Category Archives: Architecture

Jembatan Youtefa

JEMBATAN YOUTEFA

Jembatan Youtefa (sebelumnya bernama Jembatan Holtekamp) adalah jembatan di atas Teluk Youtefa, Provinsi Papua yang menghubungkan Holtekamp dengan Hamadi sepanjang 732 meter dengan lebar 21 meter. Jembatan ini merupakan jembatan tipe Pelengkung Baja yang dapat memperpendek jarak dan waktu tempuh dari Kota Jayapura ke Distrik Muara Tami dan ke Pos Lintas Batas Negara (PLBN) Skouw daerah perbatasan Indonesia – Papua Nugini. Sebelum jembatan ini dibangun, perjalanan dari kawasan pemerintahan menuju Distrik Muara Tami menempuh jarak sejauh 35 km dengan waktu tempuh sekitar 1 jam. Namun, bila melewati Jembatan Youtefa maka jaraknya menjadi sekitar 12 km dengan waktu tempuh sekitar 15 menit.

Pembangunan Jembatan Youtefa merupakan kolaborasi antara Pemerintah Pusat Kementerian PUPR, Pemerintah Provinsi Papua, dan Pemerintah Kota Jayapura dengan pembagian sebagai berikut:

Pembangunan jembatan ini dilakukan oleh konsorsium kontraktor PT Pembangunan Perumahan, Tbk, PT Hutama Karya (persero), dan PT Nindya Karya (persero) dengan total biaya pembangunan sebesar Rp 1,87 Triliun dengan sokongan dana khusus APBN dari Kementerian PUPR senilai Rp 1,3 triliun.[3] Jembatan ini mulai dibangun bulan Mei 2015. Perakitan bentang utama Jembatan Youtefa yang merupakan tipe Box Baja Pelengkung tidak dilakukan di lokasi jembatan, namun di PT PAL Indonesia Surabaya. Produksi jembatan di Surabaya bertujuan meningkatkan aspek keselamatan kerja, meningkatkan kualitas pengelasan, dan mempercepat waktu pelaksanaan hingga 3 bulan.

Ini kali pertama, pembangunan jembatan dimana jembatan pelengkungnya dibuat utuh di tempat lain kemudian dibawa ke lokasi. Dari Surabaya bentang jembatan seberat 2000 ton dan panjang 112,5 m ini dikirim menggunakan kapal laut dengan menempuh perjalanan sejauh 3.200 kilometer dalam waktu 19 hari. Pemasangan bentang pertama dilakukan pada 21 Februari 2018 sedangkan bentang kedua dipasang pada 15 Maret 2018 dengan waktu pemasangan kurang lebih 6 jam.

Museum Rekor Indonesia (MURI) memberikan 2 rekor pada proyek pembangunan Jembatan Youtefa yakni rekor pengiriman jembatan rangka baja utuh dengan jarak terjauh, dan rekor pemasangan jembatan rangka baja utuh terpanjang.

Jembatan Youtefa diresmikan Presiden Joko Widodo pada 28 Oktober 2019.

Headlines

Resmikan Jembatan Youtefa, Presiden Jokowi: Jadikan sebagai Momentum Papua Bangkit Maju

Data dari KEMENTERIAN SEKRETARIAT NEGARA REPUBLIK INDONESIA

Senin, 28 Oktober 2019

Bertepatan dengan Hari Sumpah Pemuda, Presiden Joko Widodo meresmikan Jembatan Youtefa yang terletak di Kota Jayapura, Provinsi Papua, pada Senin, 28 Oktober 2019. Presiden Jokowi berharap Jembatan Youtefa bisa menjadi tonggak sejarah di Tanah Papua, bukan hanya simbol persatuan bangsa, tetapi juga simbol pentingnya sebuah kemajuan untuk membangun Tanah Papua.

“Tanah Papua harus maju, seperti daerah-daerah lain di Indonesia. Papua adalah surga kecil yang jatuh ke bumi. Itu adalah hal yang saya lihat setiap kali berkunjung ke Tanah Papua. Kalau tidak keliru hitung, saya sudah 13 kali hadir di Tanah Papua,” kata Presiden Jokowi dalam sambutannya.

Presiden Jokowi memandang bahwa merawat dan memajukan Papua adalah tugas bersama kita sebagai bangsa Indonesia. Itulah mengapa Presiden Jokowi melakukan kunjungan kerja pertama ke Papua dan Papua Barat usai dilantik pada 20 Oktober 2019 lalu.

“Semua itu saya lakukan untuk memastikan sendiri, untuk memastikan sendiri bahwa Tanah Papua dibangun dan tidak dilupakan dalam kemajuan Indonesia yang kita cintai ini,” kata Presiden.

Selama periode pertama pemerintahannya, Presiden Jokowi telah berkeliling Indonesia, sampai ke pedalaman-pedalaman di wilayah Indonesia bagian timur. Dari situlah Presiden Jokowi melihat adanya ketimpangan infrastruktur antara wilayah bagian barat, tengah, dan timur Indonesia.

“Ini kalau kita biarkan akan menyulitkan kita untuk bersatu sebagai sebuah bangsa besar. Karena itu saya selalu mendorong pembangunan infrastruktur khususnya di wilayah Indonesia bagian timur untuk dipercepat. Dan tentu saja nanti pararel dengan pembangunan sumber daya manusia yang juga ingin kita kerjakan,” kata Presiden, sebagaimana dilansir dari siaran pers Kepala Biro Pers, Media, dan Informasi Sekretariat Presiden, Erlin Suastini.

Pembangungan infrastruktur tersebut, kata Presiden, selain menghadirkan manfaat secara nyata bagi rakyat, juga bertujuan untuk mempersatukan bangsa Indonesia, membangun konektivitas, membangun hubungan antarpulau, provinsi, kota dan kabupaten.

Menurutnya, semua infrastruktur perhubungan, termasuk jembatan, akan membuat pergerakan barang dan pergerakan manusia menjadi lebih cepat dan lebih lancar, sehingga rakyat akan mendapatkan harga-harga barang dan harga-harga jasa yang jauh lebih murah. Ujungnya, mempersatukan masyarakat karena ada interaksi dan komunikasi yang lancar antarmasyarakat kita.

“Begitu juga halnya dengan Jembatan Youtefa yang akan kita resmikan sekarang ini. Jembatan yang telah dibangun selama empat tahun dan menghabiskan anggaran biaya Rp1,8 triliun. Ini kalau dimiliarkan, Rp1.800 miliar, silahkan kalau mau ngitung,” kata Presiden.

Jembatan Youtefa sendiri terdiri atas tiga bagian. Bagian pertama merupakan jalan akses sepanjang 9.950 meter, bagian kedua adalah jalan pendekat sepanjang 320 meter, dan bagian ketiga berupa jembatan pendekat sisi Holtekamp sepanjang 900 meter, dengan bentang utama jembatan sepanjang 433 meter.

Presiden menjelaskan, Jembatan Youtefa ini hadir sebagai solusi untuk mengatasi permasalahan kepadatan penduduk di Kota Jayapura sehingga kawasan Kota Jayapura dapat dikembangkan ke arah perbatasan di Skouw. Selain itu, jembatan ini juga mempersingkat waktu tempuh sekitar 70 menit dari Kota Jayapura menuju Distrik Muara Tami dan pos lintas batas negara di Skouw.

“Saya juga mendapat laporan bahwa Jembatan Youtefa ini telah menjadi landmark, telah menjadi ikon baru Papua yang akan menjadi sarana pendukung dalam Pekan Olahraga Nasional (PON) di tahun 2020 yang akan diselenggarakan di Papua, seperti cabang olah raga dayung dan ski air. Ini menunjukkan bahwa sebuah jembatan memiliki banyak fungsi bagi masyarakat dan mempunyai multiplier effect yang menguntungkan masyarakat,” kata Presiden.

Kepala Negara berharap masyarakat Jayapura bersama-sama dengan pemerintah daerah bersungguh-sungguh menjaga Jembatan Youtefa ini, baik dari sisi kebersihan maupun keamanannya. Ia juga berharap jembatan ini bisa ditata dan dipercantik dengan lampu-lampu dan taman-taman yang menarik.

“Karena sekarang Jembatan Youtefa sudah jadi bagian yang tidak terpisahkan dari masyarakat Jayapura, tidak bisa terpisahkan dari masyarakat Papua,” kata Presiden.

Di pengujung sambutannya, Presiden juga meminta agar pemerintah Provinsi Papua dan pemerintah Kota Jayapura memanfaatkan dengan baik keberadaan Jembatan Youtefa ini untuk mengembangkan potensi wisata bahari yang ada di Teluk Youtefa. Imbasnya, diharapkan akan semakin banyak wisatawan yang berkunjung ke Tanah Papua.

“Jadikan Jembatan Youtefa ini sebagai momentum untuk Papua bangkit maju yang melahirkan kemajuan-kemajuan, melahirkan pemuda-pemuda Papua yang berprestasi dan memiliki daya saing di kancah global,” kata Presiden.

Turut mendampingi Presiden Jokowi dalam acara peresmian Jembatan Youtefa antara lain Ibu Negara Iriana, Menteri Pekerjaan Umum dan Perumahan Rakyat Basuki Hadimuljono, Menteri Perhubungan Budi Karya Sumadi, dan Menteri Dalam Negeri Tito Karnavian.

Selain itu turut hadir pula Kepala Badan Intelijen Negara Budi Gunawan, Panglima TNI Marsekal Hadi Tjahjanto, Plt. Kapolri Komjen Ari Dono, Kepala Badan Siber dan Sandi Negara Hinsa Siburian, Gubernur Papua Lukas Enembe, dan Wali Kota Jayapura Benhur Tommy Mano. (Humas Kemensetneg)

Jembatan Holtekamp Berganti Nama Jadi Youtefa

Source: okezone

Jembatan Holtekamp Jayapura, Papua. (Foto: Okezone.com/Dok. Kementerian PUPR)

Presiden Joko Widodo (Jokowi) akhirnya meresmikan Jembatan Youtefa di Papua, bertepatan dengan Hari Sumpah Pemuda. Sebelumnya, jembatan ini dikenal sebagai Jembatan Holtekamp yang menjadi ikon baru di Papua.

Beberapa bulan lalu, Menteri Pekerjaan Umum dan Perumahan Rakyat (PUPR) Basuki Hadimuljono mengungkapkan alasan dari perubahan nama jembatan tersebut. Dia mengatakan alasan utamanya adalah karena daerah dari Jembatan Youtefa sendiri yang berada di Teluk Youtefa.

“Jadi karena ini memang di daerah Teluk Youtefa. Jadi sangat relevan sekali usulan nama itu. Saya akan sampaikan kepada bapak Presiden (Jokowi) kalau ini namanya diusulkan sebagai Jembatan Youtefa,” ujarnya saat meninjau Jembatan Holtekamp, Jayapura, Papua.

Sebelumnya, Jembatan Youtefa di Papua akhirnya diresmikan hari ini. Bertepatan dengan Hari Sumpah Pemuda, jembatan ini diresmikan secara langsung oleh Presiden Joko Widodo (Jokowi).

Dulu, jembatan ini dikenal dengan nama Jembatan Holtekamp. Hal ini diungkapkan langsung oleh Kementerian Pekerjaan Umum dan Perumahan Rakyat (PUPR) melalui akun resmi Instagramnya.

“#KabarPUPR – Empat tahun dibangun, akhirnya Jembatan Youtefa di Papua diresmikan Presiden @jokowi hari ini, Senin (28/10) bertepatan dengan Hari Sumpah Pemuda. Jembatan yang dulu sering dikenal dengan nama Jembatan Holtekamp ini menghubungkan daerah Hamadi menuju Holtekamp,” tulis @kemenpupr di Instagram, Senin (28/10/2019).

Jembatan Youtefa memiliki panjang kurang lebih 1.800 meter dan lebar 17 meter. Pasalnya, jembatan ini menghubungkan daerah Hamadi menuju Holtekamp.

Dengan adanya jembatan ini, maka waktu tempuh dari Kota Jayapura menuju PLBN Skouw bisa terpangkas. Dari 1,5-2 jam perjalanan, akan terpangkas hingga 30-45 menit.

Perlu diketahui, Jembatan Youtefa juga mendorong pengembangan Kota Jayapura ke arah Skouw, menunjang wisata bahari di Teluk Youtefa, dan akan mendukung pelaksanaan PON XX Papua Tahun 2020. Ini merupakan salah satu bukti komitmen Presiden Jokowi di wilayah Timur Indonesia.

Adapun total keseluruhan biaya pembangunan mencapai Rp1,8 triliun. Jembatan ini juga terdiri dari dua bentang utama dengan pelengkung baja. Masing-masing panjang bentang utama 150 meter, tinggi 20 meter dan berat 2.000 ton.

Awalnya, Jembatan Youtefa ditargetkan akan rampung pada Juli 2019. Namun, molor hingga baru bisa diresmikan pada akhir Oktober 2019.

(fbn)

Source: Wikpedia, Times Indonesia, Okezone

Habiskan Rp 1,8 Triliun, Ini Progres Pembangunan Jembatan Holtekamp di Papua

Berita Kompas – 23/05/2019, 09:35 WIB. Penulis Kontributor Jayapura, Dhias Suwandi | Editor Robertus Belarminus

Sejak dimulai pada 9 Mei 2015, kini pembangunan Jembatan Holtekamp di Kota Jayapura, Papua, sudah mendekati 100 persen dan dijadwalkan pada Juli 2019 bisa diresmikan. Kepala Balai Besar Pembangunan Jalan Nasional (BBPJN) XVIII Papua, Osman Marbun, di Kota Jayapura, kamis (23/05/2019), mengatakana, progres pembangunan Jembatan Holtekamp tinggal menyelesaikan pembangunan akses jalan pendekat dari arah Holtekamp. “Jalan akses Holtekamp yang panjanganya 7,5 Km kini sudah selesai 5 Km, kemudian jalan akses di Pantai Hamadi sedang kami lebarkan dan dibangun trotoarnya supaya lebih rapih,” ujar Osman.

Selain itu, pemerintah juga tengah membangunkan akses jalan untuk masyarakat Kampung Enggros yang letaknya paling dekat dengan jembatan dan keberadaannya ada di pulau. “Kan masyarakat harus kami fasilitasi juga, masa kita bangun jembatan sebesar ini tapi masyarakat tidak bisa keluar masuk menggunakan jembatan ini dan tetap memakai perahu, kan lucu,” tutur dia.

Hingga kini, total pembiayaan yang telah dikeluarkan mencapai Rp 1,8 triliun. Rp 1,3 triliun berasal dari APBN dan sisanya dikucurkan APBD Provinsi papua dan Kota Jayapura. Osman berharap, Presiden Joko Widodo bisa meresmikan Jembatan Holtekamp karena peletakan batu pertamnya pun dilakukan oleh presiden. “Secara keseluruhan untuk jembatannya sudah tuntas 100 persen, jadi kami tinggal serahkan ke Pak Presiden, menteri dan pemerintah daerah tentang kapan peresmiannya karena semua sudah siap,” tutur dia. Jembatan Holtekamp jadi obyek wisata Keberadaan Jembatan Holtekamp diyakini bisa mendongkrak dunia pariwisata di Kota Jayapura.

Bahkan, meski belum dibuka untuk umum, animo masyarakat untuk berswafoto di lokasi tersebut sangat tinggi, terutama pada akhir pekan. Karenanya, BBPJN XVIII telah memiliki rencana untuk melengkapi Jembatan Holtekamp dengan fasilitas umum. “Ini sebagai daerah tujuan wisata sudah pasti akan membangkitkan ekonomi masyarakat. Nanti ini akan dipercantik, akan ada fasilitas umum, kemudian pengembangan berikutnya bisa saja ada penginapan, lalu kios-kios penjual cindera mata,” ucap Osman.

Hal tersebut pun diamini oleh Ketua Asosiasi Agen Perjalanan Wisata (Asita) Provinsi Papua, Iwanta Parangin-Angin. Dia mengatakan, Kota Jayapura kekurangan obyek wisata dan keberadaan Jembatan Holtekamp bisa menutupi hal tersebut. Tidak hanya fisik jembatannya yang akan menjadi objek wisata, Iwanta menyebut, keberadaan infrastruktur tersebut dapat meningkatkan jumlah wisatawan yang ingin berkunjung ke pos Lintas Batas Negara (PLBN) Skouw yang merupakan titik perbatasan antara Indonesia dengan Papua Nugini.

“Kalau Jembatan Holtekam sudah beroperasi itu otomatis membuat jarak tempuh lebih dekat dan kami menjual paketnya lebih enak. Selain itu, juga bisa menjadi obyek wisata,” tutur dia. Iwanta menyebut, kini keberadaan PLBN Skouw yang merupakan perbatasan antara Indonesia dan Papua Nugini sudah bisa menarik minat wisatawan domestik, tetapi belum wisatawan mancanegara. Ia menegaskan, untuk rute perbatasan, diperlukan fasiltas penunjang lainnya karena jarak tempuhnya yang cukup jauh, bahkan kini waktu perjalanannya mencapai dua jam.

Hal tersebut bisa diatasi dengan adanya Jembatan Holtekam yang bisa memangkas jarak tempuh dari wilayah Kota Jayapura menuju PLBN Skouw. “Dengan keberadaan Jembatan Holtekam, untuk menuju ke perbatasan Skouw dari sebelumnya memerlukan waktu sekitar dua jam, maka waktunya akan menjadi sekitar 45 menit saja,” ucap dia. Sebagai informasi, panjang Jembatan Holtekamp mencapai 732 meter dengan bentang utamanya adalah 433 meter dan lebar jalan di jembatan 21 meter.

Guangzhou Circle

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Guangzhou Circle (Chinese: 广州圆大厦) is a landmark building located in Guangzhou, Guangdong province, China. It is the headquarters of the Hongda Xingye Group  and the new home of Guangdong Plastic Exchange (GDPE), the world largest trading centre for raw plastic material with more than 25 billions euros of annual turn over (2012).

Architect

The building has been designed by Italian architect Joseph di Pasquale, The total height is 138 meters for 33 stories, 85.000 square metres of floor area and about 1 billion RMB (150 million dollars) of global investment.

Design

The building is similar to another circular building in Shenyang, although, unlike the other, the central core is open, with no glass. It is the world’s tallest circular building and with the unique feature of its almost fifty meters wide empty hole in the center (48 mt).

The designer stated he was looking for a design based on Oriental psychology and perception, finding in the Chinese use of logographic symbols sinogram in its writing, as an inspiration. In fact, the building is also called an “urban ideogram”.

Many other meanings are linked with the building: the iconic value of jade discs and numerological tradition of Fengshui. In particular, the double disc of jade (bi-disk) is an ancient royal symbol of a Chinese dynasty which ruled in this area around 2000 years ago. The building reflection in the water of the river creates the same type of image: a double jade bi-disc.  This figure also corresponds to the number 8 and infinity symbol which Chinese culture has a strong propitiatory value. 

The building also takes a reference from an idea of the Italian Renaissance; “quadratura del cerchio” (squaring the circle). The two circular facades contain and support suspended groups of storeys which are “squaring” the perfect circumference of the facades in order to make the interior space orthogonal and habitable.

The public areas of the building are not yet open, although the public plaza in front is open. The nearest metro stop is Xilang.

In 2014, CNN listed the building as one of the 10 most interesting buildings, worldwide. 

