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Konvers, invers dan kontraposisi

Misalkan p dan q suatu pernyataan, maka sebuah implikasi p → q akan mempunyai konvers, invers dan kontraposisi, yang didefinisikan :

Konversnya adalah : q → p
Inversnya adalah : –p → –q
Kontraposisinya adalah : –q → –p

Untuk lebih jelasnya, ikutilah contoh soal berikut ini :

1. Pernyataan 1: Jika Amir memancing ikan maka ia pergi ke danau Dendam
Pernyataan 2: Jika Amir memancing ikan maka ia membawa alat pancing
jawab :
Konvers : Jika Amir pergi ke danau Dendam maka ia memancing ikan
Invers : Jika Amir tidak memancing ikan maka ia tidak pergi ke danau Dendam
Kontraposisi : Jika Amir tidak pergi ke danau Dendam maka ia tidak memancing ikan

Jawab
(a) Jika 6 habis dibagi 3 maka 6 bilangan ganjil
Misalkan
p : “6 habis dibagi 3” (Benar)
q : “6 bilangan ganjil” (Salah)
maka :
Konversnya : q → p ≡ S → B ≡ Benar
Inversnya : –p → –q ≡ S → B ≡ Benar
Kontraposisinya : –q → –p ≡ B → S ≡ Salah

(b) Jika 7 adalah bilangan prima maka Jakarta ibukota republik Indonesia
Misalkan
p : “7 adalah bilangan prima” (Benar)
q : “Jakarta ibukota republik Indonesia” (Benar)
maka :
Konversnya : q → p ≡ B → B ≡ Benar
Inversnya : –p → –q ≡ B → B ≡ Benar
Kontraposisinya : –q → –p ≡ B → B ≡ Benar

(c) Jika x habis dibagi 3 maka maka x habis pula dibagi 6
Misalkan
p : “x habis dibagi 3”
q : “x habis pula dibagi 6”
maka :
Konversnya
Jika x habis dibagi 6 maka maka x habis pula dibagi 3 (Salah)
Inversnya
Jika x tidak habis dibagi 3 maka maka x tidak habis pula dibagi 6 (Benar)
Kontraposisinya
Jika x tidak habis dibagi 6 maka maka x tidak habis pula dibagi 3 (Salah)

(d) Jika ABC adalah segitiga sama sisi maka ABC adalah segitiga sama kaki
Misalkan
p : “ABC adalah segitiga sama sisi”
q : “ABC adalah segitiga sama kaki”
maka :
Konversnya
Jika ABC adalah segitiga sama kaki maka ABC adalah segitiga sama sisi (Salah)
Inversnya
Jika ABC adalah bukan segitiga sama sisi maka ABC adalah bukan segitiga sama kaki (Salah)
Kontraposisinya
Jika ABC adalah bukan segitiga sama kaki maka ABC adalah bukan segitiga sama sisi (Benar)

Dari contoh soal diatas, dapat ditarik kesimpulan bahwa :
Implikasi ekivalen dengan kontraposisinya. Atau p → q ≡ –q → –p
Konvers ekivalen dengan inversnya. Atau q → p ≡ –p → –q

03. Diketahui implikasi : Jika Ahmad mengendarai sepeda motor maka ia memakai helm” Dari implikasi di atas tentukanlah :
(a) Negasi dari konversnya
(b) Negasi dari Inversnya
(c) Negasi dari Kontraposisinya

Jawab
Misalkan :
p : “Ahmad mengendarai sepeda motor”
q : “Ahmad memakai helm”
maka :
(a) Implikasi p → q negasinya p Ʌ –q
Konvers q → p negasinya q Ʌ –p
Sehingga negasi dari konvers pernyataan di atas adalah :
“Ahmad memakai helm tetapi ia tidak mengendarai sepeda motor”

(b) Implikasi p → q negasinya p Ʌ –q
Invers –p → –q negasinya –p Ʌ q
Sehingga negasi dari invers pernyataan di atas adalah :
“Ahmad tidak mengendarai sepeda motor tetapi ia memakai helm”

(c) Implikasi p → q negasinya p Ʌ –q
Kontraposisi –q → –p negasinya –q Ʌ p
Sehingga negasi dari kontraposisi pernyataan di atas adalah :
“Ahmad tidak memakai helm tetapi ia mengendarai sepeda motor”

04. Diketahui implikasi : “Jika hari hujan maka Tuti ke sekolah memakai payung”
Dari implikasi di atas tentukanlah :
(a) Invers dari konversnya
(b) Kontraposisi dari inversnya
(c) Konvers dari kontraposisinya
Jawab

(a) Implikasi :
Jika hari hujan maka Tuti ke sekolah memakai payung
Konversnya :
Jika Tuti ke sekolah memakai payung maka hari hujan
Invers dari konversnya
Jika Tuti ke sekolah tidak memakai payung maka hari tidak hujan

(b) Implikasi :
Jika hari hujan maka Tuti ke sekolah memakai payung
Inversnya :
Jika hari tidak hujan maka Tuti ke sekolah tidak memakai payung
Kontraposisi dari inversnya
Jika Tuti ke sekolah memakai payung maka hari hujan

(c) Implikasi :
Jika hari hujan maka Tuti ke sekolah memakai payung
Kontraposisinya :
Jika Tuti ke sekolah tidak memakai payung maka hari tidak hujan
Konvers dari kontraposisinya
Jika hari tidak hujan maka Tuti ke sekolah tidak memakai payung

Dari contoh soal diatas, dapat ditarik kesimpulan bahwa :
Konvers dari inversnya ≡ Kontraposisi
Konvers dari Kontraposisinya ≡ Invers
Invers dari Konversnya ≡ Kontraposisi
Invers dari Kontraposisinya ≡ Konvers
Kontraposisi dari inversnya ≡ Konvers
Kontraposisi dari Konversnya ≡ Invers

Modus Ponens

Premis 1 : Jika saya makan mie setiap hari, maka saya sakit
Premis 2 : Saya makan mie setiap hari

Saya sakit

Premis 1 : Jika gurunya datang maka murid senang
Premis 2 : Gurunya datang

Kesimpulan = Murid senang

Premis 1 : Jika seorang anak rajin belajar, maka ia lulus ujian
Premis 2 : Ahmad adalah anak yang rajin belajar

Kesimpulan : Ahmad lulus ujian

modus tolen :

Premis 1 : Jika saya makan mie setiap hari, maka saya sakit
Premis 2 : Saya makan mie setiap hari

Kesimpulan : Saya saya tidak lapar

Premis 1 : Jika hari ini hujan maka saya memakai payung
Premis 2 : Saya tidak memakai payung

Kesimpulan = Hari ini tidak hujan

Premis 1 : Jika seorang anak rajin belajar, maka ia lulus ujian
Premis 2 : Ahmad adalah anak yang rajin belajar

Kesimpulan : Ahmad lulus ujian

modus Silogisme :

Premis 1 : Jika kuliah libur, maka saya pulang
Premis 2 : Jika saya pulang, maka saya senang

Kesimpulan : Jika kuliah libur, maka saya senang

Premis 1 : Jika org gemar berolahraga maka bdnnya sehat
Premis 2 : Jika bdnnya sehat maka peredaran darahnya lancar

Kesimpulan = Jika org gemar berolahraga maka peredaran darahnya lancar

Premis 1 : Jika budi rajin belajar, maka ia naik kelas
Premis 2 :Jika ia naik kelas, maka akan dibelikan sepeda

Kesimpulan : Jika budi rajin belajar, maka akan dibelikan sepeda

Mimpi Muhlis Eso Membangun Museum Koleksi PD II di Morotai

Pasukan Sekutu pergi dari Morotai meninggalkan besi tua. Oleh Muhlis, besi-besi tua itu dikoleksi untuk sebuah museum mandiri.

Muhlis Eso adalah orang nomor satu yang harus dicari oleh para peneliti atau pencinta sejarah jika hendak menelusuri jejak Perang Dunia II di Morotai, salah satu pulau paling utara di Maluku. Beberapa media nasional pernah mengangkat kisahnya.

Di luar Morotai, terutama penikmat sejarah perang, orang lebih mengenal Muhlis Eso ketimbang Bupati Morotai. Laki-laki yang di Facebook mengaku sebagai pemandu wisata dan siap seharian memandu wisata sejarah Morotai ini punya kegilaannya sendiri sedari kecil. Sejak umur 10 tahun ia sudah berburu. Bukan berburu babi hutan pengganggu ladang, melainkan besi tua peninggalan Perang Dunia II. Satu kali ia bahkan pernah tersesat di hutan dekat kampungnya, Totodoku-Joubela. Muhlis baru ditemukan ayahnya saat jam 9 malam. Ketika Muhlis ditemukan, karung berisi artefak-artefak masih ditentengnya.

Itu semua karena kampung Muhlis termasuk daerah pendaratan pasukan Sekutu. Banyak peralatan perang milik Sekutu terangkut. Tak heran jika beberapa tahun belakangan, Muhlis Eso dengan peralatannya yang sederhana masih menemukan besi-besi tua, setelah tujuh dekade PD II berlalu.

Sepanjang perburuannya, Muhlis mengumpulkan banyak artefak seperti tempat minum, botol minuman Coca-Cola, botol obat-obatan, tempat makan, sendok, selongsong peluru, hingga senapan mesin. Sebagian dari temuan itu sudah tersaji di sebuah museum partikel di Morotai. Jumlahnya ratusan. Menurut perhitungannya, di sekitar kampung dia, masih ada sekitar 25 persen yang belum terangkat. Besi-besi tua yang tertinggal di Morotai itu berupa senjata api, peluru, mobil Jeep, tank amfibi, tempat minum, helm baja, sampai pesawat terbang.

Besi-besi tua itu ada yang tertimbun di dalam tanah serta di bawah lautan. Pesawat terbang buatan Inggris bahkan menjadi penghias karang di kedalaman laut di Morotai.

Barang-barang peninggalan PD II di Museum Swadaya Moratai. tirto/Petrik

Tak heran jika Suhario Padmodiwiryo dalam Memoar Hario Kecik: Autobiografi Seorang Mahasiswa Prajurit, Volume 1 (1995: 381) menulis bahwa Pulau Morotai “mendapat perhatian strategi militer … karena ada rongsokan raksasa berupa besi tua dari bermacam material perang yang ditinggalkan Jepang dan tentara Jenderal Douglas MacArthur sesudah Perang Dunia Kedua.”

Satu kali seorang pedagang keturunan Tionghoa dari Jakarta datang menghadap Letnan Kolonel Warouw, dengan membawa surat keterangan dari Kantor Sekretaris Jenderal Kementerian Pertahanan.

“Dalam surat itu ia diperkenankan untuk mengambil seluruh rongsokan di Morotai. Ia meminta izin untuk menumpuk besi tua di pelabuhan Manado untuk kemudian diekspor,” tulis Padmodiwiryo.

Muhlis Eso termasuk orang yang tidak suka besi-besi jejak PD II itu dijual. Ia tahu, jika hal ini dibiarkan, semua peninggalan sejarah—yang kini jadi bagian sejarah orang Morotai—akan hilang.

“Banyak sekali peninggalan yang berserakan. Tapi kenapa cuma dijual, dijual, dijual? Saya berpikir nanti ke depan akan habis,” kata Muhlis saat saya menemuinya di Morotai pada 9 April 2018.

Muhlis punya keinginan besar agar sejarah PD II di Morotai dimasukkan ke dalam buku-buku pelajaran sejarah di sekolah. Ada kengerian perang di sana. Jadi tidak cuma disinggung sepintas lalu.

Morotai menjadi batu pijakan bagi bagi kemenangan Jenderal Douglas MacArthur dan armadanya dalam PD II, yang menduduki Filipina lalu membuat Jepang menyerah pada 1945. Tetapi bagi Muhlis, ada hal yang lebih penting lagi, “Karena Morotai juga bagian dari sejarah Indonesia.”

Membangun Museum PD II Berbekal Swadaya

Soal jual-menjual besi tua, Muhlis Eso ingat pada sosok Herlina Kasim, si Pending Emas, sukarelawati yang terjun dalam Operasi Trikora ke Irian Barat. Herlina begitu dimuliakan dalam sejarah Indonesia.

Muhlis ingat ketika masih kecil, jumlah besi-besi tua berupa kendaraan perang melebihi yang ada sekarang. Tumpukan mobil tak terpakai peninggalan Sekutu terhampar di salah satu kebun kelapa. Ada Jeep Willys, mobil Chevrolet, panser, dan tank amfibi. Sebagai bocah, Muhlis bermain-main di atas Jeep atau di atas panser. Ia juga menemukan puing-puing pesawat dan kapal.

Dulu, kata Muhlis, baling-baling pesawat berserakan di pohon kelapa. Belakangan, besi-besi tua itu diangkut.

“Serpihan-serpihan seperti mobil yang ada, yang masih utuh, semua dibawa oleh Ibu Herlina. Dibawa ke Surabaya dan dilebur,” kata Muhlis. Puing-puing besi tua dari peralatan tempur itu dibawa ke Surabaya selama 1980-an dan 1990-an.

Sebelum Herlina, menurut catatan Phill Manuel Sulu dalam Permesta: jejak-jejak pengembaraan (1997), Laurens Saerang bermain besi tua Morotai. “Laurens. F. Saerang … dikenal sebagai konglomerat yang dijuluki Raja Besi Tua. Pria ganteng asal Langowan ini menjadi kaya-raya setelah sukses menjadi pedagang rongsokan peralatan Perang Dunia II di Pulau Morotai,” tulis Sulu.

Tak sekadar menyayangkan penjualan besi tua peninggalan PD II, Muhlis terobsesi membuat lagi museum PD II. Ia berkata sudah ikut membuat lima museum. “Saya rencana menjadikan tujuh museum. Walaupun dengan gubuk. Kenapa? Agar bisa seperti Landasan Pitu. Karena jumlah landasan Pitu ada tujuh,” ujar Muhlis.

Salah satu sudut koleksi peninggalan PD II di Moratai yang dikumpulkan Muhlis Eso di museumnya. tirto/Petrik

Kegilaannya pada besi tua terpelihara kuat. Meski punya banyak keterbatasan, upayanya jalan terus. Kini, di rumahnya yang masih dibangun, di tengah-tengah kebun kelapa di tepi Jalan Amerika, Desa Tubela, Morotai Selatan, ia tengah merintis satu lagi museum. Laki-laki yang mengaku lebih suka bekerja independen ketimbang jadi PNS ini menamai koleksinya “Museum Swadaya Perang Dunia II – Hilang Nampak Kembali.”

Koleksi yang dirintisnya itu tak jauh beda dari museum-museum lain di Morotai. Baik di Museum Perang Dunia II di dekat pelabuhan dan sebuah museum di monumen Trikora.

Muhlis tak terlalu berharap kepada negara dan selama ini ia banyak dibantu oleh kawan-kawannya di luar Morotai. Penghasilannya didapatkan dari kebun kelapa warisan keluarga dan itu tak akan mampu membeli segala kelengkapan di museum. Rupanya orang seperti Muhlis menolak menjadi Superman yang bisa semuanya. Ia masih jujur dengan keterbatasannya dalam mengejar impian membangun museum.

Source: tirto| Reporter: Petrik Matanasi Penulis: Petrik Matanasi Editor: Fahri Salam

Mapping 2019-nCoV

By Lauren Gardner, January 23, 2020

Reference: Dong E, Du H, Gardner L. An interactive web-based dashboard to track COVID-19 in real time. Lancet Infect Dis; published online Feb 19.

Background


On December 31, 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) was informed of an outbreak of “pneumonia of unknown cause” detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China – the seventh-largest city in China with 11 million residents.

As of January 23, there are over 800 cases of 2019-nCoV confirmed globally, including cases in at least 20 regions in China and nine countries/territories.

The first reported infected individuals, some of whom showed symptoms as early as December 8, were discovered to be among stallholders from the Wuhan South China Seafood Market. Subsequently, the wet market was closed on Jan 1.

The virus causing the outbreak was quickly determined to be a novel coronavirus. On January 10, gene sequencing further determined it to be the new Wuhan coronavirus, namely 2019-nCoV, a betacoronavirus, related to the Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome virus (MERS-CoV) and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome virus (SARSCoV). However, the mortality and transmissibility of 2019-nCoV are still unknown, and likely to vary from those of the prior referenced coronaviruses.

Infected travelers (primarily air) are known to be responsible for introductions of the virus outside Wuhan. On Jan 13 Thailand reported the first international case outside China, while the first cases within China, but outside of Wuhan were reported on January 19, in Guangdong and Beijing.

On January 21 multiple provinces in China were also reporting new cases and infection was confirmed in 15 healthcare workers, with six fatalities reported.

Additional travel cases have now been confirmed in Hong Kong, Macau, Singapore and Vietnam.

On Jan 22, a WHO emergency committee convened to discuss whether the outbreak should be classified as a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) under International Health Regulations, but were initially undecided due to lack of information, before deciding against the declaration.

Of immediate concern is the risk of further transmission resulting from high travel volumes and mass gatherings in celebration of the Chinese New Year on January 24. In attempts to mitigate local transmission within China, unprecedented outbreak control strategies were implemented in (initially) three cities.

On 23 January 2020, Wuhan suspended all public transport and air travel (in and out of the city), placing all 11 million city residents under quarantine. On Jan 24, Huanggang and Ezhou, cities adjacent to Wuhan, will also be placed under a similar quarantine, with more cities in China now following suit. Further, many cities have canceled Chinese New Year celebrations.

As Wuhan is a major air transportation hub in central China, various measures have been taken on a global scale to mitigate international spread. Targeted airport screening of passengers traveling from Wuhan was initiated as early as January 1 in Hong Kong and Macau.

Taiwan, Singapore and Thailand starting to screen arriving passengers on January 3. In the U.S., the CDC began entry screening of passengers on direct and connecting flights from Wuhan to the three main ports of entry on January 17, 2020, with Atlanta and Chicago soon to be added.

On January 23 the U.S. CDC raised its travel notice for Wuhan, China, to the highest of three levels. Additional Pacific and Asian countries including Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and India are now also conducting targeted passenger screening at airports.

GIS Dashboard (Updated February 11, 2020)


In response to this ongoing public health emergency, we developed an interactive web-based dashboard (static snapshot shown above) hosted by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University, to visualize and track reported cases in real-time.

The dashboard, first shared publicly on January 22, illustrates the location and number of confirmed COVID-19 cases, deaths and recoveries for all affected countries. It was developed to provide researchers, public health authorities and the general public with a user-friendly tool to track the outbreak as it unfolds.

Further, all the data collected and displayed is made freely available, initially as google sheets, now in a GitHub repository, along with the feature layers of the dashboard, which are now included in the ESRI Living Atlas.

The dashboard reports cases at the province level in China, city level in the US, Australia and Canada, and at the country level otherwise. From January 22-31 the entire data collection and processing was managed manually. During this period the number of updates were typically conducted twice a day, both morning and night (Eastern Time).

As the outbreak evolved, the manual reporting process became unsustainable, and on February 1, we adopted a semi-automated living data stream strategy.

Our primary data source is DXY, an online platform run by members of the Chinese medical community, which aggregates local media and government reports to provide COVID-19 cumulative case totals in near real-time at the province level in China and country level otherwise.

Every 15 minutes, the cumulative case counts are updated from DXY for all provinces in China and affected countries and regions. For countries and regions outside mainland China (including Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan), we found DXY cumulative case counts to frequently lag other sources; we therefore manually update these case numbers throughout the day when new cases are identified.

To identify new cases, we monitor various twitter feeds, online news services, and direct communication sent through the dashboard. Before manually updating the dashboard, we confirm the case numbers using regional and local health departments, namely the China CDC (CCDC), Hong Kong Department of Health, Macau Government, Taiwan CDC, European CDC (ECDC), the World Health Organization (WHO), as well as city and state level health authorities.

For city level case reports in the U.S., Australia, and Canada, which we began reporting on February 1, we rely on the US CDC, Government of Canada, Australia Government Department of Health and various state or territory health authorities. All manual updates (outside mainland China) are coordinated by a team at JHU.

We are currently in the process of conducting additional modeling of this emerging outbreak, and will update this blog post with the results soon.

Broadamox [Antibiotik Infeksi Saluran Pernapasan & Kemih, Kulit]

Informasi kesehatan ini telah ditinjau oleh dr. Jati Satriyo | doktersehat

Broadamox adalah obat antibiotik yang berfungsi untuk mengatasi indikasi infeksi saluran pernapasan, saluran kemih, dan infeksi kulit tertentu. Ketahui broadamox obat apa, fungsi broadamox, dosis broadamox, efek samping broadamox, dll.

Berikut ini adalah informasi umum obat broadamox, yaitu:

  • Nama Obat: Broadamox
  • Kandungan Obat: Amoxicillin 250 mg
  • Kelas Obat: Golongan obat keras
  • Kategori Obat: resep
  • Manfaat Obat: Mengobati infeksi yang disebabkan oleh bakteri peka terhadap amoxicillin
  • Kontraindikasi: Hipersensitif
  • Sediaan Obat: Tablet dan cair
  • Harga Obat: Rp 600/tablet

Harga obat broadamox mungkin berbeda di setiap apotik. Obat generik dari broadamox adalah amoxicillin.

Broadamox Obat Apa?

Broadamox adalah obat antibiotik yang memiliki kandungan utama yaitu amoxicillin. Manfaat amoxicillin adalah sebagai antibiotik penisilin untuk mengatasi infeksi yang disebabkan oleh bakteri seperti infeksi saluran kemih, tonsilitis, bronkitis, pneumonia, gonore, serta infeksi pada telinga, hidung, tenggorokan, dan kulit.

Obat broadamox ini juga digunakan untuk mengatasi paparan infeksi bakteri E. Coli, Pneumococci, Streptococci, H. influenzae, N. Gonorrhoea, dan Staphylococci, yaitu jenis bakteri yang peka terhadap amoxicillin.

Cara kerja obat ini adalah dengan membunuh pertumbuhan bakteri penyebab infeksi. Obat ini termasuk dalam golongan obat keras yang hanya dapat digunakan sesuai dengan resep dokter.

Fungsi Obat Broadamox

Berikut ini adalah manfaat obat broadamox, yaitu:

  • Infeksi saluran kemih
  • Infeksi kulit dan jaringan
  • Infeksi saluran genitourinari
  • Gonore
  • Profilaksis Endokarditis Bakteri
  • Infeksi Chlamydia
  • Infeksi Helicobacter pylori
  • Pneumonia
  • Bronkitis
  • Sinus
  • Tonsilitis / Faringitis
  • Bacillus anthracis kulit
  • Profilaksis Antraks

Obat ini mungkin juga digunakan untuk indikasi lain sesuai dengan instruksi dokter Anda.

Dosis Broadamox

Berikut ini adalah panduan umum dosis obat broadamox, yaitu:

1| Infeksi Saluran Kemih

Dosis broadamox untuk infeksi saluran kemih pada orang dewasa (18-64 tahun) adalah:

  • Infeksi Ringan: 250 mg oral setiap 8 jam atau 500 mg setiap 12 jam
  • Infeksi Parah: 500 mg oral setiap 8 jam atau 875 mg setiap 12 jam

2| Infeksi Kulit dan Jaringan

Dosis broadamox untuk infeksi kulit dan jaringan pada orang dewasa (18-64 tahun) adalah:

  • Infeksi Ringan Sampai Sedang: 250 mg oral setiap 8 jam atau 500 mg setiap 12 jam
  • Infeksi Parah: 500 mg oral setiap 8 jam atau 875 mg setiap 12 jam

3| Bronkitis

Dosis broadamox untuk bronkitis pada orang dewasa (18-64 tahun) adalah 500 mg per oral setiap 8 jam atau 875 mg setiap 12 jam untuk gejala ringan, sedang, atau berat.

Petunjuk Penggunaan Broadamox

Berikut ini adalah petunjuk penggunaan obat broadamox, yaitu:

  • Broadamox adalah obat yang dapat diminum secara oral baik sesudah atau sebelum makan
  • Obat ini ditelan secara langsung dengan minum air secukupnya
  • Sebaiknya, minum obat ini di jam yang sama setiap harinya
  • Jangan berhenti minum obat ini sebelum jadwal yang ditentukan, walaupun gejala penyakit sudah hilang
  • Beritahu dokter apabila obat ini tidak bekerja dengan baik setelah dosis dan jadwal yang ditentukan
  • Jangan meminum dua dosis di waktu bersamaan
  • Bila Anda mengalami gejala overdosis, hentikan dosis dan segera hubungi dokter
  • Baca petunjuk penggunaan obat cair broadamox dan sesuai dengan resep dokter

Petunjuk Penyimpanan Broadamox

  • Simpan obat-obatan pada suhu kamar, jauh dari panas dan cahaya langsung
  • Jangan membekukan obat kecuali diminta dengan memasukkan paket
  • Jauhkan obat-obatan dari anak-anak dan hewan peliharaan
  • Jangan membuang obat ke toilet atau menuangkannya ke dalam drainase kecuali diperintahkan untuk melakukannya. Obat yang dibuang dengan cara ini dapat mencemari lingkungan
  • Silakan berkonsultasi dengan apoteker atau dokter Anda untuk rincian lebih lanjut tentang cara membuang broadamox dengan aman

Interaksi Broadamox

Berikut ini adalah daftar obat, vitamin, suplemen, dan obat herbal yang mungkin mengalami interaksi dengan broadamox, yaitu:

  • Acetaminophen
  • Advil (ibuprofen)
  • Aleve (naproxen)
  • Ambien (zolpidem)
  • Aspirin Low Strength (aspirin)
  • Augmentin (amoxicillin / clavulanate)
  • Benadryl (diphenhydramine)
  • Clavulanate
  • Cymbalta (duloxetine)
  • Fish Oil (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids)
  • Flonase (fluticasone nasal)
  • levothyroxine
  • Lipitor (atorvastatin)
  • Lyrica (pregabalin)
  • Motrin (ibuprofen)
  • Mucinex (guaifenesin)
  • Nexium (esomeprazole)
  • Norco (acetaminophen / hydrocodone)
  • Prednisone
  • Singulair (montelukast)
  • Synthroid (levothyroxine)
  • Tramadol
  • Tylenol (acetaminophen)
  • Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin)
  • Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
  • Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol)
  • Wine
  • Xanax (alprazolam)
  • Zoloft (sertraline)
  • Zyrtec (cetirizine)

Harap hindari mengkonsumsi dua obat atau lebih secara sembarangan untuk mengurangi risiko interaksi obat dan agar obat dapat bekerja dengan baik.

Efek Samping Broadamox

Berikut ini adalah kemungkinan efek samping broadamox, yaitu:

  • Mual dan muntah
  • Pusing
  • Nyeri dada
  • Diare
  • Sesak napas
  • Ruam kulit
  • Hidung berdarah
  • Panas dingin
  • Gusi berdarah
  • Demam
  • Tidak napsu makan

Broadamox mungkin memiliki efek samping lain yang tidak tercantum dalam informasi ini.

Peringatan Broadamox

Berikut ini adalah peringatan obat broadamox, yaitu:

  • Konsultasi pada dokter sebelum Anda menggunakan obat ini untuk mengurangi efek samping lainnya
  • Baca petunjuk penggunaan obat sebelum menggunakannya
  • Konsultasi pada dokter sebelum menggunakan obat ini apabila Anda sedang hamil atau menyusui, serta untuk anak-anak dan lansia

Itulah pembahasan tentang broadamox obat apa, fungsi salep broadamox, dosis broadamox, efek samping broadamox, dll. Semoga informasi kesehatan ini ini bermanfaat.

Informasi kesehatan ini telah ditinjau oleh dr. Jati Satriyo.

Sumber:

Chen Wei Penemu Vaksin Covid-19

Chen Wei Penemu Vaksin Covid-19

Mari sejenak bertepuk tangan kepada Ibu Chen Wei yang telah menemukan vaksin untuk Covid-19 hasil kerja kerasnya di tenda laboratorium di Wuhan dan vaksin tersebut sudah lulus uji klinis.

Dia seorang ahli Epidemiologi dan Virologi Militer China, pertempuran ilmiah melawan epidemi harus dilakukan bahkan sebelum patogen lahir.

Superwoman ini ternyata dulu juga yang memimpin tim bikin vaksin untuk Ebola dan spray untuk SARS

Hebatnya lagi, Chen Wei rela jadi percobaan pertama Vaksin anti COVID-19 di suntikkan di lengannya. Pengorbanan luar biasa, nyawanya jadi taruhannya.

BersatuLawanCovid-19

Chen Wei, Wonder Woman China yang Temukan Vaksin Virus Corona

China mengklaim telah menemukan vaksin virus corona Covid-19. Seorang militer bernama Chen Wei adalah perempuan yang berperan besar di balik penemuan vaksin ini.

