Category Archives: Biography

Charles Babbage

Charles Babbage . Biography


CHARLES BABBAGE BRITISH INVENTOR & MATHEMATICIAN

By The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica

Charles Babbage, (born December 26, 1791, London, England—died October 18, 1871, London), English mathematician and inventor who is credited with having conceived the first automatic digital computer.

In 1812 Babbage helped found the Analytical Society, whose object was to introduce developments from the European continent into English mathematics. In 1816 he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society of London. He was instrumental in founding the Royal Astronomical (1820) and Statistical (1834) societies.

Charles Babbage 01

Charles Babbage.
Wellcome Library, London (CC BY 4.0)

The idea of mechanically calculating mathematical tables first came to Babbage in 1812 or 1813. Later he made a small calculator that could perform certain mathematical computations to eight decimals. Then in 1823 he obtained government support for the design of a projected machine, the Difference Engine, with a 20-decimal capacity. Its construction required the development of mechanical engineering techniques, to which Babbage of necessity devoted himself. In the meantime (1828–39), he served as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge.

The Difference EngineThe completed portion of Charles Babbage’s Difference Engine, 1832. This advanced calculator was intended to produce logarithm tables used in navigation. The value of numbers was represented by the positions of the toothed wheels marked with decimal numbers.

23610-004-04D4000D

The Difference Engine
Science Museum London

During the mid-1830s Babbage developed plans for the Analytical Engine, the forerunner of the modern digital computer. In that device he envisioned the capability of performing any arithmetical operation on the basis of instructions from punched cards, a memory unit in which to store numbers, sequential control, and most of the other basic elements of the present-day computer. In 1843 Babbage’s friend mathematician Ada Lovelace translated a French paper about the Analytical Engine and, in her own annotations, published how it could perform a sequence of calculations, the first computer program. The Analytical Engine, however, was never completed. Babbage’s design was forgotten until his unpublished notebooks were discovered in 1937. In 1991 British scientists built Difference Engine No. 2—accurate to 31 digits—to Babbage’s specifications, and in 2000 the printer for the Difference Engine was also built.

Babbage made notable contributions in other areas as well. He assisted in establishing the modern postal system in England and compiled the first reliable actuarial tables. He also invented a type of speedometer and the locomotive cowcatcher.

Charles Babbage 02

Charles Babbage, engraving from 1871.
Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. (file no. LC-USZ62-66023)

Liem Swie King

BIOGRAPHY-NEW

Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

6885723868_8463744756

Liem Swie King (Hanzi: 林水鏡; Pinyin: Lín Shuǐjìng ; lahir di Kudus, Jawa Tengah, 28 Februari 1956; umur 61 tahun) adalah seorang pemain bulu tangkis yang dulu selalu menjadi buah bibir sejak dia mampu menantang Rudy Hartono di final All England tahun 1976 dalam usianya yang ke-20. Kemudian Swie King menjadi pewaris kejayaan Rudy di kejuaraan paling bergengsi saat itu dengan tiga kali menjadi juara ditambah empat kali menjadi finalis. Bila ditambah dengan turnamen “grand prix” yang lain, gelar kemenangan Swie King menjadi puluhan kali. Swie King juga menyumbang medali emas Asian Games di Bangkok 1978, dan enam kali membela tim Piala Thomas. Tiga di antaranya Indonesia menjadi juara.

Liem Swie King Biodata

Liem Swie King

Mulai bermain bulu tangkis sejak kecil atas dorongan orangtuanya di kota kelahiran Kudus, Swie King yang lahir 28 Februari 1956 akhirnya masuk ke dalam klub PB Djarum yang banyak melahirkan para pemain nasional.

Usai menang di Pekan Olahraga Nasional saat berusia 17 tahun, akhir 1973, Liem Swie King direkrut masuk pelatnas yang bermarkas di Hall C Senayan. Setelah 15 tahun berkiprah, Swie King merasa telah cukup dan mengundurkan diri pada tahun 1988. Saat aktif sebagai pemain, Liem terkenal dengan pukulan smash andalannya, berupa jumping smash, yang dijuluki sebagai King Smash.

Perjalanan Hidup


Liem Swie King lahir di Kudus, Jawa Tengah, 28 Februari 1956. Ia terkenal dengan pukulan jumping smash, yang dijuluki sebagai King Smash.

Sejak kecil Swie King sudah bermain bulu tangkis atas dorongan orangtuanya di Kudus, kota kelahirannya. Kepiawaiannya bermain bulu tangkis makin terasah ketika ia masuk ke dalam klub PB Djarum yang telah banyak melahirkan para pemain nasional.

Dalam catatan Pusat Data Tokoh Indonesia, Liem Swie King meraih berbagai prestasi selama 15 tahun berkiprah di bulu tangkis. Pertama kali, Swie King meraih Juara I Yunior se-Jawa Tengah (1972). Pada usia 17 tahun (1973), ia menjuarai (II) Pekan Olahraga Nasional. Setelah itu, Liem Swie King direkrut masuk pelatnas yang bermarkas di Hall C Senayan. Ia pun meraih Juara Kejurnas 1974 dan 1975.

Kemudian berkiprah di kejuaraan internasional, meraih Juara II All England (1976 & 1977). Kemudian tiga kali menjadi juara All England (1978, 1979, 1981), kejuaraan paling bergengsi kala itu. Selain itu, puluhan medali grand prix lainya, medali emas Asian Games di Bangkok 1978, dan tiga medali emas Piala Thomas (1976, 1979, 1984) dari enam kali membela tim Piala Thomas.

Demi Masa Depan


Demi menjamin masa depan, ia pun mengundurkan diri sebagai pemain nasional bulu tangkis tahun 1988. Kendati ia tidak langsung bisa menemukan kegiaatan usaha untuk mencapai cita-citanya. Setahun setelah berhenti itu, King nyaris dapat dikatakan menganggur. Sebab keahlian dan pengetahuan yang dia miliki hanyalah olahraga bulu tangkis.

Kemudian ia mulai ikut mengelola sebuah hotel di Jalan Melawai Jakarta Selatan milik mertuanya. Setelah itu, ia melebarkan sayap dengan membuka usaha griya pijat kesehatan. Kini usahanya telah mempekerjakan lebih dari 400 karyawan. Berkantornya di Kompleks Perkantoran Grand Wijaya Centre Jakarta Selatan.

Bagaimana King bisa tertarik pada bisnis perhotelan dan pijat kesehatan? Rupanya sebagai pemain bulu tangkis yang sering menginap di hotel berbintang, King tertarik dengan keindahan penataan hotel dan keramahan para pekerjanya. Begitu pula soal griya pijat. Saat menjadi atlet, King selalu membutuhkan terapi pijat setelah lelah berlatih dan bertanding. Kala itu, ia kerap mengunjungi griya pijat kesehatan di kawasan Mayestik Jakarta Selatan yang penataan ruangannya begitu bagus.

Ia pun berpikir bahwa usaha pijat kesehatan (spa) ini sangat prospektif. Kalangan eksekutif dan pengusaha Jakarta yang gila kerja butuh kesegaran fisik dan relaksasi. Maka dia membuka usaha griya pijat kesehatan Sari Mustika. Kini, dia telah membukanya di tiga lokasi, Grand Wijaya Centre, Jalan Fatmawati Jakarta Selatan, dan Kelapa Gading Jakarta Utara dengan total karyawan sekitar 200 orang. Dalam mengelola usahanya, ia pun tidak sungkan-sungkan menyambut sendiri tamu hotel atau griya pijatnya.

Hasilnya, selain usahawan dan eksekutif lokal, serta keluarga-keluarga menengah atas Jakarta, banyak ekspatriat menjadi pelanggan griyanya. Ia pun merasa bahagia karena bisa membuktikan griya pijat tidak selalu berkonotasi jelek seperti yang dibayangkan kebanyakan orang.

Menurut informasi dari kerabat dekatnya, Liem Swie King sebenarnya dari marga Oei bukan marga Liem. Pergantian marga seperti ini pada masa dahulu zaman Hindia Belanda biasa terjadi, pada masa itu seorang anak dibawah usia ketika memasuki wilayah Hindia Belanda (Indonesia sekarang) harus ada orang tua yg menyertainya, bila anak itu tidak beserta orang tua aslinya, maka oleh orang tuanya akan dititipkan kepada “orang tua” yg lain, “orang tua” ini bisa saja bermarga sama atau lain dari aslinya.

Pebulu tangkis yang pernah terjun ke dunia film sebagai bintang film Sakura dalam Pelukan, ini kini hidup bahagia bersama isteri dan tiga orang anaknya Alexander King, Stevani King dan Michele King. Ternyata, anak-anaknya tidak tahu bahwa King seorang pahlawan bulu tangkis Indonesia.

Belakangan, Nia Zulkarnaen dan Ari Sihasale, pemilik rumah produksi Alenia, mernjadikan kehebatan Liem Swie King dalam dunia bulu tangkis Indonesia sebagai inspirasi untuk membuat film tentang bulu tangkis. Film itu memang bukan bercerita tentang kisah kehidupan King. Akan tetapi, dalam film itu, King menjadi inspirasi bagi seorang ayah yang kagum pada King, lalu memotivasi putranya untuk bisa menjadi juara seperti King. ►Tian Son Lang

Kiprah di luar bulu tangkis


  • Bintang film Sakura dalam Pelukan
  • Pengusaha hotel (pekerjaan kini)
  • Kisahnya dibuat film pada tahun 2009, yaitu King
  • Bintang Iklan Indomie bersama Sherina Munaf pada tahun 2012

Pendidikan


  • SD, Kudus (1968)
  • SMP, Kudus (1971)
  • SMA, Kudus (1974)

Karier


  • Pebulu tangkis Indonesia
  • Pengusaha Hotel dan Spa

Nasional


  • Juara I Yunior se-Jawa Tengah (1972)
  • Juara II PON 1973
  • Juara Kejurnas 1974, 1975

International


Tunggal

  • 1974: Semi Finalis Asian Games Tehran
  • 1976: Finalis All England Open, Finalis Kejuaraan Asia
  • 1977: Finalis All England Open, Juara Denmark Open, Juara Swedia Open, Juara
  • SEA Games
  • 1978: Juara All England Open, Juara Asian Games Bangkok
  • 1979: Juara All England Open
  • 1980: Finalis Kejuaraan Dunia, Finalis All England
  • 1981: Juara All England Open, Semi Finalis World Games St.Clara, Juara SEA Games
  • 1982: Finalis Asian Games New Dehli, Juara Piala Dunia
  • 1983: Finalis Kejuaraan Dunia, Juara Indonesia Open, Juara Malaysia Open
  • 1984: Finalis All England Open, Finalis World Badminton Grand Prix
  • 1985: Semi Finalis All England Open

Ganda


  • 1983: Finalis SEA Games (bersama Hadibowo)
  • 1984: Juara Piala Dunia (bersama Kartono Hariamanto)
  • 1985: Juara Piala Dunia, Juara Indonesia Open, Semi Finalis Kejuaraan Dunia , Finalis SEA Games (bersama Kartono Hariamanto)
  • 1986: Juara Piala Dunia, Semi Finalis Asian Games Seoul (bersama Bobby Ertanto); Juara Indonesia Open (bersama Kartono Hariamanto)
  • 1987: Juara Asia (bersama Bobby Ertanto); Juara SEA Games, Juara Japan Open, Juara Indonesia Open, Juara Taiwan Open, Finalis Thailand Open (bersama Eddy Hartono)

Beregu


  • 1976: Juara Piala Thomas
  • 1977: Juara SEA Games
  • 1978: Juara Asian Games
  • 1979: Juara Piala Thomas, Juara SEA Games
  • 1981: Finalis SEA Games
  • 1982: Finalis Piala Thomas, Finalis Asian Games
  • 1983: Juara SEA Games
  • 1984: Juara Piala Thomas
  • 1985: Juara SEA Games
  • 1986: Finalis Piala Thomas, Semi Finalis Asian Games
  • 1987: Juara SEA Games

Baca Juga: Badminton


King Jadi Raja (Juara Asian Games 1978)

September 5, 2011

liem-rudy

Tempo, 23 Desember 1978. Dalam final perorangan, King sekali lagi menjatuhkan juara RRC, Han Tsien. Penampilannya mantap. Sejak ronde pertama, ia tak pernah kehilangan satu set pun. Juga dalam menghadapi Luan Chin, juara dunia versi Federasi Bulu tangkis Dunia (WBF) di semi final, King menang bersih. Pertarungan antara kedua finalis yang berbeda kiblat ini tampak berjalan alot. (Indonesia adalah anggota Federasi Bulutangkis Internasional — IBF). Tak ada bola dari King yang dilepas begitu saja oleh Han Tsien.

Set pertama dimenangkan King, 15-7, dengan 18 menit. Dalam set lanjutan, Han Tsien sempat memburu King 5-6, setelah ketinggalan 1-6. Tapi Han Tsien tak lama bertahan. Setelah bola berpindah tangan, ia kelihatan tak kuasa menahan tekanan. Dan King melaju dengan 7 angka tambahan. Sampai di situ, Han Tsien memperkecil ketinggalan lagi menjadi 11-13. “Agak gugup juga saya dibuat Han Tsien,” ujar King kemudian. Set ini diakhiri King 15-11 dalam 13 menit.

Melihat penampilan yang memukau itu, koran Bangkok Post, 20 Desember, tak ayal menurunkan judul menyolok: “Liem Swie King is shuttle king. ” Betulkah King raja bulutankis? Juara All England 1959, Hendra Kertanegara pernah memuji King, juara All England 1978. “Ia punya pukulan tak terlihat yang menyesatkan ala Finn Kobero dan Svend Pri,” kata Kertanegara. “Tipe permainan yang kurang kita punyai di sini.” Kobero dan Pri adalah pemain andalan Denmark. Hou Chia Chang, bintang RRC yang kini bermain ganda bersama Yu Yao Tung berpendapat lain. “King pemain baik,” kata Chang kepada Lukman Setiawan dari TEMPO. Tapi, “dalam soal pukulan (dia) masih kurang.” Pukulan King kurang keras? “Tidak. Bukan itu,” lanjutnya. “Fisiknya kuat, kakinya kuat, pukulannya keras. Cuma bila diajak bermain rally, pukulannya itu-itu saja. Tak banyak variasi.”

King, lahir di Kudus, 28 Pebruari 1956, memang agak kurang memberikan variasi pukulan bila diajak rally. Ia beberapa kali keteter sewaktu dibawa Han Tsien atau Luan Chin dalam beradu ulet. Ketika King pertama kali mengorbit di tahun 1974, pelatihnya, Agus Susanto, tampak sudah menyadari kekurangan anak asuhannya. “Lawan main jelek, ia juga jelek,” kata Susanto. Di AG VIII, King beruntung berkat pengalaman. Keteter dalam rally, diimbanginya dengan permainan cepat. “King memang unggul dalam kecepatan,” komentar pelatih RRC, Wang Wen Chiao. “Itu dimungkinkan karena staminanya bagus.”

Penampilan bulutangkis Indonesia, umumnya tidak mengecewakan. Di AG VII, Teheran 1974, mereka cuma membawa pulang 2 medali emas atas nama pasangan Tjuntjun/Johan Wahyudi dan ganda campuran Christian/Regina Masli. Sekarang mereka memboyong 4 dari 7 medali emas yang diperebutkan – 1 dari beregu putera dan 3 melalui nomor perorangan. Pemenang 3 nomor yang disebut terakhir ini adalah Liem Swie King (tunggal), Christian/Ade Chandra (ganda putera), dan Verawaty/Imelda Wiguna (ganda puteri).

Sumber : Arsip Majalah Tempo Online


Rudy Hartono, Liem Swie King, dan Misteri Final All England 1976

Pertandingan final tunggal putra All England pada 1976 masih menyimpan misteri besar untuk masyarakat Indonesia. Menyuguhkan All Indonesian Final yang mempertemukan Rudy Hartono dengan Liem Swie King, pencinta bulutangkis Tanah Air dibuat bertanya-tanya. King yang sedang dalam performa bagus di luar dugaan kalah dengan mudah dari Rudy dengan skor 7-15 dan 5-15.

Kontroversi tentang partai tersebut juga mendapat porsi istimewa di buku “Panggil Aku King” yang ditulis Robert Adhi KSP. Pada cover belakang buku itu tercantum pertanyaan tentang final itu.

Dalam final All England 1976, Liem Swie King “kalah” dari Rudy Hartono. Rudy menjadi juara ke delapan kali. Apa yang terjadi sebenarnya? Benarkah Liem Swie King diminta mengalah? Mengapa pemilik PB Djarum, Budi Hartono, kecewa pada penampilan King waktu itu?

Liem Swie King diyakini diminta untuk mengalah kepada Rudy Hartono yang merupakan seniornya di pelatnas. Apalagi kemenangan di final bakal mengantar Rudy mengukir sejarah baru, sebagai pemain yang paling banyak mengoleksi gelar juara All England di nomor tunggal putra, tepatnya sebanyak delapan kali. Yang menjadi pertanyaan, jika analisis itu benar, siapa pihak yang meminta King mengalah? Salah satu kecurigaan mengarah pada Persatuan Bulutangkis Seluruh Indonesia (PBSI). Tapi, hingga sekarang tak ada bukti yang membenarkan dugaan tersebut.

Kecurigaan ada pengaturan hasil pertandingan final itu muncul bukan tanpa alasan. Pada All England 1976, King sedang pada performa terbaik, sehingga melaju mulus tanpa hambatan dan bahkan mampu mengalahkan pemain-pemain kuat, Sture Johnson di semifinal dan Svend Pri di perempat final. Kedua pertandingan tersebut dilalui King tanpa hambatan berarti.

Keadaan terbalik justru dialami Rudy yang harus menguras keringat saat berhadapan dengan pebulutangkis asal Denmark, Flemening Delfs, di babak semifinal. Rudy pun tampil di final dalam kondisi kalah bugar dibanding sang junior di partai puncak. Di atas kertas, King sangat diunggulkan untuk bisa menjadi juara All England dengan mengalahkan Rudy di partai final.

Namun, performa King yang impresif di babak perempat final dan semifinal tidak terlihat ketika berhadapan dengan Rudy di partai puncak. Dia dianggap bermain setengah hati sehingga Rudy bisa menang dengan relatif mudah.

Pada buku “Panggil Aku King”, Liem Swie King mengaku diomeli habis-habisan oleh pemilik Djarum, Budi Hartono, saat tiba di Indonesia.

“Pak Budi merasa heran mengapa pertandingan selesai begitu cepat dan aku terlihat tidak bersemangat melawan Rudy Hartono. Budi mengatakan bahwa dia melatihku susah payah selama ini agar aku menjadi juara, bukan bertanding dengan tanpa semangat seperti terjadi di final All England 1976. Pak Budi menganggap aku bisa bertarung habis-habisan melawan Rudy Hartono, tetapi aku tidak melakukan itu,” urai King tentang memori final All England 1976.

King mengakui ditanya banyak orang tentang final kontroversial itu. Tak sedikit yang bertanya apakah King sengaja mengalah demi Rudy. Banyak fansnya yang tak percaya dengan hasil di final All England, apalagi setelah turnamen prestisius tersebut Liem Swie King tampil gemilang membekuk para rival-rivalnya.

Namun, di buku tersebut King tak memberikan jawaban gamblang atas misteri final All England 1976. Dia hanya mengaku menyesal gagal memenangi pertandingan puncak tersebut. Tak ada pengakuan maupun bantahan bahwa dia sengaja diminta mengalah demi Rudy Hartono.

“Aku memang sangat menyesal aku tidak menjadi juara All England 1976. Padahal aku merasa di puncak prestasi dan kondisiku sangat fit. Aku menunjukkan bahwa aku mampu ketika uji coba menjelang Piala Thomas, aku mengalahkan semua pemain, baik Rudy Hartono, Iie Sumirat, maupun Tjun Tjun. Aku sungguh menyesal tidak bermain habis-habisan sampai ‘berdarah-darah’ dalam partai final All England itu,” ujar Liem Swie King menutup ceritanya tentang rahasia final All England 1976.

Kemenangan atas King mengukuhkan Rudy sebagai peraih gelar juara All England terbanyak di nomor tinggal dengan delapan kemenangan. Yang istimewa, tujuh gelar di antaranya diraih Rudy secara beruntun pada pada periode 1968-1974. Gelar juara sempat lepas dari tangan Rudy setelah kalah dari pemain Denmark, Svend Pri, pada 1975.

Gelar juara pada 1976 menjadi prestasi Rudy yang terakhir di ajang All England. Prestasi Rudy di nomor tunggal putra All England belum berhasil disamai pemain manapun hingga kini.

Erland Korps dari Denmark pernah meraih tujuh gelar All England, tetapi prestasi itu diraih dalam kurun waktu 10 tahun.

Lalu, setelah sekian dekade berlalu, apakah misteri final All England 1976 berhasil dipecahkan? Jawabannya tidak. Hingga kini, Liem Swie King maupun Rudy Hartono tetap bungkam soal rahasia di balik partai final kontroversial tersebut.

Satu hal yang pasti, keduanya adalah pebulutangkis hebat yang menjadi legenda dan pernah dimiliki Indonesia. Bisa jadi pertandingan bukan hanya soal menang atau kalah buat para legenda seperti mereka. Mungkin faktor itu yang membuat Rudy Hartono dan Liem Swie King yang tetap menyimpan jawaban seputar pertanyaan di final All England 1976. Entah sampai kapan.


King Sanggup Kalahkan Lin Dan atau Chong Wei

Kompas – 21/03/2012

Legenda bulu tangkis Indonesia, Liem Swie King meminta para pemain bulu tangkis Indonesia tidak perlu takut menghadapi pemain-pemain utama dunia.

Kalau kita selalu menjaga kondisi dan konsistensi dalam pertandingan, kita akan selalu siap menghadapi pemain dengan kemampuan apa pun,” kata Liem Swie King di Jakarta, Rabu (21/3).

Liem Swie King merupakan pemain legendaris Indonesia pada dekade 1970-1980-an. Di masa jayanya, pemain kelahiran Kudus ini pernah tiga kali menjadi juara tunggal putera All England (1978, 1979 dan 1981). King juga dikenal piawai bermain ganda putera bersama Christian Hadinata, Kartono Hariatmanto atau pun Bobby Ertanto. Ia mengundurkan diri di usia 32 pada 1988.

King muncul setelah surutnya era kegemilangan maestro bulu tangkis Rudy Hartono. Berbeda dengan gaya permainan Rudy yang mengandalkan strokes, permainan Liem Swie King pada awal karirnya sangat mengandalkan tenaga dan kecepatan yang dikenal dengan gaya permainan “speed and power game.” King juga yang memopulerkan smash dengan loncatan yang dikenal dengan istilah, “King’s smash.”

King juga dianggap sebagai pemain dengan stamina yang luar biasa. Ia mampu bermain rangkap tunggal dan ganda pada saat permainan bulu tangkis masih menggunakan sistem service over dengan angka maksmial 18.

Menurut King yang telah berusia 56 tahun, perkembangan gaya permainan di tunggal saat ini jauh berbeda dengan ganda putera. “Di nomor ganda permainan sekarang sangat cepat dan membutuhkan defense yang sangat bagus. Sementara untuk tunggal masih ada reli mau pun drive yang tidak jauh berbeda dengan jaman saya,” kata King.

Menurutnya, mandeknya perkembangan teknik di nomor tunggal putera diperlihatkan dengan masih eksisnya pemain-pemain lama sepertri Lee Chong Wei, Lin Dan, Peter Gade bahkan Taufik Hidayat. “Teknik dan stroke mereka memang bagus dan sistem poin sekarang membantu mereka masih mampu bersaing dengan pemain muda,” kata King.

Karena itulah, final Olimpiade London Juli mendatang menurut King keumungkinan besar akan mempertemukan Lee Chong Wei dan Lin Dan. “Memang secara motivasi, Lee Chong Wei lebih tinggi karena belum pernah juara. Tetapi kalau menurut saya, Lin Dan akan meraih lagi medali emas olimpiade.”