Libraries in the World

Library

LIBRARY 01

China Opens World’s Coolest Library With 1.2 Million Books, And Its Interior Will Take Your Breath Away. Located in the Binhai Cultural District In Tianjin, the five-story library, which was designed by Dutch design firm MVRDV in collaboration with the Tianjin Urban Planning and Design Institute (TUPDI) and has since been dubbed “The Eye of Binhai”, covers 34,000 square metres and can hold up to 1.2 million books. Taking just three years to complete, the library features a reading area on the ground floor, lounge areas in the middle sections and offices, meeting spaces, and computer/audio rooms at the top. We’re not sure how much studying we’d get done though – we’d be far too busy marveling at the awesome architecture!

A library is a collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing.  It provides physical or digital access to material, and may be a physical building or room, or a virtual space, or both. 

A library’s collection can include books, periodicals, newspapers, manuscripts, films, maps, prints, documents, microform, CDs, cassettes, videotapes, DVDs, Blu-ray Discs, e-books, audiobooks, databases, and other formats.

Libraries range in size from a few shelves of books to several million items. In Latin and Greek, the idea of a bookcase is represented by Bibliotheca and Bibliothēkē (Greek: βιβλιοθήκη): derivatives of these mean library in many modern languages, e.g. French bibliothèque.



 

Summer Palace

Summer Palace – Best Royal Garden in China

beijing-summer-palace-768

About Summer Palace


Summer Palace is now a public park, but used to be the private garden for Royal families of Qing Dynasty to decamp during the hot summer days. It has assembled almost the best design, skill and classic features of traditional gardening architecture of ancient China.

Type: World Heritage Site, Royal Garden, Architectural Buildings, Parks
Best Seasons: Spring/Autumn
Recommended Visiting Time: 3~4 hours
Opening Hours: Apr to Oct: 06:30 ~ 18:00 / Nov to Mar: 07:00 ~ 17:00
Tickets: Apr to Oct: ¥30 / Nov to Mar: 20¥
Address: 19 Xin Jian Gong Men Rd, Haidian District, Beijing 100084, China

Brief Impression about Summer Palace – Facts


Located on the western outskirts, Summer Place (颐和园) is one of the most popular attractions in Beijing. Just as its name implies, the palace is the place of emperors and his families of Qing Dynasty for summer retreat. Not only the landscape, but also the designs of Summer Palace are the best masterpieces among all the ancient gardens. Constructed around the Longevity Hill and Kunming Lake, Summer Palace is a vast complex of gardens, palaces, lakes and hills.

On December 2nd, 1998, UNESCO announced the Summer Palace as a World Heritage Site with the declaration “a masterpiece of Chinese landscape garden design”. The natural landscape of hills and open water is combined with artificial features such as pavilions, halls, palaces, temples and bridges to form a “harmonious ensemble of outstanding aesthetic value”.

Location & Transportation


Where is Summer Palace

Summer Palace is located in Haidian District (海淀区), approximately 15km away from the central Beijing, adjacent to Yuanmingyuan Garden (圆明园), Tsinghua University (清华大学) and Peking University (北京大学).

About 21 km from Temple of Heaven
About 19 km from Forbidden City
About 20 km from Tiananmen Square
Transfer to/off Summer Palace

The Summer Palace is usually covered in a full day’s visiting of Beijing tour package with other famous sites, such as Forbidden City, Temple of Heaven. The package includes convenient and private transfer, which is helpful and more enjoyable for you to focus on sightseeing.

If you prefer independent travel, you can take the subway Line 4 to the northern gate or eastern gate of Summer Palace. There are also many public buses available for you to transfer to or off the Summer Palace, such as 209, 330, 331, 332, 346, etc.

summer-palace--map-full

History of Summer Palace


Built by Emperor Qianlong

To irrigate royal gardens in western region outside the Forbidden City, the emperor Qianlong (乾隆) o ordered to expand the West Lake in 1750, and renamed the lake as Kunming Lake. The excavated earth from the expansion was moved to pile the Jar Hill which later was renamed as Longevity Hill (长寿山). In 1764, Qianlong gave the order again to construct a real garden around the Kunming Lake with the blueprint of the famous West Lake in Hangzhou. The garden, firstly named “Qingyiyuan” (清漪園; “Gardens of Clear Ripples””), was themed by an ancient Chinese mythology about three holy mountains in the East Sea. So the artisans built three islands in the lake to represent the three mountains – Nanhu Island, Tuancheng Island and Zaojiantang Island. Many constructions in the palace imitated the designs of other famous sites around China, including Yueyang Tower (岳阳楼) in Hunan, Yellow Crane Tower (黄鹤楼) in Hubei, shopping streets in Suzhou and Yangzhou.

Destruction and Restoration

In 1860, the end of the Second Opium War, allied army of British and French destructed large parts of Qingyiyuan Palace. During 1884~1895, the empress Dowager Cixi (慈溪太后) rebuilt the palace and gave the present Chinese name “Yiheyuan” (颐和园). In 1900, the army of the Eight-Nation Alliance invaded Beijing again, and destroyed the Summer Palace. Many artifacts stored in the palace were looted. Two years later, the palace was restored again under the order of empress Cixi. Since then, the Summer Palace has been preserved well, and served as a public park till today.

summer-palace-qing-dynasty

Summer Palace in Qing Dynasty

Attractions & Things to do in Summer Palace


The Summer Palace can functionally be divided into three zones. The first, represented by the solemn Renshou Palace, is the administrative zone where the empress Cixi and emperor Guangxu deal with the daily affairs and hold diplomatic activities. The second, represented by Leshou Palace, Yulan Palace and Yiyun Palace, is the living zone of Cixi, Guangxu and his princesses. The third zone is the largest as well as the most important part playing the role as entertaining, gardening and sightseeing, surrounded the Longevity Hill, including the highlighting sites Foxiang Pavilion, Paiyun Pavilion, 17-Arch Bridge, etc.

Attractions You can’t Miss Out


Renshou Palace – Hall of Benevolence and Longevity (仁寿殿): Situated at the left side of the entrance of eastern gate. It used to be the place where court sessions were held during the reign of Qianlong Emperor and Guangxu Emperor (光绪皇帝).

Leshou Palace – Hall of Joy and Longevity (乐寿堂). Facing the Kunming Lake, back against the Longevity Hill, Leshou Palace was the palace where empress Cixi lived.

Yulan Palace – Hall of Jade Billows (玉澜堂): Located west of Renshou Palace, Yulan Palace served as the living quarters of the Qing emperors. The empress Cixi once confined the emperor Guangxu here for 10 years.

Longevity Hill – this 58-meter high hill is the seat of some most important buildings of Summer Palace located on the front and back hills, including Paiyun Pavilion (排云殿), Foxiang Pavilion (佛香阁) and some Tibetan Buddhist temples.

Kunming Lake (昆明湖) – it is the body lake, and covers more than 3/4 the entire size of Summer Palace. Three small islands sit in the lake standing for three holy mountains in ancient mythology legend. Many buildings, such as bridge, dikes, imitated the features of those of West Lake in Hangzhou.

Foxiang Pavilion – this 41-meter high pavilion is a Buddhist temple for royal families to worship to the Buddha in Qing Dynasty. It has 8 stories, was propped up by 8 huge wooden pillars. The design and decoration inside is fabulous.

Long Corridor (长廊) – it lies at the southern foot of Longevity Hill facing the Kunming Lake. The corridor is regarded as the longest of its kind in the world with a total length of 728 meters. More than 14,000 paintings of famous places and known story from legends, folktales, novels, and so on, hang on the corridor.

Suzhou Street (苏州街) – the emperor Qianlong were keen on the prosperity of Jiangnan (Suzhou, Hangzhou, etc.), so he built the imitated shopping street resembling Shantang Street in Suzhou. Eunuch and maids in the royal palace acted as retailers when the emperors shop on the street.

17-Arch Bridge (十七孔桥) – 8 meters wide and 150 meters long, the bridge is the largest and longest bridge in the Summer Palace with 17 different types of arches. It incorporates features of the Precious Belt Bridge in Suzhou and the Lugou Bridge in Beijing.

Recommended Activities in Summer Palace

Boating is very popular among travelers especially families with kids. The Kunming Lake covers vastly allowing you to enjoy the fascinating landscape with slow pace on the boat. But it is not available during winter because the lake usually is frozen.

kunming-lake

Kunming Lake

long-corridor

Long Corridor

17-arch-bridge

17-Arch Bridge

Recommended Visiting Route


Classic Route

There are three entrances – Eastern Gate, Northern Gate and New Palace Gate. Travelers usually enter into the park from the Eastern Gate, then sightsee sites around, such as Renshou Palace, Wenchang Temple, etc. Then stroll around to the living zone of Royal families of Qing Empire. Don’t miss the Yulan Palace, Leshou Palace and Yiyun Palace. Then go to explore the famous Long Corridor. Next is to visit some important architecture on the Longevity Hill, such as Paiyun Pavilion, Foxiang Pavilion, etc. Lastly, take a boat to the Nanhu Island to see the 17-Arch Bridge, and exist from New Palace Gate. The entire sightseeing takes about 3 hours to go through.

Extension Route

If time allows, you can extend your visit to the western dam region which is featured in different type of bridges. The back hill of Longevity Hill also offers many interesting sites, such as the Suzhou Street, Xiequ Garden (Garden of Harmonious Pleasures), etc. If you are interested in Tibetan Buddhism, don’t miss the Four Great Regions which resembles the Samye Monastery in Tibet.

Nearby Places to Go

Summer Palace region is also famous for having two most famous universities in China – Tsinghua and Peking both of which have long history and outstanding reputation throughout China. Addition to the youth and vigour, Tsinghua and Peking Universities are also a pleasant place for exploring some ancient historical sites and peaceful nature.

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Peking University

Useful Tips


Best time to go – seasonal advice – Different views in different season

September and October are best months to visit Summer Palace. The autumn here is cool, neither too cold nor too hot. Spring is pleasant. Summer is usually hot and rainy, but a good season to enjoy the prosperous nature as well as the best time for boating on the Kunming Lake. If you want to see some spectacular views of Summer Palace, winter is the time when the snow covers the pavilions, towers, bridges – peaceful and pure.

Ticket & Fee

Apr to Oct: ¥30 / Nov to Mar: 20¥

Notes:

  1. The price doesn’t include the boating and entry fees for Wenchang Temple(¥20), Dehe Garden(¥5), Foxiang Pavilion(¥10) and Danning Hall(¥10);
  2. Joint Ticket charges ¥60(Apr to Oct) and ¥50(Nov to Mar), and covers the entry fees for Wenchang Temple, Dehe Garden, Foxiang Pavilion and Danning Hall.

Service & Facility

Summer Palace offers tour guide service for different language travelers, including English, Russian, French, etc. Self-service audio explanation is also available.

There are also places for dinning and shopping, including 3 Chinese restaurants, several artwork shops. Barrier-free washroom and path are available.

Source: chinadiscovery

 

 

Temple of Heaven

Temple of Heaven – Brilliant World Heritage Site

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About Temple of Heaven

The Temple of Heaven is the best place in Beijing to explore the traditional royal sacrificial culture of ancient China. At the same time, it is a pleasant place for leisure stay of walking or sightseeing, also for exploration of local culture.

Type: World Heritage Site, Historic Sites, Parks, Sights & Landmarks
Best Seasons: Spring/Autumn
Recommended Visiting Time: 1~2 hours
Opening Hours: Apr to Oct: 06:00 ~ 20:00 / Nov to Mar: 06:30 ~ 21:00
Tickets: ¥15 / Nov to Mar: ¥10
Address: Tiantan Road, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100050, China


Brief Impression about Temple of Heaven – Facts

The Temple of Heaven (天坛) is one of the most brilliant ancient architectures in China. It is also an outstanding masterpiece of classic imperial buildings throughout Chinese history. The site was firstly built in 1420 by Yongle Emperor (永乐皇帝), then expanded by the subsequent emperors of both Ming and Qing Dynasty, and had served as the holy place for emperors to pay homage to Heaven and to pray for a year of rich harvest.

Compared with all other sacrificial sites in the world, the Temple of Heaven is the largest not only in the size and scale, but also the forms and traditions. In 1998, the UNESCO listed the Temple of Heaven in the World Heritage Sites List with description as “a masterpiece of architecture and landscape design which simply and graphically illustrates a cosmogony of great importance for the evolution of one of the world’s great civilizations…”

Location & Transportation


Where is the Temple of Heaven

The Temple of Heaven is located in the central area of Beijing City which is also the attraction-gathering region. The famous Forbidden City (Palace Museum) and Tiananmen Square are conveniently situated at the northwest of Temple of Heave within short walking distance.

  • 6 km from Forbidden City
  • 5 km from Tiananmen Square
  • 21 km from Summer Palace
  • 75 km from Badaling Great Wall
  • 6.5 km from Jingshan Park

Transfer to/around Temple Heaven

The visit of Temple of Heaven takes about 1~2 hours, so it is usually recommended to tour with other sites in Beijing city, such as the Tiananmen Square, Forbidden City, Summer Palace or Hutongs as a full day tour package which has covered convenient and private transfer to and around the Temple of Heaven.

Subway and public buses are also available for independent travelers. You can take subway Line 5, and exist at Tiantan Dongmen Station which is only several minutes’ walking away from the East Gate of Temple of Heaven. Many buses pass by the park, including 120, 17, 2, 35, 36, 504, 53, etc.

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Temple of Heaven Location Map

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Temple of Heaven in Qing Dynasty

Architectural Art, Layout & Geomantic Omen


Layout

The Temple of Heaven is featured in precise structure, peculiar design and magnificent decoration. Covering more than 267 hectares (660 acres), the Temple of Heaven is the general reference of Huanqiu Altar (圜丘) and Qigu Altar(祈谷) which locate separately at an axle path from south to north – Danbi Bridge (丹陛桥). The most important building of Huanqiu Altar is Huangqiongyu Pavillion (皇穹宇). Qigu Altar has Qinian Pavilion (祈年殿), Huangqian Pavilion (皇乾殿) and Qinian Gate (祈年门), etc.

Ancient Chinese mythology believed the Heaven is circle and the Earth is square, which is fully embodied in the design of Temple Heaven. Two long-sketching cordons of wall surrounded the temple complex. The southern outer wall was built like a taller semi-circular representing Heaven. While the northern wall is shorter, rectangular, stands for the Earth. Both the Huanqiu Altar and Qigu Altar are round, and stand on two square yards.

The brilliant artisans of Qing Dynasty built supernatural sites – Echo Wall, Three-Sound Stone, and Conversation Stone according to the science of acoustics.

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Layout of Temple of Heaven

Architectural Art, Layout & Geomantic Omen


Important Buildings in the Park

Qinian Hall (Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests) is most magnificent building in the Temple of Heaven. It is a wooden triple-gable circular pavilion which is 38 meters high with a three-level marble stone base. The ancient emperors prayed for good harvests here. There are 28 pillars propping up the hall. The inner 4 pillars are large, and stand for four seasons. The middle 12 pillars represent the twelve months. The outer 12 pillars indicate 12 periods of a day.

Huangqiongyu Hall (The Imperial Vault of Heaven) is smaller with only one circular gable and one level of marble stone base compared with Qinian Hall. It is the place to enshrine the worshiping tablets of Gods. Inside the hall are pillars and vault decorated by beautiful paintings and carvings. Outside is a circular wall – Echo Wall which can transmit sounds over long distances.

Huanqiu Altar (The Circular Mound Altar) is an empty circular platform with three levels of marble stones. Vivid dragons were carved on the stones to stand for the emperors. The number nine stands for power as well as the emperors in ancient China. You will surprisedly find the balusters and steps are either the sacred number nine or its multiples. In the ancient time, the emperors burn the offerings for Heaven in a stove on the platform.

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Inside Qinian Hall

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Huangqiongyu Hall

Local Folk & Activities

The Temple of Heaven is divided into two parts – public park area and tourist area. The public area now serves as an entertaining and morning exercise place for locals, and is open from early morning to later night. People living near usually like to take exercise or take part in folk activities in the park, such as running, cycling, playing Tai Chi. You can spare some time to stroll leisurely in the park to get involved in the interested activities, or just experience the peaceful atmosphere of local people’s living.

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Local Acitivities in Temple of Heaven

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Temple of Heaven Tourist Map

Sacrificial Culture of Temple of Heaven


In the ancient China, the emperors attached great importance on the sacrifice to the Heaven because they are believed to be the son of Heaven. They ruled the county on behalf of Heaven.

To show their respect and gratefulness to the Heaven, the emperors of Ming and Qing Dynasties moved from Forbidden City to encamp in the Temple of Heaven with their retunes twice a year. The emperor would pray to Heaven for good harvests on the altar. Grand ceremony must be held perfectly, because the smallest mistake would bring bad luck for the whole nation in the next years.

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Sacrificial Ceremony in Temple of Heaven

Useful Tips


Best time to go – seasonal advice – Different views in different season

March to May and September to November is the best time to visit the Temple of Heaven. But actually the Temple of Heaven is suitable for travel all year around. You can see the blooming lilac during the middle April. In summer days, the whole park is decorated by flourishing green trees. The cool autumn is the best season when the sky is clear and blue. Winter is cold, but you can get rid of the crowds, and focus on exploring the fabulous architectures.

Ticket & Fee

Apr to Oct: ¥35 / Nov to Mar: ¥30

Notes: Note: the price include both the entrance fee and tickets for sites for Qigu Altar and Huanqiu Altar(¥20), Sacrificial Music Hall and Fast Palace (¥10).

Tour Guide Service

Independent travelers can rent the self-service audio guide device at the four gates of Temple of Heaven (Chinese, Cantonese, English, French, German, Spanish, Japanese, and Korean). You can also hire a personal tour guide in the park to get more detailed explanation.

Source: chinadiscovery

Forbidden City

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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The Forbidden City is a palace complex in central Beijing, China. The former seat of Imperial Chinese Dragon Throne from the Ming dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty—the years 1420 to 1912, it now houses the Palace Museum. The Forbidden City served as the home of emperors and their households as well as the ceremonial and political center of Chinese government for almost 500 years.

Constructed from 1406 to 1420, the complex consists of 980 buildings and covers 72 ha (over 180 acres). The palace exemplifies traditional Chinese palatial architecture, and has influenced cultural and architectural developments in East Asia and elsewhere. The Forbidden City was declared a World Heritage Site in 1987, and is listed by UNESCO as the largest collection of preserved ancient wooden structures in the world.

Since 1925 the Forbidden City has been under the charge of the Palace Museum, whose extensive collection of artwork and artefacts were built upon the imperial collections of the Ming and Qing dynasties. Part of the museum’s former collection is now in the National Palace Museum in Taipei. Both museums descend from the same institution, but were split after the Chinese Civil War. Since 2012, the Forbidden City has seen an average of 15 million visitors annually, and had 16 million visitors in 2016.

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Contents
1 Name
2 History
3 Description
3.1 Walls and gates
3.2 Outer Court or the Southern Section
3.3 Inner Court or the Northern Section
3.4 Religion
3.5 Surroundings
3.6 Symbolism
4 Collections
5 Influence

Name


The common English name “Forbidden City” is a translation of the Chinese name Zijin Cheng (Chinese: 紫禁城; pinyin: Zíjinchéng; literally: “Purple Forbidden City“). The name Zijin Cheng first formally appeared in 1576. Another English name of similar origin is “Forbidden Palace”.