Bagi Chen Wei, ahli Epidemiologi dan Virologi Militer China, pertempuran ilmiah melawan epidemi harus dilakukan bahkan sebelum patogen lahir.

“Pencegahan dan pengendalian satu epidemi tidak pernah bisa menunggu sampai penyakit itu menyerang,” kata Chen kepada China Science Daily.

Menyadur South China Morning Post, Chen Wei adalah anggota Tentara Rakyat China berpangkat mayor jenderal.

Perempuan berusia 54 tahun itu adalah ahli biokimia paling terkenal di negeri tirai bambu tersebut.

Ia menginisiasi penelitian mengenai virus yang menjangkiti puluhan ribu orang di kota Wuhan Provinsi Hubei. Lalu, pada pertengahan Januari, Chen tiba bersama tim-nya di Wuhan.

Chen melakukan penelitian itu di Institut Virologi Wuhan, sebuah laboratorium dengan klasifikasi keamanan hayati tertinggi di China.

Chen tiba di Wuhan dengan kepercayaan penuh dari Militer China. Akademi Ilmu Kedokteran Militer (AMMS) yang ia naungi untuk melakukan penelitian juga telah diizinkan untuk memulai uji klinis.

Stasiun televisi setempat, CCTV, melaporkan vaksin yang dikembangkan oleh Chen, timnya dan perusahaan vaksin CanSin Biologist adalah jenis yang paling mendekati sempurna diantara sembilan sampel vaksin lainnya.

Dari berbagai Sumber.

England

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to the west and Scotland to the north. The Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. It is the largest country of the British Isles.

The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world. The English language, the Anglican Church, and English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, and the country’s parliamentary system of government has been widely adopted by other nations. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world’s first industrialised nation.

England’s terrain is chiefly low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the north (for example, the Lake District and Pennines) and in the west (for example, Dartmoor and the Shropshire Hills). The capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and, prior to Brexit, the European Union. England’s population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom, largely concentrated around London, the South East, and conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, and Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century.

The Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland (through another Act of Union) to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Contents

  1. Toponymy
  2. History
    1. Prehistory and antiquity
    2. Middle Ages
    3. Early modern
    4. Late modern and contemporary
  3. Governance
    1. Politics
    2. Law
    3. Regions, counties, and districts
  4. 4 Geography
    1. Landscape and rivers
    2. Climate
    3. Major conurbations
  5. 5 Economy
    1. Science and technology
    2. Transport
      1. Water
  6. Healthcare
  7. Demography
    1. Population
    2. Language
    3. Religion
  8. Education
  9. Culture
    1. Architecture
    2. Folklore
    3. Cuisine
    4. Visual arts
    5. Literature, poetry, and philosophy
    6. Performing arts
    7. Cinema
    8. Museums, libraries, and galleries
  10. Sports
  11. National symbols

Toponymy


The name “England” is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means “land of the Angles”. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area (present-day German state of Schleswig–Holstein) of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as “Engla londe”, is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede’s Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was then used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning “the land inhabited by the English”, and it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was then part of the English kingdom of Northumbria. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years later the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went “out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland”, thus using it in the more ancient sense.

The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used. The etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars; it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe that was less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons (Eald-Seaxe) of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England (Sasunn); similarly, the Welsh name for the English language is “Saesneg”. A romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, Lloegr, and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend. Albion is also applied to England in a more poetic capacity, though its original meaning is the island of Britain as a whole.

History


Prehistory and Antiquity

The earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago. Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years. After the last ice age only large mammals such as mammoths, bison and woolly rhinoceros remained. Roughly 11,000 years ago, when the ice sheets began to recede, humans repopulated the area; genetic research suggests they came from the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula. The sea level was lower than now and Britain was connected by land bridge to Ireland and Eurasia. As the seas rose, it was separated from Ireland 10,000 years ago and from Eurasia two millennia later.

Stonehenge, a Neolithic monument

The Beaker culture arrived around 2,500 BC, introducing drinking and food vessels constructed from clay, as well as vessels used as reduction pots to smelt copper ores. It was during this time that major Neolithic monuments such as Stonehenge and Avebury were constructed. By heating together tin and copper, which were in abundance in the area, the Beaker culture people made bronze, and later iron from iron ores. The development of iron smelting allowed the construction of better ploughs, advancing agriculture (for instance, with Celtic fields), as well as the production of more effective weapons.

Boudica led an uprising against the Roman Empire.

During the Iron Age, Celtic culture, deriving from the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, arrived from Central Europe. Brythonic was the spoken language during this time. Society was tribal; according to Ptolemy’s Geographia there were around 20 tribes in the area. Earlier divisions are unknown because the Britons were not literate. Like other regions on the edge of the Empire, Britain had long enjoyed trading links with the Romans. Julius Caesar of the Roman Republic attempted to invade twice in 55 BC; although largely unsuccessful, he managed to set up a client king from the Trinovantes.

The Romans invaded Britain in 43 AD during the reign of Emperor Claudius, subsequently conquering much of Britain, and the area was incorporated into the Roman Empire as Britannia province. The best-known of the native tribes who attempted to resist were the Catuvellauni led by Caratacus. Later, an uprising led by Boudica, Queen of the Iceni, ended with Boudica’s suicide following her defeat at the Battle of Watling Street. The author of one study of Roman Britain suggested that from 43 AD to 84 AD, the Roman invaders killed somewhere between 100,000 and 250,000 people from a population of perhaps 2,000,000. This era saw a Greco-Roman culture prevail with the introduction of Roman law, Roman architecture, aqueducts, sewers, many agricultural items and silk. In the 3rd century, Emperor Septimius Severus died at Eboracum (now York), where Constantine was subsequently proclaimed emperor.

There is debate about when Christianity was first introduced; it was no later than the 4th century, probably much earlier. According to Bede, missionaries were sent from Rome by Eleutherius at the request of the chieftain Lucius of Britain in 180 AD, to settle differences as to Eastern and Western ceremonials, which were disturbing the church. There are traditions linked to Glastonbury claiming an introduction through Joseph of Arimathea, while others claim through Lucius of Britain. By 410, during the Decline of the Roman Empire, Britain was left exposed by the end of Roman rule in Britain and the withdrawal of Roman army units, to defend the frontiers in continental Europe and partake in civil wars. Celtic Christian monastic and missionary movements flourished: Patrick (5th-century Ireland) and in the 6th century Brendan (Clonfert), Comgall (Bangor), David (Wales), Aiden (Lindisfarne) and Columba (Iona). This period of Christianity was influenced by ancient Celtic culture in its sensibilities, polity, practices and theology. Local “congregations” were centred in the monastic community and monastic leaders were more like chieftains, as peers, rather than in the more hierarchical system of the Roman-dominated church.

Middle Ages

Roman military withdrawals left Britain open to invasion by pagan, seafaring warriors from north-western continental Europe, chiefly the Saxons, Angles, Jutes and Frisians who had long raided the coasts of the Roman province and began to settle, initially in the eastern part of the country. Their advance was contained for some decades after the Britons’ victory at the Battle of Mount Badon, but subsequently resumed, over-running the fertile lowlands of Britain and reducing the area under Brythonic control to a series of separate enclaves in the more rugged country to the west by the end of the 6th century. Contemporary texts describing this period are extremely scarce, giving rise to its description as a Dark Age. The nature and progression of the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain is consequently subject to considerable disagreement. Roman-dominated Christianity had, in general, disappeared from the conquered territories, but was reintroduced by missionaries from Rome led by Augustine from 597 onwards. Disputes between the Roman- and Celtic-dominated forms of Christianity ended in victory for the Roman tradition at the Council of Whitby (664), which was ostensibly about haircuts and the date of Easter, but more significantly, about the differences in Roman and Celtic forms of authority, theology, and practice (Lehane).

During the settlement period the lands ruled by the incomers seem to have been fragmented into numerous tribal territories, but by the 7th century, when substantial evidence of the situation again becomes available, these had coalesced into roughly a dozen kingdoms including Northumbria, Mercia, Wessex, East Anglia, Essex, Kent and Sussex. Over the following centuries, this process of political consolidation continued. The 7th century saw a struggle for hegemony between Northumbria and Mercia, which in the 8th century gave way to Mercian preeminence. In the early 9th century Mercia was displaced as the foremost kingdom by Wessex. Later in that century escalating attacks by the Danes culminated in the conquest of the north and east of England, overthrowing the kingdoms of Northumbria, Mercia and East Anglia. Wessex under Alfred the Great was left as the only surviving English kingdom, and under his successors, it steadily expanded at the expense of the kingdoms of the Danelaw. This brought about the political unification of England, first accomplished under Æthelstan in 927 and definitively established after further conflicts by Eadred in 953. A fresh wave of Scandinavian attacks from the late 10th century ended with the conquest of this united kingdom by Sweyn Forkbeard in 1013 and again by his son Cnut in 1016, turning it into the centre of a short-lived North Sea Empire that also included Denmark and Norway. However, the native royal dynasty was restored with the accession of Edward the Confessor in 1042.

Replica of the 7th-century ceremonial Sutton Hoo helmet from the Kingdom of East Anglia

A dispute over the succession to Edward led to the Norman conquest of England in 1066, accomplished by an army led by Duke William of Normandy. The Normans themselves originated from Scandinavia and had settled in Normandy in the late 9th and early 10th centuries. This conquest led to the almost total dispossession of the English elite and its replacement by a new French-speaking aristocracy, whose speech had a profound and permanent effect on the English language.

Subsequently, the House of Plantagenet from Anjou inherited the English throne under Henry II, adding England to the budding Angevin Empire of fiefs the family had inherited in France including Aquitaine. They reigned for three centuries, some noted monarchs being Richard I, Edward I, Edward III and Henry V. The period saw changes in trade and legislation, including the signing of the Magna Carta, an English legal charter used to limit the sovereign’s powers by law and protect the privileges of freemen. Catholic monasticism flourished, providing philosophers, and the universities of Oxford and Cambridge were founded with royal patronage. The Principality of Wales became a Plantagenet fief during the 13th century and the Lordship of Ireland was given to the English monarchy by the Pope.

During the 14th century, the Plantagenets and the House of Valois both claimed to be legitimate claimants to the House of Capet and with it France; the two powers clashed in the Hundred Years’ War.[50] The Black Death epidemic hit England; starting in 1348, it eventually killed up to half of England’s inhabitants. From 1453 to 1487 civil war occurred between two branches of the royal family – the Yorkists and Lancastrians – known as the Wars of the Roses. Eventually it led to the Yorkists losing the throne entirely to a Welsh noble family the Tudors, a branch of the Lancastrians headed by Henry Tudor who invaded with Welsh and Breton mercenaries, gaining victory at the Battle of Bosworth Field where the Yorkist king Richard III was killed.

King Henry V at the Battle of Agincourt, fought on Saint Crispin’s Day and concluded with an English victory against a larger French army in the Hundred Years’ War

Early Modern

During the Tudor period, the Renaissance reached England through Italian courtiers, who reintroduced artistic, educational and scholarly debate from classical antiquity. England began to develop naval skills, and exploration to the West intensified.

Henry VIII broke from communion with the Catholic Church, over issues relating to his divorce, under the Acts of Supremacy in 1534 which proclaimed the monarch head of the Church of England. In contrast with much of European Protestantism, the roots of the split were more political than theological. He also legally incorporated his ancestral land Wales into the Kingdom of England with the 1535–1542 acts. There were internal religious conflicts during the reigns of Henry’s daughters, Mary I and Elizabeth I. The former took the country back to Catholicism while the latter broke from it again, forcefully asserting the supremacy of Anglicanism.

Competing with Spain, the first English colony in the Americas was founded in 1585 by explorer Walter Raleigh in Virginia and named Roanoke. The Roanoke colony failed and is known as the lost colony after it was found abandoned on the return of the late-arriving supply ship. With the East India Company, England also competed with the Dutch and French in the East. During the Elizabethan period, England was at war with Spain. An armada sailed from Spain in 1588 as part of a wider plan to invade England and re-establish a Catholic monarchy. The plan was thwarted by bad coordination, stormy weather and successful harrying attacks by an English fleet under Lord Howard of Effingham. This failure did not end the threat: Spain launched two further armadas, in 1596 and 1597, but both were driven back by storms. The political structure of the island changed in 1603, when the King of Scots, James VI, a kingdom which had been a long-time rival to English interests, inherited the throne of England as James I, thereby creating a personal union. He styled himself King of Great Britain, although this had no basis in English law. Under the auspices of King James VI and I the Authorised King James Version of the Holy Bible was published in 1611. It has not only been ranked with Shakespeare’s works as the greatest masterpiece of literature in the English language but also was the standard version of the Bible read by most Protestant Christians for four hundred years until modern revisions were produced in the 20th century.

King Henry VIII became Supreme Head of the Church of England.

Based on conflicting political, religious and social positions, the English Civil War was fought between the supporters of Parliament and those of King Charles I, known colloquially as Roundheads and Cavaliers respectively. This was an interwoven part of the wider multifaceted Wars of the Three Kingdoms, involving Scotland and Ireland. The Parliamentarians were victorious, Charles I was executed and the kingdom replaced by the Commonwealth. Leader of the Parliament forces, Oliver Cromwell declared himself Lord Protector in 1653; a period of personal rule followed. After Cromwell’s death and the resignation of his son Richard as Lord Protector, Charles II was invited to return as monarch in 1660, in a move called the Restoration. After the Glorious Revolution of 1688, it was constitutionally established that King and Parliament should rule together, though Parliament would have the real power. This was established with the Bill of Rights in 1689. Among the statutes set down were that the law could only be made by Parliament and could not be suspended by the King, also that the King could not impose taxes or raise an army without the prior approval of Parliament. Also since that time, no British monarch has entered the House of Commons when it is sitting, which is annually commemorated at the State Opening of Parliament by the British monarch when the doors of the House of Commons are slammed in the face of the monarch’s messenger, symbolising the rights of Parliament and its independence from the monarch. With the founding of the Royal Society in 1660, science was greatly encouraged.

In 1666 the Great Fire of London gutted the City of London but it was rebuilt shortly afterwards with many significant buildings designed by Sir Christopher Wren. In Parliament two factions had emerged – the Tories and Whigs. Though the Tories initially supported Catholic king James II, some of them, along with the Whigs, during the Revolution of 1688 invited Dutch prince William of Orange to defeat James and ultimately to become William III of England. Some English people, especially in the north, were Jacobites and continued to support James and his sons. After the parliaments of England and Scotland agreed, the two countries joined in political union, to create the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. To accommodate the union, institutions such as the law and national churches of each remained separate.

The English Restoration restored the monarchy under King Charles II and peace after the English Civil War.

Late Modern and Contemporary

Under the newly formed Kingdom of Great Britain, output from the Royal Society and other English initiatives combined with the Scottish Enlightenment to create innovations in science and engineering, while the enormous growth in British overseas trade protected by the Royal Navy paved the way for the establishment of the British Empire. Domestically it drove the Industrial Revolution, a period of profound change in the socioeconomic and cultural conditions of England, resulting in industrialised agriculture, manufacture, engineering and mining, as well as new and pioneering road, rail and water networks to facilitate their expansion and development. The opening of Northwest England’s Bridgewater Canal in 1761 ushered in the canal age in Britain. In 1825 the world’s first permanent steam locomotive-hauled passenger railway – the Stockton and Darlington Railway – opened to the public.

Saltaire, West Yorkshire, is a model mill town from the Industrial Revolution, and a World Heritage Site.

During the Industrial Revolution, many workers moved from England’s countryside to new and expanding urban industrial areas to work in factories, for instance at Birmingham and Manchester, dubbed “Workshop of the World” and “Warehouse City” respectively. England maintained relative stability throughout the French Revolution; William Pitt the Younger was British Prime Minister for the reign of George III. During the Napoleonic Wars, Napoleon planned to invade from the south-east. However this failed to manifest and the Napoleonic forces were defeated by the British at sea by Lord Nelson and on land by the Duke of Wellington. The Napoleonic Wars fostered a concept of Britishness and a united national British people, shared with the Scots and Welsh.

Cotton mills in Manchester, the world’s “first industrial city”, circa 1820

London became the largest and most populous metropolitan area in the world during the Victorian era, and trade within the British Empire – as well as the standing of the British military and navy – was prestigious. Political agitation at home from radicals such as the Chartists and the suffragettes enabled legislative reform and universal suffrage. Power shifts in east-central Europe led to World War I; hundreds of thousands of English soldiers died fighting for the United Kingdom as part of the Allies. Two decades later, in World War II, the United Kingdom was again one of the Allies. At the end of the Phoney War, Winston Churchill became the wartime Prime Minister. Developments in warfare technology saw many cities damaged by air-raids during the Blitz. Following the war, the British Empire experienced rapid decolonisation, and there was a speeding up of technological innovations; automobiles became the primary means of transport and Frank Whittle’s development of the jet engine led to wider air travel. Residential patterns were altered in England by private motoring, and by the creation of the National Health Service (NHS) in 1948. The UK’s NHS provided publicly funded health care to all UK permanent residents free at the point of need, being paid for from general taxation. Combined, these changes prompted the reform of local government in England in the mid-20th century.

Since the 20th century there has been significant population movement to England, mostly from other parts of the British Isles, but also from the Commonwealth, particularly the Indian subcontinent. Since the 1970s there has been a large move away from manufacturing and an increasing emphasis on the service industry. As part of the United Kingdom, the area joined a common market initiative called the European Economic Community which became the European Union. Since the late 20th century the administration of the United Kingdom has moved towards devolved governance in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. England and Wales continues to exist as a jurisdiction within the United Kingdom. Devolution has stimulated a greater emphasis on a more English-specific identity and patriotism. There is no devolved English government, but an attempt to create a similar system on a sub-regional basis was rejected by referendum.

The Cenotaph, Whitehall, is a memorial to members of the British Armed Forces who died during the two World Wars.

Governance


Politics

As part of the United Kingdom, the basic political system in England is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary system. There has not been a government of England since 1707, when the Acts of Union 1707, putting into effect the terms of the Treaty of Union, joined England and Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. Before the union England was ruled by its monarch and the Parliament of England. Today England is governed directly by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, although other countries of the United Kingdom have devolved governments. In the House of Commons which is the lower house of the British Parliament based at the Palace of Westminster, there are 532 Members of Parliament (MPs) for constituencies in England, out of the 650 total. As of the 2019 United Kingdom general election, England is represented by 345 MPs from the Conservative Party, 179 from the Labour Party, seven from the Liberal Democrats, one from the Green Party, and the Speaker, Lindsay Hoyle.

The Palace of Westminster, the seat of the Parliament of the United Kingdom

Since devolution, in which other countries of the United Kingdom – Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland – each have their own devolved parliament or assemblies for local issues, there has been debate about how to counterbalance this in England. Originally it was planned that various regions of England would be devolved, but following the proposal’s rejection by the North East in a 2004 referendum, this has not been carried out.

One major issue is the West Lothian question, in which MPs from Scotland and Wales are able to vote on legislation affecting only England, while English MPs have no equivalent right to legislate on devolved matters. This when placed in the context of England being the only country of the United Kingdom not to have free cancer treatment, prescriptions, residential care for the elderly and free top-up university fees, has led to a steady rise in English nationalism. Some have suggested the creation of a devolved English parliament, while others have proposed simply limiting voting on legislation which only affects England to English MPs.

Changing of the Queen’s Guard at the royal residence, Buckingham Palace

Law

The English law legal system, developed over the centuries, is the basis of common law legal systems used in most Commonwealth countries and the United States (except Louisiana). Despite now being part of the United Kingdom, the legal system of the Courts of England and Wales continued, under the Treaty of Union, as a separate legal system from the one used in Scotland. The general essence of English law is that it is made by judges sitting in courts, applying their common sense and knowledge of legal precedent – stare decisis – to the facts before them.

The court system is headed by the Senior Courts of England and Wales, consisting of the Court of Appeal, the High Court of Justice for civil cases, and the Crown Court for criminal cases. The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom is the highest court for criminal and civil cases in England and Wales. It was created in 2009 after constitutional changes, taking over the judicial functions of the House of Lords. A decision of the Supreme Court is binding on every other court in the hierarchy, which must follow its directions.

Crime increased between 1981 and 1995 but fell by 42% in the period 1995–2006. The prison population doubled over the same period, giving it the highest incarceration rate in Western Europe at 147 per 100,000. Her Majesty’s Prison Service, reporting to the Ministry of Justice, manages most prisons, housing over 85,000 convicts.

The Royal Courts of Justice

Regions, Counties, and Districts

The subdivisions of England consist of up to four levels of subnational division controlled through a variety of types of administrative entities created for the purposes of local government. The highest tier of local government were the nine regions of England: North East, North West, Yorkshire and the Humber, East Midlands, West Midlands, East, South East, South West, and London. These were created in 1994 as Government Offices, used by the UK government to deliver a wide range of policies and programmes regionally, but there are no elected bodies at this level, except in London, and in 2011 the regional government offices were abolished.

After devolution began to take place in other parts of the United Kingdom it was planned that referendums for the regions of England would take place for their own elected regional assemblies as a counterweight. London accepted in 1998: the London Assembly was created two years later. However, when the proposal was rejected by the 2004 North East England devolution referendum in the North East, further referendums were cancelled. The regional assemblies outside London were abolished in 2010, and their functions transferred to respective Regional Development Agencies and a new system of Local authority leaders’ boards.

Below the regional level, all of England is divided into 48 ceremonial counties. These are used primarily as a geographical frame of reference and have developed gradually since the Middle Ages, with some established as recently as 1974. Each has a Lord Lieutenant and High Sheriff; these posts are used to represent the British monarch locally. Outside Greater London and the Isles of Scilly, England is also divided into 83 metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties; these correspond to areas used for the purposes of local government and may consist of a single district or be divided into several.

There are six metropolitan counties based on the most heavily urbanised areas, which do not have county councils. In these areas the principal authorities are the councils of the subdivisions, the metropolitan boroughs. Elsewhere, 27 non-metropolitan “shire” counties have a county council and are divided into districts, each with a district council. They are typically, though not always, found in more rural areas. The remaining non-metropolitan counties are of a single district and usually correspond to large towns or sparsely populated counties; they are known as unitary authorities. Greater London has a different system for local government, with 32 London boroughs, plus the City of London covering a small area at the core governed by the City of London Corporation. At the most localised level, much of England is divided into civil parishes with councils; in Greater London only one, Queen’s Park, exists as of 2014 after they were abolished in 1965 until legislation allowed their recreation in 2007.

Road Map of The United Kingdom

Geography


Landscape and Rivers

Geographically England includes the central and southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain, plus such offshore islands as the Isle of Wight and the Isles of Scilly. It is bordered by two other countries of the United Kingdom: to the north by Scotland and to the west by Wales. England is closer than any other part of mainland Britain to the European continent. It is separated from France (Hauts-de-France) by a 21-mile (34 km) sea gap, though the two countries are connected by the Channel Tunnel near Folkestone. England also has shores on the Irish Sea, North Sea and Atlantic Ocean.

The ports of London, Liverpool, and Newcastle lie on the tidal rivers Thames, Mersey and Tyne respectively. At 220 miles (350 km), the Severn is the longest river flowing through England. It empties into the Bristol Channel and is notable for its Severn Bore (a tidal bore), which can reach 2 metres (6.6 ft) in height. However, the longest river entirely in England is the Thames, which is 215 miles (346 km) in length. There are many lakes in England; the largest is Windermere, within the aptly named Lake District.

Most of England’s landscape consists of low hills and plains, with upland and mountainous terrain in the north and west of the country. The northern uplands include the Pennines, a chain of uplands dividing east and west, the Lake District mountains in Cumbria, and the Cheviot Hills, straddling the border between England and Scotland. The highest point in England, at 978 metres (3,209 ft), is Scafell Pike in the Lake District. The Shropshire Hills are near Wales while Dartmoor and Exmoor are two upland areas in the south-west of the country. The approximate dividing line between terrain types is often indicated by the Tees-Exe line.

Skiddaw massif, seen from Walla Crag in the Lake District

In geological terms, the Pennines, known as the “backbone of England”, are the oldest range of mountains in the country, originating from the end of the Paleozoic Era around 300 million years ago. Their geological composition includes, among others, sandstone and limestone, and also coal. There are karst landscapes in calcite areas such as parts of Yorkshire and Derbyshire. The Pennine landscape is high moorland in upland areas, indented by fertile valleys of the region’s rivers. They contain two national parks, the Yorkshire Dales and the Peak District. In the West Country, Dartmoor and Exmoor of the Southwest Peninsula include upland moorland supported by granite, and enjoy a mild climate; both are national parks.

The English Lowlands are in the central and southern regions of the country, consisting of green rolling hills, including the Cotswold Hills, Chiltern Hills, North and South Downs; where they meet the sea they form white rock exposures such as the cliffs of Dover. This also includes relatively flat plains such as the Salisbury Plain, Somerset Levels, South Coast Plain and The Fens.

Terrain of Dartmoor, Devon

Climate

England has a temperate maritime climate: it is mild with temperatures not much lower than 0 °C (32 °F) in winter and not much higher than 32 °C (90 °F) in summer. The weather is damp relatively frequently and is changeable. The coldest months are January and February, the latter particularly on the English coast, while July is normally the warmest month. Months with mild to warm weather are May, June, September and October. Rainfall is spread fairly evenly throughout the year.

Important influences on the climate of England are its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean, its northern latitude and the warming of the sea by the Gulf Stream. Rainfall is higher in the west, and parts of the Lake District receive more rain than anywhere else in the country. Since weather records began, the highest temperature recorded was 38.7 °C (101.7 °F) on 25 July 2019 at the Botanic Garden in Cambridge, while the lowest was −26.1 °C (−15.0 °F) on 10 January 1982 in Edgmond, Shropshire.

Major Conurbations

The Greater London Built-up Area is by far the largest urban area in England and one of the busiest cities in the world. It is considered a global city and has a population larger than other countries in the United Kingdom besides England itself. Other urban areas of considerable size and influence tend to be in northern England or the English Midlands. There are 50 settlements which have been designated city status in England, while the wider United Kingdom has 66.

While many cities in England are quite large, such as Birmingham, Sheffield, Manchester, Liverpool, Leeds, Newcastle, Bradford, Nottingham, population size is not a prerequisite for city status. Traditionally the status was given to towns with diocesan cathedrals, so there are smaller cities like Wells, Ely, Ripon, Truro and Chichester.

Economy


England’s economy is one of the largest in the world, with an average GDP per capita of £28,100 or $36,000. Usually regarded as a mixed market economy, it has adopted many free market principles, yet maintains an advanced social welfare infrastructure. The official currency in England is the pound sterling, whose ISO 4217 code is GBP. Taxation in England is quite competitive when compared to much of the rest of Europe – as of 2014 the basic rate of personal tax is 20% on taxable income up to £31,865 above the personal tax-free allowance (normally £10,000), and 40% on any additional earnings above that amount.

The economy of England is the largest part of the UK’s economy, which has the 18th highest GDP PPP per capita in the world. England is a leader in the chemical and pharmaceutical sectors and in key technical industries, particularly aerospace, the arms industry, and the manufacturing side of the software industry. London, home to the London Stock Exchange, the United Kingdom’s main stock exchange and the largest in Europe, is England’s financial centre, with 100 of Europe’s 500 largest corporations being based there. London is the largest financial centre in Europe, and as of 2014 is the second largest in the world.

The City of London is the financial capital of the United Kingdom.

The Bank of England, founded in 1694 by Scottish banker William Paterson, is the United Kingdom’s central bank. Originally established as private banker to the government of England, since 1946 it has been a state-owned institution. The bank has a monopoly on the issue of banknotes in England and Wales, although not in other parts of the United Kingdom. The government has devolved responsibility to the bank’s Monetary Policy Committee for managing the monetary policy of the country and setting interest rates.

England is highly industrialised, but since the 1970s there has been a decline in traditional heavy and manufacturing industries, and an increasing emphasis on a more service industry oriented economy. Tourism has become a significant industry, attracting millions of visitors to England each year. The export part of the economy is dominated by pharmaceuticals, cars (although many English marques are now foreign-owned, such as Land Rover, Lotus, Jaguar and Bentley), crude oil and petroleum from the English parts of North Sea oil along with Wytch Farm, aircraft engines and alcoholic beverages.

The Bentley Mulsanne. Bentley is a well-known English car company.

Most of the UK’s £30 billion aerospace industry is primarily based in England. The global market opportunity for UK aerospace manufacturers over the next two decades is estimated at £3.5 trillion. GKN Aerospace – an expert in metallic and composite aerostructures is involved in almost every civil and military fixed and rotary wing aircraft in production is based in Redditch.