Membandingkan permainan pemain sekarang dengan pada masa jayanya, King mengatakan ia sanggup mengalahkan Lin Dan atau pun Lee Chong Wei. “Tetapi dengan kondisi saya pada usia 20-an ya. Jangan membayangkan saya pada masa menjelang pensiun. Saya kira kalau seusia, saya masih bisa. Setidaknya permainan akan berlangsung seru…”


 

 

 

Rudy Hartono Kurniawan

BIOGRAPHY-NEW

Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

 

rudi hartono 2013-06-09

Rudy Hartono Kurniawan

6885723868_8463744756

Rudy Hartono Kurniawan (Hanzi: 梁海量, Nio Hap Liang; translasi fonetik nama Indonesianya ke bahasa Tionghoa: 哈托诺 Hatuonuo; lahir di Surabaya, Jawa Timur, 18 Agustus 1949; umur 68 tahun) adalah seorang mantan pemain bulu tangkis Indonesia. Ia pernah memenangkan kejuaraan dunia pada tahun 1980, dan Kejuaraan All England selama 8 kali pada tahun 1960-an dan 1970-an.

rudy-hartono-kurniawan

Rudy Hartono Kurniawan Biodata

Sejarah


Masa kecil

Rudy Hartono adalah anak ketiga dari 9 bersaudara yang lahir dari pasangan Zulkarnain Kurniawan. Orang tua Rudy tinggal di Jalan Kaliasin 49 (sekarang Jalan Basuki Rahmat), Surabaya, Jawa Timur dan bekerja sebagai penjahit pakaian pria. Selain itu orang tua Rudy juga mempunyai usaha pemrosesan susu sapi di Wonokromo, Jawa Timur.

Seperti anak-anak seumuran lainnya, Rudy kecil juga tertarik dengan berbagai macam olahraga sejak SD, terutama atletik dan renang. Pada masa SMP dia juga berkecimpung di olahraga bola voli dan pada masa SMA dia juga adalah pemain sepak bola yang handal. Tapi dari semua olahraga yang dia ikuti, keinginan terbesarnya akhirnya hanya jatuh pada permainan bulu tangkis. Pada usia 9 tahun, Rudy kecil sudah menunjukkan bakatnya di bulu tangkis. Tetapi ayahnya baru menyadarinya ketika Rudi sudah berumur 11 tahun. Sebelum itu Rudy hanya berlatih di jalan raya aspal di depan kantor PLN di Surabaya, yang sebelumnya dikenal dengan Jalan Gemblongan — ditulis oleh Rudy Hartono dalam bukunya Rajawali dengan Jurus Padi (1986). Rudy berlatih hanya pada hari Minggu, dari pagi hari hingga pukul 10 malam. Setelah merasa cukup, Rudy memutuskan utuk mengikuti kompetisi-kompetisi kecil yang ada di sekitar Surabaya yang pada masa itu biasanya hanya diterangi oleh sinar lampu petromax.

Setelah ayahnya menyadari bakat anaknya, maka Rudy kecil mulai dilatih secara sistematik pada Asosiasi Bulu Tangkis Oke dengan pola latihan yang telah ditentukan oleh ayahnya. Sekedar informasi, ayah Rudy juga pernah menjadi pemain bulu tangkis pada masa mudanya. Zulkarnain pernah bermain di kompetisi kelas utama di Surabaya. Zulkarnain pertama kalinya bermain untuk Asosiasi Bulu Tangkis Oke yang dia dirikan sendiri pada tahun 1951. Di asosiasi ini ayah Rudy juga melatih para pemain muda. Program kepelatihannya ditekankan pada empat hal utama yaitu: kecepatan, pengaturan napas yang baik, konsistensi permainan dan sifat agresif dalam menjemput target. Tidak mengherankan banyak program kepelatihannya lebih menekankan pada sisi atletik, seperti lari jarak panjang dan pendek dan juga latihan melompat (high jump).

Ketika Rudy mulai berlatih di Asosiasi yang dimiliki ayah pada saat itulah Rudy merasakan latihan profesional yang sesungguhnya. Pada saat itu asosiasi tempat ayah Rudy melatih hanya mempunyai ruangan latihan di gudang gerbong kereta api di PJKA Karangmenjangan. Dengan kondisi seperti itu Rudy tetap berlatih dengan bersemangat bahkan dia merasa bahwa tempat latihan ayahnya jauh lebih baik dari tempat latihan sebelumnya karena ruangan gedung telah memakai cahaya lampu listrik sehingga dia bisa tetap berlatih dengan maksimal sampai malam hari. Selain itu lapangan yang disediakan juga lebih baik dibanding sebelumnya dan juga ada kantin yang berada di samping gedung latihan.

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Awal Karier

Setelah beberapa lama bergabung dengan grup ayahnya, akhirnya Rudy memutuskan untuk pindah ke grup bulu tangkis yang lebih besar yaitu Grup Rajawali, grup yang telah melahirkan banyak pemain bulu tangkis dunia. Pada awal dia bergabung dengan grup ini, Rudy merasa sudah menemukan grup terbaik untuk mengembangkan bakat bulu tangkisnya. Akan tetapi setelah berdiskusi dengan ayahnya, Rudy mengakui bahwa jika dia ingin kariernya di bulu tangkis meningkat maka dia harus pindah ke tempat latihan yang lebih baik, oleh sebab itu Rudy memutuskan untuk pindah pada Pusat Pelatihan Thomas Cup pada akhir tahun 1965. Tak lama setelah itu, penampilan Rudy semakin membaik. Bahkan dia turut ambil bagian dalam memenangkan Thomas Cup untuk Indonesia pada tahun 1967. Pada umur 18 tahun, untuk pertama kalinya Rudy memenangkan titel Juara All England dengan mengalahkan Tan Aik Huang dari Malaysia dengan hasil akhir 15-12 dan 15-9. Setelah itu dia terus memenangkan titel ini sampai dengan tahun 1974.

Perolehan Medali

Perolehan medal

Statistik Karier


Final Turnamen BWF/IBF

Tunggal – Menang

Final turnamen BWF

Final Turnamen Internasional

Tunggal – Menang

Final turnamen internasional-Menang

Tunggal – Juara II

Final turnamen internasional-Juara 2

Ganda – Juara II

Final turnamen internasional-Juara 2-Ganda

Daftar prestasi pada kejuaraan All England

  • 1968: Menang – mengalahkan Tan Aik Huang, (Malaysia)
  • 1969: Menang – mengalahkan Darmadi (Indonesia)
  • 1970: Menang – mengalahkan Svend Pri (Denmark)
  • 1971: Menang – mengalahkan Muljadi (Indonesia)
  • 1972: Menang – mengalahkan Svend Pri (Denmark)
  • 1973: Menang – mengalahkan Christian Hadinata (Indonesia)
  • 1974: Menang – mengalahkan Punch Gunalan (Malaysia)
  • 1975: Kalah – dikalahkan Svend Pri (Denmark)
  • 1976: Menang – mengalahkan Liem Swie King (Indonesia)
  • 1977: – Tidak ikut
  • 1978: Kalah – dikalahkan Liem Swie King (Indonesia)

Penghargaan


Tanda Kehormatan Republik Indonesia Bintang Jasa Utama

Kegiatan di luar bulu tangkis


  • Pengusaha oli merek Top 1
  • Pemain film “Matinya Seorang Bidadari” (1971) bersama Poppy Dharsono

Tan Joe Hok: Rekor Rudy Hartono Abadi

CNN Indonesia Minggu, 22/03/2015 08:55 WIB

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Menurut salah satu legenda bulutangkis Indonesia, Tan Joe Hok, pencapaian legenda bulutangkis tanah air lainnya, Rudy Hartono, di kompetisi tertua dunia bulutangkis All England tak akan pernah bisa dilampaui oleh pemain lain.

Dalam periode tahun 1968 hingga 1974, nama Rudy memang terus-menerus terukir pada trofi All England selama tujuh kali berturut-turut.

Bahkan pada 1976, Rudy menjadi atlet bulutangkis terbanyak yang mampu meraih gelar All England, setelah mengalahkan sesama pebulutangkis Indonesia, Liem Swie King di partai puncak. Hingga kini pun, rekor delapan kali juara All England tersebut tak tersentuh oleh pebulutangkis lainnya.

Saya rasa pencapaian Rudy di All England tidak akan pernah mampu disamai oleh pemain-pemain lain,” ujar Tan Joe Hok ketika dihubungi CNN Indonesia, Selasa (17/3).

Saingan terdekat Rudy, Erland Kops, hanya berhenti di gelar ketujuh dan mengingat pebulutangkis asal Denmark tersebut telah menggantung raketnya, rekor Rudy ini tampaknya masih akan bertahan selama satu abad mendatang.

Pebulutangkis asal Tiongkok yang saat ini masih aktif di dunia bulutangkis, Lin Dan, juga hanya berhenti gelar kelima, serta gagal menambah koleksi gelarnya saat terhenti di semifinal All England tahun ini.

Usaha pebulutangkis masa kini untuk menumbangkan rekor Rudy juga dianggap Tan Joe Hok terbentur kepada jumlah turnamen bulutangkis yang kian meningkat dewasa ini.

Jika dibandingkan pada masanya, yang hanya ada turnamen besar seperti Glasgow, Amerika Serikat, Kanada, dan All England, atlet bulutangkis masa kini seringkali telah ‘kehabisan tenaga’ di turnamen-turnamen lain, sehingga gagal tampil maksimal di All England.

Pemain Langka

Sosok Rudy di dunia bulutangkis Indonesia sendiri dianggap Tan Joe Hok sebagai sosok yang langka.

Terlebih lagi determinasi dan kemauannya untuk bekerja keras dianggap oleh Tan Joe Hok tersebut sebagai sesuatu yang sulit ditemukan dalam diri pemain lain.

“Dari awal saya sudah berpikir dia akan menjadi pemain hebat,” ujar Tan Joe Hok melanjutkan. “Saat latihan benar-benar fokus, tidak mau kalah, dan tidak mau menyerah.”

Barang langka, sulit untuk mencari orang seperti dia.”

Selain itu, Tan Joe Hok juga menilai Rudy merupakan tipe atlet yang akan selalu berusaha untuk mengejar kemenangan, bukan hanya sekedar bermain ‘cantik’ untuk menghibur suporter di lapangan.

Di dunia bulutangkis ada dua jenis pemain, ujar Tan Joe Hok.

  • “Yang pertama adalah pemain yang memiliki pukulan hebat, bermain cantik, tetapi tidak selalu menang.”
  • “Sedangkan satu lagi merupakan tipe pemain yang pukulannya mungkin tidak terlalu hebat, tetapi selalu meraih kemenangan. Itulah Rudy. Permainan dia itu istilahnya tak mementingkan style.”

Kini kedua legenda bulutangkis ini telah sama-sama menggantung raketnya, namun prestasi mereka tak akan hilang ditelan zaman. Terlebih pencapaian mereka telah menjadi kebanggaan bersama bangsa Indonesia, serta meletakkan fondasi kuat di dunia bulutangkis tanah air yang kita kenal saat ini.


Rudy Hartono: Sang Maestro Bulutangkis Indonesia

Oleh: Suharyani. November 27, 2014

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Rudy Hartono Kurniawan lahir pada 18 Agustus 1949 di Surabya, Jawa Timur. Nama Rudy dalam bahasa China: Nio Hap Liang. Dia merupakan anak ketiga dari sembilan bersaudara yang lahir dari pasangan Zulkarnain dan Endang Suryaningsih. Dia memiliki dua orang kakak yang bernama Freddy Harsono dan Diana Veronica, serta memiliki enam orang adik. Rudy menganut agama Kristen Protestan. Orang tuanya tinggal di Jalan Kaliasi 49 (sekarang Jalan Basuki Rahmat), Surabaya, Jawa Timur dan bekerja sebagai penjahit pakaian pria dan mempunyai usaha pemrosesan susu sapi di Wonokromo, Jawa Timur.

Seperti anak-anak seumuran lainnya, Rudy kecil juga tertarik dengan berbagai macam olahraga. Sejak SD, terutama atletik dan renang. Pada masa SMP dia juga berkecimpung di olahraga bola voli dan pada masa SMA dia adalah pemain sepak bola yang handal. Tapi dari semua olahraga yang diikutinya, keinginan terbesarnya akhirnya hanya jatuh pada permainan bulutangkis. Pada usia 9 tahun, dia sudah menunjukkan bakatnya di bulutangkis. Tetapi, ayahnya baru menyadarinya ketika dia sudah berumur 11 tahun.

Sebelum itu, Rudy hanya berlatih di Jalan raya di depan kantor PLN di Surabaya yang sebelumnya dikenal dengan jalan Gemblongan. Dia berlatih hanya pada hari Minggu dari pagi hingga pukul 10 malam. Setelah merasa cukup, dia memutuskan untuk mengikuti kompetisi-kompetisi kecil di sekitar Surabaya yang pada masa itu hanya diterangi oleh lampu petromax. Setelah ayahnya menyadari bakat anaknya, maka Rudy kecil mulai dilatih secara sistematik pada Asoiasi Bulutangkis Oke dengan pola latihan yang ditentukan ayahnya. Program kepelatihannya di tekankan pada empat hal utama yaitu: kecepatan, pengaturan napas, konsistensi permainan dan sifat agresif dalam menjemput target. Pada saat itu asosiasi tempat ayah Rudy melatih hanya mempunyai latihan di gudang gerbang kereta api di PJKA Karangmenjangan. Dia merasa bahwa tempat latihan ayahnya jauh lebih baik dari tempat latihan sebelumnya karena ruangan gedung telah memakai cahaya lampu listrik sehingga dia tetap bisa berlatih dengan maksimal.

Setelah beberapa lama bergabung dengan grup ayahnya, akhirnya Rudy memutuskan untuk pindah ke grup bulutangkis yang lebih besar yaitu Rajawali Group yang telah banyak menghasilkan pemain bulutangkis dunia. Namun, setelah mendapat masukan ayahnya. Ia mengakui bahwa jika ingin kemampuan dan kariernya di bulutangkis meningkat maka dia harus pindah ke tempat latihan yang lebih baik. Oleh karena itu, Rudy lantas bergabung dengan Pusat Pelatihan Nasional untuk Thomas Cup di akhir 1965. Setelah bergabung dengan Pusat Pelatihan Nasional untuk Thomas Cup, kemampuannya meningkat pesat.

Rudy telah menjadi bagian dari Thomas Cup yang menang pada 1967. Setahun kemudian, di usia 18 tahun dia meraih juara pertama di Kejuaraan All England mengalahkan pemain Malaysia, Tan Aik Huang dengan skor 15-12 dan 15-9. Dia kemudian menjadi juara di tahun-tahun berikutnya hingga 1974. Namun, nampaknya kedigdayaannya tidak berlangsung lama. Pada 1975, dia kalah dari Svend Pri. Tetapi, gelar juara All England dia rebut kembali pada 1976. Pada tahun yang sama, tanggal 28 Agustus setelah memperoleh gelar juaranya ke 8 dalam kompetisi All England Rudy Hartono menikahi Jane Anwar dan di karuniai dua orang anak yaitu Christoper Hartono dan Chistine Hartini Kurniawan. Bersama tim Indonesia, Rudy menjuarai Thomas Cup pada 1970, 1973, dan 1976. Setelah absen selama dua tahun, dia tampil kembali pada Kejuaraan Dunia Bulutangkis II di Jakarta pada tahun 1980. Semula dimaksudkan sebagai pendamping, ternyata secara mengagumkan Rudy keluar sebagai juara. Berhadapan dengan Liem Swing King di final, pada usia 31 tahun dia membuktikan dirinya sebagai maestro tangguh. Dia dijuluki sebagai ‘Wonder Boy’, karena sampai saat ini belum ada satu pun atlet bulutangkis dunia yang mengalahkan rekor prestasinya dengan 8 kali menjuarai kompetisi bulutangkis tertua di dunia yaitu All England.

Berikut ini adalah daftar perstasi Rudy Hartono: Juara tunggal putra All England 8 kali (1968, 1969, 1070, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974, dan 1976), Runner Up All England disektor ganda putra tahun 1971, Runner Up All England (1975,1978), Juara bersama Tim Thomas Cup Indonesia 4 kali (1970, 1973, 1976, 1979), Runner Up bersama Tim Thomas 2 kali (1967,1982), Juara dunia Cup Championship 1980, Juara Denmark open 3 kali (1971, 1972, 1974), Juara Canadian open 2 kali (1969, 1971), Juara US Open 1969, Juara Japan open 1981, Juara cabang olahraga percobaan pada olimpiade 1972 di Munich. Selain itu, Rudy juga memperoleh banyak penghargaan dari dalam maupun luar negeri seperti Asian Heroes, Time Magazine tahun 2006, Tercatat dalam Guiness Book Of World Records tahun 1982, Olahragawan terbaik SIWO/PWI pada tahun 1969 dan 1974, IBF Distinguished Service Awards 1985, IBF Herbert Scheele Trophy 1986, Honorary Diploma tahun 1987 dari The International Committee’s “Fair Play” Award, dan Tanda Kehormatan Republik Indonesia Jasa Utama.

Pada tahun 1971, Rudy Hartono pernah mencoba dunia akting dengan bermain di layar lebar bersama Poppy Dharsono dalam film yang berjudul “Matinya Seorang Bidadari”. Dan kemudian di tahun 1986, dia menerbitkan bukunya yang berjudul “Rajawali Dengan Jurus Padi” dalam bukunya tersebut Rudy menuliskan kisah perjalanan hidupnya.

Dan pada tahun 1982, Rudy Hartono menggantungkan raketnya sekaligus menutup masa keatletannya. Bahkan, pada tahun 1988 dia sudah tidak bisa lagi bermain bulutangkis walaupun hanya latihan ringan saja, dikarenakan operasi jantung yang telah dia jalani di Australia. Meskipun itu, Rudy tetap terlibat dalam olahraga yang dia tekuni semenjak kecil ini, walau hanya dari pinggir lapangan. Olahragawan terbaik SIWO/PWI tahun 1969 dan 1974 ini menjadi Ketua Bidang Pembinaan PB PBSI dalam kurun waktu 1981-1985 dibawah kepengurusan Ferry Sonneville. Selain itu, dengan materi yang dimilikinya, ditunjang oleh hubungan yang luas dengan banyak pengusaha, dan hasil kuliahnya di Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Trisakti Jakarta dia mengembangkan bisnis. Peternakan sapi perah di Sukabumi adalah awal mulanya dia bergerak dalam bisnis susu. Dia juga bergerak dalam bisnis alat olahraga dengan mengageni merk Mikasa, Ascot, dan Yonex. Kemudian melalui Havilah Citra Foootwear yang didirikan pada tahun 1996, dia mengimpor berbagai macam pakaian olahraga. Selain itu, Rudy pun pernah menjadi pengusaha di merek Top 1. Dan berkat nama besarnya di dunia bulutangkis, United Nations Development (UNDP) menunjuk dirinya sebagai duta bangsa untuk Indonesia.

Rudy Hartono adalah salah satu orang yang sangat berkontribusi besar dalam mengharumkan nama Indonesia dimata dunia Internasional lewat permainan bulutangkisnya. Puluhan gelar telah dia dapatkan, bahkan belum ada atlet yang mampu menandinginya. Berbagai penghargaan dari Internasional juga pernah dia dapatkan. Rudy Hartono juga sukses mencetak pemain-pemain muda berbakat lainnya, seperti Alan Budi Kusuma yang sukses meraih gelar juara di Olimpiade Barcelona tahun 1992. Meskipun Rudy Hartono adalah seorang pembulutangkis yang hebat, dia tetap rendah hati dan tidak pernah bersikap sombong.


Percaya Diri, Sakit Gigi, Juara All England Delapan Kali

Sabtu, 21/03/2015

Rudy Hartono, Juara All England tujuh kali beruntun dan delapan kemenangan secara keseluruhan.

Dalam deret kalimat itu, ada kehebatan, ketekunan, kerja keras, konsistensi, dan ada pula keberuntungan.

Rudy pertama kali memesona publik saat tampil di Piala Thomas 1967. Meskipun Indonesia kalah di partai final, namun Rudy sukses menyumbang dua poin di babak final dengan mengalahkan dua tunggal Malaysia, Tan Aik Huang dan Yew Cheng Hoe.

“Saat itu saya sudah disebut-sebut sebagai calon bintang bulu tangkis masa depan Indonesia. Karena saat itu saya baru berusia 17 tahun,” ujar Rudy mengenang.

Kemunculan Rudy pun seolah menjadi jawaban atas pergantian generasi bulu tangkis Indonesia setelah pada dekade sebelumnya nama Ferry Sonneville dan Tan Joe Hok menjadi ujung tombak nomor tunggal Indonesia.

“Saat itu saya langsung menjadi pebulu tangkis nomor satu di Indonesia. Meski demikian tetap saja keraguan mengalir perihal keberangkatan ke All England,” ucap Rudy.

“Padahal saya punya dasar keyakinan. Tan Aik Huang yang saya kalahkan di final Piala Thomas saja pernah jadi juara All England karena itulah saya pun yakin bahwa saya punya kemampuan untuk itu,” kata Rudy melanjutkan.

Selain hal itu, keyakinan Rudy juga lantaran persiapan yang ia lakukan begitu panjang dan intens jelang All England tersebut.

“Saya berlatih selama lima bulan, tanpa pelatih, sehingga saya harus menyusun program sendiri. Saya begitu fokus dalam latihan setiap harinya karena saya ingin menjadi juara di Inggris,” tutur Rudy.

Latihan keras Rudy pun terbayar di lapangan. Dalam perjalanan ke babak final, Rudy hanya kehilangan satu game, yaitu saat menang rubber game atas Sven Andersen, 15-9, 12-15, 15-9.

Di babak final, Rudy ternyata bertemu Tan Aik Huang. Rudy sukses menuntaskan perjalanan debutnya di All England dengan gelar juara usai menang 15-12, 15-9.

“Saya gembira begitupun rakyat Indonesia apalagi saat itu kita mendapat dua gelar (Indonesia juga juara di nomor ganda putri lewat Minarni Soedaryanto/Retno Koestijah). Di nomor tunggal putra, setelah hampir satu dekade, akhirnya ada lagi juara All England dari Indonesia.”

Sakit Gigi di London

Banyak yang bertanya seperti apa kondisi fisik Rudy di tiap tahunnya, sehingga ia bisa menjuarai All England selama tujuh tahun beruntun dan delapan kali secara keseluruhan.

Kondisi fisik prima jelas menjadi salah satu syarat mutlak untuk terciptanya performa yang konsisten selama tujuh tahun beruntun itu.

“Ya, skill dan fisik yang prima itu pasti bisa diciptakan lewat latihan dan persiapan yang baik. Saya rata-rata melakukan persiapan selama tiga bulan jelang All England,” ucap Rudy.

“Namun tak dimungkiri juga pasti ada masalah soal kebugaran tubuh saya ketika itu.”

Rudy pun kemudian mengenang saat dirinya sakit gigi di tahun 1970.

“Sebelum berangkat saya sehat-sehat saja. Namun begitu sampai di sana gigi saya sakit sekali rasanya padahal esoknya sudah mau bertanding. Karena itu mau tak mau saya harus segera cari dokter dan cabut gigi saya,” tutur pria kelahiran Surabaya ini.

“Beruntung esoknya sudah tidak terasa lagi sakitnya. Saya pun bisa bertanding tanpa gangguan.”

Selain sakit gigi, Rudy pun mengaku bahwa ia juga sempat mengalami beberapa kendala pada tubuhnya selama perjuangannya meraih titel demi titel All England tiap tahunnya.

“Jika cedera-cedera ringan saya juga mengalaminya. Namun untuk cedera berat, saya tidak pernah mendapatkannya selama tujuh tahun dominasi saya di All England,” kata Rudy.

“Di situlah keberuntungan juga sepertinya berperan sehingga saya bisa hampir selalu berada dalam kondisi fit setiap All England digelar,” ucapnya menambahkan.

Erland Kops Si Pemicu

Menjadi juara All England tujuh kali beruntun, selain skill dan kondisi yang prima, fokus dan konsentrasi juga memegang peranan penting.

Setelah menjadi juara dari tahun ke tahun, tak dimungkiri kadang perasaan jenuh bisa menghampiri seorang atlet. Hal itu bisa jadi akan membuat mereka kehilangan fokus, motivasi atau bahkan meremehkan lawan-lawan yang ada.

“Saat saya sudah jadi juara untuk ketiga kalinya memang saya sempat bertanya,’kok saya bisa juara All England lagi, berturut-turut, padahal saingannya juga banyak.’ Begitu yang saya pikirikan,” tutur Rudy.

“Namun saya tidak pernah mengalami apa yang disebut kehilangan motivasi. Pasalnya, di atas saya sudah ada yang pernah menjadi juara All England empat kali beruntun yaitu Erland Kops. Maka dari itu saya terpacu ingin mengalahkan rekornya,” ujar pria kelahiran 18 Agustus ini menambahkan.

Karena terpacu oleh rekor Kops itulah, Rudy tidak pernah menganggap remeh lawan-lawan dalam keikutsertaannya pada turnamen All England.

“Setelah saya menumbangkan rekor kemenangan beruntun, saya pun terpacu untuk mengalahkan rekor kemenangan terbanyak di All England, juga atas nama Kops, sebanyak tujuh gelar juara,” ucap Rudy.

“Hal itulah yang akhirnya membawa saya terus memacu diri hingga akhirnya berhasil memenangkan All England sebanyak delapan kali.”