The name “Zijin Cheng” is a name with significance on many levels. Zi, or “Purple”, refers to the North Star, which in ancient China was called the Ziwei Star, and in traditional Chinese astrology was the heavenly abode of the Celestial Emperor. The surrounding celestial region, the Ziwei Enclosure (Chinese: 紫微垣; pinyin: Zǐwēiyuán), was the realm of the Celestial Emperor and his family. The Forbidden City, as the residence of the terrestrial emperor, was its earthly counterpart. Jin, or “Forbidden”, referred to the fact that no one could enter or leave the palace without the emperor’s permission. Cheng means a city.

Today, the site is most commonly known in Chinese as Gùgōng (故宫), which means the “Former Palace”. The museum which is based in these buildings is known as the “Palace Museum” (Chinese: 故宫博物院; pinyin: Gùgōng Bówùyùan).

History


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The Forbidden City as depicted in a Ming dynasty painting

When Hongwu Emperor’s son Zhu Di became the Yongle Emperor, he moved the capital from Nanjing to Beijing, and construction began in 1406 on what would become the Forbidden City.

Construction lasted 14 years and required more than a million workers. Material used include whole logs of precious Phoebe zhennan wood (Chinese: 楠木; pinyin: nánmù) found in the jungles of south-western China, and large blocks of marble from quarries near Beijing. The floors of major halls were paved with “golden bricks” (Chinese: 金砖; pinyin: jīnzhuān), specially baked paving bricks from Suzhou.

From 1420 to 1644, the Forbidden City was the seat of the Ming dynasty. In April 1644, it was captured by rebel forces led by Li Zicheng, who proclaimed himself emperor of the Shun dynasty. He soon fled before the combined armies of former Ming general Wu Sangui and Manchu forces, setting fire to parts of the Forbidden City in the process.

By October, the Manchus had achieved supremacy in northern China, and a ceremony was held at the Forbidden City to proclaim the young Shunzhi Emperor as ruler of all China under the Qing dynasty. The Qing rulers changed the names on some of the principal buildings, to emphasise “Harmony” rather than “Supremacy”, made the name plates bilingual (Chinese and Manchu), and introduced Shamanist elements to the palace.

In 1860, during the Second Opium War, Anglo-French forces took control of the Forbidden City and occupied it until the end of the war. In 1900 Empress Dowager Cixi fled from the Forbidden City during the Boxer Rebellion, leaving it to be occupied by forces of the treaty powers until the following year.

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The East Glorious Gate under renovation as part of the 16-year restoration process

After being the home of 24 emperors – 14 of the Ming dynasty and 10 of the Qing dynasty – the Forbidden City ceased being the political centre of China in 1912 with the abdication of Puyi, the last Emperor of China. Under an agreement with the new Republic of China government, Puyi remained in the Inner Court, while the Outer Court was given over to public use, until he was evicted after a coup in 1924. The Palace Museum was then established in the Forbidden City in 1925. In 1933, the Japanese invasion of China forced the evacuation of the national treasures in the Forbidden City. Part of the collection was returned at the end of World War II, but the other part was evacuated to Taiwan in 1948 under orders by Chiang Kai-shek, whose Kuomintang was losing the Chinese Civil War. This relatively small but high quality collection was kept in storage until 1965, when it again became public, as the core of the National Palace Museum in Taipei.

After the establishment of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, some damage was done to the Forbidden City as the country was swept up in revolutionary zeal. During the Cultural Revolution, however, further destruction was prevented when Premier Zhou Enlai sent an army battalion to guard the city.

The Forbidden City was declared a World Heritage Site in 1987 by UNESCO as the “Imperial Palace of the Ming and Qing Dynasties”, due to its significant place in the development of Chinese architecture and culture. It is currently administered by the Palace Museum, which is carrying out a sixteen-year restoration project to repair and restore all buildings in the Forbidden City to their pre-1912 state.

In recent years, the presence of commercial enterprises in the Forbidden City has become controversial. A Starbucks store that opened in 2000 sparked objections and eventually closed on 13 July 2007. Chinese media also took notice of a pair of souvenir shops that refused to admit Chinese citizens in order to price-gouge foreign customers in 2006.

On November 8, 2017, President of the United States Donald Trump was the first US President to be granted a state dinner in the Forbidden City since the founding of the People’s Republic of China.

Description


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The Forbidden City viewed from Jingshan Hill

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The Forbidden City is a rectangle, with 961 metres (3,153 ft) from north to south and 753 metres (2,470 ft) from east to west. It consists of 980 surviving buildings with 8,886 bays of rooms. A common myth states that there are 9,999 rooms including antechambers, based on oral tradition, and it is not supported by survey evidence. The Forbidden City was designed to be the centre of the ancient, walled city of Beijing. It is enclosed in a larger, walled area called the Imperial City. The Imperial City is, in turn, enclosed by the Inner City; to its south lies the Outer City.

The Forbidden City remains important in the civic scheme of Beijing. The central north–south axis remains the central axis of Beijing. This axis extends to the south through Tiananmen gate to Tiananmen Square, the ceremonial centre of the People’s Republic of China, and on to Yongdingmen. To the north, it extends through Jingshan Hill to the Bell and Drum Towers. This axis is not exactly aligned north–south, but is tilted by slightly more than two degrees. Researchers now believe that the axis was designed in the Yuan dynasty to be aligned with Xanadu, the other capital of their empire.

Walls and Gates

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The Meridian Gate, front entrance to the Forbidden City, with two protruding wings

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The northwest corner tower

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The Gate of Supreme Harmony

The Forbidden City is surrounded by a 7.9 metres (26 ft) high city wall and a 6 metres (20 ft) deep by 52 metres (171 ft) wide moat. The walls are 8.62 metres (28.3 ft) wide at the base, tapering to 6.66 metres (21.9 ft) at the top. These walls served as both defensive walls and retaining walls for the palace. They were constructed with a rammed earth core, and surfaced with three layers of specially baked bricks on both sides, with the interstices filled with mortar.

At the four corners of the wall sit towers (E) with intricate roofs boasting 72 ridges, reproducing the Pavilion of Prince Teng and the Yellow Crane Pavilion as they appeared in Song dynasty paintings. These towers are the most visible parts of the palace to commoners outside the walls, and much folklore is attached to them. According to one legend, artisans could not put a corner tower back together after it was dismantled for renovations in the early Qing dynasty, and it was only rebuilt after the intervention of carpenter-immortal Lu Ban.

The wall is pierced by a gate on each side. At the southern end is the main Meridian Gate (A). To the north is the Gate of Divine Might (B), which faces Jingshan Park. The east and west gates are called the “East Glorious Gate” (D) and “West Glorious Gate” (C). All gates in the Forbidden City are decorated with a nine-by-nine array of golden door nails, except for the East Glorious Gate, which has only eight rows.

The Meridian Gate has two protruding wings forming three sides of a square (Wumen, or Meridian Gate, Square) before it. The gate has five gateways. The central gateway is part of the Imperial Way, a stone flagged path that forms the central axis of the Forbidden City and the ancient city of Beijing itself, and leads all the way from the Gate of China in the south to Jingshan in the north. Only the Emperor may walk or ride on the Imperial Way, except for the Empress on the occasion of her wedding, and successful students after the Imperial Examination.

Outer Court or the Southern Section

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The Hall of Supreme Harmony

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The name plate on the Hall of Supreme Harmony

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The throne in the Hall of Preserving Harmony

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The Hall of Central Harmony (foreground) and the Hall of Preserving Harmony

Traditionally, the Forbidden City is divided into two parts. The Outer Court (外朝) or Front Court (前朝) includes the southern sections, and was used for ceremonial purposes. The Inner Court (内廷) or Back Palace (后宫) includes the northern sections, and was the residence of the Emperor and his family, and was used for day-to-day affairs of state. (The approximate dividing line shown as red dash in the plan above.) Generally, the Forbidden City has three vertical axes. The most important buildings are situated on the central north–south axis.

Entering from the Meridian Gate, one encounters a large square, pierced by the meandering Inner Golden Water River, which is crossed by five bridges. Beyond the square stands the Gate of Supreme Harmony (F). Behind that is the Hall of Supreme Harmony Square. A three-tiered white marble terrace rises from this square. Three halls stand on top of this terrace, the focus of the palace complex. From the south, these are the Hall of Supreme Harmony (太和殿), the Hall of Central Harmony (中和殿), and the Hall of Preserving Harmony (保和殿).

The Hall of Supreme Harmony (G) is the largest, and rises some 30 metres (98 ft) above the level of the surrounding square. It is the ceremonial centre of imperial power, and the largest surviving wooden structure in China. It is nine bays wide and five bays deep, the numbers 9 and 5 being symbolically connected to the majesty of the Emperor. Set into the ceiling at the centre of the hall is an intricate caisson decorated with a coiled dragon, from the mouth of which issues a chandelier-like set of metal balls, called the “Xuanyuan Mirror”. In the Ming dynasty, the Emperor held court here to discuss affairs of state. During the Qing dynasty, as Emperors held court far more frequently, a less ceremonious location was used instead, and the Hall of Supreme Harmony was only used for ceremonial purposes, such as coronations, investitures, and imperial weddings.

The Hall of Central Harmony is a smaller, square hall, used by the Emperor to prepare and rest before and during ceremonies. Behind it, the Hall of Preserving Harmony, was used for rehearsing ceremonies, and was also the site of the final stage of the Imperial examination. All three halls feature imperial thrones, the largest and most elaborate one being that in the Hall of Supreme Harmony.

At the centre of the ramps leading up to the terraces from the northern and southern sides are ceremonial ramps, part of the Imperial Way, featuring elaborate and symbolic bas-relief carvings. The northern ramp, behind the Hall of Preserving Harmony, is carved from a single piece of stone 16.57 metres (54.4 ft) long, 3.07 metres (10.1 ft) wide, and 1.7 metres (5.6 ft) thick. It weighs some 200 tonnes and is the largest such carving in China. The southern ramp, in front of the Hall of Supreme Harmony, is even longer, but is made from two stone slabs joined together – the joint was ingeniously hidden using overlapping bas-relief carvings, and was only discovered when weathering widened the gap in the 20th century.

In the south west and south east of the Outer Court are the halls of Military Eminence (H) and Literary Glory (J). The former was used at various times for the Emperor to receive ministers and hold court, and later housed the Palace’s own printing house. The latter was used for ceremonial lectures by highly regarded Confucian scholars, and later became the office of the Grand Secretariat. A copy of the Siku Quanshu was stored there. To the north-east are the Southern Three Places (南三所) (K), which was the residence of the Crown Prince.

Inner Court or the Northern Section

The Inner Court is separated from the Outer Court by an oblong courtyard lying orthogonal to the City’s main axis. It was the home of the Emperor and his family. In the Qing dynasty, the Emperor lived and worked almost exclusively in the Inner Court, with the Outer Court used only for ceremonial purposes.

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The Palace of Heavenly Purity

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Water spouts drain rainwater from upper level platforms on which the principal halls are built.

At the centre of the Inner Court is another set of three halls (L). From the south, these are the Palace of Heavenly Purity (乾清宮), Hall of Union, and the Palace of Earthly Tranquility. Smaller than the Outer Court halls, the three halls of the Inner Court were the official residences of the Emperor and the Empress. The Emperor, representing Yang and the Heavens, would occupy the Palace of Heavenly Purity. The Empress, representing Yin and the Earth, would occupy the Palace of Earthly Tranquility. In between them was the Hall of Union, where the Yin and Yang mixed to produce harmony.

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The throne in the Palace of Heavenly Purity

The Palace of Heavenly Purity is a double-eaved building, and set on a single-level white marble platform. It is connected to the Gate of Heavenly Purity to its south by a raised walkway. In the Ming dynasty, it was the residence of the Emperor. However, beginning from the Yongzheng Emperor of the Qing dynasty, the Emperor lived instead at the smaller Hall of Mental Cultivation (N) to the west, out of respect to the memory of the Kangxi Emperor. The Palace of Heavenly Purity then became the Emperor’s audience hall. A caisson is set into the roof, featuring a coiled dragon. Above the throne hangs a tablet reading “Justice and Honour” (Chinese: 正大光明; pinyin: zhèngdàguāngmíng).

The Palace of Earthly Tranquility (坤寧宮) is a double-eaved building, 9 bays wide and 3 bays deep. In the Ming dynasty, it was the residence of the Empress. In the Qing dynasty, large portions of the Palace were converted for Shamanist worship by the new Manchu rulers. From the reign of the Yongzheng Emperor, the Empress moved out of the Palace. However, two rooms in the Palace of Earthly Harmony were retained for use on the Emperor’s wedding night.

Between these two palaces is the Hall of Union, which is square in shape with a pyramidal roof. Stored here are the 25 Imperial Seals of the Qing dynasty, as well as other ceremonial items.

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The Nine Dragons Screen in front of the Palace of Tranquil Longevity

Behind these three halls lies the Imperial Garden (M). Relatively small, and compact in design, the garden nevertheless contains several elaborate landscaping features. To the north of the garden is the Gate of Divine Might.

Directly to the west is the Hall of Mental Cultivation (N). Originally a minor palace, this became the de facto residence and office of the Emperor starting from Yongzheng. In the last decades of the Qing dynasty, empresses dowager, including Cixi, held court from the eastern partition of the hall. Located around the Hall of Mental Cultivation are the offices of the Grand Council and other key government bodies.

The north-eastern section of the Inner Court is taken up by the Palace of Tranquil Longevity (寧壽宮) (O), a complex built by the Qianlong Emperor in anticipation of his retirement. It mirrors the set-up of the Forbidden City proper and features an “outer court”, an “inner court”, and gardens and temples. The entrance to the Palace of Tranquil Longevity is marked by a glazed-tile Nine Dragons Screen. This section of the Forbidden City is being restored in a partnership between the Palace Museum and the World Monuments Fund, a long-term project expected to finish in 2017.

Religion

Religion was an important part of life for the imperial court. In the Qing dynasty, the Palace of Earthly Harmony became a place of Manchu Shamanist ceremony. At the same time, the native Chinese Taoist religion continued to have an important role throughout the Ming and Qing dynasties. There were two Taoist shrines, one in the imperial garden and another in the central area of the Inner Court.

Another prevalent form of religion in the Qing dynasty palace was Buddhism. A number of temples and shrines were scattered throughout the Inner Court, including that of Tibetan Buddhism or Lamaism. Buddhist iconography also proliferated in the interior decorations of many buildings. Of these, the Pavilion of the Rain of Flowers is one of the most important. It housed a large number of Buddhist statues, icons, and mandalas, placed in ritualistic arrangements.

Surroundings

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Location of the Forbidden City in the historic centre of Beijing

The Forbidden City is surrounded on three sides by imperial gardens. To the north is Jingshan Park, also known as Prospect Hill, an artificial hill created from the soil excavated to build the moat and from nearby lakes.

To the west lies Zhongnanhai, a former royal garden centred on two connected lakes, which now serves as the central headquarters for the Communist Party of China and the State Council of the People’s Republic of China. To the north-west lies Beihai Park, also centred on a lake connected to the southern two, and a popular royal park.

To the south of the Forbidden City were two important shrines – the Imperial Shrine of Family or the Imperial Ancestral Temple (Chinese: 太廟; pinyin: Tàimiào) and the Imperial Shrine of State or Beijing Shejitan (Chinese: 社稷壇; pinyin: Shèjìtán), where the Emperor would venerate the spirits of his ancestors and the spirit of the nation, respectively. Today, these are the Beijing Labouring People’s Cultural Hall and Zhongshan Park (commemorating Sun Yat-sen) respectively.

To the south, two nearly identical gatehouses stand along the main axis. They are the Upright Gate (Chinese: 端门; pinyin: Duānmén) and the more famous Tiananmen Gate, which is decorated with a portrait of Mao Zedong in the centre and two placards to the left and right: “Long Live the People’s Republic of China” and “Long live the Great Unity of the World’s Peoples”. The Tiananmen Gate connects the Forbidden City precinct with the modern, symbolic centre of the Chinese state, Tiananmen Square.

While development is now tightly controlled in the vicinity of the Forbidden City, throughout the past century uncontrolled and sometimes politically motivated demolition and reconstruction has changed the character of the areas surrounding the Forbidden City. Since 2000, the Beijing municipal government has worked to evict governmental and military institutions occupying some historical buildings, and has established a park around the remaining parts of the Imperial City wall. In 2004, an ordinance relating to building height and planning restriction was renewed to establish the Imperial City area and the northern city area as a buffer zone for the Forbidden City. In 2005, the Imperial City and Beihai (as an extension item to the Summer Palace) were included in the shortlist for the next World Heritage Site in Beijing.

Symbolism

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Imperial roof decoration of the highest status on the roof ridge of the Hall of Supreme Harmony

The design of the Forbidden City, from its overall layout to the smallest detail, was meticulously planned to reflect philosophical and religious principles, and above all to symbolise the majesty of Imperial power. Some noted examples of symbolic designs include:

  • Yellow is the color of the Emperor. Thus almost all roofs in the Forbidden City bear yellow glazed tiles. There are only two exceptions. The library at the Pavilion of Literary Profundity (文渊阁) had black tiles because black was associated with water, and thus fire-prevention. Similarly, the Crown Prince’s residences have green tiles because green was associated with wood, and thus growth.
  • The main halls of the Outer and Inner courts are all arranged in groups of three – the shape of the Qian triagram, representing Heaven. The residences of the Inner Court on the other hand are arranged in groups of six – the shape of the Kun triagram, representing the Earth.
  • The sloping ridges of building roofs are decorated with a line of statuettes led by a man riding a phoenix and followed by an imperial dragon. The number of statuettes represents the status of the building – a minor building might have 3 or 5.
  • The Hall of Supreme Harmony has 10, the only building in the country to be permitted this in Imperial times. As a result, its 10th statuette, called a “Hangshi”, or “ranked tenth” (Chinese: 行十; pinyin: Hángshí), is also unique in the Forbidden City.
    The layout of buildings follows ancient customs laid down in the Classic of Rites. Thus, ancestral temples are in front of the palace. Storage areas are placed in the front part of the palace complex, and residences in the back.

Collections


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Palace Museum exhibits on display in the corridor connecting the Hall of Literary Glory and the Hall of Main Respect

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Two Qing dynasty “blue porcelain” wares

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A blue and white porcelain vase with cloud and dragon designs, marked with the word “Longevity” (寿), Jiajing period of Ming dynasty

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Bathing Horses (section) by Zhao Mengfu (1254–1322)

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Equestrian painting of the Qianlong Emperor (r. 1735–1796) by Giuseppe Castiglione

The collections of the Palace Museum are based on the Qing imperial collection. According to the results of a 1925 audit, some 1.17 million pieces of art were stored in the Forbidden City. In addition, the imperial libraries housed a large collection of rare books and historical documents, including government documents of the Ming and Qing dynasties.

From 1933, the threat of Japanese invasion forced the evacuation of the most important parts of the Museum’s collection. After the end of World War II, this collection was returned to Nanjing. However, with the Communists’ victory imminent in the Chinese Civil War, the Nationalist government decided to ship the pick of this collection to Taiwan. Of the 13,491 boxes of evacuated artefacts, 2,972 boxes are now housed in the National Palace Museum in Taipei. More than 8,000 boxes were returned to Beijing, but 2,221 boxes remain today in storage under the charge of the Nanjing Museum.

