The second inauguration of Joko Widodo as president of Indonesia is scheduled to take place on Sunday, 20 October 2019 at the DPR/MPR Building, Jakarta. This ceremony will mark the commencement of the second consecutive and final five-year term of Joko Widodo (universally known as Jokowi) as president and first term of Ma’ruf Amin as vice president.
Jokowi-Amin ticket won the 2019 election with 55.5% of the popular vote against their only opponent, Prabowo Subianto-Sandiaga Uno. After Prabowo’s dispute was rejected by the Constitutional Court, the General Elections Commission (KPU) declared the ticket as winners.
The inauguration ceremony will be started on 14:30 local time (07:30 UTC). It will be held on the People’s Consultative Assembly parliamentary session and expected to be led by assembly speaker Bambang Soesatyo. As the inauguration will be held in a Sunday, the assembly decided to push forward the session starting time, which usually held at 10:00 local time. The reasons are to give Christians, Catholics, and Buddhists to attend their respective service, as well as to not interrupt the weekly car free day held near the venue at the morning to noon with road closures.
Vice President of the People’s Republic of China Wang Qishan plans to attend the ceremony according to Indonesian Deputy Foreign Minister A. M. Fachir. Australian, Malaysian, and Singaporean prime ministers Scott Morrison, Mahathir Mohamad, and Lee Hsien Loong will also attend the ceremony. Morrison’s appearance will be fourth consecutive by an Australian prime minister in an Indonesian presidential inauguration, which dates back to 2004, the year of Indonesia’s first popularly-elected presidential election. Jokowi’s two-time rival Prabowo has also confirmed his attendance.
The first inauguration of Joko Widodo as the seventh president of Indonesia took place on Monday, 20 October 2014 at the DPR/MPR Building, Jakarta. This ceremony marked the commencement of the first five-year term of Joko Widodo (universally known as Jokowi) as president and second non-consecutive and final term of Jusuf Kalla as vice president.
Jokowi and Kalla won the 2014 election with 53.15% of the popular vote against his only rival, Prabowo Subianto and Hatta Rajasa.
Joko Widodo was elected in the highly competitive 2014 election. Jokowi, who held the post of mayor of Surakarta and the Governor of Jakarta receives widespread national and international media attention due to his unique background and style. He is the son of a carpenter who worked as a furniture exporter before becoming a politician. He is the first Indonesian president not to have come from the military or political elite. His unique leadership style, including blusukan (spending time in impoverished areas to informally chat with the people), proved very popular among Indonesians.
Five days before his inauguration, Time Magazine featured him on the cover page, titled “A New Hope”.
The inauguration ceremony was started on 10:00 local time (03:00 UTC). It was held on the People’s Consultative Assembly parliamentary session led by assembly speaker Zulkifli Hasan. Before the reading of the oath, he read the proclamation on the election results. President-elect Joko Widodo then read the presidential oath, followed by Jusuf Kalla afterwards.
After his inauguration, Joko Widodo delivered his inaugural address, titled “Di Bawah kehendak rakyat dan konstitusi” (Under the will of the people and the constitution). In his speech, he promised that his government would ensure every citizen throughout the archipelago, including its furthest reaches, would be served. He also calls for unity among Indonesians and announcing his determination to establish Indonesia as a maritime country. To foreign guests and delegates, he said that Indonesia would remain consistent with its free and active foreign policy.
After the inauguration ceremony, the process continued by a people’s festival that took place in the Monas monument, a few kilometres away from the DPR/MPR Building. Joko Widodo and Jusuf Kalla joined the cultural parade started from Hotel Indonesia roundabout to the Istana Merdeka, carried by a chariot In the Istana, outgoing President Yudhoyono and his cabinet ceremonially handed over the presidential palace with a military procession. He then joined the peoples festival and addressed another speech.
Local guests attended the ceremony including the former presidents of Indonesia, B. J. Habibie and Megawati Sukarnoputri, and former First Lady Sinta Nuriyah. Former vice presidents Try Sutrisno and Hamzah Haz also attended the inauguration. His rivals during the election, Prabowo Subianto and Hatta Rajasa also attended the ceremony, receiving appreciation and applause.
There were several international guests attended the inauguration ceremony, and until the inauguration ceremony, there are more than 90 diplomats and foreign representatives confirmed their attendance.
2014 Indonesian Presidential Election
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Presidential elections were held in Indonesia on 9 July 2014, with former general Prabowo Subianto contesting the elections against the governor of Jakarta, Joko Widodo; incumbent president Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono was constitutionally barred from seeking a third term in office. On 22 July the General Elections Commission (KPU) announced Joko Widodo’s victory. He and his vice president, Jusuf Kalla, were sworn-in on 20 October 2014, for a 5-year term.
According to the 2008 election law, only parties or coalitions controlling 20% of DPR seats or winning 25% of the popular votes in the 2014 parliamentary elections are eligible to nominate a candidate. This law was challenged in the Constitutional Court,but in late January 2014, the court ruled that the requirement would stand for this election. No party exceeded the threshold in the 2014 legislative elections; therefore, two coalitions were formed.