8 Piala All England Tersimpan dengan Baik di Rumah Rudy Hartono

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Rekor Rudy Hartono di All England belum terpecahkan. Delapan piala sebagai juara ajang bulutangkis tertua disimpan dengan baik di kediamannya. 

Sejak memutuskan untuk menjadi pemain profesional bulutangkis, Rudy, 57 tahun, langsung memasang target untuk menjadi juara All England. Ajang itu menjadi kejuaraan paling bergengsi. Federasi bulutangkis dunia baru mulai menggelar Kejuaraan Dunia 1977 dan bulutangkis baru dihelat di Olimpiade pada 1992. 

Bahkan sampai saat ini, All England masih dianggap sebagai kejuaraan prestisius bagi para pemain bulutangkis dunia. Ajang itu dianggap se-level Grand Slam Wimbledon pada tenis. Sebagai kejuaraan klasik dengan aura magis, setiap pemain ingin mencatatkan diri sebagai juara. 

“All England itu kejuaraan yang bergengsi, seperti Wimbledon pada tenis. Kalau sudah jadi juara maka seorang petenis akan mengincar juara sesering mungkin,” kata Rudy dalam obrolan dengan detikSport, Jumat (10/3/2017).

Dengan motivasi itu, Rudy berhasil menjadi juara sejak penampilan pertamanya di All England pada 1968. Rudy sekaligus mencatatkan diri sebagai juara All England Termuda kala itu, umur 18 tahun dan tujuh bulan

Namun Rudy tak mau berhenti di sana. Dia melanjutkan sukses tersebut sampai enam tahun beruntun. Rudy pun tercatat sebagai pemilik Juara All England Tujuh Kali Beruntun (1968-1974). Saat tampil dalam All England ke delapan pada 1975, gelar juara lepas dari tangan Rudy. Dia dikalahkan pemain Denmark, Svend Pri di final.

“Kenapa saat itu saya kalah di final? Sulit untuk mempertahankan juara tujuh kali beruntun. Sudah tujuh kali juara itu sulit untuk mempertahankannya pada tahun ke delapan. Bahkan sampai saat ini belum ada lagi kan yang mampu menyamai rekor saya?” tutur Rudy. 

Setahun kemudian, Rudy sukses meraih gelar juara lagi. Dalam edisi tersebut tercipta All Indonesian Final. Rudy mengalahkan Liem Swie King di partai final. 

“Di antara semua gelar juara itu, yang pertama dan yang ketujuh sebagai momen paling mengesankan. Piala-piala itu saya simpan di rumah. Saya juga menyimpan harapan ada juara lagi dari nomor tunggal, mau putra ataupun putri, dari Indonesia,” ungkap Rudy yang kini menjadi ketua umum PB Jaya Raya Jakarta itu. 

Indonesia memang sudah cukup lama tak menjadi juara di nomor tunggal. Juara tunggal putra terakhir dicatatkan Haryanto Arbi pada 1994 atau 23 tahun lalu. Penantian dengan durasi yang sama juga terjadi pada nomor tunggal putri. Belum muncul lagi juara sejak Susy Susanti menjadi kampiun pada 1994

Rudy harus menunggu lebih lama lagi untuk mewujudkan harapan itu. Wakil Indonesia di nomor tunggal sudah habis sejak All England 2017 sampai di babak kedua. 


Rudy Hartono resmikan sekolah bulu tangkis untuk SD

Jumat, 28 November 2014

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“Setahun akan kelihatan, siapa yang berbakat, 20 anak yang berbakat akan dimasukkan ke klub”

Legenda bulu tangkis Tanah Air Rudy Hartono meresmikan program sekolah bulu tangkis untuk tiga sekolah dasar (SD) yakni SDN Lawanggintung 2 Bogor, SDN Lawanggintung 1 Bogor, dan SDN Semeru di Bogor, Jawa Barat, Jumat.

“Ketika saya meraih juara All England pada 1972, kemudian saya menorehkan sejarah delapan kali juara All England, saya ingat bahwa saya harus membina calon atlet bulu tangkis sejak muda,” ujar Rudy didampingi oleh Wali Kota Bogor, Bima Arya.

Rudy Hartono berlatih bulu tangkis sejak berumur delapan tahun. Ayahnya yang berjasa membawa Rudy menjadi atlet dengan prestasi dunia. 

“Sekolah ini sebenarnya keinginan saya sejak lama, yang baru tercapai pada hari ini,” tambah dia yang juga Ketua Yayasan Olahragawan Indonesia (YOI) itu.

Dalam pelaksanaan program itu, pelatih-pelatih bulu tangkis dari YOI akan melatih sebanyak 250 murid SD. Mereka akan mendapat latihan satu kali dalam seminggu.

Dari latihan itu, diharapkan akan muncul bibit unggul atlet bulu tangkis Tanah Air.

“Setahun akan kelihatan, siapa yang berbakat, 20 anak yang berbakat akan dimasukkan ke klub,” jelas dia.

Rudy mengaku prihatin dengan menurunnya prestasi bulu tangkis di Tanah Air yang berimbas pada turunnya animo masyarakat akan aktivitas bulu tangkis.

“Program ini upaya konkret untuk mengakrabkan kembali bulu tangkis pada masyarakat,” katanya.

Wali Kota Bogor, Bima Arya, mengaku sangat antusias dengan program yang digagas oleh YOI itu.

“Memupuk semangat olahraga tidak bisa dikerjakan sendiri, tapi bersama-sama dengan pemerintah,” kata Bima.

Pemkot Bogor akan mendorong turnamen olahraga yang diikuti siswa. Bima mengharapkan dalam kurun waktu 10 tahun, akan ada atlet asal Bogor yang berprestasi tingkat dunia.

Editor: Fitri Supratiwi


Ciptakan Juara Dunia

Sabtu, 29 November 2014 – 14:40 WIB

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BOGOR – Pencarian bibit-bibit muda bulu tangkis Indonesia bisa dibilang masih belum berkembang. Karena itu, mantan juara dunia Rudy Hartono membuat program menciptakan talenta muda kepada siswa-siswi Sekolah Dasar (SD) untuk menjadi juara dunia di masa depan. 

Rudy ingin mewujudkan itu karena prestasi bulu tangkis Indonesia menurun saat ini. Padahal, saat era 1970- an hingga 1990-an, prestasi atlet bulu tangkis Indonesia begitu disegani di dunia. Bahkan, gairah masyarakat terhadap bulu tangkis ikut melesat. Sayang, kondisi positif itu tak bisa dipertahankan. 

Pebulu tangkis Merah Putihterbukti selalu kandas menggapai gelar juara atau paling tidak menjadi finalis. Di Piala Thomas dan Uber 2012, misalnya. Indonesia terlempar dari posisi 4 besar. Karena itu, Rudy ingin kembali mengakrabkan masyarakat Indonesia dengan bulu tangkis. 

Bekerja sama dengan Yayasan Olahragawan Indonesia (YOI), mereka mencanangkan program sekolah bulu tangkis untuk siswa SD. “Harus ada penerusnya. Jadi, harus ada pembinaan sejak usia dini. Keinginan saya baru terkabul kali ini, bulu tangkis masuk ke sekolah dasar. Saya percaya 10 tahun kemudian sudah ada yang menjadi pemain kelas dunia,” ucap Rudy, dalam acara peresmian Rudy Hartono Badminton School di SDN Lawanggintung 2, Bogor, Jawa Barat, kemarin. /Raikhul amar


 

George Best

George Best Biography


 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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George Best (22 May 1946 – 25 November 2005) was a Northern Irish professional footballer who played as a winger for Manchester United and the Northern Ireland national team. In 1968, he won the European Cup with Manchester United, and was named the European Footballer of the Year and FWA Footballer of the Year. The Irish Football Association described him as the “greatest player to ever pull on the green shirt of Northern Ireland”.

Born and brought up in Belfast, Best began his club career in England with Manchester United, with the scout who had spotted his talent at the age of 15 sending a telegram to manager Matt Busby which read: “I think I’ve found you a genius.” After making his debut for United aged 17, he scored 179 goals from 470 appearances over 11 years, and was the club’s top goalscorer in the league for five consecutive seasons.

One of the greatest dribblers of all time, his playing style combined pace, skill, balance, feints, two-footedness, goalscoring and the ability to beat defenders. Best unexpectedly quit United in 1974 at age 27, but returned to football for a number of clubs around the world in short spells, until retiring in 1984, age 37. In international football, he was capped 37 times and scored nine goals between 1964 and 1977, although a combination of the team’s performance and his lack of fitness in 1982 meant that he never played in the finals of a European Championship or World Cup.

Best was one of the first celebrity footballers, earning the nickname “El Beatle” in 1966, but his subsequent extravagant lifestyle led to various problems, most notably alcoholism, which he suffered from for the rest of his life. These issues affected him on and off the field, at times causing controversy. He said of his career: “I spent a lot of money on booze, birds [women] and fast cars – the rest I just squandered”. After football, he spent some time as a football analyst, but his financial and health problems continued into his retirement. He died in 2005, age 59, due to complications from the immunosuppressive drugs he needed to take after a liver transplant in 2002. He continued drinking after the liver transplant. Best was married twice, to two former models, Angie Best and then Alex Best. His son Calum Best was born in 1981 from his first marriage.

Best was voted 8th in the World Soccer 100 greatest football players of the 20th century election in 1999 and was voted 16th in the IFFHS World Player of the Century election in 1999. He was on the six man short list for the BBC’s Sports Personality of the Century in 1999. Best was one of the inaugural 22 inductees into the English Football Hall of Fame in 2002. In 2004, he was voted 19th in the public UEFA Golden Jubilee Poll and was named in the FIFA 100 list of the world’s greatest living players. Former Brazilian footballer Pelé stated, “George Best was the greatest player in the world”. Best was once quoted as saying, “Pelé called me the greatest footballer in the world. That is the ultimate salute to my life.” On what would have been his 60th birthday, Belfast City Airport was renamed the George Best Belfast City Airport. According to the BBC, Best was remembered by mourners at his public funeral held in Belfast as “the beautiful boy” [with a] “beautiful game”.

Mark Garnett and Richard Weight have explored the enduring appeal of George Best:

The British like their heroes to be tragic ones: possessed of enough glamour and talent for stardom to be lived vicariously through them; yet flawed and vulnerable enough for the public not to be threatened by their success.

Early Years and Family


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Best grew up on the Cregagh estate, east Belfast

George Best was the first child of Richard “Dickie” Best (1919–2008) and Anne Best (née Withers; 1922–1978). He was born on 22 May 1946 and grew up in Cregagh, east Belfast. Best was brought up in the Free Presbyterian faith. His father was a member of the Orange Order and as a boy George carried the strings of the banner in his local Cregagh lodge. In his autobiography, Best mentioned how important the order was to his family. Best had four sisters, Carol, Barbara, Julie and Grace, and one brother, Ian (Ian Busby Best). Best’s father died on 16 April 2008, at the age of 88, in the Ulster Hospital in Dundonald, Northern Ireland. Best’s mother Anne died from alcoholism-related cardiovascular disease in 1978, at the age of 55.

In 1957, the academically gifted Best passed the 11 plus and went to Grosvenor High School, but he soon played truant as the school specialised in rugby. Best then moved to Lisnasharragh Secondary School, reuniting him with friends from primary school and allowing him to focus on football. He grew up supporting Glentoran and Wolverhampton Wanderers.

Club Career


Manchester United

At the age of 15, Best was discovered in Belfast by Manchester United scout Bob Bishop, whose telegram to United manager Matt Busby read: “I think I’ve found you a genius.” His local club Glentoran had previously rejected him for being “too small and light”. Best was subsequently given a trial and signed up by United’s chief scout Joe Armstrong. His first time moving to the club, Best quickly became homesick and stayed for only two days before going back home to Northern Ireland. He returned to Manchester and spent two years as an amateur, as English clubs were not allowed to take Northern Irish players on as apprentices. He was given a job as an errand boy on the Manchester Ship Canal, allowing him to train with the club twice a week.

Best made his First Division debut, aged 17, on 14 September 1963 against West Bromwich Albion at Old Trafford in a 1–0 victory. He then dropped back into the reserves, before scoring his first goal for the first team in his second appearance in a 5–1 win over Burnley on 28 December. Manager Matt Busby then kept Best in the team, and by the end of the 1963–64 season, he had made 26 appearances, scoring six goals. Manchester United finished second, four points behind Liverpool. They also reached the semi-finals of the FA Cup, where a defeat to West Ham United cost Best the chance to break a record; in the final Preston North End’s Howard Kendall became the youngest ever player in a FA Cup Final – he shared the same birthday as Best. That same season, Best was a part of the Manchester United side that won the 1964 FA Youth Cup, the sixth FA Youth Cup won under the management of Jimmy Murphy, and the first since the 1958 Munich air disaster.

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The United Trinity statue of Best (left), Denis Law (centre) and Bobby Charlton (right) outside Old Trafford

Though opponents would often use rough play to try to stifle his technical ability, Busby ensured that “fierce, sometimes brutal” training sessions left Best well used to coping with tough challenges. In the 1964–65 season, his first full season as a first team regular, Best helped Manchester United to claim the league title. A 1–0 victory at Elland Road proved decisive as the title race came down to goal average between the “Red Devils” and bitter rivals Leeds United; Leeds did manage to gain some measure of revenge though by knocking Manchester United out of the FA Cup at the semi-final stage. Over the course of the campaign Best contributed 14 goals in 59 competitive games. He scored the opening goal of the 1965 FA Charity Shield at Old Trafford, which ended in a 2–2 draw with Liverpool.

The rising star of English football, Best was catapulted to superstar status at the age of 19 when he scored two goals in a European Cup quarter-final match against Benfica at the Estádio da Luz on 9 March 1966. The Portuguese media dubbed him “O Quinto Beatle”, “the fifth Beatle” in English, and on the team’s return to England Best was photographed in his new sombrero with the headline, “El Beatle”. His talent and showmanship made him a crowd and media favourite, and he went from being headline news in the back pages to the front pages. Other nicknames included the “Belfast Boy”, and he was often referred to as Georgie, or Geordie in his native Belfast. However United failed to win any major honours in the 1965–66 season, and Best was injured from 26 March onwards with a twisted knee following a bad tackle from a Preston North End player. However United staff claimed it was light ligament damage so as to keep Best on the field for the rest of the campaign. He had little faith in the United medical staff, and so he secretly saw Glentoran’s physiotherapist, who readjusted his ligaments in a painful procedure. His last game of the season, his knee strapped-up, came on 13 April, and ended in a 2–0 defeat to Partizan Belgrade at Partizan Stadium.

The 1966–67 season was again successful, as Manchester United claimed the league title by four points. Best stated that “if the championship was decided on home games we would win it every season. This time our away games made the difference. We got into the right frame of mind.” An ever-present all season long, he scored ten goals in 45 games. He then helped the “Red Devils” to share the Charity Shield with a 3–3 draw with FA Cup winners Tottenham Hotspur; it was the first game to be broadcast in colour on British television.

Best scored twice against rivals Liverpool in a 2–0 win at Anfield, and also claimed a hat-trick over Newcastle United in a 6–0 home win on the penultimate league game of the season. However a home defeat to hated local rivals Manchester City proved costly, as City claimed the league title with a two-point lead over United. Yet the 1967–68 season would be remembered by United fans for the European Cup win. After disposing of Maltese Hibernians, United advanced past Yugoslavian Sarajevo with a 2–1 home win – Best assisted John Aston for the first and scored the second himself, and was described as Geoffrey Green of The Times as “the centrepiece of the chessboard … a player full of fantasy; a player who lent magic to what might have been whimsy”. In the quarter-finals United advanced past Polish club Górnik Zabrze 2–1 on aggregate, having held on to their aggregate lead in freezing temperatures in front of 105,000 at Silesian Stadium; despite losing the away tie 1–0, Best described the defeat as “one of our best-ever performances, given all the unwelcome circumstances”. Facing six times champions Real Madrid in the semi-finals, Best scored the only goal of the home fixture with a 15-yard strike that Alex Stepney described as one of Best’s finest goals. In the tie at the Bernabéu, Best was marked effectively by Manuel Sanchís Martínez, but on the one time Best got the better of him he made a telling cross to Bill Foulkes, who calmly found the net to level the game at 3–3 and to win the aggregate tie 4–3.

Days after returning to England, as the First Division’s joint top-scorer (level on 28 goals with Southampton’s Ron Davies) Best was presented with the FWA Footballer of the Year award, becoming the youngest ever recipient of the award. Facing United in the European Cup Final at Wembley were Benfica; whilst his teammates rested, Best found “a novel way to relax” before the big game by sleeping with “a particular young lady called Sue”. The game went into extra-time, and just three minutes into extra-time Best went on a mazy run and beat goalkeeper José Henrique with a dummy, before rolling the ball into the net; two further goals from Brian Kidd and Bobby Charlton settled the tie at 4–1. The victory was not only the pinnacle of Best’s career, but arguably Manchester United’s greatest achievement, considering the Munich air disaster had wiped out most of the Busby Babes just ten years previously. Best also won the Ballon d’Or in 1968 after receiving more votes than Bobby Charlton, Dragan Džajić and Franz Beckenbauer. This meant that he had won the three major honours in club football at the age of just 22 (the league title, European Cup, and European Player of the Year award). After this, his steady decline began.

“It seems impossible to hurt him. All manner of men have tried to intimidate him. Best merely glides along, riding tackles and brushing giants aside like leaves.”
— Joe Mercer, Manchester City manager, 1969.

The ‘holy trinity’ of Best, Law and Charlton remained effective as ever in the 1968–69 campaign. However the club’s new recruits were not up to scratch, as United dropped to 11th in the league before Busby announced his retirement. Best later said that “I increasingly had the feeling that I was carrying the team at times on the pitch.” He scored 22 goals in 55 games, though only he and Denis Law scored more than six league goals. In the Intercontinental Cup, fans and players alike looked forward to seeing United take on Argentine opposition Estudiantes de La Plata over the course of two legs. However Best said “no one tackled harder or dirtier than this Argentinian team” as a 1–0 defeat at the Estadio Camilo Cichero was followed by a 1–1 draw at Old Trafford. In the home tie, Best was kicked and spat on by José Hugo Medina, and both players were sent off after Best reacted with a punch. Despite their poor league form, United managed to reach the semi-finals of the European Cup (they had a relatively easy run in getting past the Republic of Ireland’s Waterford United, Belgium’s Anderlecht, and Austria’s Rapid Wien) where they were knocked out 2–1 on aggregate by A.C. Milan following a 2–0 defeat at the San Siro; Milan goalkeeper Fabio Cudicini was the hero after keeping United to only one goal at Old Trafford.

“It’s been a joke on the circuit ever since. You know, I’m on one side of the street, George Best is on the other. He nods to me and I dive under a bus.”
— Northampton goalkeeper Kim Book laughs about the jibes he has faced since being fooled by Best’s feint in the 1970 FA Cup game against Manchester United.

United improved slightly under new boss Wilf McGuinness, but still only managed an eighth-place finish in the 1969–70 season. Best hit 23 goals, including an FA Cup record six goals in an 8–2 win over Northampton Town in a mud-bath at the County Ground on 7 February 1970.

Best’s sixth goal saw him go one on one with Northampton goalkeeper Kim Book. Best made a feint to go right which put Book on his backside, before he went left and walked the ball into the net. Of the goal Book said: “I remember thinking George was going to go one way, but he dropped his shoulder and went the other, and by then I was already on the deck. He was just too good for me.” Best’s six goal performance earned him an invitation to No 10 Downing Street from UK Prime Minister Harold Wilson, who had also regularly written fan letters to him. In 2002 the British public voted Best’s record breaking performance #26 in the list of the 100 Greatest Sporting Moments.

Busby returned as manager in December 1970, though the 1970–71 season also ended without a trophy. Best began to get into trouble with his discipline: he was fined by the Football Association for receiving three yellow cards for misconduct, and he was suspended by United for two weeks after missing his train to Stamford Bridge so as to spend a weekend with actress Sinéad Cusack.

New manager Frank O’Farrell led United to an eighth-place finish in 1971–72. Highlights for Best included hat-tricks against West Ham United and Southampton, as well as a goal against Sheffield United that came after he beat four defenders in a mazy run. However, he was also sent off against Chelsea, was the subject of death threats, and failed to turn up for training for a whole week in January as he instead spent his time with Miss Great Britain 1971, Carolyn Moore. On 17 November, he was the subject of Eamonn Andrews’s This Is Your Life when he was surprised at a central London restaurant. He would be the subject for a second time in 2003 when Michael Aspel surprised him at Teddington Studios. With 27 goals in 54 appearances, Best finished as the club’s top-scorer for the sixth – and final – consecutive season. Best then announced his retirement from football, but nevertheless turned up for pre-season training, and continued to play.

United’s decline continued in the 1972–73 season, as Best was part of the ‘old guard clique’ that barely talked to the newer, less talented players. Frustrated with the club’s decline, Best went missing in December to party at the London nightclubs. He was suspended, and transfer-listed at a value of £300,000. After O’Farrell was replaced as manager by Tommy Docherty, Best announced his retirement for a second time. He resumed training on 27 April.

Best’s last competitive game for the club was on 1 January 1974 against Queens Park Rangers at Loftus Road, which United lost 3–0. He failed to turn up for training three days later and was dropped by Docherty, though he claimed Docherty was deceitful with him. Best was arrested and charged with stealing a fur coat, passport, and cheque book from Marjorie Wallace, but was later cleared of all charges. United went on to suffer relegation into the Second Division in 1973–74.

Best played at United when shirt numbers were assigned to positions, and not the player. When Best played at right wing, as he famously did during the later stages of the 1966 and 1968 European Cups, he donned the number 7. As a left winger, where he played exclusively in his debut season and nearly all of the 1971–72 campaign, he wore the number 11. Best wore the number 8 shirt at inside right on occasion throughout the 1960s, but for more than half of his matches during 1970–71. He was playing at inside left (wearing the number 10) in 1972 when he famously walked out on United the first time but was back in the number 11 for the autumn of 1973 before leaving for good. Best even wore the number 9 jersey once for United, with Bobby Charlton injured, on 22 March 1969 at Old Trafford, scoring the only goal in a 1–0 win over Sheffield Wednesday. In total Best made 470 appearances for Manchester United in all competitions from 1963 to 1974, and scored 179 goals. Over the next decade he went into an increasingly rapid decline, drifting between several clubs, including spells in South Africa, the Republic of Ireland, the United States, Scotland, and Australia.

Later Years

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Best in 1976

Playing only five competitive matches for Jewish Guild in South Africa, Best endured criticism for missing several training sessions. During his short time there, he was the main draw attracting thousands of spectators to the matches.

Best had a brief spell at Cork Celtic in December 1975 and January 1976. He made his League of Ireland debut against Drogheda United at Flower Lodge on 28 December. He played only three league games, the others against Bohemians and Shelbourne, but despite attracting big crowds he failed to score or impress. Being on a rolling contract with Cork his failure to show for a game saw him being dropped and subsequently leaving the club.

He had a brief resurgence in form with Second Division club Fulham in 1976–77, showing that, although he had lost some of his pace, he retained his skills. His time with the “Cottagers” is particularly remembered for a match against Hereford United on 25 September 1976 in which he tackled his own teammate, and old drinking mate, Rodney Marsh. Best stated later in life that he enjoyed his time most while at Craven Cottage, despite not winning any honours.

Best played for three clubs in the United States: Los Angeles Aztecs, Fort Lauderdale Strikers and later San Jose Earthquakes; he also played for the Detroit Express on a European tour. Best revelled in the anonymity the United States afforded him after England and was a success on the field, scoring 15 goals in 24 games in his first season with the Aztecs and named as the NASL’s best midfielder in his second. He and manager Ken Adam opened “Bestie’s Beach Club” (now called “The Underground” after the London subway system) in Hermosa Beach, California in the 1970s, and continued to operate it until the 1990s.

Best caused a stir when he returned to the UK to play for the Scottish club Hibernian. The club was suffering a decline in fortunes and was heading for relegation from the Premier Division, before Best was signed on a “pay per play” basis after the club chairman, Tom Hart, received a tip-off from an Edinburgh Evening News reporter that he was available. Even though Best failed to save Hibs from relegation, gates increased dramatically, and the attendance quadrupled for his first match at Easter Road. One infamous incident saw Best initially sacked by Hibs after he went on a massive drinking session with the French rugby team, who were in Edinburgh to play Scotland. He was brought back a week later. In August 1982, he played 20 minutes for Scone Thistle against Scone Amateurs; the appearance fee he received helped to pay off an income tax bill.