After 1949, the Museum conducted a new audit as well as a thorough search of the Forbidden City, uncovering a number of important items. In addition, the government moved items from other museums around the country to replenish the Palace Museum’s collection. It also purchased and received donations from the public.

Today, there are over a million rare and valuable works of art in the permanent collection of the Palace Museum, including paintings, ceramics, seals, steles, sculptures, inscribed wares, bronze wares, enamel objects, etc. A new inventory of the Museum’s collections was conducted between 2004 and 2010. Subsequently, the Palace Museum was shown to hold a total of 1,807,558 artefacts and includes 1,684,490 items designated as nationally protected “valuable cultural relics.” At the end of 2016, the Palace Museum held a press conference, announcing that 55,132 previously unlisted items had been discovered in an inventory check carried out from 2014 to 2016. The total number of items in the Palace Museum collection is presently at 1,862,690 objects.

Ceramics

The Palace Museum holds 340,000 pieces of ceramics and porcelain. These include imperial collections from the Tang dynasty and the Song dynasty, as well as pieces commissioned by the Palace, and, sometimes, by the Emperor personally. The Palace Museum holds about 320,000 pieces of porcelain from the imperial collection. The rest are almost all held in the National Palace Museum in Taipei and the Nanjing Museum.

Painting

The Palace Museum holds close to 50,000 paintings. Of these, more than 400 date from before the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368). This is the largest such collection in China. The collection is based on the palace collection in the Ming and Qing dynasties. The personal interest of Emperors such as Qianlong meant that the palace held one of the most important collections of paintings in Chinese history. However, a significant portion of this collection was lost over the years. After his abdication, Puyi transferred paintings out of the palace, and many of these were subsequently lost or destroyed. In 1948, many of the works were moved to Taiwan. The collection has subsequently been replenished, through donations, purchases, and transfers from other museums.

Bronzeware

The Palace Museum’s bronze collection dates from the early Shang dynasty. Of the almost 10,000 pieces held, about 1,600 are inscribed items from the pre-Qin period (to 221 BC). A significant part of the collection is ceremonial bronzeware from the imperial court.

Timepieces

The Palace Museum has one of the largest collections of mechanical timepieces of the 18th and 19th centuries in the world, with more than 1,000 pieces. The collection contains both Chinese- and foreign-made pieces. Chinese pieces came from the palace’s own workshops, Guangzhou (Canton) and Suzhou (Suchow). Foreign pieces came from countries including Britain, France, Switzerland, the United States and Japan. Of these, the largest portion come from Britain.

Jade

Jade has a unique place in Chinese culture. The Museum’s collection, mostly derived from the imperial collection, includes some 30,000 pieces. The pre-Yuan dynasty part of the collection includes several pieces famed throughout history, as well as artefacts from more recent archaeological discoveries. The earliest pieces date from the Neolithic period. Ming dynasty and Qing dynasty pieces, on the other hand, include both items for palace use, as well as tribute items from around the Empire and beyond.

Palace Artefacts

In addition to works of art, a large proportion of the Museum’s collection consists of the artefacts of the imperial court. This includes items used by the imperial family and the palace in daily life, as well as various ceremonial and bureaucratic items important to government administration. This comprehensive collection preserves the daily life and ceremonial protocols of the imperial era.

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In the East Glorious Gate

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In the West Wing of the Meridian Gate

Influence


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A gilded lion in front of the Palace of Tranquil Longevity

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Glazed building decoration

The Forbidden City, the culmination of the two-thousand-year development of classical Chinese and East Asian architecture, has been influential in the subsequent development of Chinese architecture, as well as providing inspiration for many artistic works. Some specific examples include:

Depiction in art, film, literature and popular culture

The Forbidden City has served as the scene to many works of fiction. In recent years, it has been depicted in films and television series. Some notable examples include:

  • The Forbidden City (1918), a fiction film about a Chinese emperor and an American.
    The Last Emperor (1987), a biographical film about Puyi, was the first feature film ever authorised by the government of the People’s Republic of China to be filmed in the Forbidden City.
  • Forbidden City Cop (1996) a Hong Kong wuxia comedy film about an imperial secret agent
  • Marco Polo a joint NBC and RAI TV miniseries broadcast in the early 1980s, was filmed inside the Forbidden City. Note, however, that the present Forbidden City did not exist in the Yuan dynasty, when Marco Polo met Kublai Khan.
  • The 2003 real-time strategy game Rise of Nations depicts the Forbidden City as one of the great wonders of the world; in terms of game mechanics, it functions identically to a major city and provides additional resources to the player.

Live Performance concert venue

The Forbidden City has also served as a performance venue. However, its use for this purpose is strictly limited, due to the heavy impact of equipment and performance on the ancient structures. Almost all performances said to be “in the Forbidden City” are held outside the palace walls.

  • In 1997, Greek-born composer and keyboardist Yanni performed a live concert in front of the Forbidden City the first modern Western artist to perform at the historic Chinese site. The concert was recorded and later released as part of the Tribute album.
  • Giacomo Puccini’s opera, Turandot, the story of a Chinese princess, was performed at the Imperial Shrine just outside the Forbidden City for the first time in 1998.
  • In 2001, the Three Tenors, Plácido Domingo and José Carreras and Luciano Pavarotti, sang in front of Forbidden City main gate as one of their performances.
  • In 2004, the French musician Jean Michel Jarre performed a live concert in front of the Forbidden City, accompanied by 260 musicians, as part of the “Year of France in China” festivities.

Great Wall of China

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-to-west line across the historical northern borders of China to protect the Chinese states and empires against the raids and invasions of the various nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe. Several walls were being built as early as the 7th century BC; these, later joined together and made bigger and stronger, are collectively referred to as the Great Wall. Especially famous is the wall built in 220–206 BC by Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China. Little of that wall remains. The Great Wall has been rebuilt, maintained, and enhanced over various dynasties; the majority of the existing wall is from the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644).

Opera Snapshot_2017-12-11_205453_www.google.com

Apart from defense, other purposes of the Great Wall have included border controls, allowing the imposition of duties on goods transported along the Silk Road, regulation or encouragement of trade and the control of immigration and emigration. Furthermore, the defensive characteristics of the Great Wall were enhanced by the construction of watch towers, troop barracks, garrison stations, signaling capabilities through the means of smoke or fire, and the fact that the path of the Great Wall also served as a transportation corridor.

The Great Wall stretches from Dandong in the east to Lop Lake in the west, along an arc that roughly delineates the southern edge of Inner Mongolia. A comprehensive archaeological survey, using advanced technologies, has concluded that the Ming walls measure 8,850 km (5,500 mi). This is made up of 6,259 km (3,889 mi) sections of actual wall, 359 km (223 mi) of trenches and 2,232 km (1,387 mi) of natural defensive barriers such as hills and rivers. Another archaeological survey found that the entire wall with all of its branches measure out to be 21,196 km (13,171 mi). Today, the Great Wall is generally recognized as one of the most impressive architectural feats in history.

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Opera Snapshot_2017-12-11_194528_en.wikipedia.org

Contents
1 Names
2 History
2.1 Early walls
2.2 Ming era
2.3 Foreign accounts
3 Course
4 Characteristics
5 Condition
6 Visibility from space
6.1 From the Moon
6.2 From low Earth orbit
7 Gallery

Names


The collection of fortifications known as the Great Wall of China has historically had a number of different names in both Chinese and English.

In Chinese histories, the term “Long Wall(s)” (長城, changcheng) appears in Sima Qian’s Records of the Grand Historian, where it referred to both the separate great walls built between and north of the Warring States and to the more unified construction of the First Emperor. The Chinese character 城 is a phono-semantic compound of the “place” or “earth” radical 土 and 成, whose Old Chinese pronunciation has been reconstructed as *deŋ. It originally referred to the rampart which surrounded traditional Chinese cities and was used by extension for these walls around their respective states; today, however, it is much more often the Chinese word for “city”.

The longer Chinese name “Ten-Thousand Mile Long Wall” (萬里長城, Wanli Changcheng) came from Sima Qian’s description of it in the Records, though he did not name the walls as such. The ad 493 Book of Song quotes the frontier general Tan Daoji referring to “the long wall of 10,000 miles”, closer to the modern name, but the name rarely features in pre-modern times otherwise. The traditional Chinese mile (里, lǐ) was an often irregular distance that was intended to show the length of a standard village and varied with terrain but was usually standardized at distances around a third of an English mile (540 m). Since China’s metrication in 1930, it has been exactly equivalent to 500 metres or 1,600 feet, which would make the wall’s name describe a distance of 5,000 km (3,100 mi). However, this use of “ten-thousand” (wàn) is figurative in a similar manner to the Greek and English myriad and simply means “innumerable” or “immeasurable”.

Because of the wall’s association with the First Emperor’s supposed tyranny, the Chinese dynasties after Qin usually avoided referring to their own additions to the wall by the name “Long Wall”. Instead, various terms were used in medieval records, including “frontier(s)” (塞, sāi), “rampart(s)” (垣, yuán), “barrier(s)” (障, zhàng), “the outer fortresses” (外堡, wàibǎo), and “the border wall(s)” (t 邊牆, s 边墙, biānqiáng). Poetic and informal names for the wall included “the Purple Frontier” (紫塞, Zǐsāi) and “the Earth Dragon” (t 土龍, s 土龙, Tǔlóng). Only during the Qing period did “Long Wall” become the catch-all term to refer to the many border walls regardless of their location or dynastic origin, equivalent to the English “Great Wall”.

The current English name evolved from accounts of “the Chinese wall” from early modern European travelers. By the 19th century, “The Great Wall of China” had become standard in English, French, and German, although other European languages continued to refer to it as “the Chinese wall”.

History


Early walls

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The Great Wall of the Qin

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The Great Wall of the Han

The Chinese were already familiar with the techniques of wall-building by the time of the Spring and Autumn period between the 8th and 5th centuries BC. During this time and the subsequent Warring States period, the states of Qin, Wei, Zhao, Qi, Yan, and Zhongshan all constructed extensive fortifications to defend their own borders. Built to withstand the attack of small arms such as swords and spears, these walls were made mostly by stamping earth and gravel between board frames.

King Zheng of Qin conquered the last of his opponents and unified China as the First Emperor of the Qin dynasty (“Qin Shi Huang”) in 221 BC. Intending to impose centralized rule and prevent the resurgence of feudal lords, he ordered the destruction of the sections of the walls that divided his empire among the former states. To position the empire against the Xiongnu people from the north, however, he ordered the building of new walls to connect the remaining fortifications along the empire’s northern frontier. Transporting the large quantity of materials required for construction was difficult, so builders always tried to use local resources. Stones from the mountains were used over mountain ranges, while rammed earth was used for construction in the plains. There are no surviving historical records indicating the exact length and course of the Qin walls. Most of the ancient walls have eroded away over the centuries, and very few sections remain today. The human cost of the construction is unknown, but it has been estimated by some authors that hundreds of thousands, if not up to a million, workers died building the Qin wall. Later, the Han, the Sui, and the Northern dynasties all repaired, rebuilt, or expanded sections of the Great Wall at great cost to defend themselves against northern invaders. The Tang and Song dynasties did not undertake any significant effort in the region. The Liao, Jin, and Yuan dynasties, who ruled Northern China throughout most of the 10th–13th centuries, constructed defensive walls in the 12th century but those were located much to the north of the Great Wall as we know it, within China’s province of Inner Mongolia and in Mongolia itself.

Ming Era

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The extent of the Ming Empire and its walls

The Great Wall concept was revived again under the Ming in the 14th century, and following the Ming army’s defeat by the Oirats in the Battle of Tumu. The Ming had failed to gain a clear upper hand over the Mongolian tribes after successive battles, and the long-drawn conflict was taking a toll on the empire. The Ming adopted a new strategy to keep the nomadic tribes out by constructing walls along the northern border of China. Acknowledging the Mongol control established in the Ordos Desert, the wall followed the desert’s southern edge instead of incorporating the bend of the Yellow River.

Unlike the earlier fortifications, the Ming construction was stronger and more elaborate due to the use of bricks and stone instead of rammed earth. Up to 25,000 watchtowers are estimated to have been constructed on the wall. As Mongol raids continued periodically over the years, the Ming devoted considerable resources to repair and reinforce the walls. Sections near the Ming capital of Beijing were especially strong. Qi Jiguang between 1567 and 1570 also repaired and reinforced the wall, faced sections of the ram-earth wall with bricks and constructed 1,200 watchtowers from Shanhaiguan Pass to Changping to warn of approaching Mongol raiders. During the 1440s–1460s, the Ming also built a so-called “Liaodong Wall”. Similar in function to the Great Wall (whose extension, in a sense, it was), but more basic in construction, the Liaodong Wall enclosed the agricultural heartland of the Liaodong province, protecting it against potential incursions by Jurched-Mongol Oriyanghan from the northwest and the Jianzhou Jurchens from the north. While stones and tiles were used in some parts of the Liaodong Wall, most of it was in fact simply an earth dike with moats on both sides.

Towards the end of the Ming, the Great Wall helped defend the empire against the Manchu invasions that began around 1600. Even after the loss of all of Liaodong, the Ming army held the heavily fortified Shanhai Pass, preventing the Manchus from conquering the Chinese heartland. The Manchus were finally able to cross the Great Wall in 1644, after Beijing had already fallen to Li Zicheng’s rebels. Before this time, the Manchus had crossed the Great Wall multiple times to raid, but this time it was for conquest. The gates at Shanhai Pass were opened on May 25 by the commanding Ming general, Wu Sangui, who formed an alliance with the Manchus, hoping to use the Manchus to expel the rebels from Beijing. The Manchus quickly seized Beijing, and eventually defeated both the rebel-founded Shun dynasty and the remaining Ming resistance, establishing the Qing dynasty rule over all of China.

Under Qing rule, China’s borders extended beyond the walls and Mongolia was annexed into the empire, so constructions on the Great Wall were discontinued. On the other hand, the so-called Willow Palisade, following a line similar to that of the Ming Liaodong Wall, was constructed by the Qing rulers in Manchuria. Its purpose, however, was not defense but rather migration control.

Foreign accounts

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Part of the Great Wall of China (April 1853, X, p. 41)

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The Great Wall in 1907

None of the Europeans who visited Yuan China or Mongolia, such as Marco Polo, Giovanni da Pian del Carpine, William of Rubruck, Giovanni de’ Marignolli and Odoric of Pordenone, mentioned the Great Wall.

The North African traveler Ibn Battuta, who also visited China during the Yuan dynasty ca. 1346, had heard about China’s Great Wall, possibly before he had arrived in China. He wrote that the wall is “sixty days’ travel” from Zeitun (modern Quanzhou) in his travelogue Gift to Those Who Contemplate the Wonders of Cities and the Marvels of Travelling. He associated it with the legend of the wall mentioned in the Qur’an, which Dhul-Qarnayn (commonly associated with Alexander the Great) was said to have erected to protect people near the land of the rising sun from the savages of Gog and Magog. However, Ibn Battuta could find no one who had either seen it or knew of anyone who had seen it, suggesting that although there were remnants of the wall at that time, they weren’t significant.

Soon after Europeans reached Ming China by ship in the early 16th century, accounts of the Great Wall started to circulate in Europe, even though no European was to see it for another century. Possibly one of the earliest European descriptions of the wall and of its significance for the defense of the country against the “Tartars” (i.e. Mongols), may be the one contained in João de Barros’s 1563 Asia. Other early accounts in Western sources include those of Gaspar da Cruz, Bento de Goes, Matteo Ricci, and Bishop Juan González de Mendoza. In 1559, in his work “A Treatise of China and the Adjoyning Regions,” Gaspar da Cruz offers an early discussion of the Great Wall. Perhaps the first recorded instance of a European actually entering China via the Great Wall came in 1605, when the Portuguese Jesuit brother Bento de Góis reached the northwestern Jiayu Pass from India. Early European accounts were mostly modest and empirical, closely mirroring contemporary Chinese understanding of the Wall, although later they slid into hyperbole, including the erroneous but ubiquitous claim that the Ming Walls were the same ones that were built by the First Emperor in the 3rd century BC.

When China opened its borders to foreign merchants and visitors after its defeat in the First and Second Opium Wars, the Great Wall became a main attraction for tourists. The travelogues of the later 19th century further enhanced the reputation and the mythology of the Great Wall, such that in the 20th century, a persistent misconception exists about the Great Wall of China being visible from the Moon or even Mars.

Course


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The main sections of the Great Wall that are still standing today

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An area of the sections of the Great Wall at Jinshanling

Although a formal definition of what constitutes a “Great Wall” has not been agreed upon, making the full course of the Great Wall difficult to describe in its entirety, the course of the main Great Wall line following Ming constructions can be charted.

The Jiayu Pass, located in Gansu province, is the western terminus of the Ming Great Wall. Although Han fortifications such as Yumen Pass and the Yang Pass exist further west, the extant walls leading to those passes are difficult to trace. From Jiayu Pass the wall travels discontinuously down the Hexi Corridor and into the deserts of Ningxia, where it enters the western edge of the Yellow River loop at Yinchuan. Here the first major walls erected during the Ming dynasty cuts through the Ordos Desert to the eastern edge of the Yellow River loop. There at Piantou Pass (t 偏頭關, s 偏头关, Piāntóuguān) in Xinzhou, Shanxi province, the Great Wall splits in two with the “Outer Great Wall” (t 外長城, s 外长城, Wài Chǎngchéng) extending along the Inner Mongolia border with Shanxi into Hebei province, and the “inner Great Wall” (t 內長城, s 內长城, Nèi Chǎngchéng) running southeast from Piantou Pass for some 400 km (250 mi), passing through important passes like the Pingxing Pass and Yanmen Pass before joining the Outer Great Wall at Sihaiye (四海冶, Sìhǎiyě), in Beijing’s Yanqing County.

The sections of the Great Wall around Beijing municipality are especially famous: they were frequently renovated and are regularly visited by tourists today. The Badaling Great Wall near Zhangjiakou is the most famous stretch of the Wall, for this is the first section to be opened to the public in the People’s Republic of China, as well as the showpiece stretch for foreign dignitaries. South of Badaling is the Juyong Pass; when used by the Chinese to protect their land, this section of the wall had many guards to defend China’s capital Beijing. Made of stone and bricks from the hills, this portion of the Great Wall is 7.8 m (25 ft 7 in) high and 5 m (16 ft 5 in) wide.

One of the most striking sections of the Ming Great Wall is where it climbs extremely steep slopes in Jinshanling. There it runs 11 km (7 mi) long, ranges from 5 to 8 m (16 ft 5 in to 26 ft 3 in) in height, and 6 m (19 ft 8 in) across the bottom, narrowing up to 5 m (16 ft 5 in) across the top. Wangjinglou (t 望京樓, s 望京楼, Wàngjīng Lóu) is one of Jinshanling’s 67 watchtowers, 980 m (3,220 ft) above sea level. Southeast of Jinshanling is the Mutianyu Great Wall which winds along lofty, cragged mountains from the southeast to the northwest for 2.25 km (1.40 mi). It is connected with Juyongguan Pass to the west and Gubeikou to the east. This section was one of the first to be renovated following the turmoil of the Cultural Revolution.