Joko Widodo sworn in as Indonesian president
20 October 2014 | BBC NEWS
Joko Widodo, the charismatic outsider who won Indonesia’s presidency, made a call for national reconciliation and unity as he was sworn in.
Popularly known as Jokowi, the 53-year-old took the oath of office at a ceremony held at parliament in Jakarta.
He was then cheered through the streets as he made his way on a horse-drawn carriage to the state palace.
The former Jakarta governor is the first president not to have come from the military or political elite.
Elected in July, the former furniture exporter and son of a carpenter now leads the world’s third-largest democracy, with a population of about 250 million people.
US Secretary of State John Kerry and Australia’s Prime Minister Tony Abbott were among those who attended the inauguration.
The New Face of Indonesian Democracy Hannah Beech | Oct 16, 2014
THE STRAITS TIMES [Singapore]
Indonesia President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (second from left) and president-elect Joko Widodo (third from right) arrive before the inaugural ceremony at the House of Representative in Jakarta on Oct 20, 2014. — PHOTO: AFP
PUBLISHED OCT 20, 2014, 11:40 AM SGT
JOKO Widodo was sworn in on Monday as Indonesia’s seventh president, in a ceremony watched by millions of Indonesians live on TV and by visiting dignitaries from some 20 countries.
With a copy of the Quran held over his head, Mr Joko recited the oath of office: “By God, I will carry out my duties as president of the Republic of Indonesia as best and as justly as I can, Upholding the constitution and the laws of the republic, and to serve the motherland and nation.”
He then embraced former president Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono and both men exchanged seats at the front of the hall.
Monday’s inauguration is the first in Indonesian history to be attended by both an outgoing president and his successor, and hopes are high that the cordial transition will usher in another period of political stability for South-east Asia’s largest economy.
Also present at the ceremony were Singapore Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong, Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak, Brunei Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah, and Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott, among other guests including US Secretary of State John Kerry.
Mr Joko was elected on July 9 with 53.2 per cent of the vote, defeating rival Prabowo Subianto by over 8 million votes.
Banners throughout the capital, referring to Dr Yudhoyono and Mr Joko by their popular names, proclaimed: “Thank you SBY, welcome Jokowi”.
The session at the People’s Consultative Assembly (MPR) – which brings together Parliament and the Regional Representatives Council (DPD) – was also for the first time attended by former presidents B.J.Habibie and Megawati Sukarnoputri, as well as the widow of former president Abdurrahman Wahid.
Also present was Mr Prabowo and his running mate Hatta Rajasa.
Before the swearing in, MPR Speaker Zulkifli Hasan paid tribute to Dr Yudhoyono for his contributions to growing Indonesia’s economy and ensuring political stability and peace, and raising the country’s stature over his decade in office.
“We stand tall together and sit at the same level as developed nations today,” Mr Zulkifli said, noting that Indonesia’s diplomatic weight and role in international forums like the G20 and Asean had increased significantly under Dr Yudhoyono.
“We thank him for laying a strong foundation for the continued development of Indonesia. We hope he will continue to serve the nation,” he added.
Mr Joko then delivered a short speech, his first as president, where he acknowledged his election rival Mr Prabowo, who in turn stood and saluted Mr Joko, to applause.
“We all have a shared commitment as a large nation,” Mr Joko said in his speech.
“This the moment for us to work together towards an Indonesia that is politically sovereign, economically self sufficient, and culturally resilient.”
He stressed that a spirit of unity and gotong royong – mutual cooperation – were critical for Indonesia as the country forged ahead.
He also pledged that his government would ensure every citizen throughout the archipelago, including its furthest reaches, would be served, and called on all Indonesians, whether fishermen, farmers, bakso sellers, street vendors, teachers, or academics, to stand together and work for the greater good of the country.
“The grand task of developing our nation cannot be done by the president and vice- president alone. It requires the efforts of all of us,” he said.
“So work, work and work we must to raise the welfare of all of us.”
Mr Joko also indicated that Indonesia’s foreign policy direction would be broadly consistent, saying: “As the largest nation in South-east Asia, we will continue our “free and active” foreign policy to contribute to a stable global order based on sovereignty and social justice.”
At home, he said the country would focus on developing its seas and oceans.
He also cited founding president Sukarno’s call on Indonesians to have a new seafaring spirit to brave the waves to be a strong, prosperous and peaceful nation.
“As your captain, Let me invite all of you to board the ship that is Indonesia.We will unfurl our sails, and brave the waters ahead on our strengths,” he added.
After the two-hour ceremony at the People’s Consultative Assembly, Mr Joko was ferried by horse drawn carriage from central Jakarta to the presidential palace.
Siapa Saja Tamu Negara yang Hadir di Pelantikan Jokowi? Oleh : Tempo.co | Minggu, 19 Oktober 2014 23:58 WIB
TEMPO.CO, Jakarta -Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat (MPR) mengaku tidak mengundang perwakilan negara sahabat dalam pelantikan Presiden terpilih Joko Widodo-Jusuf Kalla (Jokowi-JK) pada hari ini, Senin 20 Oktober 2014. Meski tak mengundang, MPR mendapat pemberitahuan sejumlah negara akan datang dalam acara pelantikan Jokowi-JK.