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Best in Hong Kong in 1982

He returned to the US to play for the San Jose Earthquakes in what was officially described as a “loan”, though he only managed a handful of appearances for Hibs in the First Division in the following season. He returned one last time to Easter Road in 1984, for Jackie McNamara’s testimonial match against Newcastle United. In his third season in the States, Best scored once in 12 appearances. His moves to Fort Lauderdale and San Jose were also unhappy, as his off-field demons began to take control of his life again. After failing to agree terms with Bolton Wanderers in 1981, he was invited as a guest player and played three matches for two Hong Kong First Division teams (Sea Bee and Rangers) in 1982.

In late 1982, Bournemouth manager Don Megson signed the 36-year-old Best for the Third Division side, and he remained there until the end of the 1982–83 season, when he retired from football at the age of 37.

Best played in a friendly for Newry Town against Shamrock Rovers in August 1983, before ending his professional career exactly 20 years after joining Manchester United with a brief four-match stint playing for the Brisbane Lions in the Australian National Soccer League during the 1983 season. He also was a guest player for an exhibition match between Dee Why Football Club and Manly Warringah held on 27 July 1983; Dee Why won the match 2–1, with Best having scored the winning goal.

On 8 August 1988, a testimonial match was held for Best at Windsor Park. Among the crowd were Sir Matt Busby, Jimmy Murphy, and Bob Bishop, the scout who discovered Best, while those playing included Osvaldo Ardiles, Pat Jennings and Liam Brady. Best scored twice, one goal from outside the box, the other from the penalty spot.

International Career


Best was capped 37 times for Northern Ireland, scoring nine goals. Of his nine international goals four were scored against Cyprus and one each against Albania, England, Scotland, Switzerland and Turkey.

“George Best was one of the most talented players of all time and probably the best footballer who never made it to a major world final.”
— 1974 World Cup winning West Germany captain Franz Beckenbauer.

On 15 May 1971, Best scored possibly the most famous “goal” of his career at Windsor Park in Belfast against England. As Gordon Banks, the English goalkeeper, released the ball in the air in order to kick the ball downfield, Best managed to kick the ball first, which sent the ball high over their heads and heading towards the open goal. Best outpaced Banks and headed the ball into the empty goal, but the goal was disallowed by referee Alistair Mackenzie.

Best continued to be selected for Northern Ireland throughout the 1970s, despite his fluctuating form and off pitch problems. Dutch captain Johan Cruyff commented: “What he [Best] had was unique, you can’t coach it”.

Best was considered briefly by manager Billy Bingham for the 1982 World Cup, but at the age of 36, with his football skills dulled by age and drink (and five years having passed since his last cap), he was not selected for the Northern Ireland squad. A proponent of a United Ireland football team, in 2005 Best stated: “I’ve always thought that at any given time both the Republic and Northern Ireland have had some great world-class players. I still hope that in my lifetime it happens.”

Style of Play


A highly skilful winger, considered by several pundits to be one of the greatest dribblers of all time, Best received plaudits for his unique playing style, which combined pace, skill, balance, feints, two-footedness, goalscoring and the ability to get past defenders. Recalling Best’s career and style of play, Patrick Barclay said: “In terms of ability he was the world’s best footballer of all time. He could do almost anything – technically, speed, complete mastery of not only the ball but his own body. You could saw his legs away and he still wouldn’t fall because his balance was uncanny, almost supernatural. Heading ability, passing ability, I mean it goes without saying the dribbling – he could beat anybody in any way he chose. For fun he’d play a one-two off the opponent’s shins.” Although Best was mostly renowned for his outstanding dribbling skills, he has also drew praise for his ability as a creator; in regard to this ability, Tony Dove commented: “I only had the opportunity to see George play once in person – Man U played a tour game in Auckland, New Zealand, late in the 60s. His brilliance was simply dazzling – player after player from the New Zealand national team queued up to try to tackle him and he gave them all dancing lessons. I clearly remember one run, starting almost from the goal-line, from a roll-out by Stepney, when he evaded every player in the NZ team, one after the other, until he reached the opposite end of the pitch and produced a perfectly floated centre for Charlton’s head. His grace, agility and ball skills were only eclipsed by his unselfish passing – many love to remark on his goal scoring but he was prodigious as the set-up man. On the field you couldn’t ask for a better football role-model. Let the man pass with what dignity remains to him. Remember him at his best.”

Personal Life


During his early years at Old Trafford, Best was a shy teenager who passed his free time in snooker halls. However, he later became known for his long hair, good looks and extravagant celebrity lifestyle, and appeared on Top of the Pops in 1965.

He opened a nightclub called Slack Alice on Bootle Street in Manchester in 1973 and owned restaurants in the city including Oscars, on the site of the old Waldorf Hotel. He also owned fashion boutiques, in partnership with Mike Summerbee. Best’s cousin Gary Reid, a member of the Ulster Defence Association, was killed in 1974 during an episode of serious rioting in east Belfast.

In 1969 I gave up women and alcohol—it was the worst 20 minutes of my life.
— Best quips on his lifestyle.

Best married Angela MacDonald-Janes on 24 January 1978 at Candlelight Wedding Chapel in Las Vegas, having met in the United States when Best was playing for the Los Angeles Aztecs. Their son, Calum, was born in 1981, but they separated the following year and divorced in 1986. His niece by marriage is actress Samantha Janus, who is the daughter of Angie MacDonald-Janes’ brother.

He married Alex Pursey in 1995 in Kensington and Chelsea, London. They divorced in 2004; they had no children. In 2004 she alleged that Best was violent towards her during their marriage, an issue that was, in fact, covered in Best’s authorised 1998 biography “Bestie” in which Alex claimed that Best punched her in the face on more than one occasion. Earlier in the book it is revealed that he struck another of his girlfriends at least once and was arrested and charged with assault on a waitress, Stevie Sloniecka, in November 1972, when he fractured her nose in Reuben’s nightclub, Manchester. He was successfully defended when the case reached court in January 1973 by barrister George Carman QC, a close drinking companion of Best, as acknowledged in his book, Scoring at Half Time.

At the peak of his career in the late 1960s and early 1970s, Best advertised Cookstown sausages on television with the phrase “the Best family sausages”.In 2007 a memorial plaque was placed outside the pork factory in the County Tyrone town.

Best had a cameo as himself in the 1971 British comedy film Percy. In 1984, he made a fitness album with Mary Stävin called Shape Up and Dance. A biographical film entitled Best was released in May 2000, with John Lynch portraying George Best. Indie rock band The Wedding Present named their first album George Best, and featured Best on the cover wearing his red Manchester United kit. After his death, Brian Kennedy and Peter Corry released a single entitled George Best – A Tribute. Best features in EA Sports’ FIFA video game series; he was included in the FIFA 16 Ultimate Team Legends.

In 2007, GQ magazine named him as one of the 50 most stylish men of the past 50 years. When Best played football, salaries were a fraction of what top players earn today, but, with his pop star image and celebrity status, Best still earned a fortune. He lost almost all of it. When asked what happened to the money he had earned, Best quipped: “I spent a lot of money on booze, birds (women) and fast cars. The rest I just squandered.”

Alcoholism

Best suffered from alcoholism for most of his adult life, leading to numerous controversies and, eventually, his death. In 1981, while playing in the United States, Best stole money from the handbag of a woman he did not know in order to fund a drinking session. “We were sitting in a bar on the beach, and when she got up to go to the toilet I leaned over and took all the money she had in her bag.”

“I was born with a great gift, and sometimes with that comes a destructive streak. Just as I wanted to outdo everyone when I played, I had to outdo everyone when we were out on the town.”
— Best on his excesses off the field.

In 1984, Best received a three-month prison sentence for drunk driving, assaulting a police officer and failing to answer bail. He spent Christmas of 1984 behind bars at Ford Open Prison. Contrary to popular belief and urban legend he never played football for the prison team. In September 1990, Best appeared on the primetime BBC chat show Wogan in which he was heavily drunk and swore, at one point saying to the host, “Terry, I like screwing”. He later apologised and said this was one of the worst episodes of his alcoholism.

Best was diagnosed with severe liver damage in March 2000. His liver was said to be functioning at only 20%. In 2001, he was admitted to hospital with pneumonia. In August 2002, he had a successful liver transplant at King’s College Hospital in London. He haemorrhaged so badly during the operation that he nearly died. The transplant was performed at public expense on the NHS, a decision which was controversial due to Best’s alcoholism. The controversy was reignited in 2003 when he was spotted openly drinking white wine spritzers. On 2 February 2004, Best was convicted of another drink-driving offence and banned from driving for 20 months.

Death


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Gates of Belfast City Hall soon after Best’s death, Another view.

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Graffiti honouring Best appeared all over Belfast after his death.

Best continued to drink, and was sometimes seen at his local pub in Surbiton, London. On 3 October 2005, he was admitted to intensive care at the private Cromwell Hospital in London, suffering from a kidney infection caused by the side effects of immuno-suppressive drugs used to prevent his body from rejecting his transplanted liver. On 27 October, newspapers stated that Best was close to death and had sent a farewell message to his loved ones. Close friends in the game visited his bedside to make their farewells, including Rodney Marsh, and the two other members of the “United Trinity”, Bobby Charlton and Denis Law. On 20 November, the British tabloid News of the World published a picture of Best (at his own request) showing him in his hospital bed with jaundice, along with a warning about the dangers of alcohol with his message: “Don’t die like me”.

In the early hours of 25 November 2005, treatment was stopped; later that day he died, aged 59, as a result of a lung infection and multiple organ failure.

Tributes were paid to Best from around the world, including from arguably three of the greatest football players ever, Pelé, Diego Maradona and Johan Cruyff. Maradona commented: “George inspired me when I was young. He was flamboyant and exciting and able to inspire his teammates. I actually think we were very similar players – dribblers who were able to create moments of magic.” Fellow Manchester United legend Eric Cantona gave a eulogy to Best: “I would love him to save me a place in his team, George Best that is, not God.”

The Premier League announced that a minute’s silence would be observed before all Premier League games to be held over the weekend of his death; however at many grounds a minute’s applause broke out in his honour. The first match at Old Trafford after Best’s death was a League Cup tie against West Bromwich Albion, the club against which he made his debut for Manchester United in 1963. The match, which United won, was preceded by tributes from former teammate Sir Bobby Charlton. Best’s son Calum and former teammates, surviving members from the West Brom team which he played against in his debut, all joined the current United squad on the pitch for a minute’s silence, during which fans in every seat held aloft pictures of Best, which were given out before the match.

Funeral

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Best’s grave at Roselawn Cemetery, overlooking east Belfast

His body left the family home at Cregagh Road, East Belfast, shortly after 10:00 UTC on Saturday, 3 December 2005. The cortege then travelled the short distance to Stormont. The route was lined with around 100,000 mourners. Former Northern Ireland manager Billy Bingham, international teammates Derek Dougan, Peter McParland, Harry Gregg, Gerry Armstrong and Denis Law were the first to carry the coffin to the base of the Stormont steps.

There was an 11 am service in the Grand Hall attended by 300 invited guests relayed to around 25,000 mourners inside the grounds of Stormont. Best’s brother Ian, agent Phil Hughes, Dr Akeel Alisa, who treated Best, and his brothers-in-law Norman McNarry and Alan McPherson, were also pallbearers. As the cortege left Stormont, the Gilnahirk pipe band played. The funeral was live on several television stations including BBC One. Afterward, Best was cremated, and his ashes were interred beside his mother Annie Elizabeth Kelly in a private ceremony at the hill-top Roselawn Cemetery, overlooking east Belfast.

Memorials

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Following his death, the George Best Belfast City Airport was named after him.

Belfast City Airport was renamed George Best Belfast City Airport as a tribute to Best. The official new name and signage was unveiled to a gathering of the Best family and friends at the airport on 22 May 2006, which would have been his 60th birthday.

Public opinion in Northern Ireland about the renaming of the airport was divided, with one poll showing 52% in favour and 48% against. Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) deputy leader and East Belfast Member of Parliament Peter Robinson, in whose constituency Belfast City airport is situated, stated that his preference was a sports stadium be named after Best.

“With feet as sensitive as a pickpocket’s hands, his control of the ball under the most violent pressure was astonishing. The bewildering repertoire of feints and swerves… and balance that would have made Isaac Newton decide he might as well have eaten the apple.”
— Sports writer Hugh McIlvanney.

In March 2006, the airline Flybe named a Dash 8 (Q400) plane The George Best. The aircraft was later used to carry Best’s family across to the Manchester memorial service for Best.

In June 2006, Sarah Fabergé, great-granddaughter of Russian Imperial Jeweller Peter Carl Fabergé, was commissioned to create the George Best Egg, in tribute. A strictly limited edition of 68 eggs were produced, with all profits from the sale of the eggs going to the George Best Foundation, which promotes health through sport and supports people with alcohol and drug problems. The first egg is on display at the George Best Airport. For the first anniversary of his death, Ulster Bank issued one million commemorative five pound notes. The notes sold out in five days. The notes sold on the online auction site eBay for up to £30.

In December 2006 the George Best Memorial Trust launched a fund-raising drive to raise £200,000 in subscriptions to pay for a life-size bronze sculpture of George Best. By 2008 the money had still not been raised until a local developer, Doug Elliott, announced on 29 January 2008, that he would put up the rest of the money and would manage delivery of the project.

Career Statistics


Club

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International

International

Honours


Club

  • Manchester United
  • FA Youth Cup: 1964
  • Football League First Division (2): 1964–65, 1966–67
  • Charity Shield (2): 1965, 1967
  • European Cup: 1968

Individual

  • Football League First Division Top Scorer: 1967–68
  • FWA Footballer of the Year: 1967–68
  • Ballon d’Or: 1968; Third place 1971
  • PFA Team of the Year Second Division: 1977
  • Football League 100 Legends: 1983
  • Honorary doctorate from Queen’s University Belfast: 2001
  • Freeman of Castlereagh: 2002
  • Inaugural inductee into the English Football Hall of Fame: 2002
  • BBC Sports Personality of the Year Lifetime Achievement Award: 2002
  • UEFA Jubilee Awards – Northern Ireland’s Golden Player: 2003
  • UEFA Golden Jubilee Poll: #19th
  • FIFA 100
  • Golden Foot: 2005, as football legend
  • PFA Merit Award: 2006
  • PFA England League Team of the Century (1907 to 2007):
    • Team of the Century 1907–1976
    • Overall Team of the Century
  • FWA Tribute Award: 2007
  • European Hall of Fame (Player): 2008
  • FIFA Player of the Century:
    • FIFA internet vote: #20
    • FIFA Magazine and Grand Jury vote: #5
  • World Soccer The Greatest Players of the 20th century: #8

Biographies


  • Bestie (co-written with Joe Lovejoy),
  • The Good, The Bad and The Bubbly (with Ross Benson)
  • Blessed: The Autobiography (with Roy Collins)
  • George Best: A Celebration (Bernie Smith and Maureen Hunt)
  • Scoring at Half Time (with Martin Knight).
  • Hard Tackles and Dirty Baths (with Harry Harris)

George Best: The Movie


In 2015 it was announced that a new film about the life of George Best was being worked on, directed by John-Paul Davidson. The film focuses on the upbringing of George Best as well as his rise to a footballing star. The producers also announced that the film would be partly crowdfunded in an attempt to make £500,000 towards its production. The film was released in February 2017 with the premiere taking place in London.

Yul Brynner

 

Yul Brynner . Biography


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

S.Kragujevic,_Yul_Brynner_in_Sarajevo,1969

Brynner in Sarajevo in November 1969

  • Born: Yuliy Borisovich Briner, July 11, 1920, Vladivostok, Far Eastern Republic
  • Died: October 10, 1985 (aged 65), New York City, New York, U.S.
  • Cause of death: Lung cancer
  • Resting place: Saint-Michel-de-Bois-Aubry Russian Orthodox Monastery near Luzé, France
  • Occupation: Actor
  • Years active: 1941–1985
  • Spouse(s)
    • Virginia Gilmore (m. 1944; div. 1960)
    • Doris Kleiner (m. 1960; div. 1967)
    • Jacqueline Thion de la Chaume (m. 1971; div. 1981)
    • Kathy Lee (m. 1983; his death 1985)
  • Children: 5

Opera Snapshot_2018-10-28_212421_en.wikipedia.org


Yul Brynner (born Yuliy Borisovich Briner, Russian: Юлий Борисович Бринер; July 11, 1920 – October 10, 1985) was a Russian-born Swiss film and stage actor.

Brynner was best known for his portrayal of King Mongkut of Siam in the Rodgers and Hammerstein musical The King and I, for which he won two Tony Awards and an Academy Award for the film version. He played the role 4,625 times on stage. He also starred as Ramesses II in the 1956 Cecil B. DeMille blockbuster The Ten Commandments, and played General Bounine in the 1956 film Anastasia, and the gunman Chris Adams in The Magnificent Seven.

Brynner was noted for his distinctive voice and for his shaved head, which he maintained as a personal trademark long after adopting it in 1951 for his role in The King and I. Earlier, he was a model and television director, and later a photographer and the author of two books.

Early Life


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Statue of Brynner in front of his birthplace in Vladivostok, Russia

Yul Brynner was born Yuliy Borisovich Briner July 11, 1920 in Vladivostok, Far Eastern Republic (present-day Primorsky Krai, Russia). He enjoyed telling tall tales and exaggerating his background and early life for the press, claiming that he was born “Taidje Khan” of part-Mongol parentage, on the Russian island of Sakhalin. In reality of Swiss-German, Russian, and partial Buryat ancestry, he was born at home in a four-story residence at 15 Aleutskaya Street, Vladivostok. He had an elder sister, Vera. He occasionally referred to himself as Julius Briner, Jules Bryner or Youl Bryner. The 1989 biography by his son, Rock Brynner, clarified some of these issues.

His father, Boris Yuliyevich Briner, was a mining engineer and inventor of Swiss-German and Russian descent, whose father, Jules Briner, was a Swiss citizen who moved to Vladivostok in the 1870s and established a successful import/export company. Brynner’s paternal grandmother, Natalya Yosifovna Kurkutova, was a native of Irkutsk and a Eurasian of part Buryat ancestry. Brynner’s mother, Marousia Dimitrievna (née Blagovidova), came from the Russian intelligentsia and studied to be an actress and singer. Brynner felt a strong personal connection to the Romani people; in 1977, Brynner was named honorary president of the International Romani Union, an office that he kept until his death.

Boris Briner’s work required extensive travel, and in 1923, he fell in love with an actress, Katya Kornukova, at the Moscow Art Theatre, and soon after abandoned his family. Yul’s mother took his elder sister, Vera (January 17, 1916 – December 13, 1967), and him to Harbin, China, where they attended a school run by the YMCA. In 1932, fearing a war between China and Japan, she took them to Paris. Brynner played his guitar in Russian nightclubs in Paris, sometimes accompanying his sister, playing Russian and Roma songs. He trained as a trapeze acrobat and worked in a French circus troupe for five years, but after sustaining a back injury, he turned to acting. In 1938, his mother was diagnosed with leukemia, and they briefly moved back to Harbin.

In 1940, speaking little English, he and his mother emigrated to the United States aboard the President Cleveland, arriving in New York City on October 25, 1940, where his sister already lived. Vera, a singer, starred in The Consul on Broadway in 1950 and appeared at The Metropolitan Opera as Prince Orlofsky in Die Fledermaus and on television in the title role of Carmen. She later taught voice in New York.

Career


Yul_Brynner_1956_drawing

Drawing of Brynner after he won an Oscar for The King and I (1956). Artist: Nicholas Volpe

During World War II, Brynner worked as a French-speaking radio announcer and commentator for the US Office of War Information, broadcasting to occupied France. At the same time, he studied acting in Connecticut with the Russian teacher Michael Chekhov. Brynner’s first Broadway performance was a small part in Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night in December 1941. Brynner found little acting work during the next few years, but among other acting stints, he co-starred in a 1946 production of Lute Song with Mary Martin. He also did some modelling work and was photographed nude by George Platt Lynes.

Brynner’s first marriage was to actress Virginia Gilmore in 1944, and soon after he began working as a director at the new CBS television studios, directing Studio One, among other shows. He made his film debut in Port of New York released in November 1949. The next year, at the urging of Martin, he auditioned for Rodgers and Hammerstein’s new musical in New York. He recalled that, as he was finding success as a director on television, he was reluctant to go back on the stage. Once he read the script, however, he was fascinated by the character of the King and was eager to perform in the project.

woman kneeling in front of a standing man; the two are conversing and each is gesturing with one hand as if ringing a small bell

Lawrence_Brynner

Brynner with Gertrude Lawrence in the original production of The King and I (1951)

His role as King Mongkut in The King and I (4,625 times on stage) became his best known role. He appeared in the original 1951 production and later touring productions, as well as a 1977 Broadway revival, a London production in 1979, and another Broadway revival in 1985. He won Tony Awards for both the first and the last of these Broadway productions. He also appeared in the 1956 film version, for which he won an Academy Award as Best Actor and in Anna and the King, a short-lived TV version on CBS in 1972. Brynner is one of only eight people who have won both a Tony and an Academy Award for the same role. His connection to the story and the role of King Mongkut is so deep that he was mentioned in the song “One Night in Bangkok”, from the 1984 musical Chess, the second act of which is set in Bangkok.

In 1951, Brynner shaved his head for his role in The King and I. Following the huge success of the Broadway production and subsequent film, Brynner continued to shave his head for the rest of his life, though he wore a wig for certain roles. Brynner’s shaven head was unusual at the time, and his striking appearance helped to give him an exotic appeal. Some fans shaved off their hair to imitate him, and a shaven head was often referred to as the “Yul Brynner look”. Brynner reprised his “Shall We Dance?” segment with Patricia Morison on the TV special General Foods 25th Anniversary Show: A Salute to Rodgers and Hammerstein, broadcast March 28, 1954 on all four American TV networks of the time.

Brynner began his film career with three motion pictures released in 1956: The Ten Commandments, as Rameses II, and Anastasia with Ingrid Bergman, as well as The King and I which was released first in June. He appeared in more than 40 other films over the next two decades, including Solomon and Sheba (1959), The Magnificent Seven (1960), Taras Bulba (1962), and Kings of the Sun (1963). He co-starred with Marlon Brando in Morituri (1965), Katharine Hepburn in The Madwoman of Chaillot (1969), and Lee J. Cobb in a film version of The Brothers Karamazov (1958). He played the titular role of The Ultimate Warrior (1975) and starred with Barbara Bouchet in Death Rage (1976). Among his final feature film appearances were Westworld (1973) where he plays a killer robot in an amusement park and its sequel Futureworld (1976), in which he requested to wear his all-black suit from The Magnificent Seven. Brynner appeared in drag (as a torch singer) in an unbilled role in the Peter Sellers comedy The Magic Christian (1969).

Photographer, Author and Musician


In addition to his work as a director and performer, Brynner was an active photographer and wrote two books. His daughter Victoria put together Yul Brynner: Photographer (ISBN 0-8109-3144-3), a collection of his photographs of family, friends, and fellow actors, as well as those he took while serving as a UN special consultant on refugees. Brynner wrote Bring Forth the Children: A Journey to the Forgotten People of Europe and the Middle East (1960), with photographs by himself and Magnum photographer Inge Morath, and The Yul Brynner Cookbook: Food Fit for the King and You (1983 ISBN 0-8128-2882-8).

He was also an accomplished guitarist. In his early period in Europe, he often played and sang gypsy songs in Parisian nightclubs with Aliosha Dimitrievitch. He sang some of those same songs in the film The Brothers Karamazov. In 1967, Dimitrievitch and he released a record album The Gypsy and I: Yul Brynner Sings Gypsy Songs (Vanguard VSD 79265).

Personal Life


Brynner married four times. The first three marriages ended in divorce. He fathered three children and adopted two. His first wife was actress Virginia Gilmore (1944–1960) with whom he had one child, Rock Yul Brynner (born December 23, 1946). His father nicknamed him “Rock” when he was six years old in honor of boxer Rocky Graziano. Rock is a historian, novelist, and university history lecturer at Marist College in Poughkeepsie, New York and Western Connecticut State University in Danbury, Connecticut.

In 2006, Rock wrote a book about his father and his family history titled Empire and Odyssey: The Brynners in Far East Russia and Beyond. He regularly returned to Vladivostok, the city of his father’s birth, for the “Pacific Meridian” Film Festival. Yul Brynner had a long affair with Marlene Dietrich, who was 19 years his senior, beginning during the first production of The King and I.

In 1959, Brynner fathered a daughter, Lark Brynner, with Frankie Tilden, who was 20 years old. Lark lived with her mother and Brynner supported her financially. His second wife, from 1960 to 1967, Doris Kleiner, was a Chilean model whom he married on the set during shooting of The Magnificent Seven in 1960. They had one child, Victoria Brynner (born November 1962), whose godmother was Audrey Hepburn. Belgian novelist and artist Monique Watteau was also romantically linked with Brynner, from 1961–1967.

