramuan herbal tersebut belum didukung oleh penelitian dan bukti klinis yang memadai. Jadi, Anda tetap disarankan untuk berkonsultasi ke dokter sebelum menggunakannya.
Selain dengan ramuan herbal, ada beberapa makanan yang dapat membantu meredakan gejala asam lambung. Di antaranya adalah:
Sayuran, seperti brokoli, asparagus, sayuran hijau, buncis, kembang kol, kentang, dan mentimun.
Oatmeal dan roti gandum. Menu sarapan yang terbuat dari gandum utuh ini merupakan sumber serat yang dapat menyerap asam lambung dan meredakan gejala refluks.
Buah non-sitrus, seperti buah melon, pisang, apel, dan pir.
Daging tanpa lemak, seperti ayam, kalkun, ikan, dan makanan laut rendah lemak. Olah daging dengan cara dipanggang, dibakar, atau direbus.
Usaha untuk mengobati asam lambung dapat dilakukan secara mandiri melalui perubahan gaya hidup. Walau tidak ada bahan alami yang dapat memperbaiki kerusakan kerongkongan akibat GERD, beberapa jenis ramuan alami mungkin dapat membantu meredakan gejala. Selain itu, berbagai obat untuk mengendalikan asam lambung bisa Anda beli di apotek tanpa resep dokter. Namun, jika gejalanya tidak kunjung membaik, segeralah memeriksakan diri ke dokter agar dapat diberikan pengobatan yang tepat.