BAE Systems makes large sections of the Typhoon Eurofighter at its sub-assembly plant in Salmesbury and assembles the aircraft for the RAF at its Warton plant, near Preston. It is also a principal subcontractor on the F35 Joint Strike Fighter – the world’s largest single defence project – for which it designs and manufactures a range of components including the aft fuselage, vertical and horizontal tail and wing tips and fuel system. It also manufactures the Hawk, the world’s most successful jet training aircraft.

Rolls-Royce PLC is the world’s second-largest aero-engine manufacturer. Its engines power more than 30 types of commercial aircraft, and it has more 30,000 engines currently in service across both the civil and defence sectors. With a workforce of over 12,000 people, Derby has the largest concentration of Rolls-Royce employees in the UK. Rolls-Royce also produces low-emission power systems for ships; makes critical equipment and safety systems for the nuclear industry and powers offshore platforms and major pipelines for the oil and gas industry.

Much of the UK’s space industry is centred on EADS Astrium, based in Stevenage and Portsmouth. The company builds the buses – the underlying structure onto which the payload and propulsion systems are built – for most of the European Space Agency’s spacecraft, as well as commercial satellites. The world leader in compact satellite systems, Surrey Satellite Technology, is also part of Astrium. Reaction Engines Limited, the company planning to build Skylon, a single-stage-to-orbit spaceplane using their SABRE rocket engine, a combined-cycle, air-breathing rocket propulsion system is based Culham.

Agriculture is intensive and highly mechanised, producing 60% of food needs with only 2% of the labour force. Two-thirds of production is devoted to livestock, the other to arable crops.

Clarks was founded in 1825 and has since become a popular shoe brand internationally, seen as specialists in school shoes for children.

Science and Technology

Prominent English figures from the field of science and mathematics include Sir Isaac Newton, Michael Faraday, Charles Darwin, Robert Hooke, James Prescott Joule, John Dalton, Lord Rayleigh, J. J. Thomson, James Chadwick, Charles Babbage, George Boole, Alan Turing, Tim Berners-Lee, Paul Dirac, Stephen Hawking, Peter Higgs, Roger Penrose, John Horton Conway, Thomas Bayes, Arthur Cayley, G. H. Hardy, Oliver Heaviside, Andrew Wiles, Francis Crick, Joseph Lister, Joseph Priestley, Thomas Young, Christopher Wren and Richard Dawkins. Some experts claim that the earliest concept of a metric system was invented by John Wilkins, the first secretary of the Royal Society, in 1668.

As the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution, England was home to many significant inventors during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Famous English engineers include Isambard Kingdom Brunel, best known for the creation of the Great Western Railway, a series of famous steamships, and numerous important bridges, hence revolutionising public transport and modern-day engineering. Thomas Newcomen’s steam engine helped spawn the Industrial Revolution. The Father of Railways, George Stephenson, built the first public inter-city railway line in the world, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, which opened in 1830. With his role in the marketing and manufacturing of the steam engine, and invention of modern coinage, Matthew Boulton (business partner of James Watt) is regarded as one of the most influential entrepreneurs in history. The physician Edward Jenner’s smallpox vaccine is said to have “saved more lives … than were lost in all the wars of mankind since the beginning of recorded history.”

Inventions and discoveries of the English include: the jet engine, the first industrial spinning machine, the first computer and the first modern computer, the World Wide Web along with HTML, the first successful human blood transfusion, the motorised vacuum cleaner, the lawn mower, the seat belt, the hovercraft, the electric motor, steam engines, and theories such as the Darwinian theory of evolution and atomic theory. Newton developed the ideas of universal gravitation, Newtonian mechanics, and calculus, and Robert Hooke his eponymously named law of elasticity. Other inventions include the iron plate railway, the thermosiphon, tarmac, the rubber band, the mousetrap, “cat’s eye” road marker, joint development of the light bulb, steam locomotives, the modern seed drill and many modern techniques and technologies used in precision engineering.

Sir Isaac Newton is one of the most influential figures in the history of science.

Transport

The Department for Transport is the government body responsible for overseeing transport in England. There are many motorways in England, and many other trunk roads, such as the A1 Great North Road, which runs through eastern England from London to Newcastle (much of this section is motorway) and onward to the Scottish border. The longest motorway in England is the M6, from Rugby through the North West up to the Anglo-Scottish border, a distance of 232 miles (373 km). Other major routes include: the M1 from London to Leeds, the M25 which encircles London, the M60 which encircles Manchester, the M4 from London to South Wales, the M62 from Liverpool via Manchester to East Yorkshire, and the M5 from Birmingham to Bristol and the South West.

Bus transport across the country is widespread; major companies include National Express, Arriva and Go-Ahead Group. The red double-decker buses in London have become a symbol of England.

National Cycle Route offers cycling routes nationally. There is a rapid transit network in two English cities: the London Underground; and the Tyne and Wear Metro in Newcastle, Gateshead and Sunderland.There are several tram networks, such as the Blackpool tramway, Manchester Metrolink, Sheffield Supertram and Midland Metro, and the Tramlink system centred on Croydon in South London.

Heathrow Airport has more international passenger traffic than any other airport in the world.

Rail transport in England is the oldest in the world: passenger railways originated in England in 1825. Much of Britain’s 10,000 miles (16,000 km) of rail network lies in England, covering the country fairly extensively, although a high proportion of railway lines were closed in the second half of the 20th century. There are plans to reopen lines such as the Varsity Line between Oxford and Cambridge. These lines are mostly standard gauge (single, double or quadruple track) though there are also a few narrow gauge lines. There is rail transport access to France and Belgium through an undersea rail link, the Channel Tunnel, which was completed in 1994.

England has extensive domestic and international aviation links. The largest airport is Heathrow, which is the world’s busiest airport measured by number of international passengers. Other large airports include Manchester Airport, Stansted Airport, Luton Airport and Birmingham Airport.

The Metropolitan Railway, now part of the London Underground was the first underground railway in the world.

Water

By sea there is ferry transport, both local and international, including from Liverpool to Ireland and the Isle of Man, and Hull to the Netherlands and Belgium. There are around 4,400 miles (7,100 km) of navigable waterways in England, half of which is owned by the Canal and River Trust, however, water transport is very limited. The Thames is the major waterway in England, with imports and exports focused at the Port of Tilbury in the Thames Estuary, one of the United Kingdom’s three major ports.

Healthcare


The National Health Service (NHS) is the publicly funded healthcare system in England responsible for providing the majority of healthcare in the country. The NHS began on 5 July 1948, putting into effect the provisions of the National Health Service Act 1946. It was based on the findings of the Beveridge Report, prepared by economist and social reformer William Beveridge. The NHS is largely funded from general taxation including National Insurance payments, and it provides most of its services free at the point of use, although there are charges for some people for eye tests, dental care, prescriptions and aspects of personal care.

The government department responsible for the NHS is the Department of Health, headed by the Secretary of State for Health, who sits in the British Cabinet. Most of the expenditure of the Department of Health is spent on the NHS—£98.6 billion was spent in 2008–2009. In recent years the private sector has been increasingly used to provide more NHS services despite opposition by doctors and trade unions.

The Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Birmingham has the largest single floor critical care unit in the world.

The average life expectancy of people in England is 77.5 years for males and 81.7 years for females, the highest of the four countries of the United Kingdom. The South of England has a higher life expectancy than the North, however, regional differences do seem to be slowly narrowing: between 1991–1993 and 2012–2014, life expectancy in the North East increased by 6.0 years and in the North West by 5.8 years, the fastest increase in any region outside London, and the gap between life expectancy in the North East and South East is now 2.5 years, down from 2.9 in 1993.

Life expectancy at birth in England and Wales 2012 to 2014. Lighter colours indicate longer life expectancy.

Demography


Population

With over 53 million inhabitants, England is by far the most populous country of the United Kingdom, accounting for 84% of the combined total. England taken as a unit and measured against international states has the fourth largest population in the European Union and would be the 25th largest country by population in the world. With a density of 424 people per square kilometre, it would be the second most densely populated country in the European Union after Malta.

The English people are a British people. Some genetic evidence suggests that 75–95% descend in the paternal line from prehistoric settlers who originally came from the Iberian Peninsula, as well as a 5% contribution from Angles and Saxons, and a significant Scandinavian (Viking) element. However, other geneticists place the Germanic estimate up to half. Over time, various cultures have been influential: Prehistoric, Brythonic, Roman, Anglo-Saxon, Viking (North Germanic), Gaelic cultures, as well as a large influence from Normans. There is an English diaspora in former parts of the British Empire; especially the United States, Canada, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand. Since the late 1990s, many English people have migrated to Spain.

The metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties, colour-coded to show population

In 1086, when the Domesday Book was compiled, England had a population of two million. About 10% lived in urban areas. By 1801, the population was 8.3 million, and by 1901 30.5 million. Due in particular to the economic prosperity of South East England, it has received many economic migrants from the other parts of the United Kingdom. There has been significant Irish migration. The proportion of ethnically European residents totals at 87.50%, including Germans and Poles.

Other people from much further afield in the former British colonies have arrived since the 1950s: in particular, 6% of people living in England have family origins in the Indian subcontinent, mostly India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. 2.90% of the population are black, from Africa and the Caribbean, especially former British colonies. There is a significant number of Chinese and British Chinese. In 2007, 22% of primary school children in England were from ethnic minority families, and in 2011 that figure was 26.5%. About half of the population increase between 1991 and 2001 was due to immigration. Debate over immigration is politically prominent; 80% of respondents in a 2009 Home Office poll wanted to cap it. The ONS has projected that the population will grow by nine million between 2014 and 2039.

England contains one indigenous national minority, the Cornish people, recognised by the UK government under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities in 2014.

2009 estimates of ethnic groups in England
Population of England and Wales by administrative areas. Their size shows their population, with some approximation. Each group of squares in the map key is 20 % of total number of districts.

Language

As its name suggests, the English language, today spoken by hundreds of millions of people around the world, originated as the language of England, where it remains the principal tongue spoken by 98% of the population. It is an Indo-European language in the Anglo-Frisian branch of the Germanic family. After the Norman conquest, the Old English language was displaced and confined to the lower social classes as Norman French and Latin were used by the aristocracy.

By the 15th century, English was back in fashion among all classes, though much changed; the Middle English form showed many signs of French influence, both in vocabulary and spelling. During the English Renaissance, many words were coined from Latin and Greek origins. Modern English has extended this custom of flexibility when it comes to incorporating words from different languages. Thanks in large part to the British Empire, the English language is the world’s unofficial lingua franca.

English language learning and teaching is an important economic activity, and includes language schooling, tourism spending, and publishing. There is no legislation mandating an official language for England, but English is the only language used for official business. Despite the country’s relatively small size, there are many distinct regional accents, and individuals with particularly strong accents may not be easily understood everywhere in the country.

As well as English, England has two other indigenous languages, Cornish and Welsh. Cornish died out as a community language in the 18th century but is being revived, and is now protected under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. It is spoken by 0.1% of people in Cornwall, and is taught to some degree in several primary and secondary schools.

When the modern border between Wales and England was established by the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542, many Welsh-speaking communities found themselves on the English side of the border. Welsh was spoken in Archenfield in Herefordshire into the nineteenth century, and by natives of parts of western Shropshire until the middle of the twentieth century if not later.

State schools teach students a second language, usually French, German or Spanish. Due to immigration, it was reported in 2007 that around 800,000 school students spoke a foreign language at home, the most common being Punjabi and Urdu. However, following the 2011 census data released by the Office for National Statistics, figures now show that Polish is the main language spoken in England after English.

Religion

In the 2011 census, 59.4% of the population of England specified their religion as Christian, 24.7% answered that they had no religion, 5% specified that they were Muslim, while 3.7% of the population belongs to other religions and 7.2% did not give an answer. Christianity is the most widely practised religion in England, as it has been since the Early Middle Ages, although it was first introduced much earlier in Gaelic and Roman times. This Celtic Church was gradually joined to the Catholic hierarchy following the 6th-century Gregorian mission to Kent led by St Augustine. The established church of England is the Church of England, which left communion with Rome in the 1530s when Henry VIII was unable to annul his marriage to the aunt of the king of Spain. The church regards itself as both Catholic and Protestant.

There are High Church and Low Church traditions and some Anglicans regard themselves as Anglo-Catholics, following the Tractarian movement. The monarch of the United Kingdom is the Supreme Governor of the Church of England, which has around 26 million baptised members (of whom the vast majority are not regular churchgoers). It forms part of the Anglican Communion with the Archbishop of Canterbury acting as its symbolic worldwide head. Many cathedrals and parish churches are historic buildings of significant architectural importance, such as Westminster Abbey, York Minster, Durham Cathedral, and Salisbury Cathedral.

The 2nd-largest Christian practice is the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church. Since its reintroduction after the Catholic Emancipation, the Church has organised ecclesiastically on an England and Wales basis where there are 4.5 million members (most of whom are English). There has been one Pope from England to date, Adrian IV; while saints Bede and Anselm are regarded as Doctors of the Church.

Westminster Abbey is a notable example of English Gothic architecture. The coronation of the British monarch traditionally takes place at the Abbey. A form of Protestantism known as Methodism is the third largest Christian practice and grew out of Anglicanism through John Wesley. It gained popularity in the mill towns of Lancashire and Yorkshire, and amongst tin miners in Cornwall. There are other non-conformist minorities, such as Baptists, Quakers, Congregationalists, Unitarians and The Salvation Army.

Canterbury Cathedral, seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury
Westminster Abbey is a notable example of English Gothic architecture. The coronation of the British monarch traditionally takes place at the Abbey.

The patron saint of England is Saint George; his symbolic cross is included in the flag of England, as well as in the Union Flag as part of a combination. There are many other English and associated saints; some of the best-known are: Cuthbert, Edmund, Alban, Wilfrid, Aidan, Edward the Confessor, John Fisher, Thomas More, Petroc, Piran, Margaret Clitherow and Thomas Becket. There are non-Christian religions practised. Jews have a history of a small minority on the island since 1070. They were expelled from England in 1290 following the Edict of Expulsion, only to be allowed back in 1656.

BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir in London, United Kingdom is the largest Hindu temple in England.
Especially since the 1950s, religions from the former British colonies have grown in numbers, due to immigration. Islam is the most common of these, now accounting for around 5% of the population in England. Hinduism, Sikhism and Buddhism are next in number, adding up to 2.8% combined, introduced from India and South East Asia.

A small minority of the population practise ancient Pagan religions. Neopaganism in the United Kingdom is primarily represented by Wicca and Witchcraft religions, Druidry, and Heathenry. According to the 2011 UK Census, there are roughly 53,172 people who identify as Pagan in England, and 3,448 in Wales, including 11,026 Wiccans in England and 740 in Wales.

Saint George is the patron saint of England.
BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir in London, United Kingdom is the largest Hindu temple in England.

Education


The Department for Education is the government department responsible for issues affecting people in England up to the age of 19, including education. State-run and state-funded schools are attended by approximately 93% of English schoolchildren. Of these, a minority are faith schools (primarily Church of England or Roman Catholic schools). Children who are between the ages of 3 and 5 attend nursery or an Early Years Foundation Stage reception unit within a primary school. Children between the ages of 5 and 11 attend primary school, and secondary school is attended by those aged between 11 and 16. After finishing compulsory education, students take GCSE examinations. Students may then opt to continue into further education for two years. Further education colleges (particularly sixth form colleges) often form part of a secondary school site. A-level examinations are sat by a large number of further education students, and often form the basis of an application to university.

Although most English secondary schools are comprehensive, in some areas there are selective intake grammar schools, to which entrance is subject to passing the eleven-plus exam. Around 7.2% of English schoolchildren attend private schools, which are funded by private sources. Standards in state schools are monitored by the Office for Standards in Education, and in private schools by the Independent Schools Inspectorate.

The frontage of Warwick School, one of the oldest independent schools in England

Higher education students normally attend university from age 18 onwards, where they study for an academic degree. There are over 90 universities in England, all but one of which are public institutions. The Department for Business, Innovation and Skills is the government department responsible for higher education in England. Students are generally entitled to student loans to cover the cost of tuition fees and living costs. The first degree offered to undergraduates is the Bachelor’s degree, which usually takes three years to complete. Students are then able to work towards a postgraduate degree, which usually takes one year, or towards a doctorate, which takes three or more years. Since the establishment of Bedford College (London), Girton College (Cambridge) and Somerville College (Oxford) in the 19th century, women also can obtain a university degree.

England’s universities include some of the highest-ranked universities in the world;

  • University of Cambridge
  • University of Oxford
  • Imperial College London
  • University College London
  • King’s College London

are all ranked in the global top 30 in the 2018 QS World University Rankings. The London School of Economics has been described as the world’s leading social science institution for both teaching and research. The London Business School is considered one of the world’s leading business schools and in 2010 its MBA programme was ranked best in the world by the Financial Times. Academic degrees in England are usually split into classes: first class (1st), upper second class (2:1), lower second class (2:2), third (3rd), and unclassified.

The King’s School, Canterbury and King’s School, Rochester are the oldest schools in the English-speaking world. Many of England’s most well-known schools, such as Winchester College, Eton, St Paul’s School, Harrow School and Rugby School are fee-paying institutions.

Somerville College, University of Oxford

Culture


Architecture

Many ancient standing stone monuments were erected during the prehistoric period; amongst the best known are Stonehenge, Devil’s Arrows, Rudston Monolith and Castlerigg. With the introduction of Ancient Roman architecture there was a development of basilicas, baths, amphitheaters, triumphal arches, villas, Roman temples, Roman roads, Roman forts, stockades and aqueducts. It was the Romans who founded the first cities and towns such as London, Bath, York, Chester and St Albans. Perhaps the best-known example is Hadrian’s Wall stretching right across northern England. Another well-preserved example is the Roman Baths at Bath, Somerset.

Early Medieval architecture’s secular buildings were simple constructions mainly using timber with thatch for roofing. Ecclesiastical architecture ranged from a synthesis of Hiberno–Saxon monasticism, to Early Christian basilica and architecture characterised by pilaster-strips, blank arcading, baluster shafts and triangular headed openings. After the Norman conquest in 1066 various Castles in England were created so law lords could uphold their authority and in the north to protect from invasion. Some of the best-known medieval castles are the Tower of London, Warwick Castle, Durham Castle and Windsor Castle.

A red telephone box in front of St Paul’s Cathedral, one of the most important buildings of the English Baroque period

Throughout the Plantagenet era, an English Gothic architecture flourished, with prime examples including the medieval cathedrals such as Canterbury Cathedral, Westminster Abbey and York Minster. Expanding on the Norman base there was also castles, palaces, great houses, universities and parish churches. Medieval architecture was completed with the 16th-century Tudor style; the four-centred arch, now known as the Tudor arch, was a defining feature as were wattle and daub houses domestically. In the aftermath of the Renaissance a form of architecture echoing classical antiquity synthesised with Christianity appeared, the English Baroque style of architect Christopher Wren being particularly championed.

Georgian architecture followed in a more refined style, evoking a simple Palladian form; the Royal Crescent at Bath is one of the best examples of this. With the emergence of romanticism during Victorian period, a Gothic Revival was launched. In addition to this, around the same time the Industrial Revolution paved the way for buildings such as The Crystal Palace. Since the 1930s various modernist forms have appeared whose reception is often controversial, though traditionalist resistance movements continue with support in influential places.

Bodiam Castle is a 14th-century moated castle near Robertsbridge in East Sussex.

Folklore

English folklore developed over many centuries. Some of the characters and stories are present across England, but most belong to specific regions. Common folkloric beings include pixies, giants, elves, bogeymen, trolls, goblins and dwarves. While many legends and folk-customs are thought to be ancient, for instance the tales featuring Offa of Angel and Wayland the Smith, others date from after the Norman invasion; Robin Hood and his Merry Men of Sherwood and their battles with the Sheriff of Nottingham being, perhaps, the best known.

During the High Middle Ages tales originating from Brythonic traditions entered English folklore and developed into the Arthurian myth. These were derived from Anglo-Norman, Welsh and French sources, featuring King Arthur, Camelot, Excalibur, Merlin and the Knights of the Round Table such as Lancelot. These stories are most centrally brought together within Geoffrey of Monmouth’s Historia Regum Britanniae (History of the Kings of Britain). Another early figure from British tradition, King Cole, may have been based on a real figure from Sub-Roman Britain. Many of the tales and pseudo-histories make up part of the wider Matter of Britain, a collection of shared British folklore.

Some folk figures are based on semi or actual historical people whose story has been passed down centuries; Lady Godiva for instance was said to have ridden naked on horseback through Coventry, Hereward the Wake was a heroic English figure resisting the Norman invasion, Herne the Hunter is an equestrian ghost associated with Windsor Forest and Great Park and Mother Shipton is the archetypal witch. On 5 November people make bonfires, set off fireworks and eat toffee apples in commemoration of the foiling of the Gunpowder Plot centred on Guy Fawkes. The chivalrous bandit, such as Dick Turpin, is a recurring character, while Blackbeard is the archetypal pirate. There are various national and regional folk activities, participated in to this day, such as Morris dancing, Maypole dancing, Rapper sword in the North East, Long Sword dance in Yorkshire, Mummers Plays, bottle-kicking in Leicestershire, and cheese-rolling at Cooper’s Hill. There is no official national costume, but a few are well established such as the Pearly Kings and Queens associated with cockneys, the Royal Guard, the Morris costume and Beefeaters.

Robin Hood illustrated in 1912 wearing Lincoln green

Cuisine

Since the early modern period the food of England has historically been characterised by its simplicity of approach and a reliance on the high quality of natural produce. During the Middle Ages and through the Renaissance period, English cuisine enjoyed an excellent reputation, though a decline began during the Industrial Revolution with the move away from the land and increasing urbanisation of the populace. The cuisine of England has, however, recently undergone a revival, which has been recognised by food critics with some good ratings in Restaurant’s best restaurant in the world charts. An early book of English recipes is the Forme of Cury from the royal court of Richard II.

Traditional examples of English food include the Sunday roast, featuring a roasted joint (usually beef, lamb, chicken or pork) served with assorted vegetables, Yorkshire pudding and gravy. Other prominent meals include fish and chips and the full English breakfast (generally consisting of bacon, sausages, grilled tomatoes, fried bread, black pudding, baked beans, mushrooms and eggs). Various meat pies are consumed, such as steak and kidney pie, steak and ale pie, cottage pie, pork pie (usually eaten cold) and the Cornish pasty.

Sausages are commonly eaten, either as bangers and mash or toad in the hole. Lancashire hotpot is a well-known stew originating in the northwest. Some of the more popular cheeses are Cheddar, Red Leicester, Wensleydale, Double Gloucester and Blue Stilton. Many Anglo-Indian hybrid dishes, curries, have been created, such as chicken tikka masala and balti. Traditional English dessert dishes include apple pie or other fruit pies; spotted dick – all generally served with custard; and, more recently, sticky toffee pudding. Sweet pastries include scones (either plain or containing dried fruit) served with jam or cream, dried fruit loaves, Eccles cakes and mince pies as well as a wide range of sweet or spiced biscuits.

Common non-alcoholic drinks include tea, the popularity of which was increased by Catherine of Braganza, and coffee; frequently consumed alcoholic drinks include wine, ciders and English beers, such as bitter, mild, stout and brown ale.

Fish and chips is a very popular dish in England.
Apple pie has been consumed in England since the Middle Ages
Chicken tikka masala, 1971, adapted from Indian chicken tikka and called “a true British national dish.”
In the 1850s, Englishman Joseph Fry invented the world’s first solid chocolate.

Visual Arts

The earliest known examples are the prehistoric rock and cave art pieces, most prominent in North Yorkshire, Northumberland and Cumbria, but also feature further south, for example at Creswell Crags. With the arrival of Roman culture in the 1st century, various forms of art such as statues, busts, glasswork and mosaics were the norm. There are numerous surviving artefacts, such as those at Lullingstone and Aldborough. During the Early Middle Ages the style favoured sculpted crosses and ivories, manuscript painting, gold and enamel jewellery, demonstrating a love of intricate, interwoven designs such as in the Staffordshire Hoard discovered in 2009. Some of these blended Gaelic and Anglian styles, such as the Lindisfarne Gospels and Vespasian Psalter. Later Gothic art was popular at Winchester and Canterbury, examples survive such as Benedictional of St. Æthelwold and Luttrell Psalter.

The Tudor era saw prominent artists as part of their court, portrait painting which would remain an enduring part of English art, was boosted by German Hans Holbein, natives such as Nicholas Hilliard built on this. Under the Stuarts, Continental artists were influential especially the Flemish, examples from the period include Anthony van Dyck, Peter Lely, Godfrey Kneller and William Dobson. The 18th century was a time of significance with the founding of the Royal Academy, a classicism based on the High Renaissance prevailed, with Thomas Gainsborough and Joshua Reynolds becoming two of England’s most treasured artists.

The Norwich School continued the landscape tradition, while the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, led by artists such as Holman Hunt, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and John Everett Millais, revived the Early Renaissance style with their vivid and detailed style. Prominent amongst 20th-century artists was Henry Moore, regarded as the voice of British sculpture, and of British modernism in general. Contemporary painters include Lucian Freud, whose work Benefits Supervisor Sleeping in 2008 set a world record for sale value of a painting by a living artist.

The Lady of Shalott by John William Waterhouse in the Pre-Raphaelite style

The Norwich School continued the landscape tradition, while the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, led by artists such as Holman Hunt, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and John Everett Millais, revived the Early Renaissance style with their vivid and detailed style. Prominent amongst 20th-century artists was Henry Moore, regarded as the voice of British sculpture, and of British modernism in general. Contemporary painters include Lucian Freud, whose work Benefits Supervisor Sleeping in 2008 set a world record for sale value of a painting by a living artist.

Literature, Poetry, and Philosophy

Early authors such as Bede and Alcuin wrote in Latin. The period of Old English literature provided the epic poem Beowulf and the secular prose of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, along with Christian writings such as Judith, Cædmon’s Hymn and hagiographies. Following the Norman conquest Latin continued amongst the educated classes, as well as an Anglo-Norman literature.

Middle English literature emerged with Geoffrey Chaucer, author of The Canterbury Tales, along with Gower, the Pearl Poet and Langland. William of Ockham and Roger Bacon, who were Franciscans, were major philosophers of the Middle Ages. Julian of Norwich, who wrote Revelations of Divine Love, was a prominent Christian mystic. With the English Renaissance literature in the Early Modern English style appeared. William Shakespeare, whose works include Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, Macbeth, and A Midsummer Night’s Dream, remains one of the most championed authors in English literature.

Christopher Marlowe, Edmund Spenser, Philip Sydney, Thomas Kyd, John Donne, and Ben Jonson are other established authors of the Elizabethan age. Francis Bacon and Thomas Hobbes wrote on empiricism and materialism, including scientific method and social contract. Filmer wrote on the Divine Right of Kings. Marvell was the best-known poet of the Commonwealth, while John Milton authored Paradise Lost during the Restoration.

Geoffrey Chaucer was an English author, poet and philosopher, best remembered for his unfinished frame narrative The Canterbury Tales.

Some of the most prominent philosophers of the Enlightenment were John Locke, Thomas Paine, Samuel Johnson and Jeremy Bentham. More radical elements were later countered by Edmund Burke who is regarded as the founder of conservatism. The poet Alexander Pope with his satirical verse became well regarded. The English played a significant role in romanticism: Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Lord Byron, John Keats, Mary Shelley, Percy Bysshe Shelley, William Blake and William Wordsworth were major figures.

In response to the Industrial Revolution, agrarian writers sought a way between liberty and tradition; William Cobbett, G. K. Chesterton and Hilaire Belloc were main exponents, while the founder of guild socialism, Arthur Penty, and cooperative movement advocate G. D. H. Cole are somewhat related. Empiricism continued through John Stuart Mill and Bertrand Russell, while Bernard Williams was involved in analytics. Authors from around the Victorian era include Charles Dickens, the Brontë sisters, Jane Austen, George Eliot, Rudyard Kipling, Thomas Hardy, H. G. Wells and Lewis Carroll. Since then England has continued to produce novelists such as George Orwell, D. H. Lawrence, Virginia Woolf, C. S. Lewis, Enid Blyton, Aldous Huxley, Agatha Christie, Terry Pratchett, J. R. R. Tolkien, and J. K. Rowling.

This royal throne of kings, this sceptred isle, this earth of majesty, this seat of Mars, this other Eden, demi-paradise; this fortress, built by nature for herself. This blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this England.
William Shakespeare.