His third wife, Jacqueline Thion de la Chaume (1971–1981), a French socialite, was the widow of Philippe de Croisset (son of French playwright Francis de Croisset and a publishing executive). Brynner and Jacqueline adopted two Vietnamese children: Mia (1974) and Melody (1975). The first house Brynner owned was the Manoir de Criqueboeuf, a 16th-century manor house that Jacqueline and he purchased. His 1980 announcement that he would continue in the role of the King for another long tour and Broadway run, together with his affairs with female fans and his neglect of his wife and children, purportedly broke up this marriage.

On April 4, 1983, aged 62, Brynner married his fourth and final wife, Kathy Lee (born 1957), a 24-year-old ballerina from Ipoh, Malaysia, whom he had met in a production of The King and I . They remained married for the last two years of his life.

Citizenship


Brynner, a Swiss citizen, was naturalized as a U.S. citizen after applying in 1943, at the age of 22, while living in New York as an actor and radio announcer. However, in June 1965, he renounced his US citizenship at the U.S. Embassy in Berne, Switzerland, for tax reasons. He had lost his tax exemption as an American resident abroad by working too long in the United States and would have been bankrupted by his tax and penalty debts.

Illness and Death


Brynner began smoking heavily at age 12, and although his promotional photos often showed him with a cigarette in hand, he quit the habit in 1971. In September 1983, he found a lump on his vocal cords. In Los Angeles, only hours before his 4,000th performance in The King and I, he received the test results indicating that while his throat was fine, he had inoperable lung cancer. He and the national tour of the musical were forced to take a few months off while he underwent radiation therapy, which hurt his throat and made it impossible for him to sing or speak easily. The tour then resumed.

In January 1985, nine months before his death, the tour reached New York for a farewell Broadway run. Aware he was dying, he gave an interview on Good Morning America discussing the dangers of smoking and expressing his desire to make an anti-smoking commercial. The Broadway production of The King and I ran from January 7 to June 30 of that year, with Mary Beth Peil as Anna. His last performance marked the 4625th time he had played the role of the King. Meanwhile, Brynner and the American Cancer Society created a public service announcement using a clip from the Good Morning America interview.

Brynner died of lung cancer on October 10, 1985, in New York City. A few days after his death, the recorded anti-cigarette public service announcement was shown on all the major US television networks and in many other countries. In it, he expressed his desire to make an anti-smoking commercial after discovering how sick he was, and that his death was imminent. He then looked directly into the camera for 30 seconds and said, “Now that I’m gone, I tell you: Don’t smoke. Whatever you do, just don’t smoke. If I could take back that smoking, we wouldn’t be talking about any cancer. I’m convinced of that.”

His body was buried in the grounds of the Saint-Michel-de-Bois-Aubry Orthodox monastery, near Luzé, between Tours and Poitiers in France (47.009N, 0.486E).

Awards


In 1952, he received the Tony Award for Best Featured Actor in a Musical for his portrayal of the King in The King and I. In 1985, he received a special Tony Award honoring his 4625 performances in The King and I.

He won the 1956 Academy Award for Best Actor for his portrayal of the King of Siam in the film version of The King and I and made the “Top 10 Stars of the Year” list in both 1957 and 1958.

He has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6162 Hollywood Blvd.

Honors


On September 28, 2012, a 2.4-m-tall statue was inaugurated at Yul Brynner Park, in front of the home where he was born at Aleutskaya St. No. 15 in Vladivostok, Russia. Created by local sculptor Alexei Bokiy, the monument was carved in granite from China. The grounds for the park were donated by the city of Vladivostok, which also paid additional costs. Vladivostok Mayor Igor Pushkariov, US Consul General Sylvia Curran, and Yul’s son, Rock Brynner, participated in the ceremony, along with hundreds of local residents.

Other


  • The cottage at his childhood country home, at Sidimi, near Vladivostok, is a family museum.
  • In a label-initiated publicity stunt, the 1960s surf group “The De-Fenders” shaved their heads and recast themselves as “The Brymers”, inspired by Brynner.
  • The physical appearance of Marvel Comics character Professor X was based on Brynner.

Filmography


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Short subjects

  • On Location with Westworld (1973)
  • Lost to the Revolution (1980) (narrator)

Box Office Ranking

At the height of his career Yul Brynner was voted by exhibitors as among the most popular stars at the box office:

  • 1956 – 21st (US)
  • 1957 – 10th (US), 10th (UK)
  • 1958 – 8th (US)
  • 1959 – 24th (US)
  • 1960 – 23rd (US)

Select Stage Work


  • Twelfth Night (1941) (Broadway)
  • Lute Song (1946) (Broadway and US national tour)
  • The King and I (1951) (Broadway and US national tour)
  • Home Sweet Homer (1976) (Broadway)
  • The King and I (1977) (Broadway, London and US national tour)
  • The King and I (1985) (Broadway)

James Coburn

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

470px-James_Coburn_The_Californians_1959

Coburn as Anthony Wayne in The Californians(1959)

  • Born: James Harrison Coburn III, August 31, 1928
    Laurel, Nebraska, U.S.
  • Died: November 18, 2002 (aged 74), Beverly Hills, California, U.S.
  • Cause of death: Heart attack
  • Resting place: Westwood Village Memorial Park Cemetery
  • Education: Compton Junior College
  • Alma mater: Los Angeles City College
  • Occupation: Actor
  • Years active: 1957–2002
  • Home town: Compton, California
  • Spouse(s)
    • Beverly Kelly, (m. 1959; div. 1979)
    • Paula Murad, (m. 1993; his death 2002)
  • Children
    • Dylan (deceased)
    • Saga
  • Parent(s)
    • James Harrison Coburn II
    • Mylet Coburn

James Harrison Coburn III (/dʒeɪmz ˈkoʊbɜːrrnˌˈkoʊbərn/; August 31, 1928 – November 18, 2002) was an American actor. He featured in more than 70 films, largely action roles, and made 100 television appearances during a 45-year career, ultimately winning an Academy Award in 1998 for his supporting role as Glen Whitehouse in Affliction.

A capable, rough-hewn leading man, his toothy grin and lanky physique made him a perfect tough guy in numerous leading and supporting roles in westerns and action films, such as The Magnificent Seven, Hell Is for Heroes, The Great Escape, Charade, Our Man Flint, In Like Flint, Duck, You Sucker!, and Cross of Iron. Coburn provided the voice of Henry Waternoose in the Pixar film Monsters, Inc.

During the late 1960s and early 1970s Coburn cultivated an image synonymous with “cool”, and along with such contemporaries as Lee Marvin, Steve McQueen, and Charles Bronson became one of the prominent “tough-guy” actors of his day.

Early Life


Coburn was born on August 31, 1928 in Laurel, Nebraska, the son of James Harrison Coburn II and Mylet Coburn. His father was of Scottish-Irish ancestry and his mother was an immigrant from Sweden. The elder Coburn had a garage business that was destroyed by the Great Depression. Coburn himself was raised in Compton, California, where he attended Compton Junior College. In 1950, he enlisted in the United States Army, in which he served as a truck driver and occasionally a disc jockey on an Army radio station in Texas. Coburn also narrated Army training films in Mainz, Germany.

Career


Coburn attended Los Angeles City College, where he studied acting alongside Jeff Corey and Stella Adler, and later made his stage debut at the La Jolla Playhouse in Herman Melville’s Billy Budd.

Early Work


Coburn’s first professional job as a live television play for Sidney Lumet.

He was selected for a Remington Products razor commercial in which he was able to shave off 11 days of beard growth in less than 60 seconds, while joking that he had more teeth to show on camera than the other 12 candidates for the part.

Coburn’s film debut came in 1959 as the sidekick of Pernell Roberts in the Randolph Scott western Ride Lonesome. He soon got a job in another Western Face of a Fugitive (1959).

Coburn also appeared in dozens of television roles including, with Roberts, several episodes of NBC’s Bonanza. Coburn appeared twice each on two other NBC westerns Tales of Wells Fargo with Dale Robertson, one episode in the role of Butch Cassidy, and The Restless Gun with John Payne in “The Pawn” and “The Way Back”, the latter segment alongside Bonanza’s Dan Blocker.

Coburn’s third film was a major breakthrough for him – as the knife-wielding Britt in The Magnificent Seven (1960), directed by John Sturges for the Mirisch Company. Coburn was hired through the intervention of his friend, Robert Vaughan.

Television Star


During the 1960 to 1961 season, Coburn co-starred with Ralph Taeger and Joi Lansing in the NBC adventure/drama series, Klondike, set in the Alaskan gold rush town of Skagway.

When Klondike was cancelled, Taeger and Coburn were regrouped as detectives in Mexico in NBC’s equally short-lived Acapulco.

Coburn also made two guest appearances on CBS’s Perry Mason, both times as the murder victim in “The Case of the Envious Editor” and “The Case of the Angry Astronaut.” In 1962, he portrayed the role of Col. Briscoe in the episode “Hostage Child” on CBS’s Rawhide.

Supporting Actor


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Coburn in Charade (1963)

Coburn had a good role in Hell Is for Heroes (1962), a war movie with Steve McQueen. Coburn followed this with another war film with McQueen, The Great Escape (1963), directed by Sturges for the Mirisches; Coburn played an Australian. For the Mirisches, Coburn narrated Kings of the Sun (1963).

Coburn was one of the villains in Charade (1963), starring Cary Grant and Audrey Hepburn. He was then cast as a glib naval officer in Paddy Chayefsky’s The Americanization of Emily, replacing James Garner, who had moved up to the lead when William Holden pulled out. This led to Coburn being signed to a seven-year contract with 20th Century Fox.

Coburn had another excellent support role as a one-armed Indian tracker in Major Dundee (1965), directed by Sam Peckinpah.

At Fox, he was second-billed in the pirate film A High Wind in Jamaica (1965), supporting Anthony Quinn. He had a cameo in The Loved One (1965).

Our Man Flint and Stardom


Coburn became a genuine star following the release of the James Bond parody film Our Man Flint (1966), playing super agent Derek Flint for Fox. The movie was a solid success at the box office.

He followed it with What Did You Do in the War, Daddy? (1966), a wartime comedy from Blake Edwards which was made for the Mirisches; Coburn was top billed. The film was a commercial disappointment. Dead Heat on a Merry-Go-Round (1966) was a crime movie made at Columbia.

Back at Fox, Coburn made a second Flint film, In Like Flint (1967), which was popular but Coburn did not wish to make any more. He went over to Paramount to make a Western comedy, Waterhole No. 3 (1967), and the political satire The President’s Analyst (1967). Neither film performed particularly well at the box office but over the years The President’s Analyst has become a cult film. In 1967 Coburn was voted the twelfth biggest star in Hollywood.

Over at Columbia, Coburn was in a swinging sixties heist film, Duffy (1968) which flopped. He was one of several stars who had cameos in Candy (1968) then played a hitman in Hard Contract (1969) for Fox, another flop.

Coburn tried a change of pace, an adaptation of a Tennessee Williams play, Last of the Mobile Hot Shots (1970) directed by Sidney Lumet, but the film was not popular.

In 1971, Coburn starred in the Zapata Western Duck, You Sucker!, with Rod Steiger and directed by Sergio Leone, as an Irish explosives expert and revolutionary who has fled to Mexico during the time of the Mexican Revolution in the early 20th century. This was not as highly regarded as Leone’s four previous Westerns but was hugely popular in Europe, especially France.

Back in the US he made another film with Blake Edwards, the thriller The Carey Treatment (1972). It was badly cut by MGM and was commercially underwhelming. So too was The Honkers (1972) where Coburn played a rodeo rider.

Coburn went back to Italy to make another Western, A Reason to Live, a Reason to Die (1973). He then re-teamed with director Sam Peckinpah for the 1973 film Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid, in which he played Pat Garrett. In 1973 Coburn was voted the 23rd most popular star in Hollywood.

In 1973, Coburn was among the featured celebrities dressed in prison gear on the cover of the album Band on the Run made by Paul McCartney and his band Wings. Coburn, Steve McQueen and Chuck Norris were pallbearers of Bruce Lee’s casket and Coburn was considered to be one of Lee’s friends.

Coburn was one of several stars in the popular The Last of Sheila (1973). He then starred in a series of thrillers: Harry in Your Pocket (1974) and The Internecine Project (1975). Neither was widely seen.

Decline as Star


Coburn began to drop back down the credit list: he was third billed in Bite the Bullet (1975) behind Gene Hackman and Candice Bergen for Richard Brooks. He co-starred with Charles Bronson in Hard Times (1975), the directorial debut of Walter Hill, but it was very much Bronson’s film. The movie was popular.

Coburn played the lead in the action film Sky Riders (1976) then played Charlton Heston’s antagonist in The Last Hard Men (1976). He was one of the many stars in Midway (1976) then had the star role in Cross of Iron (1977) for Sam Peckinpah, playing a German soldier. This critically acclaimed war epic performed poorly in the United States but was a huge hit in Europe. Peckinpah and Coburn remained close friends until Peckinpah’s death in 1984.

Coburn returned to television in 1978 to star in a three-part mini-series version of a Dashiell Hammett detective novel, The Dain Curse, tailoring his character to bear a physical resemblance to the author. During that same year as a spokesman for the Joseph Schlitz Brewing Company, he was paid $500,000 to promote its new product in television advertisements by saying only two words: “Schlitz. Light.” In Japan his masculine appearance was so appealing he became an icon for its leading cigarette brand. He also supported himself in later years by exporting rare automobiles to Japan. He was deeply interested in Zen and Tibetan Buddhism, and collected sacred Buddhist artwork. He narrated a film about the 16th Karmapa called “The Lion’s Roar”.

Coburn starred in Firepower (1979) with Sophia Loren, replacing Charles Bronson when the latter pulled out. He had a cameo in The Muppet Movie (1979) and had leading roles in Goldengirl (1980) and The Baltimore Bullet (1980). He was Shirley MacLaine’s husband in Loving Couples (1980) and had the lead in a Canadian film, Crossover (1980).

Final Years


Coburn moved into almost entirely support roles: the villain in High Risk (1981) and Looker (1981). He hosted a TV series Darkroom (1981-82).

Because of his severe rheumatoid arthritis, Coburn appeared in very few films during the 1980s, yet continued working until his death in 2002. This disease had left Coburn’s body deformed and in pain. “You start to turn to stone,” he told ABCNEWS in an April 1999 interview. “See, my hand is twisted now because tendons have shortened.” For 20 years he tried a host of conventional and unconventional treatments, but nothing worked. “There was so much pain that … every time I stood up, I would break into a sweat,” he recalled. Then, at age 68, Coburn tried something called MSM, methylsulfonylmethane, a sulfur compound available at most health food stores. The result, he said, was nothing short of miraculous. “You take this stuff and it starts right away,” said Coburn. “Everyone I’ve given it to has had a positive response.” MSM did not cure Coburn’s arthritis, but it did relieve his pain, allowing him to move more freely and resume his career.

He spent much of his life writing songs with British singer-songwriter Lynsey de Paul.

Coburn returned to film in the 1990s and appeared in supporting roles in Young Guns II, Hudson Hawk, Sister Act 2: Back in the Habit, Maverick, Eraser, The Nutty Professor, Affliction, and Payback. Coburn’s performance in Affliction eventually earned him an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. In addition, he provided the voice of Henry J. Waternoose III in Disney/Pixar’s Monsters, Inc.

Cars


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Bob Bondurant teaching Coburn in 1972

Coburn’s interest in fast cars began with his father’s garage business and continued throughout his life, as he exported rare cars to Japan. Coburn was credited with having introduced Steve McQueen to Ferraris, and in the early 1960s owned a Ferrari 250 GT Lusso and a Ferrari 250 GT Spyder California SWB. His Spyder was the thirteenth of just fifty-six built. Coburn imported the pre-owned car in 1964, shortly after completing The Great Escape. The car was restored and sold for $10,894,400 to English broadcaster Chris Evans, setting a new world record for the highest price ever paid for an automobile at auction.

Cal Spyder #2377 was repainted several times during Coburn’s ownership; it has been black, silver and possibly burgundy. He kept the car at his Beverly Hills-area home, where it was often serviced by Max Balchowsky, who also worked on the suspension and frame modifications on those Mustang GTs used in the filming of McQueen’s Bullitt. Coburn sold the Spyder in 1987 after twenty-four years of ownership. Over time he also owned the above-noted Lusso, a Ferrari Daytona, at least one Ferrari 308 and a 1967 Ferrari 412P sports racer.

Death and Legacy


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Coburn’s grave marker

Coburn died of a heart attack on November 18, 2002 while listening to music at his Beverly Hills home. He was survived by his second wife, Paula (née Murad), two children and two grandchildren.

His wife Paula died two years later on July 30, 2004 at the age of 48, due to cancer.

Critical Analysis


In The New Biographical Dictionary of Film, critic David Thomson states that “Coburn is a modern rarity: an actor who projects lazy, humorous sexuality. He has made a variety of flawed, pleasurable films, the merits of which invariably depend on his laconic presence. Increasingly, he was the best thing in his movies, smiling privately, seeming to suggest that he was in contact with some profound source of amusement”. Film critic Pauline Kael remarked on Coburn’s unusual characteristics, stating that “he looked like the child of the liaison between Lt. Pinkerton and Madame Butterfly”. George Hickenlooper, who directed Coburn in The Man from Elysian Fields called him “the masculine male”. Andy García called him “the personification of class, the hippest of the hip”, and Paul Schrader noted “he was of that 50’s generation. He had that part hipster, part cool-cat aura about him. He was one of those kind of men who were formed by the Rat Pack kind of style.”

Filmography


Films

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Television

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Charlton Heston

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Heston as President Andrew Jackson in The President’s Lady, 1953

  • Born: John Charles Carter, or Charlton John Carter, October 4, 1923
    Wilmette, Illinois, U.S.
  • Died: April 5, 2008 (aged 84), Beverly Hills, California, U.S.
  • Cause of death: Pneumonia
  • Resting place Saint Matthew’s Episcopal Church Columbarium
    Pacific Palisades, California, U.S.
    Nationality American
  • Education: New Trier High School
  • Alma mater: Northwestern University
  • Occupation: Actor
  • Years active: 1941–2003
  • Home town: St. Helen, Michigan, U.S.
  • Political party:
    • Republican Party (Since 1972)
    • Democratic Party (Until the 1960s)
  • Spouse(s): Lydia Clarke (1944–2008; his death)
  • Children:
    • Fraser Clarke Heston (b. 1955)
    • Holly Anne Heston (b. 1961)
  • Military career:
    • Allegiance United States
    • Service/branch US Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svg U.S. Army Air Forces
  • Years of service 1944–1946
  • Rank US Army: WWII SSGT.svg Staff sergeant
  • Unit: 77th Bombardment Squadron
  • Battles/wars: World War II

Heston (born John Charles Carter or Charlton John Carter; October 4, 1923 – April 5, 2008) was an American actor and political activist.

As a Hollywood star, he appeared in 100 films over the course of 60 years. He played Moses in the epic film, The Ten Commandments (1956), for which he received his first nomination for the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama. He also starred in Touch of Evil (1958) with Orson Welles, Ben-Hur (1959), for which he won the Academy Award for Best Actor, El Cid (1961), and Planet of the Apes (1968). He also starred in the films The Greatest Show on Earth (1952), Secret of the Incas (1954), The Big Country (1958) and The Greatest Story Ever Told (1965).

A supporter of Democratic politicians and civil rights in the 1960s, Heston later became a Republican, founding a conservative political action committee and supporting Ronald Reagan. Heston’s most famous role in politics came as the five-term president of the National Rifle Association, from 1998 to 2003. After being diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease in 2003, he retired from both acting and the NRA presidency. Heston died on April 5, 2008, aged 84, from pneumonia.

Early Years


Charlton Heston was born on October 4, 1923, to Russell Whitford Carter (1897–1966), a sawmill operator and Lilla (née Charlton, authentically Baines; 1899–1994). The couple had two more children Charlton’s younger sister Lilla and brother Alan. Many sources indicate he was born in Evanston, Illinois. Heston’s autobiography; however, and some other sources, place his birth in No Man’s Land, Illinois, which usually refers to a then-unincorporated area now part of Wilmette, a wealthy Chicago suburb.

Heston said in a 1995 interview that he was not very good at remembering addresses or his early childhood. Heston was partially of Scottish descent, including from the Clan Fraser, but the majority of his ancestry was English. His earliest immigrant ancestors arrived in America from England in the 1600s. His maternal great-grandparents, William Charlton and Mary Drysdale Charlton, were English. They emigrated to Canada, where his grandmother, Marian Emily Charlton, was born in 1872.

In his autobiography, Heston refers to his father participating in his family’s construction business. When Heston was an infant, his father’s work moved the family to St. Helen, Michigan. It was a rural, heavily forested part of the state, and Heston lived an isolated yet idyllic existence, spending much time hunting and fishing in the backwoods of the area.

When Heston was 10 years old, his parents divorced after having 3 children. Shortly thereafter, his mother remarried and Charlton, younger sister Lilla and brother Alan moved back to Wilmette. Heston (his new surname) all three children took the name Heston and leaving the last name Carter. Charlton attended New Trier High School. He recalled living there:

All kids play pretend games, but I did it more than most. Even when we moved to Chicago, I was more or less a loner. We lived in a North Shore suburb, where I was a skinny hick from the woods, and all the other kids seemed to be rich and know about girls.

Contradictions on paper and in an interview surround when “Charlton” became Heston’s first name. The 1930 United States Census record for Richfield, Michigan, in Roscommon County, shows his name as being Charlton J. Carter at age six. Later accounts by sources and movie studio biographies say he was born John Charles Carter.

Interestingly, Charlton was his maternal grandmother Marian’s maiden name, not his mother Lilla’s. This is contrary to how 20th century references read and what Heston said. When Heston’s maternal grandmother and his true maternal grandfather Charles Baines separated or divorced in the early 1900s, Marian (née Charlton) Baines married William Henry Lawton in 1907. Charlton Heston’s mother Lilla and her sister May then decided to use their mother’s maiden name of Charlton in place of Baines. After the Carters divorced in 1933 and Lilla Carter married Chester Heston, Charlton, Lilla and Alan Carter became Heston. It was thus as Charlton Heston that he appeared in his first film, an adaptation of Henrik Ibsen’s Peer Gynt (1941).
Heston was an Episcopalian, and has been described as “a spiritual man” with an “earthy flair,” who “respected religious traditions” and “particularly enjoyed the historical aspects of the Christian faith.”

Career


Heston frequently recounted that while growing up in northern Michigan in a sparsely populated area, he often wandered in the forest, “acting” out characters from books he had read. Later, in high school, he enrolled in New Trier’s drama program, playing in the amateur silent 16 mm film adaptation of Peer Gynt, from the Ibsen play, by future film activist David Bradley released in 1941.

From the Winnetka Community Theatre (or the Winnetka Dramatist’s Guild, as it was then known) in which he was active, he earned a drama scholarship to Northwestern University; among his acting teachers was Alvina Krause. Several years later, Heston teamed up with Bradley to produce the first sound version of William Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar, in which Heston played Mark Antony.

World War II Service

In 1944, Heston enlisted in the United States Army Air Forces. He served for two years as a radio operator and aerial gunner aboard a B-25 Mitchell medium bomber stationed in the Alaskan Aleutian Islands with the 77th Bombardment Squadron of the Eleventh Air Force. He reached the rank of staff sergeant.
Heston married Northwestern University student Lydia Marie Clarke, who was six months his senior. That same year, he joined the military. After his rise to fame, Heston narrated for highly classified military and Department of Energy instructional films, particularly relating to nuclear weapons, and “for six years Heston [held] the nation’s highest security clearance” or Q clearance.” The Q clearance is similar to a DoD or DIA clearance of top secret.

New York

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Heston as Antony in Julius Caesar (1950)

After the war, Heston and Clarke lived in Hell’s Kitchen, New York City, where they worked as artists’ models. Seeking a way to make it in theatre, Heston and his wife Lydia decided to manage a playhouse in Asheville, North Carolina, in 1947, making $100 a week.

In 1948, they returned to New York, where Heston was offered a supporting role in a Broadway revival of Shakespeare’s Antony and Cleopatra, starring Katharine Cornell. In television, Heston played a number of roles in CBS’s Studio One, one of the most popular anthology dramas of the 1950s.

In 1949 Heston played Marc Antony in a televised production of Julius Caesar (1950).
Film producer Hal B. Wallis of Casablanca spotted Heston in a 1950 television production of Wuthering Heights and offered him a contract. When his wife reminded Heston they had decided to pursue theater and television, he replied, “Well, maybe just for one film to see what it’s like.”

Hollywood

Heston’s first professional movie appearance was the leading role in Dark City, a 1950 film noir produced by Hal Wallis.