At the edge of the Bohai Gulf is Shanhai Pass, considered the traditional end of the Great Wall and the “First Pass Under Heaven”. The part of the wall inside Shanhai Pass that meets the sea is named the “Old Dragon Head”. 3 km (2 mi) north of Shanhai Pass is Jiaoshan Great Wall (焦山長城), the site of the first mountain of the Great Wall. 15 km (9 mi) northeast from Shanhaiguan is Jiumenkou (t 九門口, s 九门口, Jiǔménkǒu), which is the only portion of the wall that was built as a bridge. Beyond Jiumenkou, an offshoot known as the Liaodong Wall continues through Liaoning province and terminates at the Hushan Great Wall, in the city of Dandong near the North Korean border.

In 2009, 180 km of previously unknown sections of the wall concealed by hills, trenches and rivers were discovered with the help of infrared range finders and GPS devices. In March and April 2015 nine sections with a total length of more than 10 km (6 mi), believed to be part of the Great Wall, were discovered along the border of Ningxia autonomous region and Gansu province.

Characteristics


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The Great Wall at Mutianyu, near Beijing

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Great Wall of China in tourist season

Before the use of bricks, the Great Wall was mainly built from rammed earth, stones, and wood. During the Ming, however, bricks were heavily used in many areas of the wall, as were materials such as tiles, lime, and stone. The size and weight of the bricks made them easier to work with than earth and stone, so construction quickened. Additionally, bricks could bear more weight and endure better than rammed earth. Stone can hold under its own weight better than brick, but is more difficult to use. Consequently, stones cut in rectangular shapes were used for the foundation, inner and outer brims, and gateways of the wall. Battlements line the uppermost portion of the vast majority of the wall, with defensive gaps a little over 30 cm (12 in) tall, and about 23 cm (9.1 in) wide. From the parapets, guards could survey the surrounding land. Communication between the army units along the length of the Great Wall, including the ability to call reinforcements and warn garrisons of enemy movements, was of high importance. Signal towers were built upon hill tops or other high points along the wall for their visibility. Wooden gates could be used as a trap against those going through. Barracks, stables, and armories were built near the wall’s inner surface.

Condition


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A more rural portion of the Great Wall that stretches throughout the mountains, here seen in slight disrepair

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The Great Wall of China at Badaling

While portions north of Beijing and near tourist centers have been preserved and even extensively renovated, in many other locations the Wall is in disrepair. Those parts might serve as a village playground or a source of stones to rebuild houses and roads. Sections of the Wall are also prone to graffiti and vandalism, while inscribed bricks were pilfered and sold on the market for up to 50 renminbi. Parts have been destroyed because the Wall is in the way of construction. A 2012 report by the State Administration of Cultural Heritage states that 22% of the Ming Great Wall has disappeared, while 1,961 km (1,219 mi) of wall have vanished. More than 60 km (37 mi) of the wall in Gansu province may disappear in the next 20 years, due to erosion from sandstorms. In some places, the height of the wall has been reduced from more than 5 m (16 ft 5 in) to less than 2 m (6 ft 7 in). Various square lookout towers that characterize the most famous images of the wall have disappeared. Many western sections of the wall are constructed from mud, rather than brick and stone, and thus are more susceptible to erosion. In 2014 a portion of the wall near the border of Liaoning and Hebei province was repaired with concrete. The work has been much criticized.

Visibility from space


From the Moon

One of the earliest known references to the myth that the Great Wall can be seen from the moon appears in a letter written in 1754 by the English antiquary William Stukeley. Stukeley wrote that, “This mighty wall of four score miles km] in length is only exceeded by the Chinese Wall, which makes a considerable figure upon the terrestrial globe, and may be discerned at the Moon.” The claim was also mentioned by Henry Norman in 1895 where he states “besides its age it enjoys the reputation of being the only work of human hands on the globe visible from the Moon.” The issue of “canals” on Mars was prominent in the late 19th century and may have led to the belief that long, thin objects were visible from space. The claim that the Great Wall is visible from the moon also appears in 1932’s Ripley’s Believe It or Not! strip and in Richard Halliburton’s 1938 book Second Book of Marvels.

The claim the Great Wall is visible from the moon has been debunked many times, but is still ingrained in popular culture. The wall is a maximum 9.1 m (29 ft 10 in) wide, and is about the same color as the soil surrounding it. Based on the optics of resolving power (distance versus the width of the iris: a few millimeters for the human eye, meters for large telescopes) only an object of reasonable contrast to its surroundings which is 110 km (70 mi) or more in diameter (1 arc-minute) would be visible to the unaided eye from the Moon, whose average distance from Earth is 384,393 km (238,851 mi). The apparent width of the Great Wall from the Moon is the same as that of a human hair viewed from 3 km (2 mi) away. To see the wall from the Moon would require spatial resolution 17,000 times better than normal (20/20) vision. Unsurprisingly, no lunar astronaut has ever claimed to have seen the Great Wall from the Moon.

From low Earth orbit

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A satellite image of a section of the Great Wall in northern Shanxi, running diagonally from lower left to upper right and not to be confused with the more prominent river running from upper left to lower right. The region pictured is 12 km × 12 km (7 mi × 7 mi).

A more controversial question is whether the Wall is visible from low Earth orbit (an altitude of as little as 160 km (100 mi)). NASA claims that it is barely visible, and only under nearly perfect conditions; it is no more conspicuous than many other man-made objects. Other authors have argued that due to limitations of the optics of the eye and the spacing of photoreceptors on the retina, it is impossible to see the wall with the naked eye, even from low orbit, and would require visual acuity of 20/3 (7.7 times better than normal).

Astronaut William Pogue thought he had seen it from Skylab but discovered he was actually looking at the Grand Canal of China near Beijing. He spotted the Great Wall with binoculars, but said that “it wasn’t visible to the unaided eye.” U.S. Senator Jake Garn claimed to be able to see the Great Wall with the naked eye from a space shuttle orbit in the early 1980s, but his claim has been disputed by several U.S. astronauts. Veteran U.S. astronaut Gene Cernan has stated: “At Earth orbit of 100 to 200 miles 160 to 320 km] high, the Great Wall of China is, indeed, visible to the naked eye.” Ed Lu, Expedition 7 Science Officer aboard the International Space Station, adds that, “it’s less visible than a lot of other objects. And you have to know where to look.”

In 2001, Neil Armstrong stated about the view from Apollo 11: “I do not believe that, at least with my eyes, there would be any man-made object that I could see. I have not yet found somebody who has told me they’ve seen the Wall of China from Earth orbit. … I’ve asked various people, particularly Shuttle guys, that have been many orbits around China in the daytime, and the ones I’ve talked to didn’t see it.”

In October 2003, Chinese astronaut Yang Liwei stated that he had not been able to see the Great Wall of China. In response, the European Space Agency (ESA) issued a press release reporting that from an orbit between 160 and 320 km (100 and 200 mi), the Great Wall is visible to the naked eye, even though the ISS is in low Earth orbit, not space. In an attempt to further clarify things, the ESA published a picture of a part of the “Great Wall” photographed from low orbit. However, in a press release a week later, they acknowledged that the “Great Wall” in the picture was actually a river.

Leroy Chiao, a Chinese-American astronaut, took a photograph from the International Space Station that shows the wall. It was so indistinct that the photographer was not certain he had actually captured it. Based on the photograph, the China Daily later reported that the Great Wall can be seen from ‘space’ with the naked eye, under favorable viewing conditions, if one knows exactly where to look. However, the resolution of a camera can be much higher than the human visual system, and the optics much better, rendering photographic evidence irrelevant to the issue of whether it is visible to the naked eye.

Gallery


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10 Most Beautiful Mosques (Masjids) in the World

Posted on 26/06/2015 by Syed Arman Hassan Gillani

Mosque (Masjid) is a Holy place for Muslims. It is a place for worship for all the followers of Islam. Mosque is the place where all the Muslims of the community come together and have their prayers. Mosques or Masjids are fine examples of excellent architecture of Islam and Muslims. Beautiful mosques are found all around the globe, with the spread of the Islamic empire throughout the World. Islam has taken its fine culture and arts to those places. Because Islam had reached parts of Europe and Africa, it has left great influences in their cultures, which is clear from the offset.

There are so many beautiful mosques founded in many countries. All these look stunning from the outside and if you are lucky enough to be a Muslim and have visited some of the interior, well then you would know that it is breath-taking!
What better time than to appreciate the beauty of these Islamic architectures than the month of Ramadan? Here’s 10 awe-inspiring, beautiful mosques from various countries around the world that’ll leave you breathless.

These are top ten of the Most Beautiful Mosques.

1. Al Haram Mosque – Macca, Saudi Arabia


Masjid al Haram

The Qur’an said that this was the first house built for humanity to worship Allah. The most famous monument in the world, Al Haram Mosque or “Grand Mosque” is located in the city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia. It is the largest mosque in the world and surrounds one of Islam’s holiest places, the Kaaba. The mosque is also known as the greatest Mosque. Current structure covers an area of 400,800 square meters (99.0 acres), including outdoor and indoor praying spaces and can accommodate up to 4 million people during the period of the Hajj, one of the largest annual worship of the Muslim in the world.

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Al Haram Mosque – Macca, Saudi Arabia-01

2. Al-Masjid an-Nabawi – Medina, Saudi Arabia


Al-Masjid an-Nabawi 1

Al Nabawi Mosque, often called the Prophet’s Mosque, is a mosque built by the Prophet Mohammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) situated in the city of Medina. It is the second holiest site in Islam (the first being the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca). It was the second mosque built in history and is now one of the largest mosques in the world after the al-Haram mosque in Mecca. One of the most important place of this mosque is Green Dome (the center of the mosque), where the tomb of the Prophet Mohammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is located. In 1279 AD, a wooden cupola was built over the tomb which was later rebuilt and renovated multiple times in late 15th century and once in 1817. The dome was first painted green in 1837, and later became known as the Green Dome.

Al-Masjid an-Nabawi 2

Al-Masjid an-Nabawi – Medina, Saudi Arabia

Al-Masjid an-Nabawi – Medina, Saudi Arabia-01

3. Al Aqsa Mosque – Jerusalem, Palestine


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1280px-Israel-2013(2)-Aerial-Jerusalem-Temple_Mount-Temple_Mount_(south_exposure)

Al-Aqsa Mosque also known as Al-Aqsa and Bayt al-Muqaddas, is the third holiest site in Islam and an Islamic shrine located in the Old City of Jerusalem. In the mosque itself is part of Al-Haram ash-Sharif or “Sacred Noble Sanctuary” (together with the Dome of the Rock), a site which is also known as Temple Mount as the holiest site in Judaism, because it is believed to be The Temple of Jerusalem once stood. Muslims believe that the Prophet Mohammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was transported from the Sacred Mosque in Mecca to the Al-Aqsa Mosque during the Night Journey. Islamic tradition states that Prophet Mohammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) led prayers toward this mosque until the seventeenth month after the emigration, when Allah ordered him to turn to the Kaaba.

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Al Aqsa Mosque – Jerusalem, Palestine-01

4. Hassan II Mosque – Morocco


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The Grande Mosquée Hassan II, located in Casablanca, Morocco. It is the largest mosque in the country and the 7th largest in the world. Its minaret is the world’s tallest at 210 metres (689 ft). It was completed in 1993. The minaret is 60 stories high topped by a laser, the light from which is directed towards Mecca. The mosque stands on a promontory looking out to the Atlantic Ocean, the sea bed being visible through the glass floor of the building’s hall. The walls are of hand-crafted marble and the roof is retractable. A maximum of 105,000 worshippers can gather together for prayer: 25,000 inside the mosque hall and another 80,000 on the mosque’s outside grounds.

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Hassan II Mosque – Morocco-01

5. Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Mosque – Brunei


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Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien Mosque is a royal Islamic mosque located in Bandar Seri Begawan, the capital of the Sultanate of Brunei. The mosque considered one of the most beautiful mosques in the Asia Pacific and a major landmark and tourist attraction of Brunei. The building was completed in 1958 and is an example of modern Islamic architecture. The mosque is built in an artificial lagoon on the banks of the Brunei River at Kampong Ayer, the “village in the water”. It has marble minarets and golden domes with courtyards and lush gardens full of fountains. The mosque is surrounded by a large number of trees and floral gardens which in Islam symbolizes heaven. The mosque unites Mughal architecture and Italian styles.

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Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Mosque – Brunei-01

6. Zahir Mosque – Kedah, Malaysia


Zahir Mosque 2

The Zahir Mosque is Kedah’s state mosque. It is located in the heart of Alor Star, the state capital of Kedah, Malaysia. It is one of the grandest and oldest mosques in Malaysia. The mosque was built in 1912, funded by Tunku Mahmud, son of the Sultan Tajuddin Mukarram Shah. The architecture from the mosque inspired by AZIZI Mosque in the city of Langkat in north Sumatra, Indonesia.The mosque was founded with five large domes symbolizing the five main principles of Islam. The state’s Quran reading competition is held annually within the premises of the mosque. This mosque has been voted the top 10 most beautiful mosques in the world.

Zahir Mosque 1

Zahir Mosque – Kedah, Malaysia-01

7. Faisal Mosque Islamabad – Pakistan


Faisal Mosque Islamabad 2

Faisal Mosque in Islamabad is the biggest mosque in south east and southern Asia and the fourth largest mosque in the world. It was the largest mosque in the world of 1986-1993 before defeated measure by the completion of the Mosque of Hassan II in Casablanca, Morocco and after the expansion of Masjid Al-Haram (Grand Mosque) of Mecca and the Al-Masjid Al-Nabawi (Prophet’s (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) Mosque) in Medina, Saudi Arabia in the 1990s.

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Faisal Mosque Islamabad 6

Faisal Mosque Islamabad – Pakistan-01

8. Taj ul Mosque – Bhopal, India


Taj ul Mosque 1

Taj-ul-Masajid literally means “The Crown of Mosques” situated in Bhopal, India. The mosque is also used as a Islamic school during the day time. It is one of the largest mosque in asia. The mosque has a pink facade topped by two 18-storey high octagonal minarets with marble domes. The mosque also has three huge bulbous domes, an impressive main hallway with attractive pillars and marble flooring resembling Mughal architecture the likes of Jama Masjid in Delhi and the huge Badshahi Mosque of Lahore. It has a courtyard with a large tank in the centre. It has a double-storeyed gateway with four recessed archways and nine cusped multifold openings in the main prayer hall.

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Taj ul Mosque – Bhopal, India-01

9. Badshahi Mosque of Lahore – Pakistan


Badshahi Mosque of Lahore 1

The Badshahi Mosque or the ‘Royal Mosque’ in Lahore, commissioned by the sixth Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in 1671 and completed in 1673, is the second largest mosque in Pakistan and South Asia and the fifth largest mosque in the world. Epitomising the beauty, passion and grandeur of the Mughal era, it is Lahore’s most famous landmark and a major tourist attraction. Capable of accommodating 55,000 worshippers in its main prayer hall and a further 95,000 in its courtyard and porticoes, it remained the largest mosque in the world from 1673 to 1986 (a period of 313 years).

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Badshahi Mosque of Lahore 4

Badshahi Mosque of Lahore – Pakistan-01

10. Sultan Mosque, Singapore


Sultan Mosque 3

Sultan Mosque, located at Muscat Street and North Bridge Road in Kampong Glam Rochor District in Singapore is still considered one of the most important mosque in Singapore. Sultan mosque has stayed essentially unchanged since it was built, only with improvements made to the main hall in 1960 and annex added in 1993. It set as a national monument on March 14th 1975.

Sultan Mosque 2

Sultan Mosque 1

Sultan Mosque, Singapore-01

Daftar Candi di Indonesia


Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

Ini adalah versi yang telah diperiksa dari halaman initampilkan/sembunyikan detail

Candi_Indonesia_id.svg

Sebaran candi Hindu dan Buddha di Indonesia, kebanyakan candi terdapat di Jawa Tengah dan Jawa Timur

Berikut adalah daftar (tidak lengkap) candi-candi di Indonesia. Sebagian terbesar dibangun pada periode klasik Hindu-Buddha dalam sejarah nasional Indonesia. Ada beberapa dari periode klasik Islam.

Daftar isi

1 Banten
1.1 1. Kabupaten Pandeglang
1.2 2. Kota Serang
2 Jawa Barat
2.1 1. Kabupaten Garut
2.2 2. Kabupaten Karawang
2.3 3. Kota Tasikmalaya
2.4 4. Kabupaten Bandung
2.5 5. Kabupaten Ciamis
2.6 6. Kota Banjar
3 Jawa Tengah
3.1 1. Kabupaten Magelang
3.2 2. Kabupaten Klaten
3.3 3. Kabupaten Karanganyar
3.4 4. Kabupaten Semarang
3.5 5. Kabupaten Banjarnegara
3.6 6. Kabupaten Wonosobo
3.7 7. Kabupaten Temanggung
3.8 8. Kota Salatiga
3.9 9. Kabupaten Tegal
3.10 10. Kabupaten Boyolali
3.11 11. Kabupaten Pati
3.12 12. Kabupaten Blora
4 Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta
4.1 1. Kabupaten Sleman
4.2 2. Kabupaten Bantul
4.3 3. Kabupaten Kulon Progo
4.4 4. Kabupaten Gunung Kidul
5 Jawa Timur
5.1 1. Kabupaten Malang
5.2 2. Kota Malang
5.3 3. Kota Batu
5.4 4. Kabupaten Kediri
5.5 5. Kota Kediri
5.6 6. Kabupaten Nganjuk
5.7 7. Kabupaten Jombang
5.8 8. Kabupaten Pasuruan
5.9 9. Kabupaten Mojokerto
5.10 10. Kota Surabaya
5.11 11. Kabupaten Blitar
5.12 12. Kabupaten Probolinggo
5.13 13. Kabupaten Tulungagung
5.14 14. Kabupaten Trenggalek
5.15 15. Kabupaten Magetan
5.16 16. Kabupaten Sidoarjo
5.17 17. Kabupaten Lumajang
5.18 18. Kabupaten Pamekasan
5.19 19. Kabupaten Jember
5.20 20. Kabupaten Ponorogo
5.21 21. Kabupaten Bojonegoro
5.22 22. Kabupaten Gresik
5.23 23. Kabupaten Madiun
5.24 24. Kabupaten Ngawi
6 Bali
6.1 1. Kabupaten Gianyar
6.2 2. Kabupaten Buleleng
7 Sumatera Utara
7.1 1. Kabupaten Padang Lawas Utara
7.2 2. Kabupaten Mandailing Natal
7.3 3. Kabupaten Padang Lawas
8 Sumatera Selatan
8.1 1.Kota Palembang
8.2 2.Kabupaten Musi Rawas
8.3 3.Kabupaten Muara Enim
8.4 4. Kota Pagar Alam
8.5 5.Kabupaten Ogan Komering Ulu Selatan
9 Sumatera Barat
9.1 1.Kabupaten Dharmasraya
9.2 2.Kabupaten Pasaman
10 Jambi
10.1 1.Kabupaten Muaro Jambi
10.2 2.Kabupaten Tanjung Jabung Timur
11 Riau
12 Bangka Belitung
13 Kalimantan Selatan
13.1 1.Kabupaten Hulu Sungai Utara
13.2 2.Kabupaten Tapin
13.3 3.Kabupaten Kotabaru
14 Kalimantan Barat
15 Kalimantan Timur
15.1 1.Kabupaten Kutai Kartanegara
15.2 2.Kabupaten Kutai Timur