Performing Arts

The traditional folk music of England is centuries old and has contributed to several genres prominently; mostly sea shanties, jigs, hornpipes and dance music. It has its own distinct variations and regional peculiarities. Wynkyn de Worde printed ballads of Robin Hood from the 16th century are an important artefact, as are John Playford’s The Dancing Master and Robert Harley’s Roxburghe Ballads collections. Some of the best-known songs are Greensleeves, Pastime with Good Company, Maggie May and Spanish Ladies amongst others. Many nursery rhymes are of English origin such as Mary, Mary, Quite Contrary, Roses are red, Jack and Jill, London Bridge Is Falling Down, The Grand Old Duke of York, Hey Diddle Diddle and Humpty Dumpty. Traditional English Christmas carols include “We Wish You a Merry Christmas”, “The First Noel”, “I Saw Three Ships” and “God Rest You Merry, Gentlemen”.

Early English composers in classical music include Renaissance artists Thomas Tallis and William Byrd, followed up by Henry Purcell from the Baroque period. German-born George Frideric Handel spent most of his composing life in London and became a national icon in Britain, creating some of the most well-known works of classical music, especially his English oratorios, The Messiah, Solomon, Water Music, and Music for the Royal Fireworks. One of his four Coronation Anthems, Zadok the Priest, composed for the coronation of George II, has been performed at every subsequent British coronation, traditionally during the sovereign’s anointing. There was a revival in the profile of composers from England in the 20th century led by Edward Elgar, Benjamin Britten, Frederick Delius, Gustav Holst, Ralph Vaughan Williams and others. Present-day composers from England include Michael Nyman, best known for The Piano, and Andrew Lloyd Webber, whose musicals have achieved enormous success in the West End and worldwide.

In the field of popular music, many English bands and solo artists have been cited as the most influential and best-selling musicians of all time. Acts such as The Beatles, Led Zeppelin, Pink Floyd, Elton John, Queen, Rod Stewart and The Rolling Stones are among the highest selling recording artists in the world. Many musical genres have origins in (or strong associations with) England, such as British invasion, progressive rock, hard rock, Mod, glam rock, heavy metal, Britpop, indie rock, gothic rock, shoegazing, acid house, garage, trip hop, drum and bass and dubstep.

Large outdoor music festivals in the summer and autumn are popular, such as Glastonbury, V Festival, and the Reading and Leeds Festivals. The most prominent opera house in England is the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden. The Proms – a season of orchestral classical concerts held primarily at the Royal Albert Hall in London – is a major cultural event in the English calendar, and takes place yearly. The Royal Ballet is one of the world’s foremost classical ballet companies, its reputation built on two prominent figures of 20th-century dance, prima ballerina Margot Fonteyn and choreographer Frederick Ashton.

The Boishakhi Mela is a Bengali New Year festival celebrated by the British Bangladeshi community. It is the largest open-air Asian festival in Europe. After the Notting Hill Carnival, it is the second-largest street festival in the United Kingdom attracting over 80,000 visitors from across the country.

The Beatles are the most commercially successful and critically acclaimed band in popular music.

Cinema

England (and the UK as a whole) has had a considerable influence on the history of the cinema, producing some of the greatest actors, directors and motion pictures of all time, including Alfred Hitchcock, Charlie Chaplin, David Lean, Laurence Olivier, Vivien Leigh, John Gielgud, Peter Sellers, Julie Andrews, Michael Caine, Gary Oldman, Helen Mirren, Kate Winslet and Daniel Day-Lewis. Hitchcock and Lean are among the most critically acclaimed filmmakers. Hitchcock’s first thriller, The Lodger: A Story of the London Fog (1926), helped shape the thriller genre in film, while his 1929 film, Blackmail, is often regarded as the first British sound feature film.

Major film studios in England include Pinewood, Elstree and Shepperton. Some of the most commercially successful films of all time have been produced in England, including two of the highest-grossing film franchises (Harry Potter and James Bond). Ealing Studios in London has a claim to being the oldest continuously working film studio in the world. Famous for recording many motion picture film scores, the London Symphony Orchestra first performed film music in 1935. The Hammer Horror films starring Christopher Lee saw the production of the first gory horror films showing blood and guts in colour.

The BFI Top 100 British films includes Monty Python’s Life of Brian (1979), a film regularly voted the funniest of all time by the UK public. English producers are also active in international co-productions and English actors, directors and crew feature regularly in American films. The UK film council ranked David Yates, Christopher Nolan, Mike Newell, Ridley Scott and Paul Greengrass the five most commercially successful English directors since 2001. Other contemporary English directors include Sam Mendes, Guy Ritchie and Richard Curtis. Current actors include Tom Hardy, Daniel Craig, Benedict Cumberbatch and Emma Watson. Acclaimed for his motion capture work, Andy Serkis opened The Imaginarium Studios in London in 2011. The visual effects company Framestore in London has produced some of the most critically acclaimed special effects in modern film. Many successful Hollywood films have been based on English people, stories or events. The ‘English Cycle’ of Disney animated films include Alice in Wonderland, The Jungle Book and Winnie the Pooh.

Ridley Scott was among a group of English filmmakers, including Tony Scott, Alan Parker, Hugh Hudson and Adrian Lyne, who emerged from making 1970s UK television commercials.

Museums, Libraries, and Galleries

English Heritage is a governmental body with a broad remit of managing the historic sites, artefacts and environments of England. It is currently sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport. The charity National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty holds a contrasting role. 17 of the 25 United Kingdom UNESCO World Heritage Sites fall within England. Some of the best-known of these are: Hadrian’s Wall, Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites, Tower of London, Jurassic Coast, Saltaire, Ironbridge Gorge, Studley Royal Park and various others.

There are many museums in England, but perhaps the most notable is London’s British Museum. Its collection of more than seven million objects is one of the largest and most comprehensive in the world, sourced from every continent, illustrating and documenting the story of human culture from its beginning to the present. The British Library in London is the national library and is one of the world’s largest research libraries, holding over 150 million items in all known languages and formats; including around 25 million books. The most senior art gallery is the National Gallery in Trafalgar Square, which houses a collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900. The Tate galleries house the national collections of British and international modern art; they also host the famously controversial Turner Prize.

The Natural History Museum in London

Sports


England has a strong sporting heritage, and during the 19th century codified many sports that are now played around the world. Sports originating in England include association football, cricket, rugby union, rugby league, tennis, boxing, badminton, squash, rounders, hockey, snooker, billiards, darts, table tennis, bowls, netball, thoroughbred horseracing, greyhound racing and fox hunting. It has helped the development of golf, sailing and Formula One.

Football is the most popular of these sports. The England national football team, whose home venue is Wembley Stadium, played Scotland in the first ever international football match in 1872. Referred to as the “home of football” by FIFA, England hosted the 1966 FIFA World Cup, and won the tournament by defeating West Germany 4–2 in the final, with Geoff Hurst scoring a hat-trick. With a British television audience peak of 32.30 million viewers, the final is the most watched television event ever in the UK.

Queen Elizabeth II presenting the World Cup trophy to 1966 World Cup winning England captain Bobby Moore

At club level, England is recognised by FIFA as the birthplace of club football, due to Sheffield F.C. founded in 1857 being the world’s oldest club. The Football Association is the oldest governing body in the sport, with the rules of football first drafted in 1863 by Ebenezer Cobb Morley. The FA Cup and The Football League were the first cup and league competitions respectively. In the modern day, the Premier League is the world’s most-watched football league, most lucrative, and amongst the elite.

As is the case throughout the UK, football in England is notable for the rivalries between clubs and the passion of the supporters, which includes a tradition of football chants. The European Cup (now UEFA Champions League) has been won by several English clubs. The most successful English football team in the European Cup/UEFA Champions League is Liverpool F.C. who have won the competition on six occasions. Other English success has come from Manchester United F.C., winning the competition on 3 occasions; Nottingham Forest F.C. on 2 occasions, Aston Villa F.C. and Chelsea F.C. have both won the trophy once.

Cricket is generally thought to have been developed in the early medieval period among the farming and metalworking communities of the Weald. The England cricket team is a composite England and Wales, team. One of the game’s top rivalries is The Ashes series between England and Australia, contested since 1882. The climax of the 2005 Ashes was viewed by 7.4 million as it was available on terrestrial television. England has hosted five Cricket World Cups (1975, 1979, 1983, 1999 and 2019), winning the 2019 edition in a final regarded as one of the greatest one day internationals ever played.They hosted the ICC World Twenty20 in 2009, winning this format in 2010 beating rivals Australia in the final. In the domestic competition, the County Championship, Yorkshire are by far the most successful club having won the competition 32 times outright and sharing it on 1 other occasion. Lord’s Cricket Ground situated in London is sometimes referred to as the “Mecca of Cricket”.

William Penny Brookes was prominent in organising the format for the modern Olympic Games. In 1994, then President of the IOC, Juan Antonio Samaranch, laid a wreath on Brooke’s grave, and said, “I came to pay homage and tribute to Dr Brookes, who really was the founder of the modern Olympic Games”. London has hosted the Summer Olympic Games three times, in 1908, 1948, and 2012. England competes in the Commonwealth Games, held every four years. Sport England is the governing body responsible for distributing funds and providing strategic guidance for sporting activity in England.

England playing Australia at Lord’s Cricket Ground in the 2009 Ashes series. After winning the 2019 Cricket World Cup, England became the first country to win the World Cups in football, rugby union and cricket.

Rugby union originated in Rugby School, Warwickshire in the early 19th century. The England rugby union team won the 2003 Rugby World Cup, with Jonny Wilkinson scoring the winning drop goal in the last minute of extra time against Australia. England was one of the host nations of the competition in the 1991 Rugby World Cup and also hosted the 2015 Rugby World Cup. The top level of club participation is the English Premiership. Leicester Tigers, London Wasps, Bath Rugby and Northampton Saints have had success in the Europe-wide Heineken Cup.

Rugby league was born in Huddersfield in 1895. Since 2008, the England national rugby league team has been a full test nation in lieu of the Great Britain national rugby league team, which won three World Cups but is now retired. Club sides play in Super League, the present-day embodiment of the Rugby Football League Championship. Rugby League is most popular among towns in the northern English counties of Lancashire, Yorkshire and Cumbria. The vast majority of English clubs in Super League are based in the north of England. Some of the most successful clubs include Wigan Warriors, Hull F.C. St. Helens, Leeds Rhinos and Huddersfield Giants; the former three have all won the World Club Challenge previously.

The England rugby union team during their victory parade after winning the 2003 Rugby World Cup

Golf has been prominent in England; due in part to its cultural and geographical ties to Scotland, the home of Golf. There are both professional tours for men and women, in two main tours: the PGA and the European Tour. England has produced grand slam winners: Cyril Walker, Tony Jacklin, Nick Faldo, and Justin Rose in the men’s and Laura Davies, Alison Nicholas, and Karen Stupples in the women’s. The world’s oldest golf tournament, and golf’s first major is The Open Championship, played both in England and Scotland. The biennial golf competition, the Ryder Cup, is named after English businessman Samuel Ryder who sponsored the event and donated the trophy. Nick Faldo is the most successful Ryder Cup player ever, having won the most points (25) of any player on either the European or US teams.

Tennis was created in Birmingham in the late 19th century, and the Wimbledon Championships is the oldest tennis tournament in the world, and widely considered the most prestigious. Wimbledon is a tournament that has a major place in the British cultural calendar. Fred Perry was the last Englishman to win Wimbledon in 1936. He was the first player to win all four Grand Slam singles titles and helped lead the Great Britain team to four Davis Cup wins. English women who have won Wimbledon include: Ann Haydon Jones in 1969 and Virginia Wade in 1977.

In boxing, under the Marquess of Queensberry Rules, England has produced many world champions across the weight divisions internationally recognised by the governing bodies. World champions include Bob Fitzsimmons, Ted “Kid” Lewis, Randolph Turpin, Nigel Benn, Chris Eubank, Frank Bruno, Lennox Lewis, Ricky Hatton, Naseem Hamed, Amir Khan, Carl Froch, and David Haye. In women’s boxing, Nicola Adams became the world’s first woman to win an Olympic boxing Gold medal at the 2012 Summer Olympics.

Originating in 17th and 18th-century England, the thoroughbred is a horse breed best known for its use in horse racing. The National Hunt horse race the Grand National, is held annually at Aintree Racecourse in early April. It is the most watched horse race in the UK, attracting casual observers, and three-time winner Red Rum is the most successful racehorse in the event’s history. Red Rum is also the best-known racehorse in the country.

Centre Court at Wimbledon. First played in 1877, the Wimbledon Championships is the oldest tennis tournament in the world.

The 1950 British Grand Prix at Silverstone was the first race in the newly created Formula One World Championship. Since then, England has produced some of the greatest drivers in the sport, including; John Surtees, Stirling Moss, Graham Hill (only driver to have won the Triple Crown), Nigel Mansell (only man to hold F1 and IndyCar titles at the same time), Damon Hill, Lewis Hamilton and Jenson Button. It has manufactured some of the most technically advanced racing cars, and many of today’s racing companies choose England as their base of operations for its engineering knowledge and organisation. McLaren Automotive, Williams F1, Team Lotus, Honda, Brawn GP, Benetton, Renault, and Red Bull Racing are all, or have been, located in the south of England. England also has a rich heritage in Grand Prix motorcycle racing, the premier championship of motorcycle road racing, and produced several World Champions across all the various class of motorcycle: Mike Hailwood, John Surtees, Phil Read, Geoff Duke, and Barry Sheene.

Former Formula One world champion Nigel Mansell driving at Silverstone in 1990. The circuit hosted the first ever Formula One race in 1950.

Darts is a widely popular sport in England; a professional competitive sport, darts is a traditional pub game. The sport is governed by the World Darts Federation, one of its member organisations is the BDO, which annually stages the Lakeside World Professional Championship, the other being the Professional Darts Corporation (PDC), which runs its own world championship at Alexandra Palace in London. Phil Taylor is widely regarded as the best darts player of all time, having won 187 professional tournaments, and a record 16 World Championships.Trina Gulliver is the ten-time Women’s World Professional Darts Champion of the British Darts Organisation. Another popular sport commonly associated with pub games is Snooker, and England has produced several world champions, including Steve Davis and Ronnie O’Sullivan.

The English are keen sailors and enjoy competitive sailing; founding and winning some of the world’s most famous and respected international competitive tournaments across the various race formats, including the match race, a regatta, and the America’s Cup. England has produced some of the world’s greatest sailors, including Francis Chichester, Herbert Hasler, John Ridgway, Robin Knox-Johnston, Ellen MacArthur, Mike Golding, Paul Goodison, and the most successful Olympic sailor ever Ben Ainslie.

Mo Farah is the most successful British track athlete in modern Olympic Games history, winning the 5000 m and 10,000 m events at two Olympic Games.

National Symbols


The St George’s Cross has been the national flag of England since the 13th century. Originally the flag was used by the maritime Republic of Genoa. The English monarch paid a tribute to the Doge of Genoa from 1190 onwards so that English ships could fly the flag as a means of protection when entering the Mediterranean. A red cross was a symbol for many Crusaders in the 12th and 13th centuries. It became associated with Saint George, along with countries and cities, which claimed him as their patron saint and used his cross as a banner. Since 1606 the St George’s Cross has formed part of the design of the Union Flag, a Pan-British flag designed by King James I. During the English Civil War and Interregnum, the New Model Army’s standards and the Commonwealth’s Great Seal both incorporated the flag of Saint George.

The Royal Arms of England

There are numerous other symbols and symbolic artefacts, both official and unofficial, including the Tudor rose, the nation’s floral emblem, and the Three Lions featured on the Royal Arms of England. The Tudor rose was adopted as a national emblem of England around the time of the Wars of the Roses as a symbol of peace. It is a syncretic symbol in that it merged the white rose of the Yorkists and the red rose of the Lancastrians—cadet branches of the Plantagenets who went to war over control of the nation. It is also known as the Rose of England. The oak tree is a symbol of England, representing strength and endurance. The Royal Oak symbol and Oak Apple Day commemorate the escape of King Charles II from the grasp of the parliamentarians after his father’s execution: he hid in an oak tree to avoid detection before safely reaching exile.

The Royal Arms of England, a national coat of arms featuring three lions, originated with its adoption by Richard the Lionheart in 1198. It is blazoned as gules, three lions passant guardant or and it provides one of the most prominent symbols of England; it is similar to the traditional arms of Normandy. England does not have an official designated national anthem, as the United Kingdom as a whole has God Save the Queen. However, the following are often considered unofficial English national anthems: Jerusalem, Land of Hope and Glory (used for England during the 2002 Commonwealth Games), and I Vow to Thee, My Country. England’s National Day is 23 April which is St George’s Day: St George is the patron saint of England.

The Tudor rose, England’s national floral emblem

George Clooney

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

George Timothy Clooney (born May 6, 1961) is an American actor, director, producer and filmmaker. He is the recipient of three Golden Globe Awards and two Academy Awards, one for acting in Syriana (2006) and the other for co-producing Argo (2012). In 2018, he was the recipient of the AFI Lifetime Achievement Award.

Clooney made his acting debut on television in 1978, and later gained wide recognition in his role as Dr. Doug Ross on the medical drama ER from 1994 to 1999, for which he received two Primetime Emmy Award nominations. While working on ER, he began attracting a variety of leading roles in films, with his breakthrough role in From Dusk till Dawn (1996), and the crime comedy Out of Sight (1998), in which he first worked with director Steven Soderbergh, who would become a long-time collaborator. In 1999, he took the lead role in Three Kings, a well-received war satire set during the Gulf War.

In 2001, Clooney’s fame widened with the release of his biggest commercial success, the heist comedy remake Ocean’s Eleven, the first of what became a trilogy, starring Clooney. He made his directorial debut a year later with the biographical spy comedy Confessions of a Dangerous Mind, and has since directed the historical drama Good Night, and Good Luck (2005), the sports comedy Leatherheads (2008), the political drama The Ides of March (2011), and the war film The Monuments Men (2014). Clooney won an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for the Middle East thriller Syriana (2005), and subsequently earned Best Actor nominations for the legal thriller Michael Clayton (2007) and the comedy-dramas Up in the Air (2009) and The Descendants (2011). In 2013, he received the Academy Award for Best Picture for producing the political thriller Argo. He has been nominated for Oscars in six different categories, a record he shares with Walt Disney.

In 2009, Clooney was included in Time’s annual Time 100 as one of the “Most Influential People in the World”. He is also noted for his political and economic activism, and has served as one of the United Nations Messengers of Peace since January 31, 2008.Clooney is also a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. He is married to human rights lawyer Amal Clooney.

Early Life


Clooney was born on May 6, 1961 in Lexington, Kentucky. His mother, Nina Bruce (née Warren), was a beauty queen and city councilwoman. His father, Nick Clooney, is a former anchorman and television host, including five years on the AMC network. Clooney is of Irish, German, and English ancestry. His maternal great-great-great-great-grandmother, Mary Ann Sparrow, was the half-sister of Nancy Lincoln, mother of President Abraham Lincoln. Clooney has an older sister named Adelia (known as Ada). Cabaret singer and actress Rosemary Clooney was an aunt. Through Rosemary, his cousins include actors Miguel Ferrer, Rafael Ferrer, and Gabriel Ferrer, who is married to singer Debby Boone.

Clooney was raised a strict Roman Catholic but said in 2006 that he did not know if he believed “in Heaven, or even God.” He has said, “Yes, we were Catholic, big-time, whole family, whole group.” He began his education at the Blessed Sacrament School in Fort Mitchell, Kentucky. He attended St. Michael’s School in Worthington, Ohio; then Western Row Elementary School (a public school) in Mason, Ohio, from 1968 to 1974; and St. Susanna School in Mason, where he served as an altar boy. The Clooneys moved back to Kentucky when George was midway through the seventh grade. In middle school, Clooney developed Bell’s palsy, a medical condition that partially paralyzes the face. The malady went away within a year. In an interview with Larry King, he stated that “yes, it goes away. It takes about nine months to go away. It was the first year of high school, which was a bad time for having half your face paralyzed.” He also described one positive outcome of the condition: “It’s probably a great thing that it happened to me because it forced me to engage in a series of making fun of myself. And I think that’s an important part of being famous. The practical jokes have to be aimed at you.”

After his parents moved to Augusta, Kentucky, Clooney attended Augusta High School. He has stated that he earned all As and a B in school, and played baseball and basketball. He tried out to play professional baseball with the Cincinnati Reds in 1977, but he did not pass the first round of player cuts and was not offered a contract. He attended Northern Kentucky University from 1979 to 1981, majoring in broadcast journalism, and very briefly attended the University of Cincinnati, but did not graduate from either. He earned money selling women’s shoes, insurance door-to-door, stocking shelves, working in construction, and cutting tobacco.

Career


Early work, 1978–1993

Clooney’s first role was as an extra in the television mini-series Centennial in 1978, which was based on the novel of the same name by James A. Michener and was partly filmed in Clooney’s hometown of Augusta, Kentucky. Clooney’s first major role came in 1984 in the short-lived sitcom E/R (not to be confused with ER, the better-known hospital drama, on which Clooney also co-starred a decade later). He played a handyman on the series The Facts of Life and appeared as Bobby Hopkins, a detective, on an episode of The Golden Girls. His first prominent role was a semi-regular supporting role in the sitcom Roseanne, playing Roseanne Barr’s supervisor Booker Brooks, followed by the role of a construction worker on Baby Talk, a co-starring role on the CBS drama Bodies of Evidence as Detective Ryan Walker, and then a year-long turn as Det. James Falconer on Sisters. In 1988, Clooney played a small role in the comedy-horror film Return of the Killer Tomatoes. In 1990, he starred in the short-lived ABC police drama Sunset Beat. During this period, Clooney was a student at the Beverly Hills Playhouse acting school for five years.

Breakthrough, 1994–1999

Clooney rose to fame when he played Dr. Doug Ross, alongside Anthony Edwards, Julianna Margulies, and Noah Wyle, on the hit NBC medical drama ER from 1994 to 1999. After leaving the series in 1999, he made a cameo appearance in the 6th season and returned for a guest spot in the show’s final season. For his work on the series, Clooney received two Primetime Emmy Award nominations for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Drama Series in 1995 and 1996. He also earned three Golden Globe Award nominations for Best Actor – Television Series Drama in 1995, 1996, and 1997 (losing to co-star Anthony Edwards).

Clooney in 1995

Clooney began appearing in films while working on ER. His first major Hollywood role was in the horror comedy-crime thriller From Dusk till Dawn, directed by Robert Rodriguez and co-starring Harvey Keitel. He followed its success with the romantic comedy One Fine Day with Michelle Pfeiffer, and the action-thriller The Peacemaker with Nicole Kidman. Clooney was then cast as Batman in Joel Schumacher’s Batman & Robin, which was a modest box office performer, but a critical failure (with Clooney himself calling the film “a waste of money”). In 1998, he co-starred in the crime-comedy Out of Sight opposite Jennifer Lopez, marking the first of his many collaborations with director Steven Soderbergh. He also starred in Three Kings during the last weeks of his contract with ER.

After ER, 2000–2010

After leaving ER, Clooney starred in the commercially successful films The Perfect Storm (2000), a disaster drama; and O Brother, Where Art Thou? (2000), a Coen brothers adventure comedy. In 2001, he teamed up with Soderbergh again for the heist comedy Ocean’s Eleven, a remake of the 1960s Rat Pack film of the same name, with Clooney playing Danny Ocean, originally portrayed by Frank Sinatra. It is Clooney’s most successful film with him in the lead role, earning $451 million worldwide (he appeared, but did not star, in Gravity, which has a $723 million worldwide box office). The film inspired two sequels starring Clooney, Ocean’s Twelve in 2004 and Ocean’s Thirteen in 2007.

George Clooney at the premiere of The Men Who Stare at Goats in the 2009 Toronto International Film Festival

In 2001, Clooney and Soderbergh co-founded Section Eight Productions, for which Grant Heslov was president of television. Clooney made his directorial debut in the 2002 film Confessions of a Dangerous Mind, based on the autobiography of TV producer Chuck Barris. Though the film did not do well at the box office, critics stated that Clooney’s directing showed promise.

In 2005, Clooney starred in Syriana, which was based loosely on former Central Intelligence Agency agent Robert Baer’s memoirs of his service in the Middle East. Clooney suffered an accident on the set of Syriana, which caused a brain injury with complications from a punctured dura. The same year he directed, produced, and starred in Good Night, and Good Luck, a film about 1950s television journalist Edward R. Murrow’s famous war of words with Senator Joseph McCarthy. At the 2006 Academy Awards, Clooney was nominated for Best Director and Best Original Screenplay for Good Night, and Good Luck, as well as Best Supporting Actor for Syriana. He won the Oscar for his role in Syriana.

George Clooney cast his hands and shoes in the Grauman’s Chinese Theatre in 2007.

Clooney next appeared in The Good German (2006), a film noir directed by Soderbergh that is set in post-World War II Germany. In August 2006, Clooney and Heslov started the production company Smokehouse Pictures. In October 2006, Clooney received the American Cinematheque Award, which honors someone in the entertainment industry who has made “a significant contribution to the art of motion pictures”. On January 22, 2008, Clooney was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actor for Michael Clayton (2007) but did not win. Later that year, he directed his third film, Leatherheads, in which he also starred. On April 4, 2008, Variety reported that Clooney had quietly resigned from the Writers Guild of America over a dispute concerning Leatherheads. Clooney, who is the director, producer, and star of the film, claimed that he had contributed in writing “all but two scenes” of it, and requested a writing credit alongside Duncan Brantley and Rick Reilly, who had worked on the screenplay for 17 years. Clooney lost an arbitration vote 2–1, and withdrew from the union over the decision. He became a “financial core status” non-member, meaning he no longer has voting rights, and cannot run for office or attend membership meetings, according to the WGA’s constitution.

He next co-starred with Ewan McGregor and Kevin Spacey in the war comedy film The Men Who Stare at Goats, which was directed by Heslov and released in November 2009. Also in November 2009, he voiced the title character in Wes Anderson’s animated feature Fantastic Mr. Fox. The same year, Clooney starred in the comedy-drama Up in the Air, which was initially given limited release, and then wide-released on December 25, 2009. For his performance in the film, which was directed by Jason Reitman, he was nominated for a Golden Globe, a Screen Actors Guild Award, BAFTA, and an Academy Award. 2010 saw the release of The American, based on the novel A Very Private Gentleman by Martin Booth and directed by Anton Corbijn. Clooney played the lead role, and was a producer of the film.

2011–Present

As of 2011, Clooney is represented by Bryan Lourd, co-chairman of Creative Artists Agency (CAA). In 2011 Clooney starred in The Descendants as a husband whose wife has an accident that leaves her in a coma. He earned critical praise for his work, and won the Broadcast Film Critics Association Award for Best Actor and the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama. Also, he was nominated for the Screen Actors Guild for Best Actor, the BAFTA Award for Best Actor, and the Academy Award for Best Actor. He was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay for the political drama The Ides of March. In 2013, Clooney won the Golden Globe for Best Motion Picture – Drama, the BAFTA Award for Best Picture and the Academy Award for Best Picture for producing Argo. He is the only person in Academy Award history to be nominated for Oscars in six different categories: Best Picture, Best Actor, Best Supporting Actor, Best Director, Best Original Screenplay and Best Adapted Screenplay.

Clooney co-starred with Sandra Bullock in Gravity (2013), a space thriller directed by Alfonso Cuarón. He co-wrote, directed and starred in The Monuments Men, an adaption of The Monuments Men: Allied Heroes, Nazi Thieves and the Greatest Treasure Hunt in History by Robert M. Edsel. Clooney also produced August: Osage County (2013), an adaptation of the play of the same name. The film stars Meryl Streep and Julia Roberts. His next film was Tomorrowland (2015), a science fiction adventure film in which he played Frank Walker, an inventor. Later in the year, he was featured as himself in the Netflix Christmas musical comedy A Very Murray Christmas, starring Bill Murray.

Hail, Caesar!, a comedy from the Coen brothers set in the Hollywood film industry in the 1950s, premiered in February 2016. Clooney portrayed Baird Whitlock, a Robert Taylor-type film star who is kidnapped during the production of a film. Josh Brolin co-starred as fixer Eddie Mannix. Clooney reunited with Julia Roberts for the Jodie Foster-directed thriller Money Monster (2016), playing the host of a television show that investigates conspiracies on commerce and Wall Street, who is taken hostage by a bankrupt viewer given a bad tip.

In 2013, Clooney co-founded Casamigos Tequila with Rande Gerber and Michael Meldman. It was sold to Diageo for $700 million in June 2017, with an additional $300 million possible depending on the company’s performance over the next ten years. According to Forbes annual ranking, he was the world’s highest-paid actor for 2017-2018, earning $239 million between June 1, 2017 and June 1, 2018.

In October 2017 his directorial project Suburbicon a 1950s-set crime comedy was released. It stars Matt Damon, Julianne Moore, and Oscar Isaac, from a script written by the Coen brothers in the 1980s, that they had originally intended to direct themselves.