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Heston in Cecil B. DeMille’s The Greatest Show on Earth (1952)

His breakthrough came when Cecil B. DeMille cast him as a circus manager in The Greatest Show on Earth, which was named by the Motion Picture Academy as the best picture of 1952. It was also the most popular movie of that year.

King Vidor used Heston in a melodrama with Jennifer Jones, Ruby Gentry (1952). He followed it with a Western at Paramount, The Savage (1952), playing a white man raised by Indians. 20th Century Fox used him to play Andrew Jackson in The President’s Lady (1953) opposite Susan Hayward. Back at Paramount he was Buffalo Bill in Pony Express (1953). He followed this with another Western, Arrowhead (1953).
In 1953, Heston was Billy Wilder’s first choice to play Sefton in Stalag 17. However, the role was given to William Holden, who won an Oscar for it. Hal Wallis reunited Heston with Lizabeth Scott in a melodrama Bad for Each Other (1953).

In 1954, he made two adventure films for Paramount. The Naked Jungle had him battle a plague of killer ants. He played the lead in Secret of the Incas, which was shot on location at the archeological site Machu Picchu and had numerous similarities to Raiders of the Lost Ark. Filmed a quarter-century before the latter film, “Incas” included a tomb scene with the revelatory shaft of light pointing out a clue on a map and featured Heston’s roguish antiquities thief’s costume and light beard; Raiders’ costume designer Deborah Nadoolman Landis noted that it was “almost a shot for shot similar” to the film on which she worked.

Heston played William Clark, the explorer, in The Far Horizons (1955) alongside Fred MacMurray. He tried a comedy The Private War of Major Benson (1955) at Universal, then supported Jane Wyman in a drama Lucy Gallant (1955).

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The Ten Commandments

Charlton Heston as Moses in Cecil B. DeMille’s The Ten Commandments (1956)
Heston became an icon for playing Moses in the hugely successful biblical epic The Ten Commandments (1956), selected by director Cecil B. DeMille, who thought Heston bore an uncanny resemblance to Michelangelo’s statue of Moses. DeMille cast Heston’s three-month-old son, Fraser Clarke Heston, as the infant Moses. The Ten Commandments became one of the greatest box office successes of all time and is the seventh highest-grossing film adjusted for inflation. His portrayal of the Hebrew prophet and deliverer was praised by film critics. The Hollywood Reporter described him as “splendid, handsome and princely (and human) in the scenes dealing with him as a young man, and majestic and terrible as his role demands it.” The New York Daily News wrote that he “is remarkably effective as both the young, princely Moses and as the Patriarchal savior of his people.” His performance as Moses earned him his first nomination for the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama and Spain’s Fotogramas de Plata Award for Best Foreign Performer.

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In Touch of Evil (1958)

Heston went back to Westerns with Three Violent People (1957). Universal tried to interest him in a thriller starring Orson Welles, Touch of Evil; Heston agreed to be in it if Welles directed. The film has come to be regarded as a classic. He also played a rare supporting role in William Wyler’s The Big Country opposite Gregory Peck and Burl Ives.

Heston got another chance to play Andrew Jackson in The Buccaneer (1958), produced by De Mille and starring Yul Brynner.

Ben Hur

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In Ben-Hur (1959)

After Marlon Brando, Burt Lancaster, and Rock Hudson turned down the title role in Ben-Hur (1959), Heston accepted the role, winning the Academy Award for Best Actor, one of the unprecedented 11 Oscars the film earned. After Moses and Ben-Hur, Heston became more identified with Biblical epics than any other actor. He later voiced Ben-Hur in an animated television production of the Lew Wallace novel in 2003.
Heston followed it with The Wreck of the Mary Deare (1959) co-starring Gary Cooper, which was a box office disappointment.

Heston turned down the lead opposite Marilyn Monroe in Let’s Make Love to appear in Benn W. Levy’s play The Tumbler, directed by Laurence Olivier. Called a “harrowingly pretentious verse drama” by Time, the production went through a troubled out-of-town tryout period in Boston and closed after five performances on Broadway in February 1960. Heston, a great admirer of Olivier the actor, took on the play to work with him as a director. After the play flopped, Heston told columnist Joe Hyams, “I feel I am the only one who came out with a profit…. I got out of it precisely what I went in for – a chance to work with Olivier. I learned from him in six weeks things I never would have learned otherwise. I think I’ve ended up a better actor.”

Heston enjoyed acting on stage, believing it revivified him as an actor. He never returned to Broadway, but acted in regional theatres. His most frequent stage roles included the title role in Macbeth, and Mark Antony in both Julius Caesar and Antony and Cleopatra. He played Sir Thomas More in A Man for All Seasons in several regional productions in the 1970s and 1980s, eventually playing it in London’s West End. The play was a success and the West End production was taken to Aberdeen, Scotland, for a week, where it was staged at His Majesty’s Theatre.

Samuel Bronston pursued Heston to play the title role in an epic shot in Spain, El Cid (1961), which was a big success. He was in a war film for Paramount, The Pigeon That Took Rome (1962), and a melodrama shot in Hawaii, Diamond Head (1963). Bronston wanted him for another epic and the result was 55 Days at Peking (1963), which was a box office disappointment.

Heston focused on epics: he was John the Baptist in The Greatest Story Ever Told (1965); Michelangelo in The Agony and the Ecstasy (1965) opposite Rex Harrison; the title role in Major Dundee (1965), directed by Sam Peckinpah. The War Lord (1965), directed by Franklin J. Schaffner, was on a smaller scale and critically acclaimed, though it fared poor commercially. In Khartoum (1966) Heston played General Charles Gordon.

From 1965–71, Heston served as president of the Screen Actors Guild. The Guild had been created in 1933 for the benefit of actors, who had different interests from the producers and directors who controlled the Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences. He was more conservative than most actors, and publicly clashed with outspoken liberal actors such as Ed Asner.

Counterpoint (1968) was a war film which was not particularly successful at the box office. Neither was the Western Will Penny (1968), directed by Tom Griesi; however Heston received excellent reviews and it was one of his favorite films.

Planet of the Apes

Heston had not been in a big hit for a number of years but in 1968 he starred in Planet of the Apes, directed by Schaffner, which was hugely popular. Less so was a football drama, Number One (1969) directed by Gries. Heston had a smaller supporting role in Beneath the Planet of the Apes (1970), which was popular. However, The Hawaiians (1970), directed by Gries, was not.

In 1970, he portrayed Mark Antony again in another film version of Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar. His co-stars included Jason Robards as Brutus, Richard Chamberlain as Octavius, Robert Vaughn as Casca, and English actors Richard Johnson as Cassius, John Gielgud as Caesar, and Diana Rigg as Portia.
Drawing of Heston after he won an Oscar for Ben-Hur in 1959. Artist: Nicholas Volpe.

70s Action Star

In 1971, he starred in the postapocalpytic science-fiction film The Omega Man, which has received mixed critical reviews but was popular.
In 1972, Heston made his directorial debut and starred as Mark Antony in an adaptation of the William Shakespeare play he had performed earlier in his theater career, Antony and Cleopatra. Hildegarde Neil was Cleopatra and English actor Eric Porter was Ahenobarbus. After receiving scathing reviews, the film was never released to theaters, and is rarely seen on television. It was finally released on DVD in March 2011.

His next film, Skyjacked (1972) was a hit. However The Call of the Wild (1972) was a flop, one of Heston’s least favorite films. He quickly recovered with a string of hits: Soylent Green (1973), another science fiction story; The Three Musketeers (1973), playing Cardinal Richelieu in an all-star cast; Earthquake (1974), a disaster film; Airport 1975 (1975), another disaster film; Midway (1976) a war film.

Heston’s good run at the box office ended with Two-Minute Warning (1976), a disaster film, and The Last Hard Men (1976), a Western. He played King Henry VIII for The Prince and the Pauper (1977), from the Musketeers team, then starred in a disaster film, Gray Lady Down (1978).

Heston was in a Western written by his son, The Mountain Men (1980) and a horror film, The Awakening (1980). He made his second film as a director Mother Lode (1982) also written by his son; it was a commercial disappointment.

Later Career

From 1985-87, he starred in his only prime time stint on a television series in the soap, The Colbys. With his son Fraser, he produced and starred in several TV movies, including remakes of Treasure Island and A Man For All Seasons. In 1992, Heston appeared on the A&E cable network in a short series of videos, Charlton Heston Presents the Bible, reading passages from the King James version.

Never taking himself too seriously, he also made a few appearances as “Chuck” in Dame Edna Everage’s shows, both on stage and on television. Heston appeared in 1993 in a cameo role in Wayne’s World 2, in a scene where Wayne Campbell (Mike Myers) requests casting a better actor for a small role. After the scene is reshot with Heston, Campbell weeps in awe. That same year, Heston hosted Saturday Night Live. He had cameos in the films Hamlet, Tombstone, and True Lies.

He starred in many theatre productions at the Los Angeles Music Center, where he appeared in Detective Story and The Caine Mutiny Court Martial, and as Sherlock Holmes in The Crucifer of Blood, opposite Richard Johnson as Dr. Watson. In 2001, he made a cameo appearance as an elderly, dying chimpanzee in Tim Burton’s remake of Planet of the Apes. His last film role was as Josef Mengele in My Father, Rua Alguem 5555, which had limited release (mainly to festivals) in 2003.

Heston’s distinctive voice landed him roles as a film narrator, including Armageddon and Disney’s Hercules. He played the title role in Mister Roberts three times and cited it as one of his favorite roles. In the early 1990s, he tried unsuccessfully to revive and direct the show with Tom Selleck in the title role. In 1998, Heston had a cameo role playing himself in the American television series Friends, in the episode “The One with Joey’s Dirty Day”.

Political Activism


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Heston at a congressional hearing in 1961

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Charlton Heston (left) with James Baldwin, Marlon Brando, and Harry Belafonte at the Civil Rights March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom 1963: Sidney Poitier is in the background.

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Heston at the 1963 Civil Rights March on Washington, DC with Sidney Poitier (left) and Harry Belafonte

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Heston at the March on Washington in 1963

Heston’s political activism had four stages.In the first stage, 1955–61, he endorsed Democratic candidates for President, and signed on to petitions and liberal political causes. From 1961–72, the second stage, he continued to endorse Democratic candidates for President. Moving beyond Hollywood, he became nationally visible in 1963 in support of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. From 1965–71, he served as the elected president of the Screen Actors Guild, and clashed with his liberal rival Ed Asner. In 1968, he used his “cowboy” persona to publicize gun control measures.

The third stage began in 1972. Like many neoconservatives of the same era who moved from liberal Democrat to conservative Republican, he rejected the liberalism of George McGovern and supported Richard Nixon in 1972 for President. In the 1980s, he gave strong support to Ronald Reagan during his conservative presidency. In 1995, Heston entered his fourth stage by establishing his own political action fund-raising committee, and jumped into the internal politics of the National Rifle Association. He gave numerous culture wars speeches and interviews upholding the conservative position, blaming media and academia for imposing affirmative action, which he saw as unfair reverse discrimination.

Heston campaigned for Presidential candidate Adlai Stevenson in 1956, although he was unable to campaign for John F. Kennedy in 1960 due to filming on El Cid in Spain. Reportedly, when in 1961 a segregated Oklahoma movie theater was showing his movie El Cid for the first time, he joined a picket line outside. Heston made no reference to this in his autobiography but describes traveling to Oklahoma City to picket segregated restaurants, to the chagrin of the producers of El Cid, Allied Artists. During the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom held in Washington, DC, in 1963, he accompanied Martin Luther King, Jr. In later speeches, he said he helped the civil rights cause “long before Hollywood found it fashionable.”

In the 1964 election, he endorsed Lyndon Baines Johnson, who had masterminded the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 through Congress over the vociferous opposition of Southern Democrats. That year, Heston publicly opposed California Proposition 14 that rolled back the state’s fair housing law, the Rumford Fair Housing Act.

In his 1995 autobiography, In the Arena, written after he became a conservative Republican, Heston wrote that while driving back from the set of The War Lord, he saw a “Barry Goldwater for President” billboard with his campaign slogan “In Your Heart You Know He’s Right” and thought to himself, “Son of a bitch, he is right.” Heston later said that his support for Goldwater was the event that helped turn him against gun control laws. Following the assassination of Senator Robert F. Kennedy in 1968, Heston, Gregory Peck, Kirk Douglas, and James Stewart issued a statement in support of President Johnson’s Gun Control Act of 1968. The Johnson White House had solicited Heston’s support. He endorsed Hubert Humphrey in the 1968 Presidential election.

Heston opposed the Vietnam War during its course (though he changed his opinion in the years following the war) and in 1969 was approached by the Democratic Party to run for the U.S. Senate against incumbent George Murphy. He agonized over the decision but ultimately determined he could never give up acting. He is reported to have voted for Richard Nixon in 1972, though Nixon is not mentioned in his autobiography.

By the 1980s, Heston supported gun rights and changed his political affiliation from Democratic to Republican. When asked why he changed political alliances, Heston replied “I didn’t change. The Democratic Party changed.” In 1987, he first registered as a Republican. He campaigned for Republicans and Republican Presidents Ronald Reagan, George H.W. Bush, and George W. Bush.

Heston resigned in protest from Actors Equity, saying the union’s refusal to allow a white actor to play a Eurasian role in Miss Saigon was “obscenely racist”.
Heston charged that CNN’s telecasts from Baghdad were “sowing doubts” about the allied effort in the 1990–91 Gulf War.”

At a Time Warner stockholders’ meeting, Heston castigated the company for releasing an Ice-T album which included a song “Cop Killer” about killing police officers. While filming The Savage, Heston was initiated by blood into the Miniconjou Lakota Nation, saying that he had no natural American Indian heritage, but elected to be “Native American” to salvage the term from exclusively referring to American Indians.
In 1993, Heston teamed up with John Anthony West and Robert M. Schoch in an Emmy Award-winning NBC special, The Mystery of the Sphinx. West and Schoch had proposed a much earlier date for the construction of the Great Sphinx than generally accepted. They had suggested that the main type of weathering evident on the Great Sphinx and surrounding enclosure walls could only have been caused by prolonged and extensive rainfall and that the whole structure was carved out of limestone bedrock by an ancient advanced culture (such as the Heavy Neolithic Qaraoun culture).

In a 1997 speech called “Fighting the Culture War in America”, Heston rhetorically deplored a culture war he said was being conducted by a generation of media people, educators, entertainers, and politicians against:

… the God fearing, law-abiding, Caucasian, middle-class Protestant – or even worse, evangelical Christian, Midwestern or Southern – or even worse, rural, apparently straight – or even worse, admitted heterosexuals, gun owning – or even worse, NRA-card-carrying, average working stiff – or even worse, male working stiff – because, not only don’t you count, you are a down-right obstacle to social progress. Your voice deserves a lower decibel level, your opinion is less enlightened, your media access is insignificant; and frankly, mister, you need to wake up, wise up, and learn a little something from your new America; and until you do, would you mind shutting up?

He went on to say:

The Constitution was handed down to guide us by a bunch of wise old dead white guys who invented our country! Now some flinch when I say that. Why! It’s true-they were white guys! So were most of the guys that died in Lincoln’s name opposing slavery in the 1860s. So why should I be ashamed of white guys? Why is “Hispanic Pride” or “Black Pride” a good thing, while “White Pride” conjures shaven heads and white hoods? Why was the Million Man March on Washington celebrated by many as progress, while the Promise Keepers March on Washington was greeted with suspicion and ridicule? I’ll tell you why: Cultural warfare!

In an address to students at Harvard Law School entitled “Winning the Cultural War”, Heston said, “If Americans believed in political correctness, we’d still be King George’s boys – subjects bound to the British crown.”

Heston with President Ronald Reagan during a meeting for the Presidential Task Force on the Arts and Humanities in the White House Cabinet Room, 1981
He said to the students:

You are the best and the brightest. You, here in this fertile cradle of American academia, here in the castle of learning on the Charles River. You are the cream. But I submit that you and your counterparts across the land are the most socially conformed and politically silenced generation since Concord Bridge. And as long as you validate that and abide it, you are, by your grandfathers’ standards, cowards.

During a speech at Brandeis University, he stated, “Political correctness is tyranny with manners”. In a speech to the National Press Club in 1997, Heston said, “Now, I doubt any of you would prefer a rolled up newspaper as a weapon against a dictator or a criminal intruder.”

Heston was the president (a largely ceremonial position) and spokesman of the NRA from 1998 until he resigned in 2003. At the 2000 NRA convention, he raised a rifle over his head and declared that a potential Al Gore administration would take away his Second Amendment rights “from my cold, dead hands”. In announcing his resignation in 2003, he again raised a rifle over his head, repeating the five famous words of his 2000 speech. Heston became an honorary life member.

In the 2002 film Bowling for Columbine, Michael Moore interviewed Heston at Heston’s home, asking him about an April 1999 meeting the NRA held in Denver, Colorado, shortly after the Columbine high school massacre. Moore criticized Heston for the perceived thoughtlessness in the timing and location of the meeting. When Moore asked Heston for his thoughts on why gun-related homicide is so much higher in the United States than in other countries, Heston said it was because, “we have probably more mixed ethnicity” and/or that “we have a history of violence, perhaps more than most countries.” Heston subsequently, on-camera, excused himself and walked away. Moore was later criticized for having conducted the interview in what some viewed as an ambush. The interview was conducted early in 2001, before Heston publicly announced his Alzheimer’s diagnosis, but the film was released afterward, causing some to say that Moore should have cut the interview from the final film.

In April 2003, he sent a message of support to the American forces in the Iraq war, attacking opponents of the war as “pretend patriots”.
Heston opposed abortion and introduced Bernard Nathanson’s 1987 pro-life documentary, Eclipse of Reason, which focuses on late-term abortions. Heston served on the advisory board of Accuracy in Media, a conservative media watchdog group founded by Reed Irvine.

Illness and Death


In 1996, Heston had a hip replacement. He was diagnosed with prostate cancer in 1998. Following a course of radiation treatment, the cancer went into remission. In 2000, he publicly disclosed that he had been treated for alcoholism at a Utah clinic in May–June of that year.

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Heston by Jerry Avenaim in 2001

On August 9, 2002, he publicly announced (via a taped message) that he had been diagnosed with symptoms consistent with Alzheimer’s disease. In July 2003, in his final public appearance, Heston received the Presidential Medal of Freedom at the White House from President George W. Bush. In March 2005, various newspapers reported that family and friends were shocked by the progression of his illness, and that he was sometimes unable to get out of bed.

Heston died on the morning of April 5, 2008, at his home in Beverly Hills, California, with Lydia, his wife of 64 years, by his side. He was also survived by their son, Fraser Clarke Heston, and adopted daughter, Holly Ann Heston. The cause of death was not disclosed by the family. A month later, media outlets reported his death was due to pneumonia. Heston’s family released a statement:

Charlton Heston was seen by the world as larger than life. He was known for his chiselled jaw, broad shoulders and resonating voice, and, of course, for the roles he played. No one could ask for a fuller life than his. No man could have given more to his family, to his profession and to his country.

— Family of Charlton Heston

Early tributes came in from leading figures; President George W. Bush called Heston “a man of character and integrity, with a big heart … He served his country during World War II, marched in the civil rights movement, led a labor union and vigorously defended Americans’ Second Amendment rights.” Former First Lady Nancy Reagan said that she was “heartbroken” over Heston’s death and released a statement, reading, “I will never forget Chuck as a hero on the big screen in the roles he played, but more importantly I considered him a hero in life for the many times that he stepped up to support Ronnie in whatever he was doing.”

Heston’s funeral was held a week later on April 12, 2008, in a ceremony which was attended by 250 people including Nancy Reagan and Hollywood stars such as California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, Olivia de Havilland, Keith Carradine, Pat Boone, Tom Selleck, Oliver Stone (who had cast Heston in his 1999 movie Any Given Sunday), Rob Reiner, and Christian Bale.

The funeral was held at Episcopal Parish of St. Matthew’s Church in Pacific Palisades, the church where Heston regularly worshipped and attended Sunday services since the early 1980s. He was cremated and his ashes were given to his family.

Legacy


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The handprints of Charlton Heston in front of The Great Movie Ride at Walt Disney World’s Disney’s Hollywood Studios theme park

Richard Corliss wrote in Time magazine, “From start to finish, Heston was a grand, ornery anachronism, the sinewy symbol of a time when Hollywood took itself seriously, when heroes came from history books, not comic books. Epics like Ben-Hur or El Cid simply couldn’t be made today, in part because popular culture has changed as much as political fashion. But mainly because there’s no one remotely like Charlton Heston to infuse the form with his stature, fire, and guts.”

In his obituary for the actor, film critic Roger Ebert noted, “Heston made at least three movies that almost everybody eventually sees: Ben-Hur, The Ten Commandments and Planet of the Apes.”

Heston’s cinematic legacy was the subject of Cinematic Atlas: The Triumphs of Charlton Heston, an 11-film retrospective by the Film Society of the Lincoln Center that was shown at the Walter Reade Theatre from August 29 to September 4, 2008.
On April 17, 2010, Heston was inducted into the National Cowboy and Western Heritage Museum’s Hall of Great Western Performers.

In his childhood hometown of St. Helen, Michigan, a charter school, Charlton Heston Academy, opened on September 4, 2012. It is housed in the former St. Helen Elementary School. Enrollment on the first day was 220 students in grades kindergarten through eighth.

Charlton Heston was commemorated on a United States postage stamp issued on April 11, 2014.

Charlton Heston was inducted as a Laureate of the Lincoln Academy of Illinois and awarded the Order of Lincoln (the State’s highest honor) by the Governor of Illinois in 1977 in the area of Performing Arts.

Filmography


1941–1959

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1961–1970

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1971–1980

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1982–2003

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Box Office Ranking

For several years the Quigley Company’s Poll of Film Exhibitors ranked Heston as one of the most popular stars in the US:

  • 1953 – 23rd
  • 1960 – 16th
  • 1961 – 18th
  • 1962 – 12th most popular

Radio


Selected appearances:

RADIO

Clint Eastwood

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Eastwood at the 2010 New York Film Festival

  • Born: Clinton Eastwood Jr. May 31, 1930 (age 87), San Francisco, California, U.S.
  • Occupation: Actor, director, producer, composer, musician, businessman, politician
  • Years active: 1954–present
  • Net worth:  US$375 million (2015)
  • Political party: 
    • Libertarian (2009–present; 1997–after 1999)
    • Independent (1974–1997)
    • Republican (before 1952–1974)
  • Spouse(s)
    • Maggie Johnson (m. 1953;div. 1984)
    • Dina Ruiz (m. 1996; div. 2014)
  • Partner(s)
    • Sondra Locke (c. 1975; sep. 1989)
    • Frances Fisher (c. 1990; sep. 1995)
  • Children
    Undetermined number,[n 1][n 2]includingwith Roxanne Tunis:
    1
    with Johnson:
    – Kyle Eastwood (b. 1968)
    – Alison Eastwood (b. 1972)
    with Jacelyn Reeves:
    – 2 including Scott Eastwood (b.1986)
    with Fisher:
    – Francesca Eastwood (b. 1993)
    with Ruiz:
    – 1

Clinton Eastwood Jr. (born May 31, 1930) is an American actor, filmmaker, musician, and political figure. After achieving success in the Western TV series Rawhide, he rose to international fame with his role as the Man with No Name in Sergio Leone’s Dollars Trilogy of Spaghetti Westerns during the 1960s, and as antihero cop Harry Callahan in the five Dirty Harry films throughout the 1970s and 1980s. These roles, among others, have made Eastwood an enduring cultural icon of masculinity.

For his work in the Western film Unforgiven (1992) and the sports drama Million Dollar Baby (2004), Eastwood won Academy Awards for Best Director and Best Picture, as well as receiving nominations for Best Actor. Eastwood’s greatest commercial successes have been the adventure comedy Every Which Way But Loose (1978) and its sequel, the action comedy Any Which Way You Can (1980), after adjustment for inflation.Other popular films include the Western Hang ‘Em High (1968), the psychological thriller Play Misty for Me (1971), the crime film Thunderbolt and Lightfoot (1974), the Western The Outlaw Josey Wales (1976), the prison film Escape from Alcatraz (1979), the action film Firefox (1982), the suspense thriller Tightrope (1984), the Western Pale Rider (1985), the war films Where Eagles Dare (1968), Kelly’s Heroes (1970), Heartbreak Ridge (1986), the action thriller In the Line of Fire (1993), the romantic drama The Bridges of Madison County (1995), and the drama Gran Torino (2008).

In addition to directing many of his own star vehicles, Eastwood has also directed films in which he did not appear, such as the mystery drama Mystic River (2003) and the war film Letters from Iwo Jima (2006), for which he received Academy Award nominations, the drama Changeling (2008), and the South African biographical political sports drama Invictus (2009). The war drama biopic American Sniper (2014) set box office records for the largest January release ever and was also the largest opening ever for an Eastwood film.