“ Sekitar 17 perwakilan Negara tetangga dan utusan khusus dipastikan hadir” kata Ketua MPR Zulkifli Hasan di MPR, Jakarta, Sabtu 18 Oktober 2014.
Mereka yang sudah memberikan konfirmasi kehadiran antara lain:
Presiden Timor Leste Taur Matan Ruak
Perdana Menteri Brunei Darussalam HM Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah
Perdana Menteri Papua Nugin Peter O’Nieill
Perdana Menteri Australia Tony Abbott
Perdana Menteri Singapura Lee Hsien Loong
Perdana Menteri Malaysia Dato’ Sri Mohd Najib bin Tun Abdul Razak
Perdana Menteri Haiti Laurent Salvador Lamonthe
Utusan khusus Jepang mantan Perdana Menteri Yasuo Fukuda
Deputi Ketua Parlemen China Yan Junqi
Kepala Kantor Pemerintah Viet Nam Vu Duc Ndu
Menteri Luar Negeri Selandia Baru Murray McCully
Utusan Khusus Republik Korea Kim Tae-whan dan Ham Jin-kyu
Deputi PM/Menlu Thailand Tanasak Patimapragorn
Utusan khusus Belanda Dr Tjeek Willink
Menteri Luar Negeri Amerika Serikat John Kerry
Menteri Luar Negeri Inggris Philip Hammond
Menteri Perindustrian Rusia Denis Valentinovich.
Kepala Protokol Negara Kementerian Luar Negeri Ahmad Rusdi mengatakan, para kepala negara dan pemerintahan akan mendapatkan pelayanan seperti tamu negara, mulai dari keprotokolan, pengaturan pengamanan, fasilitas transportasi, maupun courtesy. Baik dalam penyambutan di bandara maupun saat menghadiri upacara pelantikan.
“Pada upacara pelantikan ketika tiba mereka akan disambut Presiden Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono. Setelah pelantikan mereka akan menghadiri resepsi yang diselenggarakan Presiden baru, Joko Widodo,” papar dia.
Beberapa kepala negara akan langsung bertolak kembali ke negaranya usai acara. Namun ada pula yang mengatakan kunjungan kehormatan, baik kepada Presiden baru maupun mitra atau koleganya.
Selain kepala negara/pemerintahan serta utusan khusus, seluruh duta besar dan perwakilan organisasi internasional yang ada di Jakarta telah memastikan kehadiran mereka. Jumlahnya sekitar 90 orang.
Fumika Baba (馬場 ふみか Baba Fumika, born June 21, 1995, in Niigata, Niigata Prefecture, Japan) is a Japanese actress and model who is represented by the talent agency Name Management.
Baba’s skills are ballet and juggling.
She was scouted on a local street when she was in high school, and started working as a model for the local free newspaper, Niigata Bishōjo Zukan.
Baba later belonged with other junior high school students in the kids troupe, Apricot, and later appeared at a local stage. Her acting debut was in the film Puzzle, in 2014. Baba yearned for the actress Fumi Nikaidō.
Her television drama debut was in Kamen Rider Drive as the enemy, Medic.
Reon Kadena (かでな れおん Kadena Reon), also known as Leon Kadena or Minamo Kusano, is a Japanese glamour model and actress.
Life and career
Kadena was born in Osaka Prefecture on February 19, 1986. The former gravure idol had her first collection of nude photos published at age eighteen by Asahi Press in the photobook Naked Reon (はだかのれおん) in June 2004. Kadena also appeared in a number of glamour videos including the September 2005 Reon Style (レオンスタイル) released by Geneon Entertainment
In July 2005, Kadena made her theatrical debut in the erotic drama Piikan Fūfu. Three years later in June 2008, she co-starred with fellow gravure idol Yuuri Morishita in the Toei comedy Secret Undercover Agent: Wild Cats in Strip Royale as secret agents Honey and Bunny who investigate strange incidents beyond the abilities of the regular police.
Kadena also appeared in a number of television dramas including being part of the regular cast for the TV Asahi action-mystery series Maid Deka (メイド刑事) which was broadcast in 11 episodes from June to September 2009. In 2010 she played the role of Eren Komori (小森絵漣) in Kamen Rider × Kamen Rider OOO & W Featuring Skull: Movie War Core, an installment in the long-running Kamen Rider Series of tokusatsu films.