Banten


  1. Kabupaten Pandeglang 
    • Situs Gunung Pulosari, Desa Cipanas 
  2. Kota Serang 
    • Situs Banten Girang, Desa Sempu

Jawa Barat


  1. Kabupaten Garut
    • Candi Cangkuang (Kampung Pulo, Desa Cangkuang, Kecamatan Leles), (lokasi)
  2. Kabupaten Karawang
    • Kompleks Situs Batujaya (Desa Telagajaya, Kecamatan Pakisjaya) (lokasi)
    • Candi Jiwa
    • Candi Blandongan
    • Kompleks Situs Cibuaya (Desa Cibuaya, Kecamatan Cibuaya)
  3. Kota Tasikmalaya
    • Situs Lingga Yoni (Blok Wangkelang Kampung Sindanglengo, Sukamaju Kidul, Kecamatan Indihiang)
  4. Kabupaten Bandung
    • Candi Bojongmenje (Kampung Bojongmenje RT. 03 RW. 02, Desa Cangkuang, Kecamatan Rancaekek), (lokasi)
    • Candi Bojongemas (Desa Bojongemas, Kecamatan Solokanjeruk)
  5. Kabupaten Ciamis
    • Situs Batu Kalde atau Candi Pananjung (Cagar Alam Pananjung, Desa Pangandaran, Kecamatan Panandaran)
    • Situs Karangkamulyan (Desa Karangkamulyan, Kecamatan Cijeungjing)
    • Situs Mangunjaya (Dusun Pasirlaya, Desa Mangunjaya, Kecamatan Mangunjaya)
  6. Kota Banjar
    • Situs Rajegwesi (Desa Mulyasari, Kec. Pataruman)

Jawa Tengah


  1. 1. Kabupaten Magelang
    • Candi Borobudur, Desa Borobudur, Kecamatan Borobudur, (lokasi)
    • Candi Mendut, Desa Mendut, Kecamatan Mungkid, (lokasi)
    • Candi Pawon, Desa Borobudur, Kecamatan Borobudur, (lokasi)
    • Candi Ngawen, Desa Ngawen, Kecamatan Muntilan
    • Candi Asu (Sengi), Dusun Candi Pos, Desa Sengi, Kecamatan Dukun, (lokasi)
    • Candi Lumbung (Sengi), Dusun Tlatar, Desa Krogowanan, Kecamatan Sawangan
    • Candi Pendem, Dusun Candi Pos, Desa Sengi, Kecamatan Dukun
    • Candi Canggal atau Candi Gunung Wukir, Dusun Canggal, Desa Kadiluwih, Kecamatan Salam, (lokasi)
    • Candi Selogriyo, Dusun Campurrejo, Desa Kembangkuning, Kecamatan Windusari, (lokasi)
    • Candi Losari, Dusun Losari, Desa Salam, Kecamatan Salam, (lokasi)
    • Candi Gunungsari, Dusun Gunungsari, Desa Gulon, Kecamatan Salam, (lokasi)
    • Candi Umbul, Desa Kartoharjo, Kecamatan Grabag
  2. Kabupaten Klaten
    • Candi Bubrah, Prambanan (lokasi)
    • Candi Prambanan, Prambanan, Klaten (lokasi)
    • Candi Plaosan (Lor), Prambanan, Klaten (lokasi)
    • Candi Plaosan Kidul, Prambanan, Klaten (lokasi)
    • Candi Sewu, Prambanan, Klaten (lokasi)
    • Candi Lumbung, Prambanan, Klaten, (lokasi)
    • Candi Sojiwan, Prambanan, Klaten (lokasi)
    • Candi Karangnongko, Karangnongko, Klaten, (lokasi sementara)
    • Candi Merak, Karangnongko, Klaten, (lokasi sementara)
    • Situs Kunden, Sumberejo, Klaten Selatan, Klaten
  3. Kabupaten Karanganyar
    • Candi Sukuh, Sukuh, Ngargoyoso, Karanganyar (lokasi)
    • Candi Cetho, Gumeng, Jenawi, Karanganyar (lokasi)
    • Candi Kethek, Gumeng, Jenawi, Karanganyar
    • Situs Planggatan, Planggatan, Ngargoyoso, Karanganyar
    • Situs Menggung, Nglurah, Tawangmangu, Karanganyar
    • Arca Nandi Colomadu, Polsek Colomadu, Colomadu, Karanganyar
  4. Kabupaten Semarang
    • Candi Dukuh, Rowoboni, Banyubiru, Semarang
    • Kompleks Candi Gedong Songo, Candi, Bandungan, Semarang, (lokasi sementara)
    • Candi Klero, Klero, Tengaran, Semarang (Jl. Raya Solo-Semarang km 12)
    • Candi Ngempon, Ngempon, Bergas, Semarang
  5. Kabupaten Banjarnegara
    • Kompleks Candi Dieng, Batur, Banjarnegara
    • Candi Arjuna, (lokasi)
    • Candi Puntadewa
    • Candi Semar
    • Candi Srikandi
    • Candi Sembadra
    • Candi Gatotkaca, (lokasi)
    • Candi Setyaki
    • Candi Bima
    • Candi Dwarawati
  6. Kabupaten Wonosobo
    • Candi Bogang, Bogang, Selomerto, Wonosobo
  7. Kabupaten Temanggung
    • Candi Pringapus, Parakan, Temanggung, (lokasi sementara)
    • Candi Gondosuli, Bulu, Temanggung
    • Candi Liyangan, Liyangan, Purbasari, Ngadirejo
  8. Kota Salatiga
  9. Kabupaten Tegal
    • Candi Bulus, Desa Bulus, Kecamatan Pedagangan
    • Candi Kesuben, Desa Kesuben, Kecamatan Lebaksiu
  10. Kabupaten Boyolali
    • Candi Sari Cepogo, Desa Gedangan, Kecamatan Cepogo
    • Candi Lawang, Desa Gedangan, Kecamatan Cepogo
    • Situs Sumur Pitu, Desa Cabean Kunthi, Kecamatan Cepogo
    • Situs Sumur Songo, Desa Candi Kidul, Kecamatan Cepogo
    • Petirtaan Selodoko, Desa Selodoko, Kecamatan Ampel
  11. Kabupaten Pati
    • Candi Miyono atau Situs Kayen, Dusun Miyono (Mbuloh), Desa Kayen, Kecamatan Kayen
  12. Kabupaten Blora
    • Candi Sentono, Dukuh Nglaren, Desa Sentono, Kecamatan Kradenan

Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta


  1. Kabupaten Sleman
    • Candi Prambanan, Desa Prambanan Kecamatan Prambanan (lokasi)
    • Situs Arca Gupolo, Desa Sambirejo Kecamatan Prambanan (lokasi)
    • Situs Goa Sentono, Desa Jogotirto Kecamatan Berbah (lokasi)
    • Candi Kalasan atau Candi Tara, Desa Titromani Kecamatan Kalasan (lokasi)
    • Candi Banyunibo, Desa Bokoharjo Kecamatan Prambanan (lokasi)
    • Candi Ratu Boko atau Keraton Ratu Boko (lokasi)
    • Candi Sambi Sari, Desa Porwomartini Kecamatan Kalasan (lokasi)
    • Candi Sari, Desa Titromani Kecamatan Kalasan (lokasi)
    • Candi Ijo, Desa Sambirejo Kecamatan Prambanan (lokasi)
    • Candi Barong, Desa Sambirejo Kecamatan Prambanan (lokasi)
    • Candi Kedulan,Desa Titromani Kecamatan Kalasan (lokasi)
    • Candi Gebang , Kecamatan Ngemplak (lokasi)
    • Candi Morangan, Kecamatan Ngemplak (lokasi sementara)
    • Candi Keblak, Desa Bokoharjo Kecamatan Prambanan
    • Candi Abang, Desa Jogotirto Kecamatan Berbah (lokasi sementara)
    • Candi Miri, Desa Nguwot Kecamatan Prambanan (lokasi)
    • Candi Dawangsari, Desa Sambirejo Kecamatan Prambanan (lokasi)
    • Candi Kimpulan , Kaliurang , Besi
    • Candi Klodangan , Desa Sendangtirto, Kecamatan Berbah
    • Candi Palgading, Dusun Palgading, Desa Sinduharjo, Kecamatan Ngaglik (lokasi)
    • Arca Bugisan atau Arca Proliman , Desa Purwomartani, Kecamatan Kalasan
    • Candi Watu Gudhig, Desa Bokoharjo Kecamatan Prambanan (lokasi)
  2. Kabupaten Bantul
    • Kompleks Situs Mantup, Desa Situmulyo Kecamatan Piyungan (lokasi)
    • Candi Gampingan, (lokasi)
    • Situs Payak Bantul, Desa Srimulyo , Kecamatan Piyungan (lokasi)
    • Situs Mangir, Desa Sendangsari , Kecamatan Pajangan
  3. Kabupaten Kulon Progo
    • Candi Pringtali , Desa Kebonharjo , Kecamatan Samigaluh
  4. Kabupaten Gunung Kidul
    • Candi Risan , Desa Candirejo , Kecamatan Semin
    • Situs Gembirowati, Girijati, Panggang, Gunung Kidul

Jawa Timur


  1. Kabupaten Malang
    • Situs Waturejo (Ngantang, Malang)
    • Candi Kagenengan (Wagir,Malang)
    • Candi Jago (Tumpang, Malang), (lokasi)
    • Candi Kidal (Tumpang, Malang), (lokasi)
    • Candi Singosari (Singosari, Malang), (lokasi)
    • Stupa Sumberawan (Singosari, Malang), (lokasi)
    • Candi Selakelir, lereng barat laut Gunung Penanggungan
    • Kompleks Percandian Gunung Arjuna
    • Grup Sepilo
    • Bhatara Guru
    • Candi Madrin
    • Patuk Lesung
    • Candi Kembang
    • Candi Lepek
    • Rhatawu
    • Hyang Semar
    • Watu Ireng
    • Rancang Kencana
    • Candi Wesi
    • Makutarama
    • Sepilo
    • Grup Indrokilo
    • Satria Manggung
    • Indrikilo
    • Candi Laras
    • Gua Gambir
    • Candi Jawar Ombo (Ampel Gading, Malang)
    • Candi Bocok (Pondokagung, Kasembon)
    • Petirtaan Watugede (Watu Gede ,Singosari )
    • Candi Ngabab (Ngabab, Pujon)
    • Candi Gunung Telih (Gunung Rejo , Singosari)
  2. Kota Malang
    • Candi Badut (Malang), (lokasi)
    • Candi KarangBesuki (Karangbesuki ,Sukun)
    • Situs Watugong (Merjosari, Lowokwaru)
  3. Kota Batu
    • Candi Songgoriti/ Candi Sanggariti atau Candi Supo ( Songgokerto , Batu ), (lokasi)
    • Punden Mojorejo atau Situs Kajang (Mojorejo, Junrejo )
  4. Kabupaten Kediri
    • Candi Surawana (Pare, Kediri), (lokasi)
    • Candi Tegowangi (Plemahan, Kediri), (lokasi)
    • Arca Totok Kerot (Pagu, Kediri), (lokasi)
    • Situs Calon Arang Kediri, (lokasi)
    • Komplek Candi Tondowongso (Gayam,Kediri), (lokasi)
    • Candi Dorok (Puncu, Kediri), (lokasi)
    • Arca Ringin Budha ( Tamrin , Pare, Kediri)
    • Situs Semen (Pagu, Kediri)
    • Candi Semen (Pagu, Kediri), Penemuan Candi pada Movember 2013 ini sekarang dihancurkan
    • Situs Babadan ( Babadan , Sumbercangkring , Gurah )
    • Candi Kepung ( Jatimulyo , Kepung ,Kepung )
  5. Kota Kediri
    • Kompleks Pertapaan Goa Selomangleng (Mojoroto,Kediri), (lokasi)
    • Gua Selobale
    • Candi Setono Gedong Candi masa Kadhiri yang terletak di Jl. Dhoho ini pada bulan Oktober 2013 hampir dihancurkan oleh Takmir Masjid.
    • Candi Pandean (Arca Durga)
    • Candi Siti Inggil
    • Candi Joko Dolog
    • Candi Botolengket
    • Candi Burengan
    • Candi Tinalan dan Arca Ganesha
    • Situs Pakelan
    • Situs Dadapan
    • Situs Mbah Lumpang
    • Situs Sumur Bandung
    • Situs Ganesha Gayam
  6. Kabupaten Nganjuk
    • Candi Lor (Loceret, Nganjuk), (lokasi)
    • Candi Ngetos (Ngetos, Nganjuk), (lokasi)
    • Yoni Brebek
    • Situs Pace Kulon
  7. Kabupaten Jombang
    • Candi Rimbi (Bareng, Jombang), (lokasi)
  8. Kabupaten Pasuruan
    • Candi Jawi (Prigen, Pasuruan), (lokasi)
    • Candi Kebo Ireng (Kejapanan, Pasuruan)
    • Candi Gunung Gangsir (Beji, Pasuruan), (lokasi)
    • Kompleks Percandian Gunung Welirang
    • Reco Lanang
    • Reco Wadon
    • Watu Meja
    • Watu Kaca
    • Kompleks Percandian Gunung Ringgit , Gunung Ringgit, Dusun Godean , Desa Dayurejo , Kecamatan Prigen
  9. Kabupaten Mojokerto
    • Candi Bangkal (Ngoro, Mojosari), (lokasi)
    • Kompleks Situs Trowulan (Mojokerto), (lokasi)
    • Candi Tikus, (lokasi)
    • Candi Klinterejo (Sooko, Mojokerto)
    • Candi Menak Jingga, (lokasi)
    • Candi Brahu, (lokasi)
    • Candi Gentong, (lokasi)
    • Gapura Wringin Lawang (tipe candi bentar), (lokasi)
    • Gapura Bajang Ratu (tipe paduraksa), (lokasi)
    • Candi Kedaton (Trowulan, Mojokerto), (lokasi)
    • Kompleks Percandian Gunung Penanggungan (Trawas, Mojokerto)
    • Petirtaan Jalatunda, (lokasi)
    • Candi Kama I
    • Candi Kama II
    • Candi Gajah Mungkur
    • Candi Wayang
    • Candi Kendalisada
    • Candi Pasetran, (lokasi)
    • Gapura Jedong (gapura tipe candi bentar), (lokasi)
    • Petirtaan Watu Tetek
    • Petirtaan Belahan
    • Candi Lemari
    • Candi Bayi
    • Candi Putri
    • Candi Pura
    • Candi Gentong
    • Candi Shinta
    • Candi Lurah
    • Candi Carik
    • Candi Yudha
    • Candi Wisnu
    • Candi Kepurbakalaan XII
    • Candi kepurbakalaan XIII
    • Candi Buyung
    • Candi Kursi
    • Candi Kendalisodo
    • Candi Selakir dan Tekingblandong
    • Candi Naga I
    • Candi Pendawa
    • Candi Merak
    • Candi Naga II
    • Goa Botol
    • Makam Mbah Lipan
    • Candi Griya
    • Candi Dharmawangsa
    • Candi Kerajaan
    • Candi Pelakan Jawa I
    • Candi Pelakan Jawa II
    • Candi Baru
    • Candi tanpa nama I
    • Candi tanpa nama II
    • Candi tanpa nama III
    • Candi tanpa nama IV
    • Candi tanpa nama V
    • Candi tanpa nama VI
    • Candi tanpa nama VII
    • Candi Batu Jolang
    • Goa I
    • Goa II
    • Goa III
    • Goa tanpa nama
    • Batu Tulis
    • Goa Widodaren
    • Candi Batu Terbang
    • Fragmen arca, pipisan dan batu lis di hutan Segawe
  10. Kota Surabaya
    • Arca Joko Dolog ( Taman Aspari , Tegalsari )
  11. Kabupaten Blitar
    • Kompleks Candi Bacem (Kotes, Gandusari)
    • Arca Ganesha Boro (Boro, Tuliskriyo, Sanan Kulon)
    • Candi Kalicilik (Candirejo, Ponggok), (lokasi)
    • Candi Kotes (Gandusari, Blitar), (lokasi)
    • Candi Wringin Branjang (Gandusari, Blitar), (lokasi)
    • Candi Sawentar (Kanigoro, Garum), (lokasi)
    • Candi Sumbernanas (Rejoso, Ponggok), (lokasi)
    • Candi Sumberjati atau Candi Simping (Simping, Suruhwadang), (lokasi)
    • Kompleks Percandian Penataran (Penataran, Nglegok)
    • Bale Agung (Penataran, Nglegok)
    • Pendopo Teras (Penataran, Nglegok)
    • Candi Angka Tahun (Penataran, Nglegok)
    • Candi Naga (Penataran, Nglegok)
    • Candi Induk Penataran (Penataran, Nglegok), (lokasi)
    • Kolam Candi Penataran (Penataran, Nglegok)
    • Candi Pemandian Penataran (Penataran, Nglegok)
    • Candi Gambar Wetan (Candi Sewu, Nglegok)
    • Candi Plumbangan (Plumbangan, Doko), (lokasi)
    • Candi Tepas (Tepas, Kesamben), (lokasi)
    • Candi Selo Tumpuk (Pagerjowo, Kesamben)
    • Candi Sumber Agung (Sumber Agung, Gandusari)
    • Candi Sirah Kencong (Ngadirenggo, Wlingi)
    • Candi Tapan (Bakulan, Bendosewu, Talun)
    • Situs Jeding (Jeding, Sanankulon)
    • Candi Mleri (Mleri, Bagelenan)
    • Candi Rambut Monte (Krisik, Gandusari)
    • Situs Bale Kambang (Modangan, Nglegok)
  12. Kabupaten Probolinggo
    • Candi Kedaton (Tiris, Probolinggo)
    • Candi Jabung (Paiton, Probolinggo), (lokasi)
  13. Kabupaten Tulungagung
    • Candi Gayatri atau Candi Boyolangu (Boyolangu, Tulungagung),((lokasi)
    • Candi Dadi (Boyolangu, Tulungagung)
    • Candi Meja (Boyolangu, Tulungagung)
    • Candi Cungkup atau Candi Sanggrahan (Boyolangu, Tulungagung)
    • Candi Selomangleng atau Goa Pertapaan Selomangleng (Boyolangu, Tulungagung), (lokasi)
    • Candi Penampihan atau Candi Asmoro Bangun (Sendang, Tulungagung)
    • Candi Mirigambar (Sumbergempol, Tulungagung), (lokasi)
    • Candi Ngampel (Kalidawir, Tulungagung)
    • Candi Ngampel (Tanggung, Campurdarat, Tulungagung)
    • Goa Trtitis (Tanggung, Campurdarat, Tulungagung)
    • Goa Pasir (Pasir, Sumbergempol, Tulungagung)
  14. Kabupaten Trenggalek
    • Candi Brongkah atau Candi Jenggolo Manik ( Brongkah, Kedunglurah , Pogalan )
  15. Kabupaten Magetan
    • Candi Sadon atau Candi Reog ( Sadon, Cepoko, Panekan)
    • Candi Dewi Sri ( Simbatan , Kuntoronadi , Magetan)
  16. Kabupaten Sidoarjo
    • Candi Pari (Porong, Sidoarjo) seberang Kolam Lumpur Lapindo, (lokasi)
    • Candi Sumur (Porong, Sidoarjo) seberang Kolam Lumpur Lapindo, (lokasi)
    • Candi Medalem (Tulangan, Sidoarjo)
    • Candi Wangkal (Krembung, Sidoarjo)
    • Candi Pamotan I dan II (Porong, Sidoarjo)
    • Candi Dermo (Wonoayu, Sidoarjo)
    • Candi Tawangalun (Sedati, Sidoarjo)
  17. Kabupaten Lumajang
    • Candi Gedhong Putri atau Candi Puro (Kloposawit, Candipuro)
    • Candi Gelisah atau Candi Agung (Randuagung)
    • Situs Biting (Kutorenon, Sukodono)
    • Candi Kunir ( Kedungmoro, Kunir)
  18. Kabupaten Pamekasan
    • Situs Candi Burung ( Burung , Proppo )
  19. Kabupaten Jember
    • Candi Deres (Gumukmas, Jember)
  20. Kabupaten Ponorogo
    • Situs Altar Raja Dharmawangsa , Dusun Watu Dhukun, Desa Pager Ukir, Kecamatan Sampung, Kabupaten Ponorogo
  21. Kabupaten Bojonegoro
    • Situs Kayangan Api , Desa Sendangharjo, Kecamatan Ngasem
  22. Kabupaten Gresik
    • Candi Kepuh Klagen , Desa Kepuh Klagen, Kecamatan Weringin Anom
  23. Kabupaten Madiun
    • Candi Wonorejo , Jalan Candi , Desa Wonorejo , Kecamatan Mejayan
  24. Kabupaten Ngawi
    • Candi Pendem Ngawi