Eastwood received considerable critical praise in France for several films, including some that were not well received in the United States. Eastwood has been awarded two of France’s highest honors: in 1994 he became a recipient of the Commander of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres, and in 2007 he was awarded the Legion of Honour medal. In 2000, Eastwood was awarded the Italian Venice Film Festival Golden Lion for lifetime achievement.

Since 1967, Eastwood has run his own production company, Malpaso Productions, which has produced all but four of his American films. Starting in 1986, Eastwood served for two years as Mayor of Carmel-by-the-Sea, California, a non-partisan office.

Early Life


Eastwood was born on May 31, 1930, in San Francisco, California, the son of Clinton Eastwood Sr. (1906–1970) and Ruth Wood (née Runner; 1909–2006). Ruth later took the surname of her second husband, John Belden Wood (1913–2004), whom she married after the death of Clinton Sr. Eastwood was nicknamed “Samson” by the hospital nurses because he weighed 11 pounds 6 ounces (5.2 kg) at birth. He has one younger sister, Jeanne Bernhardt (born 1934).Eastwood is of English, Irish, Scottish, and Dutch ancestry.He is descended from Mayflower passenger William Bradford, and through this line is the 12th generation of his family born in North America.

His family moved often as his father worked at jobs along the West Coast, although they did not move at all between 1940 and 1949.Settled in Piedmont, California, the Eastwoods lived in a very wealthy part of town, had a swimming pool, belonged to the country club, and each parent drove their own car.Clint attended Piedmont Junior High School.Shortly before he was to enter Piedmont High School, he rode his bike on the school’s sports field and tore up the wet turf; this resulted in his being asked not to enroll. Instead, he attended Oakland Technical High School, where he was held back due to poor academic scores and scheduled to graduate in January 1949 as a midyear graduate, although it is not clear if he ever did. “Clint graduated from the airplane shop. I think that was his major,” joked classmate Don Kincade. Another high school friend, Don Loomis, echoed “I don’t think he was spending that much time at school because he was having a pretty good time elsewhere.” “I think what happened is he just went off and started having a good time. I just don’t think he finished high school,” explained Fritz Manes, a boyhood friend two years younger than Eastwood, who remained associated with him until their falling out in the mid-1980s. Biographer Patrick McGilligan notes that high school graduation records are a matter of strict legal confidentiality.

Eastwood worked at a number of jobs, including lifeguard, paper carrier, grocery clerk, forest firefighter, and golf caddy. Eastwood has said that he tried to enroll at Seattle University (in 1951)but was then drafted into the United States Army during the Korean War. “He always dropped the Korean War reference, hoping everyone would conclude that he was in combat and might be some sort of hero. Actually, he’d been a lifeguard at Fort Ord in northern California for his entire stint in the military,” commented Eastwood’s former longtime companion, Sondra Locke.Don Loomis recalled hearing that Eastwood was romancing one of the daughters of a Fort Ord officer, who might have been entreated to watch out for him when names came up for postings.While returning from a prearranged trystin Seattle, Washington, he was a passenger on a Douglas AD bomber that ran out of fuel and crashed into the ocean near Point Reyes.Using a life raft, he and the pilot swam 2 miles (3.2 km) to safety.

Career


1950s: Early Career Struggles

According to the CBS press release for Rawhide, the Universal (known then as Universal-International) film company was shooting in Fort Ord when an enterprising assistant spotted Eastwood and invited him to meet the director.According to Eastwood’s official biography, the key figure was a man named Chuck Hill, who was stationed in Fort Ord and had contacts in Hollywood. While in Los Angeles, Hill became reacquainted with Eastwood and managed to sneak Eastwood into a Universal studio, where he showed him to cameraman Irving Glassberg. Glassberg arranged for an audition under Arthur Lubin, who, although very impressed with Clint’s appearance and stature at 6’4″ (193 cm), disapproved initially of his acting skills, remarking, “He was quite amateurish. He didn’t know which way to turn or which way to go or do anything”. Lubin suggested that he attend drama classes and arranged for Eastwood’s initial contract in April 1954, at $100 per week. After signing, Eastwood was initially criticized for his stiff manner and delivering his lines through his teeth, a lifelong trademark.

 In May 1954, Eastwood made his first real audition for Six Bridges to Cross but was rejected by Joseph Pevney. After many unsuccessful auditions, he was eventually given a minor role by director Jack Arnold in Revenge of the Creature (1955), a sequel to the recently released The Creature from the Black Lagoon. In September 1954, Eastwood worked for three weeks on Arthur Lubin’s Lady Godiva of Coventry, won a role in February 1955, playing “Jonesy”, a sailor in Francis in the Navy and appeared uncredited in another Jack Arnold film, Tarantula, where he played a squadron pilot. In May 1955, Eastwood put four hours’ work into the film Never Say Goodbye and had a minor uncredited role as a ranch hand (his first western film) in August 1955 with Law Man, also known as Star in the Dust. Universal presented him with his first television role on July 2, 1955, on NBC’s Allen in Movieland, which starred comedian Steve Allen, actor Tony Curtis and swing musician Benny Goodman. Although he continued to develop as an actor, Universal terminated his contract on October 23, 1955.

Eastwood joined the Marsh Agency, and although Lubin landed him his biggest role to date in The First Traveling Saleslady (1956) and later hired him for Escapade in Japan, without a formal contract Eastwood was struggling.Upon the advice of Irving Leonard, his financial advisor, he changed talent agencies to the Kumin-Olenick Agency in 1956 and Mitchell Gertz in 1957. He landed several small roles in 1956 as a temperamental army officer for a segment of ABC’s Reader’s Digest series, and as a motorcycle gang member on a Highway Patrol episode. In 1957, Eastwood played a cadet in West Point series and a suicidal gold prospector on Death Valley Days. In 1958, he played a Navy lieutenant in a segment of Navy Log and in early 1959 made a notable guest appearance on Maverick opposite James Garner as a cowardly villain intent on marrying a rich girl for money. Eastwood had a small part as an aviator in the French picture Lafayette Escadrille and played a major role as an ex-renegade of the Confederacy in Ambush at Cimarron Pass, a film which Eastwood viewed disastrously and professes to be the lowest point of his career.

In 1958, Eastwood was cast as Rowdy Yates for the CBS hour-long western series Rawhide, the breakthrough in his career he had long been searching for. However, Eastwood was not especially happy with his character; Eastwood was almost 30, and Rowdy was too young and too cloddish for Clint to feel comfortable with the part. Filming began in Arizona in the summer of 1958. It took just three weeks for Rawhide to reach the top 20 in TV ratings and although it never won an Emmy, it was a major success for several years, and reached its peak at number six in the ratings between October 1960 and April 1961. The Rawhide years (1959–65) were some of the most grueling of Eastwood’s career, often filming six days a week for an average of twelve hours a day, yet he still received criticism by some directors for not working hard enough. By late 1963 Rawhide was beginning to decline in popularity and lacked freshness in the script; it was canceled in the middle of the 1965–66 television season. Eastwood made his first attempt at directing when he filmed several trailers for the show, although he was unable to convince producers to let him direct an episode. In the show’s first season Eastwood earned $750 an episode. At the time of Rawhide’s cancellation, he received $119,000 an episode as severance pay.

1960s

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Publicity photo for Rawhide, 1961

In late 1963, Eastwood’s co-star on Rawhide, Eric Fleming, rejected an offer to star in an Italian-made western called A Fistful of Dollars, to be directed in a remote region of Spain by the then relatively unknown Sergio Leone. Richard Harrison suggested Eastwood to Leone because Harrison knew Eastwood could play a cowboy convincingly. Eastwood thought the film would be an opportunity to escape from his Rawhide image. Eastwood signed a contract for $15,000 in wages for eleven weeks’ work, with a bonus of a Mercedes automobile upon completion.Eastwood later spoke of the transition from a television western to A Fistful of Dollars: “In Rawhide I did get awfully tired of playing the conventional white hat. The hero who kisses old ladies and dogs and was kind to everybody. I decided it was time to be an anti-hero.” Eastwood was instrumental in creating the Man with No Name character’s distinctive visual style and, although a non-smoker, Leone insisted Eastwood smoke cigars as an essential ingredient of the “mask” he was attempting to create for the loner character.

788px-Clint_Eastwood_-_1960s

As the Man with No Name in A Fistful of Dollars (1964)

A Fistful of Dollars proved a landmark in the development of spaghetti Westerns, with Leone depicting a more lawless and desolate world than traditional westerns, and challenging American stereotypes of a western hero with a morally ambiguous antihero. The film’s success made Eastwood a major star in Italy and he was re-hired to star in For a Few Dollars More (1965), the second of the trilogy. Through the efforts of screenwriter Luciano Vincenzoni, the rights to For a Few Dollars More and the final film of the trilogy (The Good, the Bad and the Ugly) were sold to United Artists for about $900,000.

In January 1966, Eastwood met producer Dino De Laurentiis in New York City and agreed to star in a non-Western five-part anthology production named Le Streghe (“The Witches”) opposite De Laurentiis’ wife, actress Silvana Mangano. Eastwood’s nineteen-minute installment took only a few days to shoot, but his performance did not please the critics, one writing that “no other performance of his is quite so ‘un-Clintlike’.” Two months later Eastwood began work on the third Dollars film, The Good, the Bad and the Ugly, again playing the mysterious Man with No Name. Lee Van Cleef returned as a ruthless fortune seeker, with Eli Wallach portraying the cunning Mexican bandit Tuco Ramirez. The storyline involved the search for a cache of Confederate gold buried in a cemetery. During the filming of a scene in which a bridge was blown up, Eastwood urged Wallach to retreat to a hilltop. “I know about these things,” he said. “Stay as far away from special effects and explosives as you can.” Minutes later confusion among the crew over the word “Vaya!” resulted in a premature explosion that could have killed Wallach.

I wanted to play it with an economy of words and create this whole feeling through attitude and movement. It was just the kind of character I had envisioned for a long time, keep to the mystery and allude to what happened in the past. It came about after the frustration of doing Rawhide for so long. I felt the less he said, the stronger he became and the more he grew in the imagination of the audience.

— Eastwood, on playing the Man with No Name character

The Dollars trilogy was not released in the United States until 1967, when A Fistful of Dollars opened in January, followed by For a Few Dollars More in May, and The Good, the Bad and the Ugly on December 29, 1967. All the films were commercially successful, particularly The Good, the Bad and the Ugly, which eventually earned $8 million in rental earnings and turned Eastwood into a major film star. All three films received bad reviews, and marked the beginning of a battle for Eastwood to win American film critics’ respect. Judith Crist described A Fistful of Dollars as “cheapjack,” while Newsweek considered For a Few Dollars More as “excruciatingly dopey.” Renata Adler of The New York Times said The Good, the Bad and the Ugly was “…the most expensive, pious and repellent movie in the history of its peculiar genre.” Time magazine drew attention to the film’s wooden acting, especially on the part of Eastwood, though a few critics such as Vincent Canby and Bosley Crowther of The New York Times praised Eastwood’s coolness in playing the tall, lone stranger. Leone’s cinematography was widely acclaimed, even by critics who disparaged the acting in the film.

Stardom brought more roles for Eastwood. He signed to star in the American revisionist western Hang ‘Em High (1968), featured alongside Inger Stevens, Pat Hingle, Dennis Hopper, Ed Begley, Alan Hale, Ben Johnson, Bruce Dern, and James MacArthur, playing a man who takes up a Marshal’s badge and seeks revenge as a lawman after being lynched by vigilantes and left for dead. The film earned Eastwood a fee of $400,000 and 25 percent of its net box-office takings. Using money earned from the Dollars trilogy, accountant and Eastwood advisor Irving Leonard helped establish Eastwood’s own production company, Malpaso Productions, named after Malpaso Creek on Eastwood’s property in Monterey County, California. Leonard arranged for Hang ‘Em High to be a joint production with United Artists; when it opened in July 1968, it had the largest opening weekend in United Artists’ history. Hang ‘Em High was widely praised by critics, including Archer Winsten of the New York Post, who described it as, “a western of quality, courage, danger and excitement.”

Before the release of Hang ‘Em High, Eastwood had already begun working on Coogan’s Bluff, about an Arizona deputy sheriff tracking a wanted psychopathic criminal (Don Stroud) through the streets of New York City. He was reunited with Universal Studios for it after receiving an offer of $1 million—more than double his previous salary. Jennings Lang arranged for Eastwood to meet Don Siegel, a Universal contract director who later became Eastwood’s close friend, forming a partnership that would last more than ten years and produce five films. Shooting began in November 1967, before the script had been finalized. The film was controversial for its portrayal of violence. Coogan’s Bluff also became the first collaboration with Argentine composer Lalo Schifrin, who would later compose the jazzy score to several Eastwood films in the 1970s and 1980s, including the Dirty Harry films.

Eastwood was paid $750,000 in 1968 for the war epic Where Eagles Dare, about a World War II squad parachuting into a Gestapo stronghold in the alpine mountains. Richard Burton played the squad’s commander, with Eastwood as his right-hand man. Eastwood was also cast as Two-Face in the Batman television show, but the series was canceled before filming began.

Eastwood then branched out to star in the only musical of his career, Paint Your Wagon (1969). Eastwood and Lee Marvin play gold miners who buy a Mormon settler’s less favored wife (Jean Seberg) at an auction. Bad weather and delays plagued the production, and the film’s budget eventually exceeded $20 million, which was extremely expensive for the time. The film was not a critical or commercial success, although it was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy.

1970s

In 1970, Eastwood starred with Shirley MacLaine in the western Two Mules for Sister Sara, directed by Don Siegel. The film follows an American mercenary, who gets mixed up with a prostitute disguised as a nun, and ends up helping a group of Juarista rebels during the reign of Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico.Eastwood once again played a mysterious stranger—unshaven, wearing a serape-like vest, and smoking a cigar. Although it received moderate reviews, the film is listed in The New York Times Guide to the Best 1,000 Movies Ever Made. Later the same year, Eastwood starred as one of a group of Americans who steal a fortune in gold from the Nazis, in the World War II film Kelly’s Heroes, with Donald Sutherland and Telly Savalas. Kelly’s Heroes was the last film Eastwood appeared in that was not produced by his own Malpaso Productions. Filming commenced in July 1969 on location in Yugoslavia and in London. The film received mostly a positive reception and its anti-war sentiments were recognized. In the winter of 1969–70, Eastwood and Siegel began planning his next film, The Beguiled, a tale of a wounded Union soldier, held captive by the sexually repressed matron (played by Geraldine Page) of a Southern girls’ school. Upon release the film received major recognition in France and is considered one of Eastwood’s finest works by the French. However, it grossed less than $1 million and, according to Eastwood and Lang, flopped due to poor publicity and the “emasculated” role of Eastwood.

Eastwood’s career reached a turning point in 1971. Before Irving Leonard died, he and Eastwood had discussed the idea of Malpaso producing Play Misty for Me, a film that was to give Eastwood the artistic control he desired, and his debut as a director. The script was about a jazz disc jockey named Dave (Eastwood), who has a casual affair with Evelyn (Jessica Walter), a listener who had been calling the radio station repeatedly at night, asking him to play her favorite song – Erroll Garner’s Misty. When Dave ends their relationship, the unhinged Evelyn becomes a murderous stalker. Filming commenced in Monterey in September 1970 and included footage of that year’s Monterey Jazz Festival. The film was highly acclaimed with critics, such as Jay Cocks in Time magazine, Andrew Sarris in the Village Voice, and Archer Winsten in the New York Post all praising the film, as well as Eastwood’s directorial skills and performance. Walter was nominated for a Golden Globe Best Actress Award (Drama), for her performance in the film.

I know what you’re thinking – “Did he fire six shots or only five?” Well, to tell you the truth, in all this excitement, I’ve kinda lost track myself. But, being as this is a .44 Magnum, the most powerful handgun in the world and would blow your head clean off, you’ve got to ask yourself one question: “Do I feel lucky?” Well, do you, punk?

— Eastwood, in Dirty Harry

Dirty Harry (1971), written by Harry and Rita Fink, centers on a hard-edged New York City (later changed to San Francisco) police inspector named Harry Callahan who is determined to stop a psychotic killer by any means.Dirty Harry has been described as being arguably Eastwood’s most memorable character, and the film has been credited with inventing the “loose-cannon cop” genre. Author Eric Lichtenfeld argues that Eastwood’s role as Dirty Harry established the “first true archetype” of the action film genre. His lines (quoted above) are regarded by firearms historians, such as Garry James and Richard Venola, as the force that catapulted the ownership of .44 Magnum revolvers to new heights in the United States; specifically the Smith & Wesson Model 29 carried by Harry Callahan. Dirty Harry achieved huge success after its release in December 1971, earning $22 million in the United States and Canada alone. It was Siegel’s highest-grossing film and the start of a series of films featuring the character Harry Callahan. Although a number of critics praised Eastwood’s performance as Dirty Harry, such as Jay Cocks of Time magazine who described him as “…giving his best performance so far, tense, tough, full of implicit identification with his character,” the film was also widely criticized as being fascistic.

Following Sean Connery’s announcement that he would not play James Bond again, Eastwood was offered the role but turned it down because he believed the character should be played by an English actor. He next starred in the loner Western Joe Kidd (1972), based on a character inspired by Reies Lopez Tijerina, who stormed a courthouse in Tierra Amarilla, New Mexico in June 1967. During filming, Eastwood suffered symptoms of a bronchial infection and several panic attacks. Joe Kidd received a mixed reception, with Roger Greenspun of The New York Times writing that it was unremarkable, with foolish symbolism and sloppy editing, although he praised Eastwood’s performance.

In 1973, Eastwood directed his first western, High Plains Drifter, in which he also starred. The film had a moral and supernatural theme, later emulated in Pale Rider. The plot follows a mysterious stranger (Eastwood) who arrives in a brooding Western town where the people hire him to protect them against three soon-to-be-released felons. There remains confusion during the film as to whether the stranger is the brother of the deputy, whom the felons lynched and murdered, or his ghost. Holes in the plot were filled with black humor and allegory, influenced by Leone. The revisionist film received a mixed reception, but was a major box office success. A number of critics thought Eastwood’s directing was “as derivative as it was expressive,” with Arthur Knight of the Saturday Review remarking that Eastwood had “…absorbed the approaches of Siegel and Leone and fused them with his own paranoid vision of society.” John Wayne, who had declined a role in the film, sent a letter to Eastwood soon after the film’s release in which he complained that, “The townspeople did not represent the true spirit of the American pioneer, the spirit that made America great.”

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Directing William Holden in Breezy (1973)

Eastwood next turned his attention towards Breezy (1973), a film about love blossoming between a middle-aged man and a teenage girl. During casting for the film Eastwood met Sondra Locke for the first time, an actress who would play major roles in six of his films over the next ten years and would become an important figure in his life. Kay Lenz got the part of Breezy because Locke, at age 29, was considered too old. The film, shot very quickly and efficiently by Eastwood and Frank Stanley, came in $1 million under budget and was finished three days ahead of schedule. Breezy was not a major critical or commercial success and it was only made available on video in 1998.

Once filming of Breezy had finished, Warners announced that Eastwood had agreed to reprise his role as Callahan in Magnum Force (1973), a sequel to Dirty Harry, about a group of rogue young officers (among them David Soul, Robert Urich and Tim Matheson) in the San Francisco Police Department who systematically exterminate the city’s worst criminals. Although the film was a major success after release, grossing $58.1 million in the United States (a record for Eastwood), it was not a critical success. The New York Times critic Nora Sayre panned the often contradictory moral themes of the film, while the paper’s Frank Rich called it “the same old stuff”.

In 1974, Eastwood teamed up with Jeff Bridges and George Kennedy in the buddy action caper Thunderbolt and Lightfoot, a road movie about a veteran bank robber Thunderbolt (Eastwood) and a young con man drifter, Lightfoot (Bridges). On its release, in spring 1974, the film was praised for its offbeat comedy mixed with high suspense and tragedy but was only a modest success at the box office, earning $32.4 million. Eastwood’s acting was noted by critics, but was overshadowed by Bridges who was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. Eastwood reportedly fumed at the lack of Academy Award recognition for him and swore that he would never work for United Artists again.

Eastwood’s next film The Eiger Sanction (1975) was based on Trevanian’s critically acclaimed spy novel of the same name. Eastwood plays Jonathan Hemlock in a role originally intended for Paul Newman, an assassin turned college art professor who decides to return to his former profession for one last “sanction” in return for a rare Pissarro painting. In the process he must climb the north face of the Eiger in Switzerland under perilous conditions. Mike Hoover taught Eastwood how to climb during several weeks of preparation at Yosemite in the summer of 1974 before filming commenced in Grindelwald, Switzerland on August 12, 1974. Despite prior warnings about the perils of the Eiger the film crew suffered a number of accidents, including one fatality. Despite the danger, Eastwood insisted on doing all his own climbing and stunts. Upon release in May 1975 The Eiger Sanction was a commercial failure, receiving only $23.8 million at the box office, and was poorly received by most critics. Joy Gould Boyum of the Wall Street Journal dismissed the film as “brutal fantasy”. Eastwood blamed Universal Studios for the film’s poor promotion and turned his back on them to make an agreement with Warner Brothers, through Frank Wells, that has lasted to the present day.

The Outlaw Josey Wales (1976), a western inspired by Asa Carter’s 1972 novel of the same name, has lead character Josey Wales (Eastwood) as a pro-Confederate guerilla who refuses to surrender his arms after the American Civil War and is chased across the old southwest by a group of enforcers. The supporting cast included Locke as his love interest and Chief Dan George as an elderly Cherokee who strikes up a friendship with Wales. Director Philip Kaufman was fired by producer Bob Daley under Eastwood’s command, resulting in a fine reported to be around $60,000 from the Directors Guild of America—who subsequently passed new legislation reserving the right to impose a major fine on a producer for discharging and replacing a director. The film was pre-screened at the Sun Valley Center for the Arts and Humanities in Idaho during a six-day conference entitled Western Movies: Myths and Images. Invited to the screening were a number of esteemed film critics, including Jay Cocks and Arthur Knight; directors such as King Vidor, William Wyler, and Howard Hawks; and a number of academics. Upon release in the summer of 1976 The Outlaw Josey Wales was widely acclaimed, with many critics and viewers seeing Eastwood’s role as an iconic one that related to America’s ancestral past and the destiny of the nation after the American Civil War. Roger Ebert compared the nature and vulnerability of Eastwood’s portrayal of Josey Wales with his Man with No Name character in the Dollars westerns and praised the film’s atmosphere. The film would later appear in Time’s “Top 10 Films of the Year”.

Eastwood was then offered the role of Benjamin L. Willard in Francis Coppola’s Apocalypse Now, but declined as he did not want to spend weeks on location in the Philippines. He also refused the part of a platoon leader in Ted Post’s Vietnam War film, Go Tell the Spartans and instead decided to make a third Dirty Harry film, The Enforcer. The film had Callahan partnered with a new female officer (Tyne Daly) to face a San Francisco Bay area group resembling the Symbionese Liberation Army. The film, culminating in a shootout on Alcatraz island, was considerably shorter than the previous Dirty Harry films at 95 minutes, but was a major commercial success grossing $100 million worldwide to become Eastwood’s highest-grossing film to date.

In 1977, he directed and starred in The Gauntlet opposite Locke, Pat Hingle, William Prince, Bill McKinney, and Mara Corday. Eastwood portrays a down-and-out cop assigned to escort a prostitute from Las Vegas to Phoenix to testify against the mob. Although a moderate hit with the viewing public, critics had mixed feelings about the film, with many believing it was overly violent. Ebert, in contrast, gave the film three stars and called it “… classic Clint Eastwood: fast, furious, and funny.” The following year, he starred in Every Which Way But Loose in an uncharacteristic offbeat comedy role. He played Philo Beddoe, a trucker and brawler who roams the American West searching for a lost love (Locke) accompanied by his brother (played by Geoffrey Lewis) and an orangutan called Clyde. The film proved surprisingly successful upon its release and became Eastwood’s most commercially successful film up to that time. Panned by critics, it ranked high among the box office successes of his career and was the second-highest-grossing film of 1978.

Eastwood starred in Escape from Alcatraz in 1979, the last of his films directed by Siegel. It was based on the true story of Frank Lee Morris who, along with John and Clarence Anglin, escaped from the notorious Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary in 1962. The film was a major success; Stanley Kauffmann of The New Republic praised it as “crystalline cinema” and Frank Rich of Time described it as “cool, cinematic grace”.