He received the 2018 AFI Life Achievement Award on June 7, 2018.

Activism and Public Advocacy


Political views

Clooney is a supporter of gay rights. He supported both of Barack Obama’s 2008 and 2012 presidential campaigns. Clooney endorsed Hillary Clinton for the 2016 presidential election.

Clooney in Abéché, Chad, in January 2008 with the U.N

Humanitarian work

Clooney is involved with Not On Our Watch Project, an organization that focuses global attention and resources to stop and prevent mass atrocities, along with Brad Pitt, Matt Damon, Don Cheadle, David Pressman, and Jerry Weintraub. In February 2009, he visited Goz Beida, Chad, with New York Times columnist Nicholas D. Kristof. In January 2010, he organized the telethon Hope for Haiti Now, which collected donations for the 2010 Haiti earthquake victims.

In March 2012, Clooney starred with Martin Sheen and Brad Pitt in a performance of Dustin Lance Black’s play, ‘8’—a staged reenactment of the federal trial that overturned California’s Prop 8 ban on same-sex marriage—as attorney David Boies. The production was held at the Wilshire Ebell Theatre and broadcast on YouTube to raise money for the American Foundation for Equal Rights. In September 2012, Clooney offered to take an auction winner out to lunch to benefit the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN). GLSEN works to create a safe space in schools for children who are or may be perceived to be gay, lesbian, bisexual or transgender.

Darfur

Clooney has advocated a resolution of the Darfur conflict.[82] He spoke at a 2006 Save Darfur rally in Washington, D.C. In April 2006, he spent ten days in Chad and Sudan with his father to make the TV special “A Journey to Darfur” reflecting the situation of Darfur’s refugees, and advocated for action. The documentary was broadcast on American cable TV as well as in the UK and France. In 2008, it was released on DVD with the sale proceeds being donated to the International Rescue Committee. In September of the same year, he spoke to the UN Security Council with Nobel Prize-winner Elie Wiesel to ask the UN to find a solution to the conflict and to help the people of Darfur. In December, he visited China and Egypt with Don Cheadle and two Olympic winners to ask both governments to pressure Sudan’s government.

Clooney discusses Sudan with President Barack Obama at the White House in October 2010.

On March 25, 2007, he sent an open letter to German Chancellor Angela Merkel, calling on the European Union to take “decisive action” in the region given the failure of Sudan President Omar al-Bashir to respond to UN resolutions. He narrated and was co-executive producer of the 2007 documentary Sand and Sorrow. Clooney also appeared in the documentary film Darfur Now, a call-to-action film released in November 2007 for people all over the world to help stop the Darfur crisis. In December 2007, Clooney and fellow actor Don Cheadle received the Summit Peace Award from the Nobel Peace Prize Laureates in Rome. In his acceptance speech, Clooney said that “Don and I … stand here before you as failures. The simple truth is that when it comes to the atrocities in Darfur … those people are not better off now than they were years ago.” On January 18, 2008, the United Nations announced Clooney’s appointment as a UN messenger of peace, effective January 31.

Clooney conceived of and, with John Prendergast – human rights activist, co-founder of the Enough Project, and Strategic Advisor for Not on Our Watch Project – initiated the Satellite Sentinel Project (SSP), after an October 2010 trip to South Sudan. SSP aims to monitor armed activity for signs of renewed civil war between Sudan and South Sudan, and to detect and deter mass atrocities along the border regions there.

Clooney and John Prendergast co-wrote a Washington Post op-ed piece in May 2011, titled “Dancing with a dictator in Sudan”, arguing that:

President Omar al-Bashir has been indicted by the International Criminal Court for genocide, is escalating bombing and food aid obstruction in Darfur, and he now threatens the entire north-south peace process … the evidence shows that incentives alone are insufficient to change Khartoum’s calculations. International support should be sought immediately for denying debt relief, expanding the ICC indictments, diplomatically isolating the regime, suspending all non-humanitarian aid, obstructing state-controlled bank transactions and freezing accounts holding oil wealth diverted by senior regime officials.

On March 16, 2012, Clooney was arrested outside the Sudanese Embassy for civil disobedience. He intended to be arrested when he planned the protest. Several other prominent participants were also arrested, including Martin Luther King III. Clooney has been described as one of the most strident critics of Omar al-Bashir.

Armenian Genocide

Clooney supports the recognition of the Armenian Genocide. He is one of the chief associates of the 100 Lives Initiative, a project which aims to remember the lives lost during the event. As part of the initiative, Clooney launched the Aurora Prize, which awards to those who risk their lives to prevent genocides and atrocities. Clooney had also urged various American government officials to support the United States’ recognition of the Armenian Genocide. Clooney visited Armenia to commemorate the 101st anniversary of the event in April 2016.

Syria

In May 2015, Clooney told the BBC that the Syrian conflict was too complicated politically to get involved in and he wanted to focus on helping the refugees. In March 2016, he and his wife, Amal Clooney, met with Syrian refugees living in Berlin to mark the fifth anniversary of the conflict, before meeting with German Chancellor Angela Merkel to thank her for Germany’s open-door policy.

Gun Control

In 2018, following the Stoneman Douglas High School shooting, the Clooneys pledged $500,000 to the March for Our Lives and said they would be in attendance.

LGBT Rights

On March 28, 2019, Clooney wrote an open letter calling for the boycott of the Sultan of Brunei’s hotels over a new law that comes into force on April 3, 2019 that will punish homosexual sex and adultery with death by stoning. Clooney lists 9 hotels including The Dorchester, 45 Park Lane, Coworth Park, The Beverly Hills Hotel, Hotel Bel-Air, Le Meurice, Hotel Plaza Athenee, Hotel Eden and Hotel Principe di Savoia and asks readers to consider how “we are putting money directly into the pockets of men who choose to stone and whip to death their own citizens for being gay or accused of adultery.”

Personal Life


Relationships

Clooney dated actress Kelly Preston (1987–1989). Clooney was married to actress Talia Balsam from 1989 to 1993. He also had a relationship with actress Ginger Lynn Allen. Clooney dated French reality TV personality Céline Balitran (1996–1999). After meeting British model Lisa Snowdon in 2000, he had a five-year on-again, off-again relationship with her. Clooney dated Renée Zellweger (2001) and Krista Allen (2002–2008). In June 2007, he started dating reality personality Sarah Larson, but the couple broke up in May 2008. In July 2009, Clooney was in a relationship with Italian actress Elisabetta Canalis until they split in June 2011. In July 2011, Clooney started dating former WWE personnel Stacy Keibler, and they ended their relationship in July 2013.

Clooney and Alamuddin at the 66th Berlin International Film Festival in Germany in 2016

Clooney became engaged to British-Lebanese human rights lawyer Amal Alamuddin on April 28, 2014. In July 2014, Clooney publicly mocked the British tabloid newspaper the Daily Mail after it claimed his fiancée’s mother opposes their marriage on religious grounds. When the tabloid apologized for its false story, Clooney refused to accept the apology. He called the paper “the worst kind of tabloid. One that makes up its facts to the detriment of its readers.” On August 7, 2014, Clooney and Alamuddin obtained marriage licenses at the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea of the United Kingdom. Alamuddin and Clooney were officially married on September 27, 2014, at Ca’ Farsetti. They were married by Clooney’s friend Walter Veltroni, the former mayor of Rome. In 2015, Clooney and Alamuddin adopted a rescue dog, a bassett hound named Millie, from the San Gabriel Valley Humane Society. On February 9, 2017, it was reported by the CBS talk show, The Talk, that Amal was pregnant, and that they were expecting twins. On June 6, 2017, Amal gave birth to a daughter, Ella, and a son, Alexander.

Real Estate

Clooney has property in Los Angeles. He purchased the 7,354-square-foot (683.2 m2) house in 1995 through his George Guilfoyle Trust. His home in Italy is in the village of Laglio, on Lake Como, near the former residence of Italian author Ada Negri. Clooney also owns a home in Los Cabos, Mexico, that is next door to the home of Cindy Crawford and Rande Gerber. In 2014, Clooney and his new British wife Amal Alamuddin bought the Grade II listed Mill House on an island in the River Thames at Sonning Eye in Oxfordshire, England at a cost of around £10 million.

Motorcycle Accidents

On September 21, 2007, Clooney and then-girlfriend Sarah Larson were injured in a motorcycle accident in Weehawken, New Jersey, when his motorcycle was hit by a car. The driver of the car reported that Clooney attempted to pass him on the right, while Clooney said that the driver signaled left and then decided to make an abrupt right turn and clipped his motorcycle. On October 9, 2007, more than two dozen staff at Palisades Medical Center were suspended without pay for looking at Clooney’s medical records in violation of federal law.

On July 10, 2018, Clooney was hit by a car while riding a motorcycle to a film set in Sardinia. He was hospitalised with minor, non-life-threatening injuries.

Sports

Growing up around Cincinnati, Clooney is a fan of the Cincinnati Bengals and Cincinnati Reds. He tried out to be a Red in 1977.

In the Media


Clooney has appeared in commercials outside the U.S. for Fiat, Nespresso, Martini vermouth, and Omega. Clooney was named one of Time magazine’s 100 Most Influential People in the World in 2007, 2008, and 2009. He is sometimes described as one of the most handsome men in the world. In 2005, TV Guide ranked Clooney No. 1 on its “50 Sexiest Stars of All Time” list. The cover story in a February 2008 issue of Time magazine was headlined with: “George Clooney: The last movie star”.

He was parodied in the South Park episode “Smug Alert!”, which criticizes his acceptance speech at the 78th Academy Awards.[citation needed] Clooney has also lent his voice to South Park as Sparky the Dog in “Big Gay Al’s Big Gay Boat Ride” and as the emergency room doctor in South Park: Bigger, Longer & Uncut. Clooney was caricatured in the American Dad! episode “Tears of a Clooney”, in which Francine Smith plans to destroy him.

Director Alexander Cartio made his debut feature film, Convincing Clooney, about a Los Angeles artist who, faced with rejection as an actor and screenwriter, concocts a master plan to get Clooney to star in his first-ever low-budget short film. The movie was released on DVD in November 2011.

Publications


Articles

“The Key to Making Peace in Africa”. Co-authored with John Prendergast. Foreign Affairs, Vol. 97, No. 2, March 14, 2018.

Awards and Nominations


Throughout his career, Clooney has won two Academy Awards, one for Best Supporting Actor for his role in Syriana and one for Best Picture as one of the producers for Argo, as well as a BAFTA and a Golden Globe. For his role in The Descendants, he won a Golden Globe Award and was nominated for an Academy Award, BAFTA Award, Satellite Award, and two Screen Actors Guild Awards: Best Lead Actor and Best Cast. On January 11, 2015, Clooney was awarded the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Lifetime Achievement Award.

The following is a list of awards and nominations received by American actor, singer, comedian, dancer, screenwriter, director, independent filmmaker, model and producer George Clooney throughout his career. Clooney has received eight Academy Award nominations, winning two—Best Supporting Actor for Syriana (2005) and as co-producer of Best Picture winner Argo (2012). He is the second person to be nominated in six different Academy Award categories (Best Picture; Best Director; Best Original Screenplay; Best Adapted Screenplay; Best Lead Actor; Best Supporting Actor), following Walt Disney.

Awards

Academy Awards

British Academy Film Awards

Empire Awards

Golden Globe Awards

MTV Movie & TV Awards

Primetime Emmy Awards

Satellite Awards

Saturn Awards

Screen Actors Guild Awards

Miscellaneous

Filmography


George Timothy Clooney is an American-Canadian actor, producer, screenwriter, and director. He is one of the highest-grossing actors of all time with over $1.9 billion total box office gross and an average of $61.7 million per film. He has been involved in thirteen films that grossed over $200 million at the worldwide box office.

Clooney has appeared in the television series ER (1994–99), The Facts of Life (1985–87), Roseanne (1988–91), Bodies of Evidence (1992–93) and Sisters (1993–94). Early in his career, Clooney also appeared in a number of low-budget film roles like Return to Horror High (1987), Combat Academy (1987 television movie), Return of the Killer Tomatoes (1988), Unbecoming Age (1992) and The Harvest (1993). His role as doctor Doug Ross on ER earned him Golden Globe and Emmy Award nominations.

In the 1990s Clooney appeared in the films From Dusk till Dawn (1996), One Fine Day (1996), with Michelle Pfeiffer, The Peacemaker (1997) with Nicole Kidman, Batman & Robin (1997), and Out of Sight (1998) opposite Jennifer Lopez. The new millennium saw Clooney in the film O Brother, Where Art Thou? (2000), which won him a Golden Globe Award, as well as Empire Award and Satellite Award nominations. In 2001, he teamed up again with Soderbergh for the star-studded caper film Ocean’s Eleven, alongside Matt Damon, Brad Pitt and many others. The film was followed by two sequels starring Clooney, Ocean’s Twelve in 2004 and Ocean’s Thirteen in 2007. He has also appeared in Solaris (2002), Welcome To Collinwood (2002), Intolerable Cruelty (2003), Syriana (2005), for which he was rewarded with an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, The Good German (2006), Michael Clayton (2007), Burn After Reading (2008), Up in the Air (2009), for the latter earning an Academy Award nomination. Clooney also directed and starred in Confessions of a Dangerous Mind (2002), Good Night, and Good Luck (2005), Leatherheads (2008) and The Ides of March (2011).

In 2011 Clooney starred in Alexander Payne’s The Descendants, earning a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama and an Academy Award nomination. In 2013, he co-starred opposite Sandra Bullock in the space thriller Gravity. He directed, co-produced, co-wrote, and starred in The Monuments Men, originally scheduled for release in 2013, but pushed back until 2014. He next starred in Brad Bird’s science fiction film Tomorrowland, released on May 22, 2015.

Film


Acting Roles

Films Directed

Films Produced

Television


As Producer

Covid-19 [Corona Virus]

Penyakit Koronavirus 2019 [Covid-19]

Virus Corona bisa bertahan sampai berhari-hari pada materi tertentu. Kalau mau tahu berapa lama Virus Corona tahan pada jenis materi di sekitar kita, silahkan klik gambar!

Penyakit koronavirus 2019 (bahasa Inggris: coronavirus disease 2019, disingkat COVID-19) adalah penyakit menular yang disebabkan oleh SARS-CoV-2, salah satu jenis koronavirus. Penyakit ini mengakibatkan pandemi koronavirus 2019–2020. Penderita COVID-19 dapat mengalami demam, batuk kering, dan kesulitan bernapas. Sakit tenggorokan, pilek, atau bersin-bersin lebih jarang ditemukan. Pada penderita yang paling rentan, penyakit ini dapat berujung pada pneumonia dan kegagalan multiorgan.

Infeksi menyebar dari satu orang ke orang lain melalui percikan (droplet) dari saluran pernapasan yang sering dihasilkan saat batuk atau bersin. Waktu dari paparan virus hingga timbulnya gejala klinis berkisar antara 1–14 hari dengan rata-rata 5 hari. Metode standar diagnosis adalah uji reaksi berantai polimerase transkripsi-balik (rRT-PCR) dari usap nasofaring atau sampel dahak dengan hasil dalam beberapa jam hingga 2 hari. Pemeriksaan antibodi dari sampel serum darah juga dapat digunakan dengan hasil dalam beberapa hari. Infeksi juga dapat didiagnosis dari kombinasi gejala, faktor risiko, dan pemindaian tomografi terkomputasi pada dada yang menunjukkan gejala pneumonia.

Mencuci tangan, menjaga jarak dari orang yang batuk, dan tidak menyentuh wajah dengan tangan yang tidak bersih adalah langkah yang disarankan untuk mencegah penyakit ini. Disarankan untuk menutup hidung dan mulut dengan tisu atau siku yang tertekuk ketika batuk. Organisasi Kesehatan Dunia (WHO) dan Pusat Pengendalian dan Pencegahan Penyakit AS (CDC) merekomendasikan kepada orang-orang yang menduga bahwa mereka telah terinfeksi untuk memakai masker bedah dan mencari nasihat medis dengan memanggil dokter dan tidak langsung mengunjungi klinik. Masker juga direkomendasikan bagi mereka yang merawat seseorang yang diduga terinfeksi tetapi tidak untuk digunakan masyarakat umum. Belum ada vaksin atau obat antivirus khusus untuk COVID-19; tata laksana yang diberikan meliputi pengobatan terhadap gejala, perawatan suportif, dan tindakan eksperimental. Angka fatalitas kasus diperkirakan antara 1–3%.

Tanda dan Gejala


Orang-orang yang terinfeksi mungkin bersifat asimtomatik atau memiliki gejala ringan, seperti demam, batuk, dan kesulitan bernapas.] Gejala diare atau infeksi saluran napas atas (misalnya bersin, pilek, dan sakit tenggorokan) lebih jarang ditemukan. Kasus dapat berkembang menjadi pneumonia berat, kegagalan multiorgan, dan kematian.

Gejala-gejala COVID-19

Masa inkubasi diperkirakan antara 1–14 hari oleh Organisasi Kesehatan Dunia (WHO) dan 2–14 hari oleh Pusat Pengendalian dan Pencegahan Penyakit Amerika Serikat (CDC). Tinjauan WHO terhadap 55.924 kasus terkonfirmasi di Tiongkok mengindikasikan tanda dan gejala klinis berikut:

Jalur penyakit dan komplikasi

Ada tiga jalur utama yang mungkin ditempuh penyakit ini. Pertama, penyakit mungkin berbentuk ringan yang menyerupai penyakit pernapasan atas umum lainnya. Jalur kedua mengarah ke pneumonia, yaitu infeksi pada sistem pernapasan bawah. Jalur ketiga, yang paling parah, adalah perkembangan cepat ke sindrom gangguan pernapasan akut (acute respiratory distress syndrome atau ARDS).

Usia yang lebih tua, nilai d-dimer lebih besar dari 1 μg/mL, dan nilai SOFA yang tinggi (skala penilaian klinis yang menilai berbagai organ seperti paru-paru, ginjal, dsb.) diasosiasikan dengan prognosis terburuk. Begitu pula dengan peningkatan level interleukin-6 dalam darah, troponin I jantung sensitivitas tinggi, dehidrogenase laktat, dan limfopenia dikaitkan dengan kondisi penyakit yang lebih parah. Komplikasi COVID-19 adalah sepsis, serta komplikasi jantung seperti gagal jantung dan aritmia. Orang dengan gangguan jantung lebih berisiko mengalami komplikasi jantung. Juga, keadaan hiperkoagulopati tercatat pada 90% penderita pneumonia.

Penyebab


Penyakit ini disebabkan oleh koronavirus sindrom pernapasan akut berat 2 (SARS-CoV-2 atau severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2). Virus ini menyebar melalui percikan (droplets) dari saluran pernapasan yang dikeluarkan saat sedang batuk atau bersin.

Paru-paru adalah organ yang paling terpengaruh oleh penyakit ini karena virus memasuki sel inangnya lewat enzim pengubah angiotensin 2 (angiotensin converting enzyme 2 atau ACE2), yang paling banyak ditemukan di dalam sel alveolar tipe II paru. SARS-CoV-2 menggunakan permukaan permukaan sel khususnya yang mengandung glikoprotein yang disebut “spike” untuk berhubungan dengan ACE2 dan memasuki sel inang. Berat jenis ACE2 pada setiap jaringan berhubungan dengan tingkat keparahan penyakit. Diduga, bahwa penurunan aktivitas ACE2 memberikan perlindungan terhadap sel inang karena ekspresi ACE2 yang berlebihan akan menyebabkan infeksi dan replikasi SARS-CoV-2. Beberapa penelitian, melalui sudut pandang yang berbeda juga menunjukkan bahwa peningkatan ekspresi ACE2 oleh golongan obat penghambat reseptor angiotensin II akan melindungi sel inang. Dibutuhkan penelitian lebih lanjut tentang hal ini. ACE2 juga merupakan jalur bagi virus SARS-CoV-2 untuk menyebabkan kerusakan jantung, karenanya penderita dengan riwayat penyakit jantung memiliki prognosis yang paling jelek.

Diagnosis


Kit uji laboratorium CDC untuk COVID-19

WHO telah menerbitkan beberapa protokol pengujian untuk penyakit ini. Pengujian menggunakan reaksi berantai polimerase transkripsi-balik secara waktu nyata (rRT-PCR). Spesimen untuk pengujian dapat berupa usap pernapasan atau sampel dahak. Pada umumnya, hasil pengujian dapat diketahui dalam beberapa jam hingga 2 hari. Ilmuwan Tiongkok telah mengisolasi galur koronavirus dan menerbitkan sekuens genetika sehingga laboratorium di seluruh dunia dapat mengembangkan uji PCR secara independen untuk mendeteksi infeksi oleh virus.

Pedoman diagnostik yang dikeluarkan oleh Rumah Sakit Zhongnan dari Universitas Wuhan mengusulkan metode untuk mendeteksi infeksi berdasarkan fitur klinis dan risiko epidemiologis. Pedoman ini melibatkan mengidentifikasi pasien yang memiliki setidaknya dua gejala berikut selain riwayat perjalanan ke Wuhan atau kontak dengan pasien lain yang terinfeksi: demam, gambaran pencitraan pneumonia, jumlah sel darah putih normal atau berkurang, atau berkurangnya jumlah limfosit.

Pencegahan


Sebuah ilustrasi efek penyebaran infeksi dalam jangka waktu yang panjang. Jika tindakan pencegahan dilakukan secara optimal, lonjakan penularan infeksi dapat ditahan. Hal tersebut membuat tenaga medis tidak kewalahan dalam menghadapi pasien dengan jumlah besar.

Karena Vaksin untuk SARS-CoV-2 baru tersedia paling cepat 2021, hal penting dalam penanganan pandemi penyakit koronavirus 2019 adalah menekan laju penyebaran virus atau yang dikenal dengan melandaikan kurva epidemi. Hal ini dapat menurunkan risiko tenaga medis kewalahan menghadapi lonjakan jumlah pasien dan dapat memberikan waktu tambahan untuk mengembangkan pengobatan.

Tindakan pencegahan untuk mengurangi kemungkinan infeksi antara lain tetap berada di rumah, menghindari bepergian dan beraktivitas di tempat umum, sering mencuci tangan dengan sabun dan air, tidak menyentuh mata, hidung, atau mulut dengan tangan yang tidak dicuci, serta mempraktikkan higiene pernapasan yang baik. Terkadang, diperlukan intervensi untuk mengurangi kontak dengan orang yang terinfeksi dalam kerumunan besar seperti dengan menutup sekolah dan kantor, membatasi perjalanan, dan membatalkan pertemuan massa dalam jumlah besar.

Berdasarkan WHO, penggunaan masker hanya direkomendasikan untuk orang yang sedang batuk atau bersin atau yang sedang menangani pasien terduga.

Untuk mencegah penyebaran virus, CDC merekomendasikan untuk pasien agar tetap berada di dalam rumah, kecuali untuk mendapatkan perawatan di rumah sakit. Sebelum ingin mendapatkan perawatan, pasien harus menghubungi rumah sakit. Selain itu, CDC merekomendasikan untuk menggunakan masker ketika berhadapan dengan orang atau berkunjung ke tempat yang diduga terdapat penyakit koronavirus, menutup mulut dengan tisu ketika batuk dan bersin, rutin mencuci tangan dengan sabun dan air, serta menghindari berbagi alat rumah tangga pribadi. CDC juga merekomendasikan untuk mencuci tangan minimal selama 20 detik, terutama setelah dari toilet, ketika tangan kotor, sebelum makan, dan setelah batuk atau bersin. Lalu, rekomendasi berikutnya adalah menggunakan penyanitasi tangan dengan kandungan alkohol minimal 60% jika tidak tersedia sabun dan air. WHO menyarankan agar menghindari menyentuh mata, hidung, atau mulut dengan tangan yang belum dicuci. Meludah di sembarang tempat juga harus dihindari.

Upaya alternatif mengatasi penyebaran COVID-19 selain meratakan kurva.

Pengendalian


Meskipun tidak ada pengobatan yang efektif untuk mencegah penyakit ini, manifestasi dan komplikasi klinis yang dihasilkan harus dikelola. WHO telah menerbitkan rekomendasi perawatan terperinci untuk pasien rawat inap dengan infeksi saluran pernapasan akut ketika dicurigai terdapat infeksi SARS-CoV-2. WHO juga merekomendasikan sukarelawan untuk mengambil bagian dalam uji coba terkontrol secara acak untuk menguji efektivitas dan keamanan perawatan secara potensial.

Karena pengobatan tersebut terbukti memiliki efek terhadap koronavirus lainnya dan memiliki mode tindakan yang menunjukkan pengobatan tersebut mungkin efektif, lopinavir/ritonavir menjadi target penelitian dan analisis yang signifikan. Komisi Kesehatan Nasional Tiongkok cabang Beijing, meskipun mencatat bahwa saat ini tidak ada antivirus yang efektif, menyarankan penggunaan lopinavir/ritonavir sebagai bagian dari rencana perawatan. Obat-obatan ini sekarang dapat diklaim untuk asuransi kesehatan di beberapa negara.

Psikologis

Efek psikologis dapat disebabkan oleh perasaan terjebak di bawah karantina, pembatasan perjalanan, dan isolasi. Pada akhir Januari 2020, Komisi Kesehatan Nasional Tiongkok menerbitkan pedoman nasional intervensi krisis psikologis untuk penyakit ini, mengesahkan perawatan kesehatan mental untuk orang-orang yang terkena dampak, kontak dekat, mereka yang terisolasi di rumah, keluarga dan teman-teman dari orang yang terkena dampak, perawatan kesehatan pekerja, dan masyarakat umum yang membutuhkannya.

Pengobatan Alternatif

Otoritas kesehatan Tiongkok merekomendasikan penggunaan pengobatan tradisional Tionghoa (TCM) untuk mencegah atau mengobati penyakit ini. Pada 22 Januari, Komisi Kesehatan Nasional memasukkan TCM ke dalam edisi ketiga dari rencana diagnostik dan perawatan COVID-19. Pada 2 Februari, pejabat Wuhan memerintahkan semua pasien untuk menjalani perawatan TCM tertentu. Pada 14 Februari, Wuhan membuka rumah sakit sementara yang berorientasi pada TCM. Daerah lain telah datang dengan resep TCM mereka sendiri, sementara fasilitas yang didukung pemerintah melaporkan hasil yang penuh harapan. Kemanjuran dan keamanan TCM belum ditetapkan dalam infeksi koronavirus. Kegilaan TCM serupa selama wabah SARS telah menyebabkan banyak kasus keracunan ramuan dan tidak ada uji acak terkendali yang diatur untuk COVID-19.

Prognosis


Data awal pada 137 pasien yang dirawat di rumah sakit di provinsi Hubei ditemukan bahwa 12% pasien (16 orang) meninggal. Di antara mereka yang meninggal, banyak yang memiliki riwayat kondisi yang sudah ada sebelumnya, termasuk hipertensi, diabetes, atau penyakit kardiovaskular.

Pada kasus-kasus awal yang mengakibatkan kematian, median waktu dari penyakit tersebut adalah 14 hari dengan rentang total dari enam hingga 41 hari.

Imunitas

Penelitian tentang imunitas pascainfeksi dilakukan pada 4 orang penderita positif COVID-19 (1 penderita dirawat inap dan 3 penderita dikarantina di rumah, keempatnya petugas medis). Pertama kali terdiagnosis, 3 di antaranya memberikan gejala batuk dan demam, yang seorang lagi tidak memberikan gejala. Hasil pemeriksaan tomografi terkomputasi, semuanya memberikan gambaran pneumonia. Keempatnya di bawah pengawasan Rumah Sakit Zhongnan Universitas Wuhan, Wuhan, Cina, dari 1 Januari 2020 hingga 15 Februari 2020 dan menerima pengobatan antivirus oral, oseltamivir 2 kali sehari. Keempat penderita dievaluasi dengan tes RT-PCR untuk asam nukleat COVID-19 untuk menentukan apakah mereka boleh kembali bekerja. Kriteria kembali bekerja yang ditetapkan adalah suhu tubuh normal selama tiga hari berturut-turut, sembuh dari gejala saluran napas, perbaikan hasil tomografi terkomputasi dada yang sebelumnya memperlihatkan gambaran eksudat di paru-paru, dan hasil RT-PCR yang negatif dengan dua pemeriksaan berturut-turut dengan jarak satu hari. Hasilnya tes RT-PCR negatif dalm dua pemeriksaan berturut-turut, dengan jarak antara pertama kali timbul gejala dan penyembuhan antara 12 hari hingga 32 hari. Setelah keluar dari rumah sakit dan setelah masa karantina di rumah (untuk 3 penderita) selesai dan hasil RT-PCR telah menunjukkan hasil negatif, mereka melanjutkan karantina di rumah selama 5 hari. Pemeriksaan RT-PCR diulangi lagi setelah 5 hingga 13 hari kemudian dan menunjukkan hasil positif (pemeriksaan menggunakan kit uji dari pabrik yang berbeda juga menunjukkan hasil yang sama). Tidak ada keluhan secara klinis, hasil tomografi terkomputasi sama seperti hasil pemeriksaan yang terakhir, tidak ada kontak dengan orang lain yang memiliki gejala gangguan saluran pernapasan, dan tidak ada anggota keluarga dari keempat penderita yang terinfeksi. Hal ini menunjukkan seorang penderita yang sudah menunjukkan hasil negatif dengan pemeriksaan RT-PCR sebelumnya, masih memiliki kemungkinan untuk menjadi pembawa sifat. Sampel penelitian ini terbatas dalam jumlah kecil. Dibutuhkan penelitian lebih lanjut dengan kohor (kelompok) yang lebih besar dan dari latar belakang pekerjaan yang berbeda untuk menetapkan prognosis penyakit ini.