Tri Puru H (2004, under the name Minamo Kusano)
Girl’s Desire (2004) – also known as ‘Gravure Idol’
Reon Style (2005)
Make You Happy (2006)
My Reflection (2006)
Memories (2006) – also known as ‘Champion Gold Selection’
Dream Planet (2007)
Piikan Fūfu (ピーカン夫婦) (July 2005)
God’s Left Hand, Devil’s Right Hand (神の左手 悪魔の右手 “Kami no hidarite akuma no migite) (July 2006)
The Making of Dark Fantasy (December 2006) [Documentary]
Secret Undercover Agent: Wild Cats in Strip Royale (秘密潜入捜査官 ワイルドキャッツ in ストリップ ロワイアル Himitsu sennyū sōsakan wairudokyattsu in sutorippu rowaiaru) (June 2008)
Kamen Rider × Kamen Rider OOO & W Featuring Skull: Movie War Core (December 2010)
Ichijiku no mori (無花果の森) (June 2014)
The Pinkie (さまよう小指 Samayou Koyubi) (September 2014)
Kamen Rider Ghost as Alia
Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater as Herself/Model
Kadena was also one of many models featured in “Metal Gear Solid 3 Snake Eater” many models have appeared in the series, this has been almost a motif throughout the games. This Videogame came out in 2004.
Yuko Ogura (小倉 優子 Ogura Yūko, born November 1, 1983 in Mobara, Chiba) is a Japanese gravure idol and model who typically aimed for the cute, innocent schoolgirl look prior to her 2011 marriage. She is represented by Platinum Production.
Ogura regularly, if not entirely seriously, claims to be one “Princess Apple-Momoka” (りんごももか姫) of the apple-shaped planet Korin. This is apparently an in-joke dating back to her middle school days. Having an alternate name was trendy at one point, and one of her friends told her that she looked like a Momoka. She liked the name and still uses it today.
She is known outside Japan for her song “Onna no Ko ♡ Otoko no Ko” (オンナのコ♡オトコのコ, “Girls ♡ Boys”) which is the ending theme of the anime School Rumble. Ogura’s fame as a model has also spread beyond Japan and she was named as one of the “7 most irresistibly cute Japanese idols” by the Thailand version of FHM magazine in 2010.
She married Isao Kikuchi on October 10, 2011, in Hawaii. In March 2017, Ogura announced that she and Kikuchi were divorcing.In December 2018 she had married for the second time.
Saaya Irie (born November 15, 1993) is a Japanese actress, voice actress, model and singer.
Her stage name is simply her given name, Saaya. In addition to her modeling work she has recently been appearing in numerous films, radio, and television programs.
She has also done voice work, appearing in the anime OVA Kyo no Gononi as Chika Koizumi. She was formerly a member of Japanese musical group Sweet Kiss before it disbanded on May 12, 2006 to be replaced by the group Chase.
Irie was born in Kitakyushu , Fukuoka , Japan. During her childhood she idolized Yoshika, a fashion model from Kitakyushu, but she gained fame for her professional glamour modeling as a U-15 idol , making her debut at age 11.
Her bikini pictures soon received widespread distribution over the Internet. In October 2015, Saaya released her 12th photobook, and appeared in 42 solo gravure idol DVDs through 2016 ………. MORE (Article by : Wiki)
Saaya Irie (入江紗綾, Irie Saaya?, born November 15, 1993, in Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, Japan) is a Japanese actress, seiyū, junior idol and singer. Her stage name is simply her given name, Saaya. As of September 2006, her height is 150 centimeters (59 in).
She has recently been appearing in numerous films, radio, and television programs including the recent live action TV drama adaptation of the Jigoku Shoujo series. She has also done voice work, appearing in the recent anime OVA Kyo no Gononi as Chika Koizu. She was formerly a member of Japanese musical group Sweet Kiss before it disbanded on May 12, 2006 to be replaced by the group Chase.
Saaya, Tsubomi (紗綾「ボミ」) ISBN 4-08-780435-6,2005.
Saaya, Saaya 11 years old (紗綾「紗綾11歳」) ISBN 4-8211-2660-5, 2005.
Saaya, Saaya 11 years old Fugue (紗綾「さあや11歳(フーガ) 」)
Saaya Irie (入江紗綾 Irie Saaya, born November 15, 1993) is a Japanese actress, voice actress, gravure idol and singer. Her stage name is simply her given name, Saaya.
In addition to her modeling work she has recently been appearing in numerous films, radio, and television programs. She has also done voice work, appearing in the anime OVA Kyo no Gononi as Chika Koizumi. She was formerly a member of Japanese musical group Sweet Kiss before it disbanded on May 12, 2006 to be replaced by the group Chase.
As a Model
Irie was born in Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, Japan. During her childhood she idolized Yoshika, a fashion model from Kitakyushu, but she gained fame for her professional glamour modeling as a U-15 idol, making her debut at age 11. Her bikini pictures soon received widespread distribution over the Internet. In October 2015, Saaya released her 12th photobook, and appeared in 44 solo gravure idol DVDs through 2017.
After making her debut as a model, she still lived in Fukuoka Prefecture where she attended elementary school and middle school, but moved to Tokyo when she turned 16. In August 2014, she contracted Dengue fever during the 2014 Dengue fever outbreak.
Kyuyo Meisai (TV Tokyo)
Gekito! Idol Yokibou (July 2006)
Government Crime Investigation Agent Zaizen Jotaro (TV Asahi)
Hell Girl (2007 Live action), Tsugumi Shibata (Nippon TV)
Manga-Kissa Toshi-Densetsu Noroi no Manna san (BS-i)
Gekito! Idol Yokibou (Osaka Broadcasting Corporation, released on July 2006)
Kyo no Gononi (as Chika Koizumi; produced by avex)
Note: She only sang for the Sweet Kiss version of the opening and ending songs and did not play Chika in the OVA itself. Mai Kadowaki played Chika. On the special edition of the DVD series there was a special audio track. Saaya and Chase were on the second audio track.