Bali


  1. Kabupaten Gianyar
    • Candi Gunung Kawi, Gianyar, (lokasi)
    • Situs Goa Gajah, Tampaksiring, Gianyar, (lokasi)
  2. Kabupaten Buleleng
    • Candi Kalibukbuk, Buleleng, Buleleng

Sumatera Utara


  1. Kabupaten Padang Lawas Utara
    • Kompleks Candi Bahal atau Biaro Bahal , Desa Bahal, Kecamatan Padang Bolak
    • Candi Bara , Desa Bara , Kecamatan Padang Bolak
    • Candi Pulo , Desa Bahal Kecamatan Portibi
    • Candi Sitopayan , Kampong Sitopayan, Kecamatan Padang Bolak
    • Biaro Tanjung Bangun , Desa Bangun Purba, Kecamatan Padang Bolak
    • Candi Aek Haruaya , Kampung Haruaya, Kecamatan Padang Bolak
    • Situs Mangaledang , Dusun Tor Na Tambang, Desa Mangaledang Godang, Kecamatan Padang Bolak
    • Situs Naga Saribu , Desa Bangun Purba, Kecamatan Padang Bolak
  2. Kabupaten Mandailing Natal
    • Caṇḍi Simangambat , Desa Simangambat, Kecamatan Siabu
  3. Kabupaten Padang Lawas
    • Candi Sipamutung , Desa Siparau, Kecamatan Barumun Tengah
    • Situs Aek Tunjang , Desa Aek Tunjang, Kecamatan Barumun Tengah
    • Kompleks Candi Tandihat , Desa Tandihat, Kecamatan Barumun Tengah
    • Situs Aek Linta , Desa Padang Galugur Jae, Kecamatan Barumun Tengah
    • Candi Sangkilon , Desa Sangkilon, Kecamatan Barumun

Sumatera Selatan


  1. Kota Palembang
    • Candi Angsoka, Kelurahan 20 Ilir , Kecamatan Ilir Timur I
  2. Kabupaten Musi Rawas
    • Candi Lesung Batu , Lesungbatu, Rawas Ulu
  3. 3.Kabupaten Muara Enim[sunting | sunting sumber]
    • Kompleks Candi Bumi Ayu , Desa Bumi Ayu , Kecamatan Tanah Abang
  4. Kota Pagar Alam
    • Situs Rimba Candi atau Gapura Sriwijaya , Dusun Rimba Candi , Kecamatan Dempo Tengah
  5. Kabupaten Ogan Komering Ulu Selatan
    • Candi Jepara atau Batu Kebayan (batu pengantin), tepi Danau Ranau, Kecamatan Banding Agung

Sumatera Barat


  1. Kabupaten Dharmasraya
    • Kompleks Candi Padang Roco , Jorong Sungai Lansek , Kenagarian Siguntur
    • Candi Pulau Sawah , Jorong Sungai Lansek , Kenagarian Siguntur
    • Candi Pulau Sawah I
    • Candi Pulau Sawah II
    • Candi Bukik Awang Maombiak , Kenagarian Siguntur
  2. Kabupaten Pasaman
    • Candi TanjungMedan , Dusun Tanjungmedan, Kecamatan Panti, Kabupaten Pasaman,
    • Candi Koto Rao , Kecamatan Rao , Kabupaten Pasaman

Jambi


  1. Kabupaten Muaro Jambi
    • Kompleks Candi Muaro Jambi , Desa Muarajambi, Kecamatan Maro Sebo (lokasi)
  2. Kabupaten Tanjung Jabung Timur
    • Kompleks Candi Situs Orang Kayu Hitam , Kelurahan Simpang, Kecamatan Berbak
      Candi Satu

Riau


  1. Candi Muara Takus di Kecamatan XII Koto Rao , Kabupaten Kampar
  2. Candi Muara Guru di Kabupaten Kampar

Bangka Belitung


  1. Candi Kota Kapur Desa Kota Kapur, Kecamatan Mendo, Kabupaten Bangka

Kalimantan Selatan


  1. Kabupaten Hulu Sungai Utara
    • Candi Agung , Amuntai Tengah, Hulu Sungai Utara. Candi Hindu.
  2. Kabupaten Tapin
    1. Candi Laras , Candi Laras Selatan, Tapin. Candi Buddha.
    2. Situs Pematang Bata , Candi Laras Selatan, Tapin
  3. Kabupaten Kotabaru
    • Lasung Batu atau Yoni, Desa Cantung Kiri Hilir, Kelumpang Hulu, Kotabaru

Kalimantan Barat


  1. Candi Tanjungpura, Desa Benua Lama, Benua Kayong, Ketapang
  2. Arca Buddha Sambas

Kalimantan Timur


  1. Kabupaten Kutai Kartanegara 
    • Lesong Batu, Muara Kaman Ulu, Muara Kaman 
    • Arca Buddha Kota Bangun
  2. Kabupaten Kutai Timur
    • Situs Goa Gunung Kombeng , Desa Pantun Kecamatan Muara Wahau

Burj Khalifa

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Burj Khalifa is The Tallest Building in the World

585px-Burj_Khalifa

Opera Snapshot_2017-11-20_233419_en.wikipedia.org

The Burj Khalifa (Arabic: برج خليفة‎, Arabic for “Khalifa Tower“; pronounced English: /ˈbɜːrdʒ kəˈliːfə/), known as the Burj Dubai before its inauguration, is a megatall skyscraper in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. With a total height of 829.8 m (2,722 ft) and a roof height (excluding antenna) of 828 m (2,717 ft), the Burj Khalifa is the tallest structure in the world since topping out in late 2008.

Construction of the Burj Khalifa began in 2004, with the exterior completed five years later in 2009. The primary structure is reinforced concrete. The building was opened in 2010 as part of a new development called Downtown Dubai. It is designed to be the centrepiece of large-scale, mixed-use development. The decision to construct the building is reportedly based on the government’s decision to diversify from an oil-based economy, and for Dubai to gain international recognition. The building was originally named Burj Dubai but was renamed in honour of the ruler of Abu Dhabi and president of the United Arab Emirates, Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan; Abu Dhabi and the UAE government lent Dubai money to pay its debts. The building broke numerous height records, including its designation as the tallest tower in the world.

Burj Khalifa was designed by Adrian Smith, then of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM), whose firm designed the Willis Tower and One World Trade Center. Hyder Consulting was chosen to be the supervising engineer with NORR Group Consultants International Limited chosen to supervise the architecture of the project. The design is derived from the Islamic architecture of the region, such as in the Great Mosque of Samarra. The Y-shaped tripartite floor geometry is designed to optimize residential and hotel space. A buttressed central core and wings are used to support the height of the building. Although this design was derived from Tower Palace III, the Burj Khalifa’s central core houses all vertical transportation with the exception of egress stairs within each of the wings. The structure also features a cladding system which is designed to withstand Dubai’s hot summer temperatures. It contains a total of 57 elevators and 8 escalators.

Critical reception to Burj Khalifa has been generally positive, and the building has received many awards. However, labour issues during construction were controversial, since the building was built primarily by migrant workers from South Asia with several allegations of mistreatment. Poor working conditions were common, a consequence of the lack of minimum wage laws in the United Arab Emirates. Several instances of suicides have been reported, which is not uncommon for migrant construction workers in Dubai despite safety precautions in place.

Contents
1 Development
2 Conception
2.1 Records
2.2 History of height increases
3 Architecture and design
3.1 Plumbing systems
3.2 Air conditioning
3.3 Window cleaning
4 Elevator System
5 Features
5.1 The Dubai Fountain
5.2 Observation deck
5.3 Burj Khalifa park
5.4 Floor plans
6 Construction
6.1 Milestones
6.2 Real estate values
6.3 Official launch ceremony
7 Reception
7.1 Awards
7.2 BASE jumping
7.3 Climbing
7.4 Fatalities
7.5 Ramadan observance on the higher floors
8 In popular culture
9 Fireworks displays
10 Labour controversy

Development


Construction began on 6 January 2004, with the exterior of the structure completed on 1 October 2009. The building officially opened on 4 January 2010, and is part of the new 2 km2 (490-acre) development called Downtown Dubai at the ‘First Interchange’ along Sheikh Zayed Road, near Dubai’s main business district. The tower’s architecture and engineering were performed by Souffian AL-Jabiry of Chicago, with Adrian Smith as chief architect, and Bill Baker as chief structural engineer. The primary contractor was Samsung C&T of South Korea. The tower’s construction was done by the construction division of Al Ghurair Investment group.

Conception


Burj Khalifa was designed to be the centrepiece of a large-scale, mixed-use development that would include 30,000 homes, nine hotels (including The Address Downtown Dubai), 3 hectares (7.4 acres) of parkland, at least 19 residential towers, the Dubai Mall, and the 12-hectare (30-acre) artificial Burj Khalifa Lake. The decision to build Burj Khalifa is reportedly based on the government’s decision to diversify from an oil-based economy to one that is service and tourism based. According to officials, it is necessary for projects like Burj Khalifa to be built in the city to garner more international recognition, and hence investment. “He (Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum) wanted to put Dubai on the map with something really sensational,” said Jacqui Josephson, a tourism and VIP delegations executive at Nakheel Properties. The tower was known as Burj Dubai (“Dubai Tower”) until its official opening in January 2010. It was renamed in honour of the ruler of Abu Dhabi and president of the United Arab Emirates, Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan; Abu Dhabi and the federal government of UAE lent Dubai tens of billions of USD so that Dubai could pay its debts – Dubai borrowed at least $80 billion for construction projects. In the 2000s, Dubai started diversifying its economy but it suffered from an economic crisis in 2007–2010, leaving large-scale projects already in construction abandoned.

Records

  • Tallest existing structure: 828 m (2,717 ft) (previously KVLY-TV mast – 628.8 m or 2,063 ft)
  • Tallest structure ever built: 828 m (2,717 ft) (previously Warsaw radio mast – 646.38 m or 2,121 ft)
  • Tallest freestanding structure: 828 m (2,717 ft) (previously CN Tower – 553.3 m or 1,815 ft)
  • Tallest skyscraper (to top of spire): 828 m (2,717 ft) (previously Taipei 101 – 509.2 m or 1,671 ft)
  • Tallest skyscraper to top of antenna: 828 m (2,717 ft) (previously the Willis (formerly Sears) Tower – 527 m or 1,729 ft)
  • Building with most floors: 211 (including spire) previously World Trade Center – 110
  • Building with world’s highest occupied floor: 584.5 m (1,918 ft) (surpassed by Shanghai Tower in 2015)
  • World’s highest elevator installation (situated inside a rod at the very top of the building)
  • World’s longest travel distance elevators: 504 m (1,654 ft)
  • Highest vertical concrete pumping (for a building): 606 m (1,988 ft)
  • World’s tallest structure that includes residential space
  • World’s highest observation deck: 148th floor at 555 m (1,821 ft) (surpassed by Shanghai Tower in 2015)
  • World’s highest outdoor observation deck: 124th floor at 452 m (1,483 ft)
  • World’s highest installation of an aluminium and glass façade: 512 m (1,680 ft)
  • World’s highest nightclub: 144th floor
  • World’s highest restaurant (At.mosphere): 122nd floor at 442 m (1,450 ft) (previously 360, at a height of 350 m (1,148 ft) in CN Tower)
  • World’s highest New Year display of fireworks.

History of Height Increases

BurjKhalifaHeight

Burj Khalifa compared with some other well-known tall structures

There are unconfirmed reports of several planned height increases since its inception. Originally proposed as a virtual clone of the 560 m (1,837 ft) Grollo Tower proposal for Melbourne, Australia’s Docklands waterfront development, the tower was redesigned by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill (SOM). Marshall Strabala, an SOM architect who worked on the project until 2006, in late 2008 said that Burj Khalifa was designed to be 808 m (2,651 ft) tall.

The architect who designed it, Adrian Smith, felt that the uppermost section of the building did not culminate elegantly with the rest of the structure, so he sought and received approval to increase it to the current height. It has been explicitly stated that this change did not include any added floors, which is fitting with Smith’s attempts to make the crown more slender. Emaar properties announced on 9 June 2008 that construction of Burj Khalifa was delayed by upgraded finishes and would be completed only in September 2009. An Emaar spokesperson said that “[t]he luxury finishes that were decided on in 2004, when the tower was initially conceptualised, is now being replaced by upgraded finishes. The design of the apartments has also been enhanced to make them more aesthetically attractive and functionally superior.” A revised completion date of 2 December 2009 was then announced. However, Burj Khalifa was opened on 4 January 2010, more than a month later.

Architecture and Design


1280px-Comparisonfinal001fx7

Cross-section comparisons of various towers, from top to bottom: Burj Khalifa, Taipei 101, Willis Tower, World Trade Center

The tower was designed by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill (SOM), who also designed the Willis Tower (formerly the Sears Tower) in Chicago and the One World Trade Center in New York City. Burj Khalifa uses the bundled tube design of the Willis Tower, invented by Fazlur Rahman Khan. Proportionally, the design uses half the amount of steel used in the construction of the Empire State Building thanks to the tubular system. Dr. Khan’s contributions to the design of tall buildings have had a profound impact on architecture and engineering. It would be difficult to find any worldwide practices in the design of tall buildings that have not been directly or indirectly influenced by his work. Its design is reminiscent of Frank Lloyd Wright’s vision for The Illinois, a mile-high skyscraper designed for Chicago, as well as Chicago’s Lake Point Tower. According to Marshall Strabala, a SOM architect who worked on the building’s design team, Burj Khalifa was designed based on the 73rd floor Tower Palace Three, an all residential building in Seoul. In its early planning, Burj Khalifa was intended to be entirely residential.

Subsequent to the original design by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill, Emaar Properties chose Hyder Consulting to be the supervising engineer with NORR Group Consultants International Ltd chosen to supervise the architecture of the project. Hyder was selected for their expertise in structural and MEP (mechanical, electrical and plumbing) engineering. Hyder Consulting’s role was to supervise construction, certify SOM’s design, and be the engineer and architect of record to the UAE authorities. NORR’s role was the supervision of all architectural components including on site supervision during construction and design of a 6-storey addition to the Office Annex Building for architectural documentation. NORR was also responsible for the architectural integration drawings for the Armani Hotel included in the Tower. Emaar Properties also engaged GHD, an international multidisciplinary consulting firm, to act as an independent verification and testing authority for concrete and steelwork.

Samara_spiralovity_minaret_rijen1973

The spiral minaret at the Great Mosque of Samarra

The design is derived from Islamic architecture. As the tower rises from the flat desert base, there are 27 setbacks in a spiralling pattern, decreasing the cross section of the tower as it reaches toward the sky and creating convenient outdoor terraces. These setbacks are arranged and aligned in a way that minimizes vibration wind loading from eddy currents and vortices. At the top, the central core emerges and is sculpted to form a finishing spire. At its tallest point, the tower sways a total of 1.5 m (4.9 ft).

As part of a study which reveals the unnecessary “vanity space” added to the top of the world’s tallest buildings by the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH), it was revealed that without its 244-metre spire, the 828-metre Burj Khalifa would drop to a substantially smaller 585-metre height without any reduction in usable space. As the report states, the spire “could be a skyscraper on its own”.

The spire of Burj Khalifa is composed of more than 4,000 tonnes (4,400 short tons; 3,900 long tons) of structural steel. The central pinnacle pipe weighs 350 tonnes (390 short tons; 340 long tons) and has a height of 200 m (660 ft). The spire also houses communications equipment.

In 2009, architects announced that more than 1,000 pieces of art would adorn the interiors of Burj Khalifa, while the residential lobby of Burj Khalifa would display the work of Jaume Plensa.

The cladding system consists of 142,000 m2 (1,528,000 sq ft) of more than 26,000 reflective glass panels and aluminium and textured stainless steel spandrel panels with vertical tubular fins. The architectural glass provides solar and thermal performance as well as an anti-glare shield for the intense desert sun, extreme desert temperatures and strong winds. In total the glass covers more than 174,000 m2 (1,870,000 sq ft).

The exterior temperature at the top of the building is thought to be 6 °C (11 °F) cooler than at its base.

A 304-room Armani Hotel, the first of four by Armani, occupies 15 of the lower 39 floors. The hotel was supposed to open on 18 March 2010, but after several delays, it finally opened to the public on 27 April 2010. The corporate suites and offices were also supposed to open from March onwards, yet the hotel and observation deck remained the only parts of the building which were open in April 2010.

The sky lobbies on the 43rd and 76th floors house swimming pools. Floors through to 108 have 900 private residential apartments (which, according to the developer, sold out within eight hours of being on the market). An outdoor zero-entry swimming pool is located on the 76th floor of the tower. Corporate offices and suites fill most of the remaining floors, except for a 122nd, 123rd and 124th floor where the At.mosphere restaurant, sky lobby and an indoor and outdoor observation deck is located respectively. In January 2010, it was planned that Burj Khalifa would receive its first residents from February 2010.

A total of 57 elevators and 8 escalators are installed. The elevators have a capacity of 12 to 14 people per cabin, the fastest rising and descending at up to 10 m/s (33 ft/s) for double-deck elevators. However, the world’s fastest single-deck elevator still belongs to Taipei 101 at 16.83 m/s (55.2 ft/s). Engineers had considered installing the world’s first triple-deck elevators, but the final design calls for double-deck elevators. The double-deck elevators are equipped with entertainment features such as LCD displays to serve visitors during their travel to the observation deck. The building has 2,909 stairs from the ground floor to the 160th floor.

The graphic design identity work for Burj Khalifa is the responsibility of Brash Brands, an independent international creative branding agency based in London. Design of the global launch events, communications, and visitors centres for Burj Khalifa have also been created by Brash Brands as well as the roadshow exhibition for the Armani Residences, which are part of the Armani Hotel within Burj Khalifa, which toured Milan, London, Jeddah, Moscow and Delhi.