Epidemologi


Angka mortalitas dan morbiditas secara keseluruhan karena infeksi virus belum ditetapkan dengan baik; sementara tingkat fatalitas kasus berubah dari waktu ke waktu dalam pandemi koronavirus ini. Perbandingan infeksi yang berkembang menjadi penyakit yang dapat didiagnosis tetap tidak jelas. Namun, penelitian pendahuluan telah menghasilkan tingkat kematian kasus antara 2% hingga 3% dan WHO mengusulkan bahwa tingkat kematian kasus adalah sekitar 3% pada Januari 2020. Sebuah studi pra-cetak Imperial College London pada 55 kasus fatal mencatat bahwa perkiraan awal kematian mungkin terlalu tinggi karena infeksi asimptomatik tidak terjawab. Mereka memperkirakan rasio fatalitas infeksi rata-rata (mortalitas di antara yang terinfeksi) berkisar dari 0,8% ketika termasuk pembawa asimptomatik hingga 18% ketika hanya memasukkan kasus simptomatik dari provinsi Hubei.

Penelitian


Vaksin

Banyak organisasi menggunakan genom yang diterbitkan untuk mengembangkan kemungkinan vaksin terhadap SARS-CoV-2. Badan yang mengembangkan vaksin terdiri dari Pusat Pengendalian dan Pencegahan Penyakit Tiongkok, Universitas Hong Kong,[91] dan Rumah Sakit Shanghai Timur. Tiga proyek vaksin ini sedang didukung oleh Koalisi Inovasi Kesiapsiagaan Epidemi (CEPI), termasuk satu proyek perusahaan bioteknologi Moderna dan proyek lainnya oleh Universitas Queensland Australia. Institut Kesehatan Nasional Amerika Serikat (NIH) bekerja sama dengan Moderna untuk membuat vaksin RNA yang cocok dengan protein permukaan (protein spike) koronavirus dan diharapkan untuk memulai produksi pada Mei 2020. Di Australia, Universitas Queensland sedang menyelidiki potensi vaksin penjepit molekuler yang secara genetik akan memodifikasi protein virus untuk membuatnya meniru koronavirus dan merangsang reaksi kekebalan. Di Kanada, Pusat Vaksin Internasional (VIDO-InterVac) di Universitas Saskatchewan mulai mengembangkan vaksin serta menargetkan produksi vaksin dan pengujian terhadap hewan pada Maret 2020 dan pengujian terhadap manusia pada 2021.

Pada akhir Januari 2020, Janssen Pharmaceutica mulai bekerja mengembangkan vaksin dengan memanfaatkan teknologi yang sama yang digunakan untuk membuat percobaan vaksin Ebola. Pada bulan berikutnya, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Biomedis Lanjutan Kementerian Kesehatan dan Layanan Masyarakat Amerika Serikat (BARDA) mengumumkan bahwa mereka akan berkolaborasi dengan Janssen dan Sanofi Pasteur (Divisi vaksin Sanofi) untuk mengembangkan vaksin. Sanofi sebelumnya telah mengembangkan vaksin untuk SARS dan mulai berharap memiliki calon vaksin dalam waktu enam bulan yang dapat siap untuk diuji pada orang dalam satu tahun hingga 18 bulan.

Antivirus

Penelitian tentang perawatan potensial untuk penyakit ini dimulai pada Januari 2020 dan beberapa obat antivirus sudah dalam uji klinis. Meskipun obat yang benar-benar baru mungkin membutuhkan waktu hingga 2021 untuk berkembang, beberapa obat yang sedang diuji sudah disetujui untuk indikasi antivirus lain atau sudah dalam pengujian lanjutan. Antivirus yang diuji seperti inhibitor RNA polimerase remdesivir, interferon beta, triazavirin, klorokuin, dan kombinasi lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra). Obat lain yang sedang diuji termasuk galidesivir, antivirus spektrum luas yang merupakan inhibitor RNA polimerase nukleosida; REGN3048-3051 (Regeneron), kombinasi dua antibodi monoklonal penawar; darunavir/cobicistat, obat yang disetujui untuk HIV; dan PRO 140, sebuah penelitian tentang pengobatan potensial untuk penyakit ini dimulai pada Januari 2020 dan beberapa obat antivirus sudah dalam uji klinis. Karena memiliki efek terhadap koronavirus lainnya dan mode tindakan yang menunjukkan pengobatan tersebut mungkin efektif, kombinasi lopinavir/ritonavir telah menjadi target penelitian dan analisis yang signifikan.

Penamaan


Pada 11 Februari 2020, Organisasi Kesehatan Dunia mengumumkan bahwa “COVID-19” akan menjadi nama resmi dari penyakit ini. Direktur WHO Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus kata “co” adalah singkatan dari “corona” (korona), “vi” untuk “virus”, dan “d” untuk “disease” (penyakit), sementara “19” adalah untuk tahun itu (2019) karena wabah tersebut pertama kali diidentifikasi pada tanggal 31 Desember 2019. Tedros mengatakan bahwa nama tersebut dipilih untuk menghindari referensi ke lokasi geografis tertentu, spesies hewan atau kelompok orang sesuai dengan rekomendasi internasional untuk penamaan yang bertujuan mencegah stigmatisasi.

Li Wenliang, orang pertama di Rumah Sakit Pusat Wuhan yang melaporkan kasus koronavirus di kotanya.

Mengenal Istilah Seputar Virus Corona: ODP, PDP, Lockdown

Source: Tempo Selasa, 17 Maret 2020 14:02 WIB. Reporter: Dewi Nurita. Editor: Syailendra Persada

Read also: Covid-19 [Corona Virus]

Sejumlah istilah berkaitan dengan virus Corona kerap dikeluarkan pemerintah dan menjadi populer dalam pemberitaan. Mulai dari lockdown, social distancing, work from home dan sejumlah istilah lainnya. Lalu apa maksud istilah-istilah itu?

Berikut, Tempo merangkum beberapa pengertian istilah tersebut dari berbagai sumber.

Lockdown

Lockdown diambil dari bahasa Inggris, artinya adalah terkunci. Jika dikaitkan dalam istilah teknis dalam kasus Corona atau COVID-19, arti lockdown adalah mengunci seluruh akses masuk maupun keluar dari suatu daerah maupun negara.

Tujuan mengunci suatu wilayah ini agar virus tidak menyebar lebih jauh lagi. Jika suatu daerah dikunci atau di-lockdown, maka semua fasilitas publik harus ditutup. Mulai dari sekolah, transportasi umum, tempat umum, perkantoran, bahkan pabrik harus ditutup dan tidak diperkenankan beraktivitas. Aktivitas warganya pun dibatasi. Bahkan ada negara yang memberlakukan jam malam.

Ketika virus Corona menyebar di kota Wuhan, Cina, pemerintah setempat memberlakukan kebijakan lockdown, disusul kota-kota lainnya di Cina yang penyebaran virusnya begitu massif. Sementara di Eropa, Italia jadi negara yang menerapkan kebijakan lockdown setelah penyebaran virus Corona di sana meningkat tajam dan menjangkiti ribuan orang.

Meskipun begitu, tidak semua negara mengunci wilayahnya setelah penyebaran virus Corona masuk ke wilayahnya. Korea Selatan memilih tidak mengunci wilayahnya, namun mengambil kebijakan lain untuk mencegah penyebaran virus Corona. Begitupula dengan Indonesia, pemerintah menilai opsi tersebut belum dibutuhkan untuk saat ini.

Social Distancing

Setelah mengenal arti lockdown, istilah teknis seputar virus Corona selanjutnya adalah social distancing. Dikutip dari The Atlantic, istilah ini merujuk pada tujuan untuk mencegah orang sakit melakukan kontak dengan orang lain dalam jarak dekat. Social distancing juga bertujuan untuk mengurangi penularan virus dari orang ke orang.

Sementara istilah social distancing menurut Center for Disease Control (CDC) adalah menjauhi segala bentuk perkumpulan, menjaga jarak dengan manusia, dan menghindari berbagai pertemuan yang melibatkan banyak orang.

Selain istilah social distancing, dalam bahasa Indonesia juga ada istilah isolasi dan karantina. Kedua istilah ini termasuk populer pasca merebaknya virus Corona di berbagai negara.

Menurut Ivan Lanin, pemerhati Bahasa Indonesia, isolasi maupun karantina bertujuan untuk mengendalikan penyebaran penyakit dengan membatasi perpindahan orang. Hanya saja antara isolasi dan karantina ada perbedaan mendasar, jika yang dimaksud adalah mencegah perpindahan penyakit dari orang sakit, maka dilakukan isolasi.

Sementara jika mencegah perpindahan penyakit ke orang yang sehat, maka istilah yang digunakan adalah karantina. Intinya isolasi dilakukan pada orang sakit, sementara karantina ditujukan kepada orang yang sehat.

Work From Home (WFH)

WFH atau Work From Home juga menjadi populer di kalangan pekerja. Istilah ini berarti bekerja dari rumah. Terkait dengan virus Corona, Anda tidak perlu pergi bekerja untuk mengurangi risiko tertular virus Corona.

Anda bisa menyelesaikan pekerjaan dari rumah dan bisa dilakukan secara online jika memungkinkan. Jika dikaitkan dengan situasi di Indonesia saat ini terkait penyebaran virus Corona, Presiden Joko Widodo sudah mengimbau agar masyarakat bekerja dari rumah, sama halnya seperti sekolah dan beribadah diimbau untuk dilakukan di rumah saja.

Imported Case dan Local Transmisson

Istilah ini merujuk pada lokasi dari mana virus Corona itu menjangkiti seorang pasien. Pada kasus imported case berarti seseorang terjangkit saat berada di luar wilayah dimana pasien tersebut melapor.

Misalnya seorang pasien dilaporkan positif Corona di Indonesia. Namun dia tertular di luar wilayah Indonesia, karena misalnya dia baru saja liburan dari luar negeri.

Sementara local transmission atau transmisi lokal berarti seorang pasien tertular di dalam wilayah dimana kasus ditemukan. Misalnya seorang pasien dilaporkan positif terjangkit virus Corona di Indonesia dan tertularnya pun di Indonesia.

Epidemi dan Pandemi

Epidemi merujuk pada penyebaran penyakit secara cepat dengan jumlah yang terjangkit banyak dan tidak normal. Biasanya suatu penyakit disebut epidemi jika menyebar di sebuah wilayah dalam jumlah penderita yang banyak, namun skalanya lebih kecil dibanding pandemi.

Jika epidemi menyebar di suatu wilayah saja, maka pandemi berarti penyakit tersbeut sudah menyebar ke seluruh dunia atau penyebarannya terjadi secara global. Levelnya pun lebih tinggi dibanding epidemi. Dalam kasus virus Corona, WHO menetapkan Covid-19 sebagai pandemi setelah menyebar hampir di seluruh negara.

ODP, PDP dan Suspect Corona

Tiga istilah ini kerap digunakan untuk membedakan status pasien Corona. Tak jarang, masyarakat sulit membedakannya.

Menurut Kementerian Kesehatan, orang di kategori ODP merupakan mereka yang sempat bepergian ke negara episentrum corona atau sempat melakukan kontak dengan orang diduga positif corona sehingga harus dilakukan pemantauan. Pada umumnya, pasien ODP belum menunjukkan gejala sakit.

Jika sudah menunjukkan gejala terjangkit Covid-19 seperti demam, batuk, pilek dan sesak napas, maka orang ini naik status menjadi pasien dalam pengawasan (PDP).

Tingkatan selanjutnya adalah suspect. Orang dengan predikat suspect ini sudah menunjukkan gejala terjangkit corona dan juga diduga kuat sudah melakukan kontak dengan pasien positif Covid-19.

Untuk ODP, diwajibkan melakukan self monitoring dan melapor kepada Dinas Kesehatan setempat jika menunjukkan gejala awal seperti demam, batuk, pilek atau sesak napas. Sementara PDP dan Suspect wajib isolasi setelah mereka di-swab (proses pengambilan sampel lendir dari saluran pernapasan).

Hasil sampel yang diambil dari proses swab ini akan diuji menggunakan metode PCR (polymerase chain reaction) dan Genome Sequencing untuk mengetahui apakah si pasien positif atau negatif Covid-19. Butuh waktu 2-3 hari menunggu hasil uji spesimen ini.

Jika terkonfirmasi positif, pasien akan menjalani perawatan sampai dua kali pemeriksaan negatif, baru dipersilakan pulang. Sementara jika negatif, pasien akan diminta menunggu pemeriksaan sekali lagi untuk memastikan benar-benar negatif.

Informasi tentang Adira Finance dan Produk-2 nya

Source: Adira Finance Website | Inquiry: Marcell R.S. [WA: +62 821-8663-2126]

Daftar Isi


  1. Sekilas Perusahaan
  2. Produk Adira Finance
    1. Kredit Mobil
    2. Kredit Motor
    3. Kredit Multiguna
    4. Kredit Elektronik & Furnitur
    5. Pembiayaan Syariah Umrah
  3. Informasi untuk Pelanggan
  4. Makin mudah bayar cicilan pakai Virtual Account

Sekilas Perusahaan

PT Adira Dinamika Multi Finance Tbk atau Adira Finance didirikan pada tahun 1990 dan mulai beroperasi pada tahun 1991. Sejak awal, Adira Finance berkomitmen untuk menjadi perusahaan pembiayaan terbaik dan terkemuka di Indonesia. Adira Finance hadir untuk melayani beragam pembiayaan seperti kendaraan bermotor baik baru ataupun bekas. Melihat adanya potensi ini, Adira Finance mulai melakukan penawaran umum melalui sahamnya pada tahun 2004 dan Bank Danamon menjadi pemegang saham mayoritas sebesar 75%. Melalui beberapa tindakan korporasi, saat ini Bank Danamon memiliki kepemilikan saham sebesar 92,07% atas Adira Finance. Adira Finance pun menjadi bagian Temasek Holdings yang merupakan perusahaan investasi plat merah asal Singapura.

Pada 2012, Adira Finance menambah ruang lingkup kegiatannya dengan pembiayaan berdasarkan prinsip syariah. Demi memberikan pengalaman layanan pembiayaan yang maksimal, Perusahaan pun mulai menyediakan produk pembiayaan durables bagi konsumennya. Hingga tahun 2015, Adira Finance mengoperasikan 558 jaringan usaha di seluruh Indonesia dengan didukung oleh lebih dari 21 ribu karyawan, untuk melayani 3 juta konsumen dengan jumlah piutang yang dikelola lebih dari Rp 40 triliun.

Adira Finance senantiasa berupaya untuk memberikan kontribusi kepada bangsa dan negara Indonesia. Melalui identitas dan janji brand “Sahabat Setia Selamanya”, Adira Finance berkomitmen untuk menjalankan misi yang berujung pada peningkatan kesejahteraan masyarakat Indonesia. Hal itu dilakukan melalui penyediaan produk dan layanan yang beragam sesuai siklus kehidupan konsumen serta memberikan pengalaman yang menguntungkan konsumen.

LOGO ADIRA FINANCE

Penghargaan

Adira Finance Kembali Ukir Prestasi dalam Service Quality Award 2019
Andil Gardira bagi Kesuksesan Adira Finance Dianugerahi Penghargaan HR Excellence 2019
Direktur Utama Adira Finance Memperoleh Penghargaan Dalam Multifinance Top Leader Award 2019
Adira Finance Menjadi Brand Yang Paling Direkomendasikan Tahun 2019
Direktur Utama Adira Finance Dianugerahi Best CEO dalam Obsession Awards 2019
Direktur Utama Adira Finance Raih Gelar Most Inspiring CEO Dalam Ajang iCIO Awards 2019

Produk Adira Finance

  1. Kredit Mobil
  2. Kredit Motor
  3. Kredit Multiguna
  4. Kredit Elektronik & Furnitur
  5. Pembiayaan Syariah Umrah

Kredit Mobil


Adira Finance sebagai salah satu perusahaan pembiayaan terkemuka di Indonesia menawarkan kemudahan bagi para Sahabatnya untuk memiliki kendaraan (mobil baru dan second) berbagai merek dengan persyaratan kredit yang mudah, tenor yang panjang, layanan informasi Dering Adira 1500 511, jaringan pelayanan di lebih dari 500 jaringan usaha di Indonesia serta sistem penyimpanan BPKB yang aman. Adira Finance pun memiliki dua sistem pembiayaan yang dapat dipilih nasabah (konvensional dan syariah). Berikut perhitungan simulasi kredit mobil bekas atau baru yang bisa Anda coba.

Adira Finance akan selalu hadir dengan menyediakan produk dan layanan yang beragam sesuai siklus kehidupan konsumen dan memberikan pengalaman yang menguntungkan untuk Sahabatnya.

Tanya Jawab

Persyaratan kredit kendaraan untuk NEW Customer ?

  1. Karyawan
    • WNI
    • Lama kerja minimal 1 tahun
    • Usia minimal 21 tahun / sudah menikah / pernah menikah
    • FC KTP pemohon dan KTP pasangan yang masih berlaku
    • FC Kartu Keluarga atau Surat / Akte Nikah
    • FC Bukti Kepemilikan Rumah atau bukti tempat tinggal ( Rek Listrik / Telepon / PAM / PBB / AJB)
    • FC Bukti penghasilan berupa Slip Gaji atau Surat Keterangan Gaji (Slip Gaji minimal 3 bulan terakhir)
    • FC NPWP jika pembiayaan > 50 Juta
    • Usia maksimal pada saat kredit lunas adalah 55 tahun
  2. Wiraswasta
    • WNI
    • Lama usaha minimal 2 tahun
    • Usia minimal 21 tahun / sudah menikah / pernah menikah
    • FC KTP pemohon dan KTP pasangan yang masih berlaku
    • FC Kartu Keluarga atau Surat/Akte Nikah
    • FC Bukti Kepemilikan Rumah atau bukti tempat tinggal (Rek Listrik / Telepon / PAM / PBB / AJB)
    • FC Rekening Tabungan / Rekening Koran / Kwitansi / Bon-bon usaha / Rekap pendapatan usaha
    • Foto tempat dan aktifitas usaha disertakan foto copy SIUP / TDP / TDR / SKDP / SITU / Asli surat keterangan usaha dari RT/RW/Kel/Kec. / Surat lapak / dokumen lain yang menunjukkan kepemilikan tempat usaha / Denah tempat usaha yang diberi paraf oleh CA
    • FC NPWP jika pembiayaan > 50 Juta
    • Usia maksimal pada saat kredit lunas adalah 60 tahun
  3. Profesional
    • WNI
    • Lama usaha minimal 2 tahun
    • Usia minimal 21 tahun / sudah menikah / pernah menikah
    • FC KTP pemohon dan KTP pasangan yang masih berlaku
    • FC Kartu Keluarga atau Surat / Akte Nikah
    • FC Bukti Kepemilikan Rumah atau bukti tempat tinggal (Rek Listrik / Telepon / PAM / PBB / AJB)
    • FC Rekening Tabungan / Rekening Koran / Rekap pendapatan praktel/profesi / Daftar pasien/klien
    • Foto tempat dan aktifitas usaha disertakan foto copy SIUP / TDP / TDR / SKDP / SITU / Asli surat keterangan usaha dari RT/RW/Kel/Kec. / Surat lapak / dokumen lain yang menunjukkan kepemilikan tempat usaha / Denah tempat usaha yang diberi paraf oleh CA
    • FC NPWP jika pembiayaan > 50 Juta
    • Usia maksimal pada saat kredit lunas adalah 60 tahun
  4. Perusahaan
    • Lama usaha minimal 2 tahun
    • FC KTP Direktur/Komisaris/Pejabat lainnya sesuai akta yang berwenang
    • FC Akte Pendirian peusahaan, perubahan-perubahan, dan pengesahannya (bila ada)
    • FC Bukti usaha berupa TDP (Tanda Daftar Perusahaan) dan SIUP (Surat Ijin Usaha dan Perdagangan) atau TDR (Tanda Daftar Rekanan) atau SKDP (Surat Keterangan Domisili Perusahaan) atau SITU (Surat Ijin Tempat Usaha) yang masih berlaku
    • FC Bukti Keuangan berupa fotocopy rekening tabungan atau rekening koran 3 bulan terakhir atau fotocopy laporan keuangan 1 tahun/periode terakhir FC NPWP

Persyaratan Kredit Kendaraan untuk Additional Order (Tambahan Order)

  1. Nasabah telah melakukan pembayaran angsuran minimal 6x angsuran dan masih dalam masa angsuran Perjanjian Kontrak lama (kredit belum lunas)
  2. Tidak pernah Overdue (OD) lebih dari 30 hari per angsuran selama tenor berjalan dan tidak dirata-ratakan
  3. Kendaraan tidak pernah di tarik (Reposses)
  4. History pembayaran tidak pernah ada keterlambatan lebih dari 120 hari atau dihapusbukukan (WO)
  5. Persyaratan & ketentuan dokumen adalah sbb :
    • Fotocopy KTP pemohon dan pasangan (Suami-Istri) dan penjamin (bila ada)
    • Fotocopy Kartu Keluarga
    • History Payment pemohon (dari kantor Adira terdaftar)

Persyaratan Kredit Kendaraan untuk Repeat Order

  1. Nasabah telah melunasi kewajiban angsuran secara normal atau dipercepat (non kasus)
  2. Lunas maksimal 12 bulan sejak pembayaran terakhir
  3. Tidak pernah Overdue (OD) lebih dari 30 hari per angsuran selama tenor berjalan dan tidak dirata-ratakan
  4. Tidak terdapat Overdue BPKB (atau BPKB sudah diterima oleh Cabang) terhadap unit kendaraan sebelumnya
  5. Kendaraan tidak pernah di tarik (Reposses)
  6. History pembayaran tidak pernah ada keterlambatan lebih dari 120 hari atau dihapusbukukan (WO)
  7. Persyaratan & ketentuan dokumen :
    • Fotocopy KTP pemohon dan pasangan (Suami-Istri) dan penjamin (bila ada)
    • Fotocopy Kartu Keluarga
    • History Payment pemohon (dari kantor Adira terdaftar)

Persyaratan Kredit Kendaraan untuk Instant Approval

Hanya berlaku untuk pengajuan unit kendaraan baru dan program Maxi

  • Persyaratan untuk NMCY :
    1. Khusus kendaraan merk Honda, Yamaha, Suzuki, Kawasaki & Piaggio
    2. DP Net minimal >= 30%
    3. Khusus PNS atau Pegawai BUMN/BUMD lama kerja 2 tahun, DP >= 20%
    4. Bukan termasuk blacklist & negative list (BI Cheking)
  • Persayaratan untuk program Maxi :
    1. Nama pemohon sama dengan nama pemohon di Perjanjian Kontrak lama atau nama pemohon adalah suami/istri konsumen dan wajib melampirkan bukti.
    2. Syarat tambahan untuk AO/RO Instan Approval :
      • AO
        1. Angsuran <= 3 bulan akan lunas.
        2. Tidak pernah OD >= 30 hari selama 6 bulan terakhir dimana tidak pernah OD > 60 hari selama tenor.
        3. Unit masih berada pada konsumen
        4. Tidak ada tunggakan Denda.
      • RO
        1. Angsuran sudah lunas max 12 bulan sejak pembayaran terakhir.
        2. Tidak pernah OD >= 30 hari selama 6 bulan terakhir dimana 2 bulan terakhir OD <= 15 hari.
        3. Tidak ada tunggakan Denda.
  • Nilai angsuran Perjanjian Kontrak baru terhadap angsuran di Perjanjian Kontrak lama adalah ≤ 125% dari Perjajian Kontrak lama
  • Bukan termasuk blacklist & negative list (BI Cheking)

Persyaratan Kredit Kendaraan untuk Program Reguler

  1. DP Net minimal motor 15% (untuk Konvensional) dan 10% (untuk Syariah) untuk jenis kendaraan motor bebek, scootermatic, dan sport kapasitas s/d 500 cc
  2. Usia kendaraan maksimal untuk motor bekas adalah 12 tahun sampai dengan akhir tenor.

Kredit Motor


Adira Finance sebagai salah satu perusahaan pembiayaan terkemuka di Indonesia menawarkan kemudahan bagi para Sahabatnya untuk memiliki kendaraan (kredit motor baru dan bekas) dari berbagai merek dengan persyaratan kredit yang mudah, tenor yang panjang, layanan informasi Dering Adira 1500 511, jaringan pelayanan di lebih dari 500 jaringan usaha di Indonesia serta sistem penyimpanan BPKB yang aman. Adira Finance pun memiliki dua sistem pembiayaan yang dapat dipilih nasabah (konvensional dan syariah). Untuk melakukan simulasi kredit, silahkan klik di sini.

Adira Finance akan selalu hadir dengan menyediakan produk dan layanan yang beragam sesuai siklus kehidupan konsumen dan memberikan pengalaman yang menguntungkan untuk Sahabatnya.

Tanya Jawab

Persyaratan kredit kendaraan untuk NEW Customer ?