God’s Left Hand, Devil’s Right Hand or Kami no hidarite Akuma no migite (神の左手 悪魔の右手) 2006
Shibuya Kaidan parts 1 & 1 (渋谷怪談 THEリアル都市伝説) 2006
Kani Goalkeeper （かにゴールキーパー） 2006
Carved or Kuchisake-onna (口裂け女) 2007 (all members of Chase in this movie)
Pussy Soup (The Cat Cook) or Neko Râmen Taishô (猫ラーメン大将) 2008
Hard Revenge Milly 2008
Girl’s Box 2008
Yamagata sukurîm 2009
Seifuku sabaigâru I 2010
The Purple Mirror (horror) 2010
Rock and Roll Diet 2010
Yomutoshinu: Death Comic Part I and Part II (movie version) 2011
Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie (Indonesian: [baxaˈrudːin ˈjusuf haˈbibi] (About this soundlisten); 25 June 1936 – 11 September 2019) was an Indonesian engineer and politician who was the president of Indonesia from 1998 to 1999. Only two months after his inauguration as vice president on March 1998, he succeeded Suharto who resigned after thirty-some years in office. His presidency is seen as a landmark and transition to the Reformation era. Upon becoming president, he liberalized Indonesia’s press and political party laws, and held an early democratic election three years sooner than it should have been, which resulted in the end of his presidency. Initially intended to serve until 10 and 11 March 2003 in his respective offices, his eventual 517-day presidency and 71-day vice presidency are the shortest in the country’s history.
Habibie was a native of Parepare, now of Indonesia’s South Sulawesi Province. His parents, Alwi Abdul Jalil Habibie, an agriculturist of Gorontalese descent, and R. A. Tuti Marini Puspowardojo, a Javanese noblewoman from Yogyakarta, met while studying in Bogor. Habibie’s family comes from Kabila, a village in eastern part of Gorontalo Province. He was the fourth of eight children. Habibie’s father died when he was 14 years old.
Studies and Career in Europe
Habibie went to Delft, the Netherlands, to study aviation and aerospace at the Technische Hogeschool Delft (Delft University of Technology), but for political reasons (the West New Guinea dispute between the Netherlands and Indonesia), he had to continue his study at the Technische Hochschule Aachen (RWTH Aachen University) in Aachen, Germany. In 1960, Habibie received an engineer’s degree in Germany with the title Diplom-Ingenieur. He remained in Germany as a research assistant under Hans Ebner at the Lehrstuhl und Institut für Leichtbau, RWTH Aachen to conduct research for his doctoral degree.
In 1962, Habibie returned to Indonesia for three months on sick leave. During this time, he was reacquainted with Hasri Ainun, the daughter of R. Mohamad Besari. Habibie had known Hasri Ainun in childhood, junior high school and in senior high school at SMA Kristen Dago (Dago Christian Senior High School), Bandung. The two married on 12 May 1962, returning to Germany shortly afterwards. Habibie and his wife settled in Aachen for a short period before moving to Oberforstbach. In May 1963 they had a son, Ilham Akbar Habibie
Habibie later found employment with the railway stock firm Waggonfabrik Talbot, where he became an advisor in designing train wagons. Due to his work with Makosh, the head of train constructions offered his position to Habibie upon retirement three years later, but Habibie refused the position.
In 1965, Habibie delivered his thesis in aerospace engineering and received the grade of “very good” for his dissertation, giving him the title Doktoringenieur (Dr.-Ing.). During the same year, he accepted Hans Ebner’s offer to continue his research on Thermoelastisitas and work toward his Habilitation, but he declined the offer to join RWTH as a professor per se. His thesis about light construction for supersonic or hypersonic states also attracted offers of employment from companies such as Boeing and Airbus, which Habibie again declined.
Habibie did accept a position with Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm in Hamburg. There, he developed theories on thermodynamics, construction, and aerodynamics known as the Habibie Factor, Habibie Theorem, and Habibie Method, respectively. He worked for Messerschmitt on the development of the Airbus A-300B aircraft. In 1974, he was promoted to vice president of the company.
Career in Indonesia
In 1974, Suharto recruited Habibie to return to Indonesia as part of Suharto’s drive to industrialize and develop the country. Habibie initially served as a special assistant to Ibnu Sutowo, the CEO of state oil company Pertamina. Two years later, in 1976, Habibie was made Chief Executive Officer of the new state-owned enterprise Industri Pesawat Terbang Nusantara (IPTN). (In 1985, PT. Nurtanio changed its name to Indonesian Aviation Industry and is now known as Indonesian Aerospace (Dirgantara)). In 1978, he was appointed as Minister of Research and Technology. He continued to play an important role in IPTN other “strategic” industries in this post. By the 1980s, IPTN had grown considerably, specializing in the manufacture of helicopters and small passenger planes; by 1991, Habibie oversaw ten state-owned industries including ship- and train-building, steel, arms, communications, and energy. A 1993 estimate determined that the estimates used nearly $2 billion a year in state funding, although the government’s opaque accounting practices meant that the size of the industries was not completely known.