Plumbing Systems

The Burj Khalifa’s water system supplies an average of 946,000 L (250,000 U.S. gal) of water per day through 100 km (62 mi) of pipes. An additional 213 km (132 mi) of piping serves the fire emergency system, and 34 km (21 mi) supplies chilled water for the air conditioning system. The waste water system uses gravity to discharge water from plumbing fixtures, floor drains, mechanical equipment and storm water, to the city municipal sewer.

Air Conditioning

The air conditioning has been provided by Voltas. The air conditioning system draws air from the upper floors where the air is cooler and cleaner than on the ground. At peak cooling times, the tower’s cooling is equivalent to that provided by 13,000 short tons (26,000,000 lb) of melting ice in one day, or about 46 MW. Water is collected via a condensate collection system and is used to irrigate the nearby park.

Window Cleaning

To wash the 24,348 windows, totaling 120,000 m2 (1,290,000 sq ft) of glass, the building has three horizontal tracks which each hold a 1,500 kg (3,300 lb) bucket machine. Above level 109, and up to tier 27, traditional cradles from davits are used. The top of the building is cleaned by a crew who use ropes to descend from the top to gain access. Under normal conditions, when all building maintenance units are operational, it takes 36 workers three to four months to clean the entire exterior façade.

Unmanned machines will clean the top 27 additional tiers and the glass spire. The cleaning system was developed in Melbourne, Australia at a cost of A$8 million. The contract for building the state-of-the-art machines was won by Australian company CoxGomyl, a manufacturer of Building Maintenance Units.

Elevator System


The elevator operating chart of the Burj Khalifa

  • H1-H4 (4 Hotel Passenger Elevators): G, 1, 3, 5-16, 38, 39
  • HS1, HS2 (2 Hotel Service Elevators): C, G, 1-39
  • HS3, HS4 (2 Hotel Service Elevators): B1, C, G, 1-3
  • HS5 (1 Hotel Service Elevator): C, G, 1-3
  • HR1 (1 Hotel Restaurant Passenger Elevator): C, G, 1
  • HF3 (1 Hotel Spa Elevator): C, G, 1, 1M, 2, 3
  • HB1, HB2 (2 Ballroom Elevators): C, G, 1
  • HP1-HP4 (4 Hotel Parking Elevators): B2, B1, C, G, 1, 3
  • HA1-HA3 (3 Serviced Apartment Passenger Elevators): G, 1, 3, 9-16, 18-39
  • R1-R3 (3 Residential Sky Lobby Shuttle Elevators): G, 43
  • R4-R6 (3 Residential Sky Lobby Shuttle Elevators): G, 76
  • R7-R9 (3 Residential Passenger Elevators): 43-72
  • R10-R12 (3 Residential Passenger Elevators): 76-108
  • RP1, RP2 (2 Residential Parking Elevators): B2, B1, C, G, 1
  • OB1, OB2 (2 Corporate Suite & Observatory Shuttle Elevators, Double Deck): C/G, 123/124
  • BO1-BO3 (3 Corporate Suite Passenger Elevators): 112-123
  • BO4-BO6 (3 Corporate Suite Passenger Elevators): 123-135, 139-154
  • OP1, OP2 (2 Corporate Suite Parking Elevators): B2, B1, G, 1
  • BS1/F (1 Firemen & Service Elevator): C, G, 1-40, 42-73, 75-136, 138
  • BS2/F (1 Service Elevator): C, G, 1-40, 42-73, 75-109, 111
  • BS3/F (1 Service Elevator): 138-160

Features


The Dubai Fountain

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The Dubai Fountain

Outside, WET Enterprises designed a fountain system at a cost of Dh 800 million (US$217 million). Illuminated by 6,600 lights and 50 coloured projectors, it is 270 m (900 ft) long and shoots water 150 m (500 ft) into the air, accompanied by a range of classical to contemporary Arabic and world music. It is the world’s second largest choreographed fountain., On 26 October 2008, Emaar announced that based on results of a naming contest the fountain would be called the Dubai Fountain.

Observation Deck

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View of The Dubai Fountain from the observation deck

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View from the observation deck

An outdoor observation deck, named At the Top, opened on 5 January 2010 on the 124th floor. At 452 m (1,483 ft), it was the highest outdoor observation deck in the world when it opened. Although it was surpassed in December 2011 by Cloud Top 488 on the Canton Tower, Guangzhou at 488 m (1,601 ft), Burj Khalifa opened the 148th floor SKY level at 555 m (1,821 ft), once again giving it the highest observation deck in the world on 15 October 2014. This was until the Shanghai Tower opened in June 2016 with an observation deck at a height of 561 metres. The 124th floor observation deck also features the electronic telescope, an augmented reality device developed by Gsmprjct° of Montréal, which allows visitors to view the surrounding landscape in real-time, and to view previously saved images such as those taken at different times of day or under different weather conditions. To manage the daily rush of sightseers, visitors are able to purchase tickets in advance for a specific date and time and at a 75% discount on tickets purchased on the spot.

On 8 February 2010, the observation deck was closed to the public after power-supply problems caused an elevator to become stuck between floors, trapping a group of tourists for 45 minutes. Despite rumours of the observation deck reopening for St. Valentine’s Day (14 February), it remained closed until 4 April 2010. During low tides and clearness, people can see the shores of Iran from the top of the skyscraper.

Burj Khalifa Park

Burj Khalifa is surrounded by an 11 ha (27-acre) park designed by landscape architects SWA Group. Like the tower, the park’s design was based on the flower of the Hymenocallis, a desert plant. At the centre of the park is the water room, which is a series of pools and water jet fountains. Benches and signs incorporate images of Burj Khalifa and the Hymenocallis flower.

The plants are watered by water collected from the building’s cooling system. The system provides 68,000,000 L (15,000,000 imp gal) annually. WET Enterprises, who also developed the Dubai Fountain, developed the park’s six water features.

Floor Plans

The following is a breakdown of floors.

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Construction


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Animation of construction process

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Aerial closeup of Burj Khalifa under construction in March 2008

The tower was constructed by Samsung C&T from South Korea, who also did work on the Petronas Twin Towers and Taipei 101. Samsung C&T built the tower in a joint venture with Besix from Belgium and Arabtec from UAE. Turner is the Project Manager on the main construction contract.

Under UAE law, the Contractor and the Engineer of Record, Hyder Consulting (manual structural analysis professionals which used Flash Analysis authored by Allen Wright), is jointly and severally liable for the performance of Burj Khalifa.

The primary structure is reinforced concrete. Putzmeister created a new, super high-pressure trailer concrete pump, the BSA 14000 SHP-D, for this project. Burj Khalifa’s construction used 330,000 m3 (431,600 cu yd) of concrete and 55,000 tonnes (61,000 short tons; 54,000 long tons) of steel rebar, and construction took 22 million man-hours. In May 2008 Putzmeister pumped concrete with more than 21 MPA ultimate compressive strength of gravel that would surpass the 600 meters weight of the effective area of each column from the foundation to the next fourth level, and the rest is by metal columns jacketed or covered with concreted to a then world record delivery height of 606 m (1,988 ft), the 156th floor. Three tower cranes were used during construction of the uppermost levels, each capable of lifting a 25-tonne load. The remaining structure above is constructed of lighter steel.

In 2003, 33 test holes were drilled to study the strength of the bedrock underlying the structure. “Weak to very weak sandstone and siltstone” was found, just metres below the surface. Samples were taken from test holes drilled to a depth of 140 metres, finding weak to very weak rock all the way. The study described the site as part of a “seismically active area”.

Over 45,000 m3 (58,900 cu yd) of concrete, weighing more than 110,000 tonnes (120,000 short tons; 110,000 long tons) were used to construct the concrete and steel foundation, which features 192 piles; each pile is 1.5 metre diameter x 43 m long, buried more than 50 m (164 ft) deep. The foundation is designed to support the total building weight of approximately 450,000 tonnes (500,000 short tons; 440,000 long tons). This weight is then divided by the compressive strength of concrete of which is 30 MPa which yield a 450 sq.meters of vertical normal effective area which then yield to a 12 meters by 12 meters dimensions. A cathodic protection system is in place under the concrete to neutralize the groundwater and prevent corrosion.

The Burj Khalifa is highly compartmentalised. Pressurized, air-conditioned refuge floors are located approximately every 35 floors where people can shelter on their long walk down to safety in case of an emergency or fire.

Special mixes of concrete are made to withstand the extreme pressures of the massive building weight; as is typical with reinforced concrete construction, each batch of concrete used was tested to ensure it could withstand certain pressures. CTLGroup, working for SOM, conducted the creep and shrinkage testing critical for the structural analysis of the building.

The consistency of the concrete used in the project was essential. It was difficult to create a concrete that could withstand both the thousands of tonnes bearing down on it and Persian Gulf temperatures that can reach 50 °C (122 °F). To combat this problem, the concrete was not poured during the day. Instead, during the summer months, ice was added to the mixture and it was poured at night when the air is cooler and the humidity is higher. A cooler concrete mixture cures evenly throughout and is therefore less likely to set too quickly and crack. Any significant cracks could have put the entire project in jeopardy.

The unique design and engineering challenges of building Burj Khalifa have been featured in a number of television documentaries, including the Big, Bigger, Biggest series on the National Geographic and Five channels, and the Mega Builders series on the Discovery Channel.

Milestones

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Burj Khalifa and skyline of Dubai, 2010

  • January 2004: Excavation commences.
  • February 2004: Piling starts.
  • 21 September 2004: Emaar contractors begin construction.
  • March 2005: Structure of Burj Khalifa starts rising.
  • June 2006: Level 50 is reached.
  • February 2007: Surpasses the Sears Tower as the building with the most floors.
  • 13 May 2007: Sets record for vertical concrete pumping on any building at 452 m (1,483 ft), surpassing the 449.2 m (1,474 ft) to which concrete was pumped during the construction of Taipei 101, while Burj Khalifa reached the 130th floor.
  • 21 July 2007: Surpasses Taipei 101, whose height of 509.2 m (1,671 ft) made it the world’s tallest building, and level 141 reached.
  • 12 August 2007: Surpasses the Sears Tower antenna, which stands 527 m (1,729 ft).
  • 12 September 2007: At 555.3 m (1,822 ft), becomes the world’s tallest freestanding structure, surpassing the CN Tower in Toronto, and level 150 reached.
  • 7 April 2008: At 629 m (2,064 ft), surpasses the KVLY-TV Mast to become the tallest man-made structure, level 160 reached.
  • 17 June 2008: Emaar announces that Burj Khalifa’s height is over 636 m (2,087 ft) and that its final height will not be given until it is completed in September 2009.
  • 1 September 2008: Height tops 688 m (2,257 ft), making it the tallest man-made structure ever built, surpassing the previous record-holder, the Warsaw Radio Mast in Konstantynów, Poland.
  • 17 January 2009: Topped out at 829.8 m (2,722 ft).
  • 1 October 2009: Emaar announces that the exterior of the building is completed.
  • 4 January 2010: Burj Khalifa’s official launch ceremony is held and Burj Khalifa is opened. Burj Dubai renamed Burj Khalifa in honour of the President of the UAE and ruler of Abu Dhabi, Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed al Nahyan.
  • 10 March 2010 Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) certifies Burj Khalifa as world’s tallest building.

Real Estate Values

In March 2009, Mohamed Ali Alabbar, chairman of the project’s developer, Emaar Properties, said office space pricing at Burj Khalifa reached US$4,000 per sq ft (over US$43,000 per m²) and the Armani Residences, also in Burj Khalifa, sold for US$3,500 per sq ft (over US$37,500 per m²). He estimated the total cost for the project to be about US$1.5 billion.

The project’s completion coincided with the global financial crisis of 2007–2012, and with vast overbuilding in the country; this led to high vacancies and foreclosures. With Dubai mired in debt from its huge ambitions, the government was forced to seek multibillion dollar bailouts from its oil-rich neighbor Abu Dhabi. Subsequently, in a surprise move at its opening ceremony, the tower was renamed Burj Khalifa, said to honour the UAE President Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan for his crucial support.

Because of the slumping demand in Dubai’s property market, the rents in the Burj Khalifa plummeted 40% some ten months after its opening. Out of 900 apartments in the tower, 825 were still empty at that time. However, over the next two and a half years, overseas investors steadily began to purchase the available apartments and office space in Burj Khalifa. By October 2012, Emaar reported that around 80% of the apartments were occupied.

Official Launch Ceremony

The ceremony was broadcast live on a giant screen on Burj Park Island and on smaller screens elsewhere. Hundreds of media outlets from around the world reported live from the scene. In addition to the media presence, 6,000 guests were expected.

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The opening ceremony of Burj Khalifa

The opening of Burj Khalifa was held on 4 January 2010. The ceremony featured a display of 10,000 fireworks, light beams projected on and around the tower, and further sound, light and water effects. The celebratory lighting was designed by UK lighting designers Speirs and Major Associates. Using the 868 powerful stroboscope lights that are integrated into the façade and spire of the tower, different lighting sequences were choreographed, together with more than 50 different combinations of other effects.

A short film about Burj Khalifa and Dubai in general was followed by a fireworks and light show. The first part of the show was based on a desert flower theme and included fireworks, lights, and sounds. The second segment told the story of the tower’s construction using 300 projectors to generate an image of the tower. The final segment used fireworks and lights to illuminate the tower.

Reception


Awards

In June 2010, Burj Khalifa was the recipient of the 2010 “Best Tall Building Middle East & Africa” award by the CTBUH. On 28 September 2010 Burj Khalifa won the award for best project of the year at the Middle East Architect Awards 2010. CTBUH Awards Chair Gordon Gill, of Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture said:

We are talking about a building here that has changed the landscape of what is possible in architecture a building that became internationally recognized as an icon long before it was even completed. ‘Building of the Century’ was thought a more appropriate title for it.

Besides these awards, Burj Khalifa was the recipient of following awards.

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BASE jumping

The building has been used by several experienced BASE jumpers for both authorised and unauthorised BASE jumping:

  • In May 2008, Hervé Le Gallou and David McDonnell, dressed as engineers, illegally infiltrated Burj Khalifa (around 650 m at the time), and jumped off a balcony situated a couple of floors below the 160th floor.
  • On 8 January 2010, with permission of the authorities, Nasr Al Niyadi and Omar Al Hegelan, from the Emirates Aviation Society, broke the world record for the highest BASE jump from a building after they leapt from a crane-suspended platform attached to the 160th floor at 672 m (2,205 ft). The two men descended the vertical drop at a speed of up to 220 km/h (140 mph), with enough time to open their parachutes 10 seconds into the 90-second jump.
  • On 21 April 2014, with permission of the authorities and support from several sponsors, highly experienced French BASE jumpers Vince Reffet and Fred Fugen broke the Guinness world record for the highest BASE jump from a building after they leapt from a specially designed platform, built at the very top of the pinnacle, at 828 metres (2,717 feet).

Climbing

On 28 March 2011, Alain “Spiderman” Robert scaled the outside of Burj Khalifa. The climb to the top of the spire took six hours. To comply with UAE safety laws, Robert, who usually climbs in free solo style, used a rope and harness for the climb.

Fatalities

Within 17 months of the building’s official opening, a man described as “an Asian in his mid-30s” who worked at one of the companies in the tower, died by suicide on 10 May 2011 by jumping from the 147th floor. He fell 39 floors, landing on a deck on the 108th floor. Dubai police confirmed the act as a suicide, reporting that “[they] also came to know that the man decided to commit suicide as his company refused to grant leave.”

The Daily Mail reported that on 16 November 2014, Laura Vanessa Nunes, a Portuguese national who was in Dubai on a tourist visa, fell to her death from Burj Khalifa’s “At the Top” observation deck on the 148th floor. However, on 18 May 2015, Dubai police disputed the report made by the Daily Mail on this incident and said that this incident took place in Jumeirah Lakes Towers. Coroner’s report states Laura’s body was found on the third floor of the Burj Khalifa

Ramadan Observance on the Higher Floors

At the higher floors of the Burj, people can still see the sun for a couple of minutes after it has set on the ground. This has led Dubai clerics to rule that those living above the 80th floor should wait 2 additional minutes to break their Ramadan fast, and those living above the 150th floor, 3 minutes.

In Popular Culture


  • Some scenes of the 2011 American action film Mission: Impossible – Ghost Protocol were shot on and in the Burj Khalifa, where Tom Cruise, portraying the character of Ethan Hunt, performed many of the stunts himself.
  • An alternate version of the Burj Khalifa appears in the 2012 video game Spec Ops: The Line.
  • A building that resembles the Burj Khalifa was featured in an episode of the American animated comedy series The Simpsons entitled “YOLO”, which aired on 10 November 2013. The building is known to be the tallest building in Springfield, a fictional American town which is the show’s setting.
  • In the 2016 American science fiction film Independence Day: Resurgence, the Burj Khalifa was seen where it – along with many other structures – is being thrown into
  • London by the aliens using their mothership’s anti-gravity pull.
  • Various other Western, Indian and Pakistani movies/ shows have been filmed, including the Amazing Race.
  • This building can also be seen in one of the Dubai tracks in the Wii version of Need for Speed: Nitro.
  • In the 2017 American disaster film Geostorm, the building is hit by a massive tsunami, which causes the antenna to fall off and the building itself to tilt at a precarious angle.

Fireworks Displays


  • 2010–2011: Fireworks accompanied by lasers and lights were displayed from the Burj Khalifa, making it the highest New Year’s Eve fireworks display in the world. The theme of the 2011 New Year fireworks was the “New Year Gala”, a tribute to the spirit of Dubai, which is home to over 200 nationalities. The display also marked the first anniversary of Burj Khalifa.
  • 2012–2013: The fireworks display on the Burj Khalifa – in a blaze of light and colour – engulfed the tower, synchronised and choreographed to a live performance by the Prague Philharmonic Orchestra. A window table for the New Year event was also arranged on the 122nd floor of the building at Atmosphere restaurant, at cost of Dh16,000 (US$4,300) per person.
  • On 27 November 2013, the Burj Khalifa was illuminated with lights and a fireworks display following announcement of Dubai as the winning city to host the World Expo 2020.
  • 2013–2014: The Burj Khalifa and surrounding areas were the site of a record-breaking fireworks display as part of the UAE’s New Year’s Eve celebrations, with a reported 400,000 fireworks being set off continuously for six minutes.
  • 2014–2015: The Burj Khalifa was illuminated by a 828 m (2,717 ft) custom build LED facade which was installed on the building where light shows were displayed followed by the fireworks.

Labour Controversy


The Burj Khalifa was built primarily by workers from South Asia and East Asia. This is generally because the current generation of UAE locals prefer governmental jobs and do not have an attitude favouring private sector employment. On 17 June 2008, there were 7,500 skilled workers employed at the construction site. Press reports indicated in 2006 that skilled carpenters at the site earned £4.34 a day, and labourers earned £2.84. According to a BBC investigation and a Human Rights Watch (HRW) report, the workers were housed in abysmal conditions, and worked long hours for low pay. During the construction of Burj Khalifa, only one construction-related death was reported. However, workplace injuries and fatalities in the UAE are “poorly documented”, according to HRW.

On 21 March 2006, about 2,500 workers, who were upset over buses that were delayed for the end of their shifts, protested and triggered a riot, damaging cars, offices, computers and construction equipment. A Dubai Interior Ministry official said the rioters caused almost £500,000 in damage. Most of the workers involved in the riot returned the following day but refused to work.

Tallest buildings in the world (350 m+)

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