  1. Karyawan
    • WNI
    • Lama kerja minimal 1 tahun
    • Usia minimal 21 tahun / sudah menikah / pernah menikah
    • FC KTP pemohon dan KTP pasangan yang masih berlaku
    • FC Kartu Keluarga atau Surat / Akte Nikah
    • FC Bukti Kepemilikan Rumah atau bukti tempat tinggal ( Rek Listrik / Telepon / PAM / PBB / AJB)
    • FC Bukti penghasilan berupa Slip Gaji atau Surat Keterangan Gaji (Slip Gaji minimal 3 bulan terakhir)
    • FC NPWP jika pembiayaan > 50 Juta
    • Usia maksimal pada saat kredit lunas adalah 55 tahun
  2. Wiraswasta
    • WNI
    • Lama usaha minimal 2 tahun
    • Usia minimal 21 tahun / sudah menikah / pernah menikah
    • FC KTP pemohon dan KTP pasangan yang masih berlaku
    • FC Kartu Keluarga atau Surat/Akte Nikah
    • FC Bukti Kepemilikan Rumah atau bukti tempat tinggal (Rek Listrik / Telepon / PAM / PBB / AJB)
    • FC Rekening Tabungan / Rekening Koran / Kwitansi / Bon-bon usaha / Rekap pendapatan usaha
    • Foto tempat dan aktifitas usaha disertakan foto copy SIUP / TDP / TDR / SKDP / SITU / Asli surat keterangan usaha dari RT/RW/Kel/Kec. / Surat lapak / dokumen lain yang menunjukkan kepemilikan tempat usaha / Denah tempat usaha yang diberi paraf oleh CA
    • FC NPWP jika pembiayaan > 50 Juta
    • Usia maksimal pada saat kredit lunas adalah 60 tahun
  3. Profesional
    • WNI
    • Lama usaha minimal 2 tahun
    • Usia minimal 21 tahun / sudah menikah / pernah menikah
    • FC KTP pemohon dan KTP pasangan yang masih berlaku
    • FC Kartu Keluarga atau Surat / Akte Nikah
    • FC Bukti Kepemilikan Rumah atau bukti tempat tinggal (Rek Listrik / Telepon / PAM / PBB / AJB)
    • FC Rekening Tabungan / Rekening Koran / Rekap pendapatan praktel/profesi / Daftar pasien/klien
    • Foto tempat dan aktifitas usaha disertakan foto copy SIUP / TDP / TDR / SKDP / SITU / Asli surat keterangan usaha dari RT/RW/Kel/Kec. / Surat lapak / dokumen lain yang menunjukkan kepemilikan tempat usaha / Denah tempat usaha yang diberi paraf oleh CA
    • FC NPWP jika pembiayaan > 50 Juta
    • Usia maksimal pada saat kredit lunas adalah 60 tahun
  4. Perusahaan
    • Lama usaha minimal 2 tahun
    • FC KTP Direktur/Komisaris/Pejabat lainnya sesuai akta yang berwenang
    • FC Akte Pendirian peusahaan, perubahan-perubahan, dan pengesahannya (bila ada)
    • FC Bukti usaha berupa TDP (Tanda Daftar Perusahaan) dan SIUP (Surat Ijin Usaha dan Perdagangan) atau TDR (Tanda Daftar Rekanan) atau SKDP (Surat Keterangan Domisili Perusahaan) atau SITU (Surat Ijin Tempat Usaha) yang masih berlaku
    • FC Bukti Keuangan berupa fotocopy rekening tabungan atau rekening koran 3 bulan terakhir atau fotocopy laporan keuangan 1 tahun/periode terakhir FC NPWP

Persyaratan Kredit Kendaraan untuk Additional Order (Tambahan Order)

  1. Nasabah telah melakukan pembayaran angsuran minimal 6x angsuran dan masih dalam masa angsuran Perjanjian Kontrak lama (kredit belum lunas)
  2. Tidak pernah Overdue (OD) lebih dari 30 hari per angsuran selama tenor berjalan dan tidak dirata-ratakan
  3. Kendaraan tidak pernah di tarik (Reposses)
  4. History pembayaran tidak pernah ada keterlambatan lebih dari 120 hari atau dihapusbukukan (WO)
  5. Persyaratan & ketentuan dokumen adalah sbb :
    • Fotocopy KTP pemohon dan pasangan (Suami-Istri) dan penjamin (bila ada)
    • Fotocopy Kartu Keluarga
    • History Payment pemohon (dari kantor Adira terdaftar)

Persyaratan Kredit Kendaraan untuk Repeat Order

  1. Nasabah telah melunasi kewajiban angsuran secara normal atau dipercepat (non kasus)
  2. Lunas maksimal 12 bulan sejak pembayaran terakhir
  3. Tidak pernah Overdue (OD) lebih dari 30 hari per angsuran selama tenor berjalan dan tidak dirata-ratakan
  4. Tidak terdapat Overdue BPKB (atau BPKB sudah diterima oleh Cabang) terhadap unit kendaraan sebelumnya
  5. Kendaraan tidak pernah di tarik (Reposses)
  6. History pembayaran tidak pernah ada keterlambatan lebih dari 120 hari atau dihapusbukukan (WO)
  7. Persyaratan & ketentuan dokumen :
    • Fotocopy KTP pemohon dan pasangan (Suami-Istri) dan penjamin (bila ada)
    • Fotocopy Kartu Keluarga
    • History Payment pemohon (dari kantor Adira terdaftar)

Persyaratan Kredit Kendaraan untuk Instant Approval

  • Persyaratan untuk NMCY :
  • Khusus kendaraan merk Honda, Yamaha, Suzuki, Kawasaki & Piaggio
  • DP Net minimal >= 30%
  • Khusus PNS atau Pegawai BUMN/BUMD lama kerja 2 tahun, DP >= 20%
  • Bukan termasuk blacklist & negative list (BI Cheking)
  • Persayaratan untuk program Maxi :
  • Nama pemohon sama dengan nama pemohon di Perjanjian Kontrak lama atau nama pemohon adalah suami/istri konsumen dan wajib melampirkan bukti.
  • Syarat tambahan untuk AO/RO Instan Approval :
    • AO
      1. Angsuran <= 3 bulan akan lunas.
      2. Tidak pernah OD >= 30 hari selama 6 bulan terakhir dimana tidak pernah OD > 60 hari selama tenor. Tidak pernah OD >= 30 hari selama 6 bulan terakhir dimana 2 bulan terakhir OD <= 15 hari.
      3. Unit masih berada pada konsumen
    • RO
      1. Angsuran sudah lunas max 12 bulan sejak pembayaran terakhir.
      2. Tidak pernah OD >= 30 hari selama 6 bulan terakhir dimana 2 bulan terakhir OD <= 15 hari.
      3. Tidak ada tunggakan Denda.
  • Nilai angsuran Perjanjian Kontrak baru terhadap angsuran di Perjanjian Kontrak lama adalah ≤ 125% dari Perjajian Kontrak lama
  • Bukan termasuk blacklist & negative list (BI Cheking)

Persyaratan Kredit Kendaraan untuk Program Reguler

  1. DP Net minimal motor 15% (untuk Konvensional) dan 10% (untuk Syariah) untuk jenis kendaraan motor bebek, scootermatic, dan sport kapasitas s/d 500 cc
  2. Usia kendaraan maksimal untuk motor bekas adalah 12 tahun sampai dengan akhir tenor.

Kredit Multiguna


Tanya Jawab

Apakah yang dimaksud dengan produk Multiguna Maxi ?

Jenis pembiayaan kebutuhan Konsumen atas Barang dan Jasa dengan menjaminkan BPKB kendaraan Motor / Mobil. Contoh: Untuk biaya renovasi rumah, wisata/perjalanan, pendidikan, kredit kembali kendaraan bermotor, elektronik dan lain lain.

Siapa saja yang dapat mengambil produk Multiguna Maxi ?

Semua masyarakat baik Debitur ADIRA aktif dan non aktif maupun New Customer.

Apakah bisa mengambil produk Multiguna Maxi tanpa jaminan?

Tidak bisa, saat ini untuk mengajukan produk Multiguna harus dengan jaminan BPKB Motor / Mobil.

Apa saja yang bisa dibiayai oleh produk Multiguna Maxi ?

Yang dapat dibiayai untuk Produk Multiguna ini adalah :

  1. Travel/Wisata
  2. Biaya Pendidikan
  3. Biaya kesehatan,
  4. Biaya Renovasi Rumah
  5. Biaya untuk mengajukan paket franchise
  6. Membeli kendaraan bermotor, elektronik

Apakah Nasabah harus mengambil barang/produk/paket dari mitra yang kerjasama dengan Adira Finance?

Tidak wajib. Nasabah dapat memilih sendiri pihak ketiga penyedia jasa nya.

Apakah pencairan dana produk Multiguna Maxi harus dicairkan ke pihak ketiga?

Tidak wajib. Pencairan dana dapat dilakukan kepada konsumen dengan syarat konsumen dapat melampirkan invoice/kuitansi dari pihak ketiga atau Rincian Anggaran Biaya (RAB) yang dibuat oleh Konsumen.

Apakah perbedaan MAXI dengan Multiguna Maxi ?

  1. Pembiayaan multiguna memiliki tujuan penggunaan pembiayaan spesifik, misalnya untuk renovasi rumah, wisata/perjalanan, pendidikan, dll dan dapat dibuktikan dengan RAB/Invoice/kuitansi dari pihak ketiga Pembiayaan MAXI bersifat lebih umum (disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan Customer) dan tidak wajib melampirkan RAB/Invoice/kuitansi dari pihak ketiga

Apakah persyaratan untuk mengajukan produk Multiguna Maxi ?

Persyaratan untuk mengajuan Produk Multiguna adalah sbb :

  1. KTP (suami / istri)
  2. Kartu Keluarga
  3. Bukti Penghasilan
  4. Bukti Pemilikan Rumah
  5. Dokumen Kendaraan :
    1. STNK
    2. BPKB + Faktur Asli

Berapa usia kendaraan yang dapat dibiayai?

  • Untuk unit Motor : maksimal 8 tahun sejak tahun produksi hingga akhir masa kredit, dan dibuktikan dengan BPKB / STNK / Faktur
  • Untuk unit Mobil passenger / penumpang : maksimal 12 tahun sejak tahun produksi hingga akhir masa kredit, dan dibuktikan dengan BPKB / STNK / Faktur
  • Untuk unit mobil Comersial : maksimal 10 tahun sejak tahun produksi hingga akhir masa kredit, dan dibuktikan dengan BPKB / STNK / Faktur

Kredit Elektronik & Furnitur


Adira Finance sebagai salah satu perusahaan pembiayaan terkemuka di Indonesia menawarkan kemudahan bagi para Sahabatnya untuk memiliki produk elektronik seperti laptop, kulkas, AC, mesin cuci, TV, serta perabotan rumah tangga seperti furnitur, lemari, dan lain-lain dari berbagai merek dengan persyaratan kredit yang mudah, pilihan pembayaran yang banyak,dan layanan informasi yang bersahabat (Dering Adira 1500 511). Adira Finance pun memiliki dua sistem pembiayaan yang dapat dipilih nasabah (konvensional dan syariah). Bila Anda tertarik, kami menyediakan simulasi kredit untuk barang elektronik dan furniture bagi Anda yang memang ingin mengetahui bagaimana rincian dan perhitungannya.

Adira Finance akan selalu hadir dengan menyediakan produk dan layanan yang beragam sesuai siklus kehidupan konsumen dan memberikan pengalaman yang menguntungkan untuk Sahabatnya.

Tanya Jawab

Bagaimana cara mengajukan pembiayaan elektronik dan furnitur di Adira Finance?

Konsumen bisa datang langsung ke Kantor Cabang Adira terdekat untuk pengajuannya atau ke toko-toko yang sudah bekerja sama dengan Adira.

Apa persyaratan umum untuk dapat mengajukan pembiayaan di Adira Finance?

Persyaratan umum calon konsumen:

  • Warga negara Indonesia
  • Berusia minimal 21 tahun, maksimal 55 tahun pada saat akhir tenor pembiayaan
  • Memiliki penghasilan yang dapat dibuktikan

Apa saja persyaratan dokumen untuk mengajukan pembiayaan elektronik dan furnitur di Adira Finance?

  • Khusus untuk konsumen eksisting Adira Finance / Adira Quantum:
    • Mengisi & menandatangani Formulir Aplikasi Pembiayaan
    • FC KTP aktif
  • Untuk konsumen baru:
    • Mengisi & menandatangani Formulir Aplikasi Pembiayaan
    • FC KTP aktif
    • Dokumen bukti penghasilan (FC slip gaji / Asli Surat Keterangan Penghasilan / FC rekening tabungan
    • FC NPWP wajib dilampirkan jika pengajuan > Rp 50.000.000,-

Berapa syarat penghasilan jika ingin mengajukan pembiayaan elektronik dan furnitur di Adira Finance?

Minimal penghasilan perbulan Rp. 1.000.000,- dan dapat dibuktikan.

Apakah jaminan yang harus diberikan untuk pembiayaan elektronik / furnitur?

Untuk pembiayaan elektronik / furnitur ini tidak diperlukan collateral / jaminan.

Berapa suku bunga kredit & jangka waktu cicilan?

Untuk suku bunga dan tenor pembiayaan dapat langsung ditanyakan ke Kantor Cabang Adira Finance terdekat karena berbeda sesuai kebijakan masing-masing Cabang.

Jika saya masih ada angsuran motor / mobil, apakah tetap bisa mengajukan pembiayaan elektronik / furnitur?

Hal ini tergantung pada hasil analisa penghasilan dan besar angsuran sesuai kebijakan perusahaan.

Barang-barang apa saja yang dapat dibiayai?

  • Secara umum semua barang yang ada di toko yang sudah bekerja sama dapat dibiayai, meliputi antara lain:
    • Elektronik: home appliance, au-vi, kamera
    • Furnitur: spring bed, sofa, meja, kursi, lemari
    • Komputer: desktop pc, laptop
    • Gadget: tablet, mobile phone
    • Others: sepeda, generator listrik, alat fitnes, dll

Berapa pokok hutang yang dapat dibiayai?

Minimal Rp 1.000.000,-, Maksimal Rp 100.000.000,-

Berapa uang mukanya?

Khusus untuk konsumen existing Adira Finance, tidak diperlukan uang muka untuk semua jenis barang yang ingin dibiayai.

Berapa biaya untuk pengajuan pembiayaan elektronik / furnitur?

Untuk pengajuan pembiayaan elektronik / furnitur tidak dikenakan biaya apapun.

Apakah ada biaya administrasi untuk pembiayaan elektronik / furnitur?

Biaya administrasi dikenakan hanya untuk pengajuan yang sudah disetujui dan ditransaksikan.

Bagaimana mekanisme pengambilan barang?

  • Pengambilan barang dilakukan setelah pengajuan disetujui, dilakukan di toko yang ditunjuk / dipilih dengan menandatangani Surat Pesanan. Pada saat tersebut, konsumen wajib melakukan pembayaran pertama kepada toko, terdiri dari:
    • Uang muka (jika ada)
    • Angsuran pertama, tidak berlaku jika skema in arrears (angsuran pertama dibayar di bulan berikutnya)
    • Biaya Administrasi Pengajuan Pembiayaan

Apakah pengambilan barang dapat diwakilkan?

Boleh jika disertai dengan surat kuasa di atas materai.

Apakah barang yang dibiayai diasuransikan oleh Adira Finance?

Tidak diasuransikan

Apakah Adira Finance bertanggung jawab jika barang yang diambil tidak berfungsi?

Terkait dengan spesifikasi barang dan fungsinya adalah tanggung jawab pihak toko. Adira Finance tidak bertanggung jawab atas kerusakan yang terjadi pada barang.

Pembiayaan Syariah Umrah


Adira Finance Syariah memiliki banyak produk produk pembiayaan Syariah diantaranya produk Syariah Motor (baru & bekas), Syariah Mobil (baru & bekas), Syariah Durable (elektronik & furniture), dan Syariah Umrah (regular & corporate).

Produk Pembiayaan Syariah Umrah adalah produk pembiayaan paket Umrah dengan menggunakan akad yg berprinsip Syariah, yakni akad Murabahah (akad jual beli dengan tegaskan untung).

Produk pembiayaan Syariah Umrah adalah salah satu produk unggulan dari Adira Finance Syariah,karena produk ini membantu para calon jamaah untuk bisa pergi beribadah Umrah, tanpa harus menunggu memiliki uang cash atau menabung terlebih dahulu.

Adira Finance Syariah memiliki kerjasama dengan lebih dari 35 travel Umrah lokal & nasional, misalnya travel Umrah NRA, ESQ, Sahara Kafila dan lain lain.

Produk Pembiayaan Syariah Umrah tersedia di 40 Kantor Cabang Unit Syariah (KCUS) di Indonesia.

Ada 2 jenis produk Syariah Umrah yakni:

• Reguler, Pembiayaan Syariah Umrah dengan jaminan BPKB motor atau mobil.
• Corporate, Pembiayaan Syariah Umrah tanpa jaminan ( potong gaji).

Kelebihan dari pembiayan Syariah Umrah yakni :

  1. Bisa berangkat duluan, angsur di belakang
  2. Bisa memberangkatkan keluarga tercinta
  3. Tersedia berbagai jenis paket Umrah dari puluhan travel Umrah yg terpercaya

Berkah Bersama Syariah.

Tanya Jawab

Apakah yang dimaksud dengan Program Pembiayaan Paket Umrah?

Program pembiayaan Paket Perjalanan Umrah Adira Finance Syariah dengan berdasarkan prinsip akad Murabahah (jual beli) dengan menggunakan jaminan BPKB kendaraan (Motor/Mobil).

Program berlaku di Cabang Unit Syariah (KCUS) Adira Finance, sbb :

Apakah biaya perjalanan Ibadah Umrah boleh dilakukan dengan cara berhutang dan pembayarannya dengan cara diangsur ?

Boleh, dengan syarat sumber hutangnya adalah halal dan Konsumen berkeinginan atau mampu melunasinya pada waktu yang ditentukan.

Pada prinsipnya hukum setiap muamalah itu diperbolehkan kecuali ada dalil yang melarangnya (kaidah fiqih)

Kapan periode pembiayaan paket umrah?

Periode program 01 Januari 2020 – 31 Desember 2020

Apakah benefit mengikuti program ini jika dibandingkan dengan program pembiayaan lain atau umrah langsung melalui travel umrah?

  • Pembayaran biaya umrah dengan cara diangsur sehingga terjangkau
  • Dapat berangkat terlebih dahulu tanpa harus menunggu pelunasan
  • Menggunakan akad murabahah yang sesuai prinsip syariah dengan harga yang terjangkau
  • Adira Finance Syariah hanya bekerjasama dengan travel-travel yang telah terpercaya dan memenuhi criteria 5 PASTI UMRAH dari Kementerian Agama yaitu :
    • Pasti Travel Berizin
    • Pasti Penerbangan dan Jadwal Keberangkatan,
    • Pasti Program Layanannya,
    • Pasti Hotelnya, dan
    • Pasti Visanya

Apakah persyaratan untuk mengajukan Pembiayaan Paket Umrah Adira Finance Syariah?

Dokumen persyaratan untuk mengajukan Pembiayaan Paket Umrah Adira Finance Syariah adalah sebagai berikut:

  1. FC KTP
  2. FC KTP Pasangan (jika sudah menikah)
  3. FC Kartu Keluarga
  4. BPKB dan STNK asli

Apa saja kriteria jaminan yang bisa digunakan untuk pembiayaan umrah ?

Motor

  • Batas usia Kendaraan 12 Tahun Sampai Akhir Tenor
  • Merk : Suzuki, Honda, Yamaha dan Kawasaki Ninja
  • Contoh :
    • Jika ditahun 2020 ini Konsumen mengajukan pembiayaan umroh dengan tenor 2 tahun (selesai Pembiayaan tahun 2022), maka batas maksimal kendaraan yang bisa dijaminkan adalah tahun 2010.
    • Jika Calon Konsumen ingin mengikuti paket umroh senilai 19 juta dan nilai jaminannya mendapatkan harga 7 juta, maka kekurangan harga paketnya dibayarkan sebagai uang muka / DP.

Mobil

  1. Batas usia Kendaraan passenger 12 Tahun Sampai Akhir Tenor, usia kendaraan komersial 10 tahun sampai akhir tenor
  2. All merk
  3. Contoh :
    • Jika ditahun 2020 ini Konsumen mengajukan pembiayaan umroh dengan tenor 1 tahun (selesai Pembiayaan tahun 2021), maka batas maksimal kendaraan (mobil-type passanger) yang bisa dijaminkan adalah tahun 2009.

Bagaimana cara mengajukan pembiayaan paket umrah ini ?

  1. Konsumen dapat mengajukan Pembiayaan Umrah langsung ke Kantor Cabang Unit Syariah (KCUS) Adira Finance, atau
  2. Konsumen dapat mengajukan pembiayaan Umrah melalui Mitra Travel yang bekerja sama dengan Adira Finance (list Mitra Travel lihat point nomor 8), atau
  3. Konsumen dapat menghubungi Dering Adira 1500511, atau
  4. Konsumen dapat mengajukan pembiayaan umrah melalui email customercare_@_adira dot co_dot_id atau
  5. Konsumen dapat mengajukan pembiayaan umrah melalui website Adira Finance www_dot_adira_dot_co_dot_id

Biro Perjalanan Umroh (Travel) mana sajakah yang bekerjasama dengan Adira Finance ?

Biro Perjalanan umrah / Mitra Travel yang bekerjasama dengan Adira Finance Syariah untuk periode ini adalah :

Apakah Biro Perjalanan Umrah / Mitra Travel bisa dipilih sendiri oleh Konsumen ?

Ya bisa, dengan ketentuan biro perajalanan/mitra travel yang sudah bekerja sama dengan Adira Finance sesuai dengan list biro perjalanan / mitra travel pada point nomor 8 diatas.

Apakah dokumen yang dibutuhkan untuk pelaksanaan umrah?

Dokumen Calon Jama’ah umrah yang wajib dilengkapi adalah sebagai berikut (berlaku untuk seluruh jamaah):

  • Maksud dari passpor dengan 3 nama adalah nama pada passpor harus terdiri dari 3 nama. Contoh : Arief Lukman Hakim Jika nama Calon Konsumen hanya terdiri dari 2 nama, maka pada passpor akan di tambahkan nama orang tua dibelakng nama calon Konsumen tersebut. Contoh : Yanina Sari binti Samsuri
  • Dokumen tersebut diserahkan kepada Biro Perjalanan Umrah / Mitra Travel yang dipilih oleh Konsumen dan yang bekerjasama dengan Adira Finance Syariah

Kapan keberangkatan umrah tahun 2020?

Jadwal keberangkatan umroh menyesuaikan dengan jadwal keberangkatan dari travel umrah yang dipilih.

Berapakah sanksi keterlambatan yang harus Kosumen bayar, jika terjadi ketelambatan dalam pembayaran angsurannya ?

  • Untuk sanksi keterlambatan atas pembiayaan dengan jaminan BPKB Motor adalah 0,5% perhari x jumlah angsuran perbulan. Misalnya : Angsuran perbulan sebesar Rp 725000,- x 0,5% Jumlah sanksi keterlambatan perharinya adalah Rp 3.625,-
  • Untuk sanksi keterlambatan atas pembiayaan dengan jaminan BPKB Mobil adalah 0,2% perhari x jumlah angsuran perbulan. Misalnya : Angsuran perbulan sebesar Rp 3.250.000,- x 0,2% Jumlah sanksi keterlambatan perharinya adalah Rp 6.500,-

Note : Sanksi keterlambatan yang dibayarkan oleh konsumen akan dialokasikan ke dalam dana kebajikan yang akan disalurkan untuk kemaslahatan umat.

Berapakah harga paket umrah yang ditawarkan dalam program ini?

Angsuran dalam tabel tersebut merupakan simulasi dan akan dikonfirmasikan setelah taksasi dilakukan oleh Petugas Marketing Adira Finance.

Catatan :

Yang dimaksud dengan harga paket :

  1. Double : 1 kamar berdua
  2. Triple : 1 kamar bertiga

Quad : 1 kamar berempat

Informasi untuk Pelanggan Adira Finance


Tanya Jawab

Persyaratan Perpanjang STNK Kendaraan

A. Syarat perpanjangan STNK untuk nasabah perorangan adalah :

  1. Tidak ada denda, jika ada maka denda harus dilunasi dahulu*
  2. *Jika ada keinginan nasabah untuk melakukan pembayaran di akhir tenor, maka denda tetap dibayarkan meskipun dilakukan secara bertahap sesuai dengan kesanggupan dan negosiasi antara nasabah dengan cabang setempat. Keputusan akhir diserahkan kepada kebijakan pimpinan cabang.
  3. Membawa STNK Asli.
  4. Membawa KTP Asli dan masih berlaku sesuai nama di STNK *
  5. *Jika nasabah melakukan pembelian unit bekas dari showroom maka unit tersebut telah berpindah tangan yang dibuktikan dengan kuitansi jual beli, maka foto copy KTP bisa diterima sebagai dokumen pendukung yang melengkapi KTP atas nama terakhir di BPKB
  6. Membayar biaya administrasi sesuai ketentuan yang berlaku.”

B. Syarat perpanjangan STNK untuk nasabah perusahaan adalah :

  1. Tidak ada denda, jika ada maka denda harus dilunasi dahulu*
  2. *Jika ada keinginan nasabah untuk melakukan pembayaran di akhir tenor, maka denda tetap dibayarkan meskipun dilakukan secara bertahap sesuai dengan kesanggupan dan negosiasi antara nasabah dengan cabang setempat. Keputusan akhir diserahkan kepada kebijakan pimpinan cabang.
  3. Membawa STNK Asli.
  4. Foto Copy SIUP yang diberi stempel perusahaan.
  5. Membawa Surat kuasa dengan menggunakan kop surat perusahaan dengan alamat yang sama dengan STNK dan ditandatangani oleh pimpinan perusahaan atau pejabat yang berwenang.
  6. Membayar biaya administrasi sesuai ketentuan yang berlaku.”

Persyaratan Pengambilan BPKB

Pengambilan BPKB oleh pemohon kredit.
Syarat :

  • Bukti pembayaran terakhir yang menunjukan bahwa nasabah telah melunasi semua kewajiban di Adira
  • Kartu Indentitas (KTP) nasabah asli dan masih berlaku
  • Surat keterangan pindah alamat dari kelurahan jika alamat KTP saat ini berbeda dengan alamat KTP saat pengajuan kredit.

Pengambilan BPKB selain pemohon kredit (dikuasakan).
Syarat :

  • Kartu Indentitas (KTP) asli & masih berlaku atas nama nasabah (pemberi kuasa) & penerima kuasa
  • Bukti pembayaran terakhir yang menunjukan bahwa nasabah telah melunasi semua kewajiban di Adira
  • Surat kuasa bermaterai asli yang berisi identitas pemohon kredit (pemberi kuasa), penerima kuasa dan identitas kendaraan. ( contoh suarat kuasa bisa dilihat di file form surat kuasa pengambilan BPKB yang di tandatangani
  • Surat keterangan pindah alamat dari kelurahan jika alamat KTP saat ini berbeda dengan alamat KTP saat pengajuan kredit.
  • Tanda tangan pemberi kuasa pada surat kuasa harus sama dengan tanda tangan KTP asli

Pengambilan BPKB jika pihak pengambil BPKB bukan debitur namun tidak memiliki surat kuasa karena debitur meninggal .
Syarat :

  • Bukti kwitansi pelunasan atau kwitansi pembayaran asli yang terakhir
  • KTP asli pihak pengambil yang masih berlaku dan dokumen yang menunjukkan hubungan antara debitur dengan pihak pengambil BPKB, yaitu Kartu Keluarga atau Surat Nikah.
  • Surat pernyataan pengambilan BPKB bermaterai asli ( contoh surat kuasa bisa dilihat di file form surat kuasa pengambilan BPKB jika dibitur meninggal)
  • Surat keterangan kematian debitur dari RT/RW setempat dan atau pihak yang berwenang lainnya
  • Pengambil BPKB adalah ahli waris yang dilengkapi dengan bukti pertalian resmi hubungan kekerabatan antara debitur (selaku pewaris) dan pengambil BPKB ( selaku ahli waris).