In developing Indonesia’s aviation industry, he adopted an approach called “Begin at the End and End at the Beginning”. In this method, elements such as basic research became the last things upon which to focus, whilst actual manufacturing of the planes was placed as the first objective. Under Habibie’s leadership, IPTN became a manufacturer of aircraft including Puma helicopters and CASA planes. It pioneered a small passenger airplane, the N-250 Gatotkaca, in 1995, but the project was a commercial failure.
When Habibie was State Minister for Research and Technology, he created the OFP (Overseas Fellowship Program), STMDP (Science Technology and Manpower Development Program) and STAID (Science and Technology for Industrial Development). These three programs provided scholarships to thousands of high school graduates to earn their bachelor’s degrees in the STEM fields and for other technical professionals to continue their study for master’s and doctorate program in the United States, Europe, Japan, and other countries.
Habibie was, continuously, a member of six Indonesian cabinets for over 20 years. He was first appointed as a cabinet member by president Suharto in 1978. He then served in another five cabinets (including the Development Reform Cabinet which, as president he formed after the resignation of Suharto in May 1998):
1978-1983: State Minister of Research and Technology in the Third Development Cabinet
1983-1988: State Minister of Research and Technology and Chair of the Research and Technology Implementation Board in the Fourth Development Cabinet
1988-1993: State Minister of Research and Technology and Chair of the Research and Technology Implementation Board in the Fifth Development Cabinet
1993-1998: State Minister of Research and Technology and Chair of the Research and Technology Implementation Board in the Sixth Development Cabinet
1998: Vice-president in the Seventh Development Cabinet
1998-1999: President in the Development Reform Cabinet
In Suharto’s regime, as was expected of senior government executives, Habibie became a member of the Golkar organisation. He was appointed as the deputy daily coordinator for the chairman of the executive board in 1992 by Suharto, and the following year he became the daily coordinator.
In January 1998, after accepting nomination for a seventh term as President, Suharto announced the selection criteria for the nomination of a vice president. Suharto did not mention Habibie by name, but his suggestion that the next vice president should have a mastery of science and technology made it obvious he had Habibie in mind.
In that year, in the midst of the Asian Financial Crisis, this suggestion was received badly, causing the rupiah to fall. Despite this, Habibie was elected as Vice President in March 1998.
Habibie taking his presidential oath on 21 May 1998. On 21 May 1998, just two months after Habibie became vice president, Suharto announced his resignation, and Habibie succeeded him as president. The following day, Habibie announced the Development Reform Cabinet, which removed some of the most controversial ministers in Suharto’s last cabinet while maintaining others – with no major figures from the opposition. Within days of his appointment, he requested people related to him to resign from government positions, promised an early election, revocation of some legislations, and the release of political prisoners.
Habibie was opposed to East Timorese Independence but did consider giving East Timor special autonomy.
In late 1998, John Howard, the Prime Minister of Australia, sent a letter to Habibie suggesting that Indonesia defuse the East Timorese issue by providing autonomy to be followed by the promise of a referendum in the long run, following the method used by France to settle New Caledonian demands for independence. Wishing to avoid the impression that Indonesia ruled East Timor as a colony, Habibie surprised some by announcing that a referendum, offering a choice between special autonomy and independence, would be held immediately in East Timor. Military leaders (collectively known as ABRI) were not consulted on this decision.
On 30 August 1999, the referendum was held and the East Timorese people overwhelmingly chose Independence in mostly free and fair elections. However, the retreat of Indonesian troops from East Timor created the 1999 East Timorese crisis where many were killed. Although Habibie favored the quick deployment of a UN peacekeeping force to halt violence, the military opposed this plan. On 10 September, General Wiranto allegedly threatened to stage a military coup if Habibie allowed in peacekeeping forces, causing Habibie to back down.
Suharto’s Corruption Charge
The MPR Special Session in November 1998 decried the presence of corruption in Indonesia, focusing particularly on Suharto. In response to this, Habibie then appointed Andi Muhammad Ghalib as Attorney General. A tape of a telephone conversation between Habibie and Ghalib was made public. It raised concerns about the veracity of the investigation by suggesting that the interrogation of Suharto was intended only for public appearances.
Under Habibie, the Indonesian government also began investigating and prosecuting Suharto’s youngest son, Tommy Suharto. Tommy was charged by Ghalib in December 1998 in conjunction with the Goro scandal, where the government, under pressure from Tommy, allegedly gave him a desirable parcel and below-market loan for the construction of a Goro supermarket. However, Tommy was found innocent in the case after several key witnesses, including one of Habibie’s aides – Rahardi Ramelan – changed their testimony and declared that the deal did not cause losses to the state.