Pengambilan BPKB untuk Perusahaan :
Syarat :

  • Copy SIUP dan TDP yang masih berlaku.
  • KTP asli pemilik perusahaan/direktur yang masih berlaku.
  • Kuitansi asli pembayaran angsuran terakhir
  • Jika pengambilan BPKB diwakilkan, maka diperlukan :
  • KTP asli dan masih berlaku atas pemilik perusahaan/direktur (pemberi kuasa) dan penerima kuasa.
  • Surat Kuasa bermaterai asli yang berisi identitas pemberi kuasa, penerima kuasa dan identitas kendaraan.
  • Tanda tangan pemberi kuasa pada surat kuasa harus sama dengan tanda tangan pada KTP asli.
  • Lunas di percepat (Pretermination)

BPKB baru bisa diambil 3 s/d 7 hari setelah nasabah melakukan pelunasan.
Syarat :

  • Kartu Indentitas (KTP/SIM) nasabah asli dan masih berlaku
  • Bukti pembayaran terakhir yang menunjukan bahwa nasabah telah melunasi semua kewajiban di Adira

Lunas Normal
Syarat :

  • Kartu Indentitas (KTP/SIM) nasabah asli dan masih berlaku
  • Kwitansi pelunasan atau kwitansi pembayaran terakhir

Tanya Jawab Sosialisasi Biaya Adm Kantor POS

  1. Apakah yang dimaksud dengan biaya administrasi ?
    • Biaya yang dikenakan ke debitur untuk peningkatan kualitas pelayanan pembayaran Angsuran Adira Finance. Biaya tersebut yang dikenakan per transaksi.
  2. Berapa besar biaya administrasi per transaksinya?
    • Motor Rp 7500; Durable Rp 7500; Mobil Rp 20000 per transaksi.
  3. Sejak kapan biaya administrasi tersebut berlaku?
    • Serentak 18 September 2015 untuk pembayaran seluruh Area Kantor POS di Indonesia
  4. Apakah biaya administrasi tersebut juga dikenakan apabila saya melakukan pembayaran di ATM, EDC, I-Banking/E-Banking?
    • Tidak dikenakan biaya administrasi.
  5. Apabila saya ingin membayar 2 angsuran sekaligus dengan No. PK yang sama, berapa biaya administrasi yang akan dikenakan?
    • Biaya administrasi yang dikenakan Rp 8.000,- (karena mendapatkan 2 resi/bukti pembayaran)

Tanya Jawab Pembayaran Angsuran melalui PPOB

  1. Apakah yang dimaksud dengan Payment Point Online Bank (PPOB)
    • PPOB adalah suatu layanan online payment dari ADIRA FINANCE yang bekerjasama dengan Perbankan dan Mitra / Rekanan untuk melayani pembayaran angsuran Nasabah ADIRA FINANCE.
  2. Apakah dengan melakukan pembayaran di Payment Point Online Bank (PPOB), data saya akan langsung meng-update kepada database ADIRA FINANCE?
    1. Ya, Setiap pembayaran yang dilakukan melalui Payment Point Online Bank (PPOB) ataupun online payment lainnya (ATM, EDC dan POS) akan langsung dapat meng-update database ADIRA FINANCE.Informasi Payment Chanel (Online Payment) Pembayaran Angsuran Adira Finance :
    • Melalui Autodebet Danamon
    • Melalui Mobile Banking dan SMS Banking Danamon
    • Melalui ATM Bank Danamon
    • Aplikasi Akses Adira Finance
    • Kantor Pos
    • Keday Adira Finance
    • Alfamart dan Indomart
  3. Dimanakah saya dapat menemukan loket Payment Point Online Bank (PPOB)?
    • Loket Payment Point Online Bank (PPOB) dapat ditemukan di sekitar lokasi domisili nasabah yang memasang spanduk berlogo “ADIRA FINANCE”
  4. Apakah akan dikenakan biaya tambahan jika nasabah membayar lewat PPOB?
    • Ya, Pembayaran melalui PPOB akan dikenakan biaya sebesar Rp 7.500 (Motor dan Kredit Elektronik-Furniture)
    • Pembayaran melalui PPOB tidak berlaku untuk pembayaran angsuran Mobil
  5. Apakah saya juga akan mendapatkan bukti pembayaran jika melakukan pembayaran melalui PPOB ?
    • Ya, Setiap pembayaran yang dilakukan Nasabah akan mendapat struk atau bukti pembayaran yang sah yang berisi informasi berupa angsuran, nomor pengesahan dan berlogo “ADIRA FINANCE”
  6. Apakah saya dapat membayar denda di loket PPOB?
    • Ya, Nasabah dapat melakukan pembayaran denda di loket PPOB
    • Penerimaan denda melalui PPOB / Payment Channel bersifat Closed Payment yaitu dibatasi pada nominal tertentu. Batasan nominal tersebut adalah sbb :
      • Pembiayaan Motor maksimal sebesar Rp 10.000,- (Sepuluh Ribu Rupiah)
      • Pembiayaan Mobil maksimal sebesar Rp 30.000,- (Tiga Puluh Ribu Rupiah)
  7. Jika saya terlambat membayar angsuran (over-due), apakah saya dapat melakukan pembayaran melalui PPOB?
    • Ya, Nasabah tetap dapat melakukan pembayaran angsuran melalui PPOB ataupun online payment lainnya selama jumlah hari keterlambatan tidak lebih dari 30 hari sejak tanggal jatuh tempo.
  8. Apakah saya dapat melakukan transaksi pembayaran di loket Payment Point Online Bank (PPOB) lebih dari 1 kali?
    • Ya, Pembayaran angsuran dapat dilakukan lebih dari 1 kali (maksimum 2 kali per hari). Hal ini juga berlaku untuk pembayaran melalui payment channel lainnya
  9. Apabila saya telah melakukan pembayaran angsuran di loket PPOB sebanyak 2 kali, apakah saya dapat melakukan pembayaran di tempat lain?
    • Tidak, Nasabah tidak dapat melakukan pembayaran angsuran lebih dari 2 kali melalui payment channel manapun kecuali pembayaran melalui Cabang ADIRA FINANCE
  10. Apabila angsuran yang telah saya lakukan pembayaran mengalami masalah atau tidak ter-update pada database ADIRA FINANCE, kemanakah saya harus menyampaikan keluhan ?
    • Nasabah dapat menghubungi Adira Finance melalui :
      • Dering Adira Finance 1500511
      • Email : customercare_@_adira_dot_co_dot_id
      • Contact Care Akses Adira Finance
      • Website www_dot_adira_dot_co_dot_id

Cara Pembayaran Angsuran Adira Finance

  • Dimana sajakah pembayaran angsuran kredit Adira Finance dapat di lakukan ? Pembayaran angsuran Adira Finance dapat melalui :
    1. Kantor Cabang Adira Finance terdekat
    2. Melalui Online Payment :
      • Melalui Autodebet Danamon
      • Melalui Mobile Banking dan SMS Banking Danamon
      • Melalui ATM Bank Danamon
      • Aplikasi Adiraku
      • Kantor Pos
      • Keday Adira Finance
      • Alfamart dan Indomart
    3. Pembayaran angsuran menggunakan Nomor Virtual Account masing-masing Customer
    4. Melalui ATM, Internet Banking, Mobile Banking atau SMS Banking dari Bank manapun (Online Payment). (informasi mengenai VA terdapat pd point nomor 10-13).
    • Note:
      • Pembayaran yang dilakukan melalui Online Payment hanya dapat dilakukan jika pembayaran angsuran tidak ada keterlambatan ≥ 30 hari.
      • Type Angsuran dengan suku bunga menurun (dicline end / angsuran tidak tetap) dapat melakukan pembayaran angsurannya melalui aplikasi adiraku.
  • Apakah pembayaran melalui payment channel berlaku untuk semua jenis pembiayaan di Adira Finance ? Pembayaran melalui Payment Channel berlaku untuk jenis pembiayaan sbb :
  • Berapakah biaya transaksi pembayaran angsuran Adira Finance ?
  • Bagaimanakah cara pembayaran angsuran di kantor Cabang Adira Finance ?
    • Cara melakukan pembayaran angsuran kredit di kantor Cabang Adira Finance adalah Nasabah cukup menyebutkan nomor kontrak Nasabah yang terdiri dari 12 digit/angka kepada kasir/teller kantor Cabang terkait.
  • Bagaimana cara melakukan pembayaran angsuran secara Autodebet Danamon ?
    1. Untuk Pembiayaan Mobil :
      • ​​Pihak Adira Finance akan langsung membuatkan rekening Danamon pada saat pengajuan pembiayaan Customer disetujui / direalisasikan untuk digunakan sebagai autodebet pembayaran angsuran Customer
      • Adira Finance akan mengirimkan Nomor rekening Danamon tersebut kepada Customer melalui SMS
      • Pastikan ketersediaan saldo direkening cukup untuk dilakukan autodebet pembayaran angsuran setiap bulannya sesuai dengan tanggal tempo.
    2. Untuk Pembiayaan Motor dan Durable :
      • ​​Bapak / Ibu (konsumen ) wajib memiliki rekening Danamon,
      • Nasabah mengajukan autodebet ke kantor Cabang terdaftar, kemudian mengisi / melengkapi dan menandatangani beberapa form yang disediakan di kantor Cabang terdaftar
      • Pastikan ketersediaan saldo direkening cukup untuk dilakukan autodebet pembayaran angsuran setiap bulannya sesuai dengan tanggal tempo.
  • Bagaimana cara pembayaran melalui Mobile Banking, SMS Banking Danamon, dan ATM Danamon ?
    • Mobile Banking Danamon
      • Setelah Login pada M-Banking Danamon
      • Pilih menu “Pembayaran”
      • Pilih menu “Pinjaman”
      • Jika Nasabah baru yang ingin melakukan pembayaran angsuran Adira Finance melalui M-Banking Danamon, pilih kolom “Pembayaran Baru/Favorit” dengan pilihan “Tambah Biller Baru Pembayaran” kemudian klik “Lanjut”
      • Pilih “Adira Finance” lalu masukan nomor Perjanjian Kontrak ( PK )
      • Isi kolom “ID Pelanggan” dengan nomor Perjanjian Kontrak (PK) Anda
      • Isi kolom “Deskripsi” kemudian klik “Bayar Sekarang”
      • Masukan mPIN Anda, kemudian klik “OK”
    • SMS Banking Danamon
      • Pilih menu “Pembayaran”
      • Pilih menu “Adira”
      • Pilih menu “Adira lainnya” lalu masukan nomor Perjanjian Kontrak ( PK )
    • ATM Danamon
      • Masukkan kartu ATM Anda​
      • Pilih bahasa yang Anda inginkan
      • Masukkan PIN Anda
      • PILIH ”PEMBAYARAN”
      • PILIH ”ANGSURAN”
      • PILIH ”ADIRA FINANCE”
      • Masukkan 12 digit Nomor PK (Nomor Perjanjian Kredit) Anda, klik “Benar” jika nomor PK telah diinput sesuai
      • Pilih sumber rekening Anda : ”TABUNGAN”
      • Periksa kembali data Anda, jika benar pilih “YA”
    • ATM BNI
      • ​Masukan kartu ATM Anda
      • Kemudian masukan PIN Anda
      • Pilih Bahasa yang ingin digunakan
      • Pilih Menu “Lain”, kemudian pilih “Pembayaran”
      • Pilih “Angsuran Kredit”
      • Pilih “Pembiayaan Lainnya”
      • Masukan “Kode Perusahaan (1002)” diikuti dengan 12 digit “Nomor Kontrak” Customer
      • Pilih “Benar”
      • Pada layar akan memunculkan data pembayaran angsuran Customer
      • Periksa kembali data Anda, jika Benar Pilih “Lanjutkan Pembayaran”
      • Transaksi telah selesai
  • ATM BCA
    • ​Masukan kartu ATM Anda
    • Kemudian masukan PIN Anda
    • Pilih menu “Transaksi Lainnya”
    • Kemudian pilih menu “Pembayaran”
    • Pilih “ Pinjaman”
    • Lalu pilih “Layar Berikut”
    • Pilih “Adira”
    • Input “Nomor Kontrak Customer”
    • Layar akan memunculkan data pembayaran Customer
    • Periksa kembali data Anda, jika benar, Pilih “Ya”
    • Transaksi telah selesai
  • Bagaimana cara melakukan pembayaran angsuran pada Aplikasi Adiraku?
    • Download aplikasi adiraku pada Google Playstore atau AppStore (pengguna Iphone) di handphone Anda, kemudian login pada aplikasi adiraku tersebut.
    • Cara Pembayaran dengan Nilai Angsuran Tetap setiap bulannya
      • Cara Pembayaran dengan Nilai Angsuran Tetap setiap bulannya
      • Klik menu “BAYAR ANGSURAN” (icon gambar tangan memegang uang ) yang ada pada menu “Beranda” atau “Akun”
      • Pilih “No Kontrak” yang ingin Nasabah bayarkan di halaman Kontrak
      • Klik “Bayar Angsuran” di halaman Detil Kontrak
      • Klik “Pilih Pembayaran” di halaman Pembayaran
      • Klik “adirapay” pada halaman Metode Pembayaran
      • Klik “Bayar” di halaman Pembayaran
      • Masukkan PIN yang Anda daftarkan pada saat aktivasi
      • Proses pembayaran angsuran selesai
      • (Jika Konsumen telah mendaftarkan alamat emailnya, maka Konsumen akan menerima pemberitahuan melalui email bahwa pembayaran angsuran telah berhasil)
  • Cara Pembayaran dengan Nilai Angsuran Tidak Tetap setiap bulannya
    • Cara Pembayaran dengan Nilai Angsuran Tidak Tetap setiap bulannya
    • Klik menu “BAYAR ANGSURAN” (icon gambar tangan memegang uang ) yang ada pada menu “Beranda” atau “Akun”
    • Pilih “No Kontrak” yang ingin Nasabah bayarkan di halaman Kontrak
    • Klik “Bayar Angsuran” di halaman Detil Kontrak
    • Klik “Pilih Pembayaran” di halaman Pembayaran
    • Klik “Adirapay” pada halaman Metode Pembayaran
    • Pilih nominal pembayaran yang Anda inginkan.
    • Klik “Pembayaran Minimum” jika ingin membayar sebesar pembayaran minimun
    • Klik “Pembayaran Maksimum” jika ingin membayar sebesar pembayaran maksimum
    • Jika ingin membayar dengan nominal selain pembayaran minimum dan maksimum, ketikkan nominal di kolom “Masukkan Nominal Sendiri”
    • Nominal yang dimasukkan harus diantara pembayaran minimum dan pembayaran maksimum
    • Klik “Bayar” di halaman Pembayaran
    • Masukkan PIN yang Anda daftarkan di adiraku
    • Proses pembayaran angsuran selesai
    • Anda akan mendapat notifikasi bahwa pembayaran angsuran telah berhasil
    • Jika telah mendaftarkan email, Anda akan menerima pemberitahuan melalui email bahwa pembayaran angsuran telah berhasil
    • Bukti pembayaran dapat dilihat juga pada menu History Transaksi & History Pembayaran pada Aplikasi adiraku
  • Bagaimana cara pembayaran angsuran kredit melalui Online Payment ( Kantor Pos / Keday / Alfamart / Indomaret ) ?
    1. Nasabah menyebutkan nomor Perjanjian Kontrak atau menunjukan kartu Adira Finance Club kepada kasir/teller Kantor Pos / Alfamart / Indomaret.
    2. Pastikan kebenaran datanya saat Kasir/Teller Kantor POS / Alfamart / Indomaret melakukan verfikasi data Nasabahnya
    3. Kwitansi pembayaran angsuran dari Kantor Pos / Alfamart / Indomaret merupakan bukti pembayaran yang sah
    4. Pembayaran melalui Kantor Pos / Alfamart / Indomaret tidak dapat dilakukan jika nasabah terlambat melakukan pembayaran angsuran lebih dari 30 hari.
  • Apakah saya bisa membayar denda di payment channel yang bekerja sama dengan Adira Finance ? Ya bisa, Nasabah dapat melakukan pembayaran denda di Payment Channel Adira Finance, dengan maksimal pembayaran sbb :
    • Pembiayaan Motor maksimal pembayaran denda sebesar Rp 10.000,- (Sepuluh Ribu Rupiah)
    • Pembiayaan Mobil maksimal pembayaran denda sebesar Rp 30.000,- (Tiga Puluh Ribu Rupiah)
    • Pembayaran angsuran menggunakan nomor VA Customer dapat di lakukan melalui channel mana saja ?
  • ​Pembayaran angsuran melalui VA dapat melalui :
    • ATM dan Mobile Banking Bank manapun
    • Internet Banking Bank manapun (kecuali internet Banking Bank BCA dan Bank Danamon)
    • SMS Banking Bank manapun (kecuali Bank Danamon)
  • Berapakah nomor Virtual Account masing-masing Customer tersebut ?
    • ​Nomor Virtual Account (VA) Customer adalah 16 digit yang terdiri dari 4 digit kode perusahaan Adira Finance, yaitu “7755” dan di ikuti dengan 12 digit nomor PK Customer.
      • Contoh : nomor PK Customer : 012345678912, maka nomor VA Customer adalah 7755012345678912
    • Customer yang dapat melakukan pembayaran dengan menggunakan VA ini adalah customer dengan kriteria sebagai berikut :
      1. Customer retail Adira Finance yang masih Aktif (angsuran belum lunas) *retail = 1 nomor kontrak 1 unit
      2. Tidak ada keterlambatan pembayaran angsuran lebih dari 30 hari atau belum terbit Surat Kuasa (SK) / Surat Tugas (ST) Penarikan Unit
  • Bagaimana cara pembayaran angsuran menggunakan nomor VA pada channel perbankan ? Berikut adalah langkah – langkah pembayaran angsuran Adira Finance menggunakan nomor VA melalui channel perbankkan.​​
    • Langkah-langkah pembayaran angsuran menggunakan VA melalui ATM Bank Danamon menggunakan Kartu Bank Danamon :
      • ​Masukan Kartu ATM Bank Danamon, kemudian masukan nomor PIN ATM Anda
      • Pilih menu Pembayaran >>> menu Lainnya >>> menu Virtual Account
      • Lalu masukan Nomor 16 digit nomor Virtual Accout yang terdiri dari 4 digit kode perusahaan Adira Finance (7755) kemudian dilanjut dengan 12 digit nomor kontrak Customer.
        • Contoh: 7755012345678912
      • Masukkan jumlah pembayaran Anda sesuai dengan jumlah angsurannya, klik “Lanjut”
      • Pada layar konfirmasi pembayaran akan muncul data – data Customer seperti :
        • -Nama Customer
        • -Nomor VA
        • -Jumlah pembayaran yang diinput
      • Periksa kembali data yang muncul pada layar konfirmasi pembayaran tersebut, pastikan transaksi sudah benar
      • Jika benar, Klik “ Ya” untuk melanjutkan proses pembayaran angsuran.
  • Langkah – langkah pembayaran angsuran menggunakan VA melalui Internet / Mobile Banking Bank lain
    1. ​Setelah login, klik menu transfer – transfer Bank lain
    2. Pilih layanan transfer “Online”
    3. Pilih Bank Danamon, kemudian masukan 4 digit kode perusahaan Adira Finance (7755) kemudian dilanjut dengan nomor Kontrak konsumen. contoh : 7755012345678912
    4. Klik lanjut, Periksa kembali data yang muncul pada layar konfirmasi pembayaran tersebut, pastikan transaksi sudah benar
    5. Jika data sudah benar, masukan MPIN Anda klik “Lanjut / OK”
  • Apakah ada biaya untuk pembayaran menggunakan VA Customer ini ?
    • Tidak Ada, Customer hanya dikenakan biaya oleh masing-masing Bank untuk penggunaan fasilitas Bank tersebut.​
  • Bagaimana cara nya jika saya ingin menghubungi Adira Finance untuk menanyakan mengenai status pembayaran saya ?
    1. Customer dapat menghubungi Adira Finance melalui :
    2. Dering Adira Finance 1500511
    3. Aplikasi Adiraku
    4. Email customercare_@_adira_dot_co_dot_id
    5. Website Adira Finance : www_dot_adira_dot_co_dot_id
  • Apa kebijakan dari Adira Finance untuk pembayaran angsuran kredit ini ? Kebijakan Adira Finance untuk pembayaran angsuran :
    1. Pembayaran angsuran kredit disarankan tidak melebihi batas tanggal jatuh tempo angsurannya, karena jika Nasabah melakukan keterlambatan dalam melakukan pembayaran angsurannya maka akan dikenakan denda sebesar 0.5% (Motor) dan 0.2% (Mobil) perhari dikalikan angsuran perbulannya.
    2. Pembayaran angsuran terakhir, saat ini dapat dilakukan melalui online payment namun untuk pembayaran sisa dendanya diwajibkan untuk datang langsung ke Cabang Adira Finance terdaftar sekaligus pengambilan dokumen BPKB.
    3. Nasabah yang melakukan pembayaran angsuran terakhir melalui online payment diwajibkan membawa bukti pembayarannya ke Cabang terdaftar untuk melakukan pengambilan dokumen BPKB

Pembayaran angsuran menggunakan nomor Virtual Account (VA) Customer

Makin mudah bayar cicilan pakai Virtual Account


Tanya Jawab

Apakah yang dimaksud dengan pembayaran angsuran menggunakan nomor Virtual Account (VA) Customer?

Pembayaran angsuran menggunakan nomor Virtual Account adalah pembayaran angsuran yang dilakukan dengan cara membayar sejumlah nilai angsuran ke nomor Virtual Account masing-masing Customer melalui ATM, Internet Banking, Mobile Banking atau SMS Banking dari Bank manapun (Online Payment).

Berapakah nomor Virtual Account saya ?

Nomor Virtual Account (VA) Customer adalah 16 digit yang terdiri dari 4 digit kode perusahaan Adira Finance, yaitu “7755” dan di ikuti dengan 12 digit nomor PK Customer.

Contoh : nomor PK Customer : 012345678912, maka nomor VA Customer adalah 7755012345678912

Pembayaran angsuran menggunakan nomor VA Customer dapat di lakukan melalui channel mana saja ?

Pembayaran angsuran melalui VA dapat melalui :

  • ATM dan Mobile Banking Bank manapun
  • Internet Banking Bank manapun (kecuali internet Banking Bank BCA dan Bank Danamon)
  • SMS Banking Bank manapun (kecuali Bank Danamon)

Kapankah nomor VA Customer ini mulai bisa digunakan ?

VA Customer dapat digunakan per tanggal 15 Maret 2019

Apa bedanya nomor VA Customer dengan nomor VA pada Akses Adira Finance?

Apa syarat dan kriteria pembayaran dengan menggunakan VA Customer ?

Nomor VA yang digunakan harus benar dan sesuai dengan nomor VA Customer, dimana nomor VA Customer terdiri dari 4 digit kode perusahaan Adira Finance (7755) dan 12 digit nomor kontrak Customer.
Customer yang dapat melakukan pembayaran dengan menggunakan VA ini adalah customer dengan kriteria sebagai berikut :

  • Customer retail Adira Finance yang masih Aktif (angsuran belum lunas). *retail = 1 nomor kontrak 1 unit
  • Bukan pembayaran angsuran yang terakhir
  • Tidak ada keterlambatan pembayaran angsuran lebih dari 30 hari dan belum terbit Surat Kuasa (SK) Penarikan Unit

Bagaimana cara pembayaran angsuran menggunakan nomor VA pada channel perbankan ?

Barikut adalah langkah – langkah pembayaran angsuran Adira Finance menggunakan nomor VA melalui channel perbankkan.

  • Langkah-langkah pembayaran angsuran menggunakan VA melalui ATM Bank Danamon menggunakan Kartu Bank Danamon :
    1. ​​Masukan Kartu ATM Bank Danamon, kemudian masukan nomor PIN ATM Anda
    2. Pilih menu Pembayaran >>> menu Lainnya >>> menu Virtual Account
    3. Lalu masukan Nomor 16 digit nomor Virtual Accout yang terdiri dari 4 digit kode perusahaan Adira Finance (7755) kemudian dilanjut dengan 12 digit nomor kontrak Customer. Contoh: 7755012345678912
    4. Masukkan jumlah pembayaran Anda sesuai dengan jumlah angsurannya, klik “Lanjut”
    5. Pada layar konfirmasi pembayaran akan muncul data – data Customer seperti :
      1. Nama Customer
      2. Nomor VA
      3. Jumlah pembayaran yang diinput. Periksa kembali data yang muncul pada layar konfirmasi pembayaran tersebut, pastikan transaksi sudah benar
    6. Jika benar, Klik “ Ya” untuk melanjutkan proses pembayaran angsuran.
  • Langkah – langkah pembayaran angsuran menggunakan VA melalui D-mobile (Aplikasi Mobile Banking Danamon) :
    1. ​​Dipastikan Customer telah mendownload Aplikasi D-Bank Danamon pada Playstore di handphone Customer (berlaku untuk handpone android / IOS)
    2. Masukkan user id dan password Anda
    3. Pilih menu Pembayaran, lalu pilih menu “Virtual Account”.
    4. Untuk Customer yang baru melakukan pembayaran angsuran menggunakan nomor VA, maka pilih / klik menu “Tambah Biller baru”, kemudian klik “Lanjut”. Untuk Customer yang sebelum nya sudah melakukan pembayaran angsuran menggunakan nomor VA, maka langsung klik “Lanjut”.
    5. Masukan 4 angka kode perusahaan Adira Finance yaitu 7755 dan nomor Kontrak konsumen. contoh : 7755012345678912, kemudian klik “Ajukan”
    6. Masukkan jumlah pembayaran Anda sesuai dengan jumlah angsurannya, klik “Lanjut”
    7. Pada layar konfirmasi pembayaran akan muncul data – data Customer seperti :
      1. Nama Customer
      2. Nomor VA
      3. Jumlah pembayaran yang diinput
        Periksa kembali data yang muncul pada layar konfirmasi pembayaran tersebut
        Jika benar, masukan m-PIN Anda, klik “Konfirmasi” untuk melanjutkan transaksi pembayaran Anda
  • Langkah – langkah pembayaran angsuran menggunakan VA melalui ATM Bank Lain (*ATM yang termasuk dalam jaringan ATM Bersama / ALTO / Prima) atau melalui ATM Bank Danamon namun menggunakan Kartu Bank Lain :
    1. ​​Setelah masukan nomor PIN Anda
    2. Pilih menu transfer
    3. Kemudian pilih transfer ke bank lain dengan tujuan Bank Danamon
    4. Masukkan Kode Bank Danamon : 011 dan 4 digit kode perusahaan Adira Finance (7755) kemudian dilanjut dengan nomor Kontrak konsumen. contoh : 0117755012345678912
    5. Masukkan jumlah pembayaran Anda sesuai dengan jumlah angsurannya, klik “Lanjut”
    6. Pada layar konfirmasi pembayaran akan muncul data – data Customer seperti :
      1. Nama Customer
      2. Nomor VA
      3. Jumlah pembayaran yang diinput
        Periksa kembali data yang muncul pada layar konfirmasi pembayaran tersebut, pastikan transaksi sudah benar.
    7. Jika benar, Klik “ Ya” untuk melanjutkan proses pembayaran angsuran. *Note : ketersediaan channel sesuai kebijakan bank penerbit kartu masing-masing
  • Langkah – langkah pembayaran angsuran menggunakan VA melalui Internet / Mobile Banking Bank lain
    1. ​​Setelah login, klik menu transfer – transfer Bank lain
    2. Pilih layanan transfer “Online”
    3. Pilih Bank Danamon, kemudian masukan 4 digit kode perusahaan Adira Finance (7755) kemudian dilanjut dengan nomor Kontrak konsumen. Contoh : 7755012345678912
    4. Klik lanjut, Periksa kembali data yang muncul pada layar konfirmasi pembayaran tersebut, pastikan transaksi sudah benar.
    5. Jika data sudah benar, masukan MPIN Anda klik “Lanjut / OK”

Apakah ada biaya untuk pembayaran menggunakan VA Customer ini ?

Tidak Ada, Customer hanya dikenakan biaya oleh masing-masing Bank untuk penggunaan fasilitas Bank tersebut.

Apakah pembayaran menggunakan VA Customer hanya untuk satu kali angsuran saja ?

Tidak, nomor VA Customer ini dapat digunakan untuk setiap pembayaran angsuran selama masa tenor.

Bagaimana jika Customer membayar lebih dari jumlah nilai angsurannya ?

Apabila Customer melakukan pembayaran melalui VA dengan jumlah lebih dari nilai angsuran maka kelebihannya akan masuk sebagai titipan.

Bagaimana jika Customer membayar kurang dari nilai angsurannya?

  • Apabila Customer melakukan pembayaran dimana dananya kurang dari nilai angsuran maka dana yang masuk tersebut akan dicatat sebagai titipan.
  • Apabila titipan sudah genap senilai angsurannya, maka dana titipan tersebut akan tercatat sebagai pembayaran angsuran Customer.

Apakah VA Customer ini bisa digunakan untuk membayar denda dan pembayaran yang lain diluar angsuran (contoh pembayaran biaya transkasi / biaya penyimpanan BPKB, dll selain angsuran) ?

Tidak bisa, Pembayaran melalui VA hanya untuk pembayaran angsuran saja.

Apakah pembayaran angsuran menggunakan nomor VA ini akan langsung di terima Adira Finance ?

  • Ya, pembayaran angsuran menggunakan nomor VA akan langsung diterima oleh Adira Finance pada hari yang sama (realtime).
  • Untuk pengecekan angsuran dapat dilihat pada Aplikasi Akses Adira Finance dimenu “Jejak Angsuran”.

Apakah bukti pembayaran menggunakan VA customer ini harus ditukarkan dengan struk resmi Adira ?

  • Tidak, Customer tidak perlu menukarkan bukti pembayaran dengan struk resmi dari Adira Finance.
  • Untuk pengecekan angsuran dapat dilihat pada Aplikasi Akses Adira Finance dimenu “Jejak Angsuran”.

Bagaimana jika Customer merasa sudah melakukan pembayaran ke rekening VA namun tidak segera masuk ke angsuran dan masih ditagih oleh bagian Collection?

Customer dapat menghubungi Adira Finance melalui :

  • Call Center Dering Adira Finance : 1500511
  • Menyampaikan keluhan melalui email : customercare_@_adira_dot_co_dot_id dengan melampirkan bukti Pembayaran Angsuran melalui VA Customer (maksimal ukuran file 1 Mb) serta informasi pendukung lainnya, yaitu
    1. Nomor Kontrak Customer
    2. Nama Customer
    3. Tanggal dan Nominal transaksi, dan
    4. Media pembayaran yang digunakan oleh Customer ( misal melalui ATM Bank Mandiri).
  • Datang langsung ke kantor Cabang Adira Finance terdekat dengan membawa bukti pembayaran angsuran melalui VA Customer .

Bagaimana saya dapat melakukan pengecekan bahwa angsuran saya sudah masuk / diterima oleh Adira Finance ?

Pengecekan dapat dilakukan melalui :

  1. Aplikasi Akses Adira Finance pada menu “Jejak Angsuran”, atau
  2. Hubungi Dering Adira Finance 1500511

Apakah Customer masih bisa melakukan pembayaran angsuran jika tidak menggunakan nomor Virtual Account ?

Ya bisa, pembayaran angsuran yang tidak menggunakan nomor VA dapat dilakukan melalui payment channel dibawah ini :

  1. Kantor Cabang Adira Finance terdekat
  2. Melalui Online Payment :
    • Melalui Autodebet Danamon
    • Melalui Mobile Banking dan SMS Banking Danamon
    • Melalui ATM Bank Danamon
    • Aplikasi Akses Adira Finance
    • Kantor Pos
    • Keday Adira Finance
    • Alfamart dan Indomart

Note : Cara pembayaran menggunakan 12 digit nomor kontrak (PK) Customer.