In terms of economy, Habibie’s government stabilized the economy in the face of the Asian financial crisis and the chaos of the last few months of Suharto’s presidency. Habibie’s government began to make conciliatory gestures towards Chinese-Indonesians who, because of their elite status, were targeted in the riots of 1998. In September 1998, Habibie issued a ‘Presidential Instruction’ forbidding use of the terms pribumi and non-pribumi to differentiate indigenous and non-indigenous Indonesians.
In May 1999, Habibie issued a further instruction directing that a display of an ID card would suffice as proof of Indonesian citizenship, whereas previously, displaying a ‘Letter of Evidence of Republic of Indonesia Citizenship’ (SBKRI) was required, in addition to abolishing the official use of the terms “pribumi” and “non-pribumi” (i.e. “native” and “non-native”. Additionally, he lifted restrictions on the teaching of Mandarin Chinese.
Under Habibie, Indonesia made significant changes to its political system that expanded competition and freedom of speech. Shortly after taking office, in June 1998, Habibie’s government lifted the Suharto-era restriction on political parties and ended censorship by dissolving the Information Ministry. He also quickly committed to holding democratic elections, albeit on an initially vague timetable. In December, he proposed political reform laws that were passed by the legislature and MPR session. These laws set elections for December 1999, reduced the number of seats in parliament held by the military, and barred political activity by civil servants.
However, political opponents criticized Habibie for agreeing to give the military some seats in parliament, and taking little action on other military and judicial reforms.
Habibie’s government also passed laws which granted significant autonomy to regional governments, namely at the regency/city level. The laws resulted in indirect elections for mayors and regents, and allowed local legislatures to hold said executives accountable, though it was not implemented until after his presidency.
End of Presidency
Although he had been viewed as leading a transitional government, Habibie seemed determined to continue as president. He was initially unclear about whether he would seek a full term as president when he announced parliamentary elections in June 1998. Habibie faced opposition from many within the government party, Golkar; in July 1998, he struggled to win control of the party by appointing Akbar Tandjung as chair of the party, but was ultimately able to defeat a rival camp including former Vice President Try Sutrisno, Defence Minister Edi Sudrajat, Siswono Yudhohusodo, and Sarwono Kusumaatmadja.
However, at the same time, Habibie began to lose support from Akbar Tandjung and a faction in Golkar, composed of both reformers and hardliners, that wanted to oust him. In March 1999, Golkar put forth five presidential nominees: Habibie, Tandjung, Wiranto, Hamengkubuwono X, and Ginandjar Kartasasmita. In May 1999, Golkar announced that Habibie would be their presidential candidate after extensive lobbying, but a large faction in the party remained loyal to Tandjung and opposed to Habibie.
At the 1999 MPR General Session in October, Habibie delivered an accountability speech which was a report of what he had achieved during his presidency. Once this was completed, MPR members began voting to decide if they would accept or reject his speech. Habibie attempted to win the support of the military by offering the vice-presidency to General Wiranto, but his offer was declined. Tandjung’s Golkar faction broke with the ranks and voted against him, and his accountability speech was rejected by 355 votes to 322, and Habibie withdrew his nomination as President.
Post-Presidency, Final Years and Death
Since relinquishing the presidency, he spent more time in Germany than in Indonesia, though he was active during Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono’s presidency as a presidential adviser. During this time, he established the Habibie Centre.
In September 2006, he released a book called Detik-Detik Yang Menentukan: Jalan Panjang Indonesia Menuju Demokrasi (Decisive Moments: Indonesia’s Long Road Towards Democracy). The book recalled the events of May 1998 which led to his rise to the Presidency. In the book, he controversially accused Lieutenant General Prabowo Subianto, Suharto’s son-in-law (at that time) and the Kostrad Commander, of planning a coup d’état against him in May 1998.
In early September 2019, he was admitted to Gatot Soebroto Army Hospital, where he was undergoing treatments for heart problems, namely cardiomyopathy, and he died from heart failure on 11 September 2019. He was buried the next afternoon at the Kalibata Heroes Cemetery, next to his wife’s grave.
In response to his death, the Government of Indonesia announced a three-day national mourning period starting on 12 September, and announced that the Indonesian flag is to be flown at half-mast.
Habibie was married to Hasri Ainun Besari, a medical doctor, from 12 May 1962 until her death on 22 May 2010. The couple had two sons, Ilham Akbar Habibie and Thareq Kemal Habibie. B. J. Habibie’s brother, Junus Effendi Habibie, was Indonesian ambassador to the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. After his wife’s death, Habibie published a book titled Habibie & Ainun which recounts his relationship with Hasri Ainun from their courtship until her death. The book was adapted into a film of the same name which was released on 20 December 2012.
Puisi-puisi BJ Habibie untuk Ainun
Seribu Sudah seribu hari Ainun pindah ke dimensi dan keadaan berbeda Lingkunganmu, kemampuanmu, dan kebutuhanmu pula berbeda Karena cinta murni, suci, sejati, sempurna, dan abadi tak berbeda Kita tetap manunggal, menyatu, dan tak berbeda sepanjang masa Ragamu di Taman Pahlawan, bersama para Pahlawan Bangsa lainnya Jiwa, roh, batin, dan nuranimu telah menyatu denganku Di mana ada Ainun ada Habibie, di mana ada Habibie ada Ainun Tetap manunggal dan menyatu tak terpisahkan lagi sepanjang masa Titipan Allah bibit cinta Ilahi pada setiap insan kehidupan di mana pun Sesuai keinginan, kemampuan, kekuatan, dan kehendak-Mu Allah Kami siram dengan kasih sayang, cinta, iman, taqwa, dan budaya kami Yang murni, suci, sejati, sempurna, dan abadi sepanjang masa Allah, lindungi kami dari godaan, gangguan mencemari cinta kami Perekat kami menyatu, manunggal jiwa, roh, batin, dan nurani kami Di mana pun dalam keadaan apapun kami tetap tak terpisahkan lagi Seribu hari, seribu tahun, seribu juga tahun, sampai akhirat
Ainun Hari ini, tepat 50 tahun dan 8 menit yang lalu, kita bertatap muka Tanpa direncanakan mata kita bertemu, bagaikan kilat menyambar memukau, memesona ‘Getaran Cinta’, bagian dari ‘Getaran Jiwa’ Alunan getaran yang tinggi, berirama denyutan jantung dan tarikan nafas. Tak terkendali mengkalbui diri kita sepanjang masa sampai akhirat. Sekarang, 50 tahun dan 8 menit kemudian, berkunjung ke Taman Makam Pahlawan. Tempat peristirahatan ragamu, getaran cinta dan getaran jiwa kita telah menyatu Memukau, memesona berirama denyutan jatung dan tarikan nafas yang tinggi. Memanjatkan doa kepada Allah SWT, Tuhan Yang Maha Esa telah memanunggalkan kita. Karena cinta kita paling suci, murni, sejati, sempurna dan abadi sampai akhirat
Untuk Ainun Tepat jam sepuluh pagi, lima puluh tahun yang lalu Dengan ucapan Bismillahhirrahmaanirrahim, saya melangkah Bertemu yang dilahirkan untuk saya dan saya untuk Ainun Alunan budaya Jawa bernafaskan Islam, menjadikan kita suami isteri Melalui pasang surut kehidupan, penuh dengan kenangan manis Membangun keluarga sejahtera, damai dan tentram, keluarga sakinah Tepat jam 10 pagi lima puluh tahun kemudian, di Taman Makam Pahlawan Setelah membacakan tahlil bersama mereka yang menyayangimu Saya panjatkan doa untukmu, selalu dalam lindungan-Nya dan bimbingan-Nya Bersyukur pada Allah SWT yang telah melindungi dan mengilhami kita Mengatasi tantangan badai kehidupan, berlayar ke akhirat dalam dimensi apa saja Sekarang sudah 50 tahun berlalu, selalu menyatu dan tetap menyatu sampai akhirat
Honours and Distinctions
Habibie received several honorary degrees for his contributions in the fields of technology and science, e.g. he was awarded an Honorary DSc degree from the Cranfield Institute of Technology (United Kingdom) and Dr.h.c. degrees from Chungbuk National University and Hankuk University of Foreign Studies (South Korea) for his services to aircraft technology. In 2010, Habibie was honored with an Honorary PhD degree in Technology by the University of Indonesia for his contribution to science in practice as a technocrat.
Habibie was appointed a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering (FREng) in 1990. In 1993, he was awarded an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Aeronautical Society (HonFRAeS).
In Popular Culture
In the movies Habibie & Ainun (2012) and Rudy Habibie (2016), Habibie is portrayed by Reza Rahadian, while Bima Azriel and Bastian Bintang Simbolon portrayed Habibie during his childhood, and teenage years in Rudy Habibie respectively.
In the movie Habibie & Ainun 3 (2019), young Habibie was portrayed by Jefri Nichol.
In the movie Di Balik 98, Habibie was portrayed by Agus Kuncoro.
Few men will ever match the legacy forged by Steven Gerrard at Liverpool FC. The only player in Reds history to feature in the club’s all-time top five for both appearances and goals, the talismanic midfielder clocked up an astonishing 710 games and found the target 186 times.
A complete footballer of undoubted world-class ability, revered by teammates and opponents alike, respected by rivals and adored by supporters, nothing seemed impossible to Gerrard – he could do everything and he gave everything.
The midfielder’s tendency to drag his teammates along with him to achieve great things is perhaps best evidenced by his unique record of having scored in the finals of the Champions League, UEFA Cup, FA Cup and League Cup.
And few players end their careers having made even one contribution to a football match as iconic as his barely believable last-minute equaliser against West Ham United in the FA Cup final, or the unforgettable half-volley against Olympiacos that kept the Reds on track for European Cup glory. That’s without mentioning the inch-perfect header that kick-started a miracle in Istanbul.
But that was Gerrard through and through during a 17-year Anfield career: The Scouser who grew up to captain his boyhood club, to be one of the best in the world, to collect trophies.
We can live without religion and meditation, but we cannot survive without human affection. – His Holiness Dalai Lama