1980s

In 1980, Eastwood directed and played the title role in Bronco Billy alongside Locke, Scatman Crothers, and Sam Bottoms. Eastwood has cited Bronco Billy as being one of the most relaxed shoots of his career and biographer Richard Schickel has argued that Bronco Billy is Eastwood’s most self-referential character. The film was a rare commercial disappointment in Eastwood’s career, but was liked by critics. Janet Maslin of The New York Times wrote that film was “…the best and funniest Clint Eastwood movie in quite a while”, and praised Eastwood’s directing, intricately juxtaposing the old West and the new West. Later that year, Eastwood starred in Any Which Way You Can, the sequel to Every Which Way But Loose. The film received a number of bad reviews from critics, although Maslin described it as “funnier and even better than its predecessor”. Released over the Christmas season of 1980, Any Which Way You Can was a major box office success and ranked among the top five highest-grossing films of the year.

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Eastwood in 1981

In 1982, Eastwood directed and starred in Honkytonk Man, based on the eponymous Clancy Carlile’s depression-era novel. Eastwood portrays a struggling western singer Red Stovall who suffers from tuberculosis, but has finally been given an opportunity to make it big at the Grand Ole Opry. He is accompanied by his young nephew (played by real-life son Kyle) to Nashville, Tennessee, where he is supposed to record a song. Only Time gave the film a good review in the United States, with most reviewers criticizing its blend of muted humor and tragedy. Nevertheless, the film received critical acclaim in France, where it was compared to John Ford’s The Grapes of Wrath, and it has since acquired the very high rating of 93 percent on Rotten Tomatoes. In the same year Eastwood directed, produced, and starred in the Cold War-themed Firefox. Based on a 1977 novel with the same name written by Craig Thomas, the film was shot before but released after Honkeytonk Man. Russian filming locations were not possible due to the Cold War, and the film had to be shot in Vienna and other locations in Austria to simulate many of the Eurasian story locations. With a production cost of $20 million, it was Eastwood’s highest budget film to date. People magazine likened Eastwood’s performance to “Luke Skywalker trapped in Dirty Harry’s Soul”.

Eastwood directed and starred in the fourth Dirty Harry film, Sudden Impact, which was shot in the spring and summer of 1983 and is considered the darkest and most violent of the series. By this time Eastwood received 60 percent of all profits from films he starred in and directed, with the rest going to the studio. Sudden Impact was his final on-screen collaboration with Locke. She plays an artist who, along with her sister, was gang-raped a decade before the story takes place and seeks revenge for her sister’s now-vegetative state by systematically murdering the rapists. The line “Go ahead, make my day” (uttered by Eastwood during an early scene in a coffee shop) has been cited as one of cinema’s immortal lines. It was quoted by President Ronald Reagan in a speech to Congress, and used during the 1984 presidential elections. The film was the second most commercially successful of the Dirty Harry films, after The Enforcer, earning $70 million. It received very positive reviews, with many critics praising the feminist aspects of the film through its explorations of the physical and psychological consequences of rape.

Tightrope (1984) had Eastwood starring opposite Geneviève Bujold in a provocative thriller, inspired by newspaper articles about an elusive Bay Area rapist. Set in New Orleans to avoid confusion with the Dirty Harry films, Eastwood played a divorced cop drawn into his target’s tortured psychology and fascination for sadomasochism. Tightrope was a critical and commercial hit and became the fourth highest-grossing R-rated film of 1984. Eastwood next starred in the crime comedy City Heat (1984) alongside Burt Reynolds, a film about a private eye and his partner who get mixed up with gangsters in the prohibition era of the 1930s. The film grossed around $50 million domestically, but was overshadowed by Eddie Murphy’s Beverly Hills Cop.

Westerns. A period gone by, the pioneer, the loner operating by himself, without benefit of society. It usually has something to do with some sort of vengeance; he takes care of the vengeance himself, doesn’t call the police. Like Robin Hood. It’s the last masculine frontier. Romantic myth, I guess, though it’s hard to think about anything romantic today. In a Western you can think, Jesus, there was a time when man was alone, on horseback, out there where man hasn’t spoiled the land yet.

— Eastwood, on the philosophical allure of portraying western loners

Eastwood made his only foray into TV direction with the 1985 Amazing Stories episode Vanessa in the Garden, which starred Harvey Keitel and Locke. This was his first collaboration with Steven Spielberg, who later co-produced Flags of Our Fathers and Letters from Iwo Jima. He would revisit the Western genre when he directed and starred in Pale Rider (1985), a film based on the classic 1953 western Shane and follows a preacher descending from the mists of the Sierras to side with the miners during the California Gold Rush of 1850. The title is a reference to the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, as the rider of the pale horse is Death, and shows similarities to Eastwood’s 1973 western High Plains Drifter in its themes of morality and justice as well as its exploration of the supernatural. Pale Rider became one of Eastwood’s most successful films to date. It was hailed as one of the best films of 1985 and the best western to appear for a considerable period, with Gene Siskel of the Chicago Tribune remarking, “This year (1985) will go down in film history as the moment Clint Eastwood finally earned respect as an artist”.

In 1986, Eastwood co-starred with Marsha Mason in the military drama Heartbreak Ridge, about the 1983 United States invasion of Grenada. He portrays an United States Marine Gunnery Sergeant veteran of the Korean War and Vietnam War who realizes he is nearing the end of his military service. Production and filming were marred by internal disagreements between Eastwood and long-time friend and producer Fritz Manes, as well as between Eastwood and the United States Department of Defense who expressed contempt for the film. At the time, the film was a commercial rather than a critical success, and has only come to be viewed more favorably in recent times. The film grossed $70 million domestically.

Eastwood starred in The Dead Pool (1988), the fifth and final film in the Dirty Harry series. It co-starred Patricia Clarkson, Liam Neeson, and a young Jim Carrey who plays Johnny Squares, a drug-addled rock star and the first of the victims on a list of celebrities drawn up by horror film director Peter Swan (Neeson) who are deemed most likely to die, the so-called “Dead Pool”. The list is stolen by an obsessed fan who, in mimicking his favorite director, makes his way through the list killing off celebrities, of which Dirty Harry is also included. The Dead Pool grossed nearly $38 million, relatively low receipts for a Dirty Harry film. It is generally viewed as the weakest film of the series, though Roger Ebert thought it was as good as the original.

Eastwood began working on smaller, more personal projects and experienced a lull in his career between 1988 and 1992. Always interested in jazz, he directed Bird (1988), a biopic starring Forest Whitaker as jazz musician Charlie “Bird” Parker. Alto saxophonist Jackie McLean and Spike Lee, son of jazz bassist Bill Lee and a long time critic of Eastwood, criticized the characterization of Charlie Parker remarking that it did not capture his true essence and sense of humor. Eastwood received two Golden Globes for the film, the Cecil B. DeMille Award for his lifelong contribution, and the Best Director award. However, Bird was a commercial failure, earning just $11 million, which Eastwood attributed to the declining interest in jazz among black people. Carrey would appear with Eastwood again in the poorly received comedy Pink Cadillac (1989). The film is about a bounty hunter and a group of white supremacists chasing an innocent woman (Bernadette Peters) who tries to outrun everyone in her husband’s prized pink Cadillac. The film failed both critically and commercially, earning barely more than Bird and marking a low point in Eastwood’s career.

1990s

Eastwood directed and starred in White Hunter Black Heart (1990), an adaptation of Peter Viertel’s roman à clef, about John Huston and the making of the classic film The African Queen. Shot on location in Zimbabwe in the summer of 1989, the film received some critical attention but with only a limited release earned just $8.4 million. Later in 1990, Eastwood directed and co-starred with Charlie Sheen in The Rookie, a buddy cop action film. Critics found the film’s plot and characterization unconvincing, but praised its action sequences. An ongoing lawsuit, in response to Eastwood allegedly ramming a woman’s car, resulted in no Eastwood films being shown in cinemas in 1991. Eastwood won the suit and agreed to pay the complainant’s legal fees if she did not appeal.

…if possible, he looks even taller, leaner and more mysteriously possessed than he did in Sergio Leone’s seminal Fistful of Dollars a quarter of a century ago. The years haven’t softened him. They have given him the presence of some fierce force of nature, which may be why the landscapes of the mythic, late 19th-century West become him, never more so than in his new Unforgiven. … This is his richest, most satisfying performance since the underrated, politically lunatic Heartbreak Ridge. There’s no one like him.

— Vincent Canby of The New York Times, on Eastwood’s performance in Unforgiven

In 1992, Eastwood revisited the western genre in his film Unforgiven, which he directed and in which he starred as an aging ex-gunfighter long past his prime. Scripts existed for the film as early as 1976 under titles such as The Cut-Whore Killings and The William Munny Killings but Eastwood delayed the project because he wanted to wait until he was old enough to play his character and to savor it as the last of his western films. Unforgiven was a major commercial and critical success; Jack Methews of the Los Angeles Times described it as “the finest classical western to come along since perhaps John Ford’s 1956 The Searchers. The film was nominated for nine Academy Awards, (including Best Actor for Eastwood and Best Original Screenplay for David Webb Peoples) and won four, including Best Picture and Best Director for Eastwood. In June 2008 Unforgiven was ranked as the fourth-best American western, behind Shane, High Noon, and The Searchers, in the American Film Institute’s “AFI’s 10 Top 10” list.

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At the 1994 Cannes Film Festival

Eastwood played Frank Horrigan in the Secret Service thriller In the Line of Fire (1993), directed by Wolfgang Petersen and co-starring John Malkovich and Rene Russo. Horrigan is a guilt-ridden Secret Service agent haunted by his failure to save John F. Kennedy’s life. The film was among the top 10 box office performers in that year, earning $102 million in the United States alone. Later in 1993, he directed and co-starred alongside Kevin Costner in A Perfect World. Set in the 1960s, Eastwood plays a Texas Ranger in pursuit of an escaped convict (Costner) who hits the road with a young boy (T.J. Lowther). Janet Maslin of The New York Times wrote that the film marked the highest point of Eastwood’s directing career, and the film has since been cited as one of his most underrated directorial achievements.

At the May 1994 Cannes Film Festival Eastwood received France’s Ordre des Arts et des Lettres medal, and on March 27, 1995, he was awarded the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award at the 67th Academy Awards. His next film appearance was in a cameo role as himself in the 1995 children’s film Casper. Later that same year he expanded his repertoire by playing opposite Meryl Streep in The Bridges of Madison County. Based on the novel by Robert James Waller, the film relates the story of Robert Kincaid (Eastwood), a photographer working for National Geographic, who has an affair with a middle-aged Italian farm wife, Francesca (Streep). Despite the novel receiving unfavorable reviews and a subject deemed potentially unsuitable for film, The Bridges of Madison County was a commercial and critical success. Roger Ebert wrote, “Streep and Eastwood weave a spell, and it is based on that particular knowledge of love and self that comes with middle age.” The film was nominated for a Golden Globe for Best Picture and won a César Award in France for Best Foreign Film. Streep was also nominated for an Academy Award and a Golden Globe.

In 1997, Eastwood directed and starred in the political thriller Absolute Power, alongside Gene Hackman (with whom he had appeared in Unforgiven). Eastwood played the role of a veteran thief who witnesses the Secret Service cover up of a murder. The film received a mixed reception from critics. Later in 1997, Eastwood directed Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil, based on the novel by John Berendt and starring John Cusack, Kevin Spacey, and Jude Law. The film met with a mixed critical response.

The roles that Eastwood has played, and the films that he has directed, cannot be disentangled from the nature of the American culture of the last quarter century, its fantasies and its realities.

— Author Edward Gallafent, commenting on Eastwood’s impact on film from the 1970s to 1990s

Eastwood directed and starred in True Crime (1999). He plays Steve Everett, a journalist and recovering alcoholic, who has to cover the execution of murderer Frank Beechum (played by Isaiah Washington). True Crime received a mixed reception, with Janet Maslin of The New York Times writing, “his direction is galvanized by a sense of second chances and tragic misunderstandings, and by contrasting a larger sense of justice with the peculiar minutiae of crime. Perhaps he goes a shade too far in the latter direction, though.” The film was a box office failure, earning less than half its $55 million budget and was Eastwood’s worst-performing film of the 1990s aside from White Hunter Black Heart, which had a limited release.

2000s

In 2000, Eastwood directed and starred in Space Cowboys alongside Tommy Lee Jones, Donald Sutherland and James Garner. Eastwood played one of a group of veteran ex-test pilots sent into space to repair an old Soviet satellite. The original music score was composed by Eastwood and Lennie Niehaus. Space Cowboys was critically well received and holds a 79 percent rating at Rotten Tomatoes,although Roger Ebert wrote that the film was, “too secure within its traditional story structure to make much seem at risk.” The film grossed more than $90 million in its United States release, more than Eastwood’s two previous films combined. In 2002, Eastwood played an ex-FBI agent chasing a sadistic killer (Jeff Daniels) in the thriller Blood Work, loosely based on the 1998 novel of the same name by Michael Connelly. The film was a commercial failure, grossing just $26.2 million on an estimated budget of $50 million and received mixed reviews, with Rotten Tomatoes describing it as, “well-made but marred by lethargic pacing”. Eastwood did, however, win the Future Film Festival Digital Award at the Venice Film Festival for the film.

Clint is a true artist in every respect. Despite his years of being at the top of his game and the legendary movies he has made, he always made us feel comfortable and valued on the set, treating us as equals.

— Tim Robbins, on working with Eastwood.

Eastwood directed and scored the crime drama Mystic River (2003), a film dealing with themes of murder, vigilantism and sexual abuse and starring Sean Penn, Kevin Bacon and Tim Robbins. The film was praised by critics and won two Academy Awards – Best Actor for Penn and Best Supporting Actor for Robbins – with Eastwood garnering nominations for Best Director and Best Picture. The film grossed $90 million domestically on a budget of $30 million. In 2003 Eastwood was named Best Director of the Year by the National Society of Film Critics.

The following year Eastwood found further critical acclaim with Million Dollar Baby. The boxing drama won four Academy Awards for Best Picture, Best Director, Best Actress (Hilary Swank) and Best Supporting Actor (Morgan Freeman). At age 74 Eastwood became the oldest of eighteen directors to have directed two or more Best Picture winners. He also received a nomination for Best Actor, as well as a Grammy nomination for his score, and won a Golden Globe for Best Director, which was presented to him by daughter Kathryn, who was Miss Golden Globe at the 2005 ceremony. A. O. Scott of The New York Times lauded the film as a “masterpiece” and the best film of the year.

In 2006, Eastwood directed two films about World War II’s Battle of Iwo Jima. The first, Flags of Our Fathers, focused on the men who raised the American flag on top of Mount Suribachi and featured the film debut of Eastwood’s son Scott. This was followed by Letters from Iwo Jima, which dealt with the tactics of the Japanese soldiers on the island and the letters they wrote home to family members. Letters from Iwo Jima was the first American film to depict a war issue completely from the view of an American enemy. Both films received praise from critics and garnered several nominations at the 79th Academy Awards, including Best Director, Best Picture, and Best Original Screenplay for Letters from Iwo Jima. At the 64th Golden Globe Awards Eastwood received nominations for Best Director in both films. Letters from Iwo Jima won the award for Best Foreign Language Film.

An older man is at the center of the image smiling and looking off to the right of the image. He is wearing a white jacket, and a tan shirt and tie. The number 61 can be seen behind him on a background wall.

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In 2008

Eastwood next directed Changeling (2008), based on a true story set in the late 1920s. Angelina Jolie stars as a woman reunited with her missing son only to realize he is an impostor. After its release at several film festivals the film grossed over $110 million, the majority of which came from foreign markets. The film was highly acclaimed, with Damon Wise of Empire describing Changeling as “flawless”. Todd McCarthy of Variety magazine described it as “emotionally powerful and stylistically sure-handed” and that the film’s characters and social commentary were brought into the story with an “almost breathtaking deliberation”. For the film Eastwood received nominations for Best Original Score at the 66th Golden Globe Awards, Best Direction at the 62nd British Academy Film Awards and director of the year from the London Film Critics’ Circle.

Eastwood ended a four-year “self-imposed acting hiatus” by appearing in Gran Torino, which he also directed, produced and partly scored with his son Kyle and Jamie Cullum. Biographer Marc Eliot called Eastwood’s role “an amalgam of the Man with No Name, Dirty Harry, and William Munny, here aged and cynical but willing and able to fight on whenever the need arose”. Gran Torino grossed almost $30 million during its opening weekend release in January 2009, the highest of his career as an actor or director. Gran Torino eventually grossed over $268 million in theaters worldwide, becoming the highest-grossing film of Eastwood’s career so far (without adjustment for inflation).

Eastwood’s 30th directorial outing came with Invictus, a film based on the story of the South African team at the 1995 Rugby World Cup, with Morgan Freeman as Nelson Mandela, Matt Damon as rugby team captain François Pienaar and Grant L. Roberts as Ruben Kruger. The film met with generally positive reviews; Roger Ebert gave it three and a half stars and described it as a “…very good film… with moments evoking great emotion,” while Variety’s Todd McCarthy wrote, “Inspirational on the face of it, Clint Eastwood’s film has a predictable trajectory, but every scene brims with surprising details that accumulate into a rich fabric of history, cultural impressions and emotion.” For the film Eastwood was nominated for Best Director at the 67th Golden Globe Awards.

2010s

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At the press conference for Hereafter (second from right)

In 2010, Eastwood directed Hereafter, again working with Matt Damon, who portrayed a psychic. The film had its world premiere on September 12, 2010 at the 2010 Toronto International Film Festival and had a limited release later in October. Hereafter received mixed reviews from critics, with the consensus at Rotten Tomatoes being, “Despite a thought-provoking premise and Clint Eastwood’s typical flair as director, Hereafter fails to generate much compelling drama, straddling the line between poignant sentimentality and hokey tedium.” In the same year, Eastwood served as executive producer for a Turner Classic Movies (TCM) documentary about jazz pianist Dave Brubeck, Dave Brubeck: In His Own Sweet Way, to commemorate Brubeck’s 90th birthday.

In 2011, Eastwood directed J. Edgar, a biopic of FBI director J. Edgar Hoover, with Leonardo DiCaprio in the title role. The film received mixed reviews, although DiCaprio’s performance as Hoover was widely praised. The Rotten Tomatoes consensus was, “Leonardo DiCaprio gives a predictably powerhouse performance, but J. Edgar stumbles in all other departments”. Roger Ebert wrote that the film is “fascinating,” “masterful,” and praised DiCaprio’s performance. David Edelstein of New York Magazine, while also praising DiCaprio, wrote, “It’s too bad J. Edgar is so shapeless and turgid and ham-handed, so rich in bad lines and worse readings”.In January 2011, it was announced that Eastwood was in talks to direct Beyoncé Knowles in a third remake of the 1937 film A Star Is Born; however, the project was delayed due to Beyoncé’s pregnancy. Eastwood then starred in the baseball drama Trouble with the Curve (2012), as a veteran baseball scout who travels with his daughter for a final scouting trip. Robert Lorenz, who worked with Eastwood as an assistant director on several films, directed the film.

Everybody wonders why I continue working at this stage. I keep working because there’s always new stories. … And as long as people want me to tell them, I’ll be there doing them.

— Eastwood, reflecting on his later career

During Super Bowl XLVI, Eastwood narrated a halftime advertisement for Chrysler titled “It’s Halftime in America”. The advertisement was criticized by several U.S. Republicans, who claimed it implied that President Barack Obama deserved a second term. In response to the criticism, Eastwood stated, “I am certainly not politically affiliated with Mr. Obama. It was meant to be a message about job growth and the spirit of America.”

Eastwood next directed Jersey Boys, a musical biography based on the Tony Award-winning musical Jersey Boys. The film told the story of the musical group The Four Seasons, and was released on June 20, 2014.

Eastwood directed American Sniper, a film adaptation of Chris Kyle’s eponymous memoir, following Steven Spielberg’s departure from the project. The film was released on December 25, 2014. American Sniper has grossed more than $350 million domestically and over $547 million globally, making it one of Eastwood’s biggest movies commercially.

Directing

Beginning with the thriller Play Misty for Me, Eastwood has directed over 30 films, including Westerns, action films, and dramas. He is one of few top Hollywood actors to have also become a critically and commercially successful director. The New Yorker’s David Denby wrote that, unlike Eastwood,

John Ford appeared in just a few silent films; Howard Hawks never acted in movies. Clark Gable, Gary Cooper, Spencer Tracy, James Stewart, Cary Grant, Humphrey Bogart, William Holden, Steve McQueen, and Sean Connery never directed a feature. John Wayne directed only twice, and badly; ditto Burt Lancaster. Paul Newman, Jack Nicholson, Warren Beatty, Robert Redford, Robert De Niro, and Sean Penn have directed a few movies each, with mixed commercial and artistic success.

From the very early days of his career Eastwood was frustrated by directors’ insistence that scenes be re-shot multiple times and perfected, and when he began directing in 1970, he made a conscious attempt to avoid any aspects of directing he had been indifferent to as an actor. As a result, Eastwood is renowned for his efficient film directing and ability to reduce filming time and control budgets. He usually avoids actors’ rehearsing and prefers to complete most scenes on the first take. Eastwood’s rapid filmmaking practices have been compared to those of Woody Allen, Ingmar Bergman, Jean-Luc Godard, and the Coen brothers. When acting in others’ films he sometimes takes over directing, such as for The Outlaw Josey Wales, if he believes production is too slow. In preparation for filming Eastwood rarely uses storyboards for developing the layout of a shooting schedule. He also attempts to reduce script background details on characters to allow the audience to become more involved in the film, considering their imagination a requirement for a film that connects with viewers. Eastwood has indicated that he lays out a film’s plot to provide the audience with necessary details, but not “so much that it insults their intelligence.”

According to Life magazine, “Eastwood’s style is to shoot first and act afterward. He etches his characters virtually without words. He has developed the art of underplaying to the point that anyone around him who so much as flinches looks hammily histrionic.” Interviewers Richard Thompson and Tim Hunter note that Eastwood’s films are “superbly paced: unhurried; cool; and [give] a strong sense of real time, regardless of the speed of the narrative” while Ric Gentry considers Eastwood’s pacing “unrushed and relaxed.” Eastwood is fond of low-key lighting and back-lighting to give his movies a “noir-ish” feel.

Eastwood’s frequent exploration of ethical values has drawn the attention of scholars, who have explored Eastwood’s work from ethical and theological perspectives, including his portrayal of justice, mercy, suicide and the angel of death.

Personal Life


Relationships

Eastwood married Margaret Neville “Maggie” Johnson (born 1931; then working for an auto parts suppliers company) on December 19, 1953 in Pasadena. They had met six months earlier on a blind date in Los Angeles, although Eastwood subsequently had a serious relationship in Seattle that summer with a young woman who became pregnant with his child—an alleged daughter who was given up for adoption, per biographer Patrick McGilligan—before Johnson announced her engagement to him in October. The marriage would not prove altogether smooth. “He thought they were too young, not well enough established,” remarked biographer Richard Schickel in the only authorized book ever written about Eastwood. A decade later, an ongoing affair Eastwood was involved in (said to have lasted 14 years) with dancer and Rawhide stuntwoman Roxanne Tunis (who was also married yet separated) produced his earliest verified child, daughter Kimber Eastwood (born Kimber Tunis; June 17, 1964), whose existence was kept secret from the public until July 1989, when the National Enquirer revealed her identity. Biographer Marc Eliot wrote of Johnson, “It is difficult to say for sure that she actually knew about the baby, although it would have been nearly impossible for her not to. Everyone on the set knew … and it is simply too difficult to keep a secret like that when the mother and the illegitimate child live in the same small town, especially when that small town is Hollywood.” The source for the 1989 Enquirer article that originally broke the story claimed Johnson was aware of Kimber’s existence at all times and even met Roxanne Tunis in person when making an unannounced visit to the set of Breezy in 1972. Actress Barbara Eden, a onetime Rawhide guest star and witness to the affair with Tunis, said of Eastwood’s relationship with Johnson: “They conducted a somewhat open marriage.”

Ria Brown, the biographer of competitive swimmer Anita Lhoest, claims Lhoest terminated a pregnancy by Eastwood without consulting him at one point during their late 1950s to early 1960s affair. Restaurant critic Gael Greene admitted to an affair with Eastwood that began when she was assigned to interview him on the set of 1970’s Two Mules for Sister Sara. A fling with French model Cathy Reghin around the same time was one of his few extramarital involvements to receive press coverage of any kind during the fact. According to McGilligan, Eastwood had many other affairs, including with co-stars Inger Stevens (Hang ‘Em High), Jean Seberg (Paint Your Wagon) and Jo Ann Harris (The Beguiled), as well as actresses Jill Banner, Catherine Deneuve, and Susan St. James, columnist Bridget Byrne and singer Keely Smith while married to Johnson, who, after a trial separation and lingering bout of hepatitis during the mid-1960s, expressed desire to reconcile and start a family. They had two children together: Kyle Eastwood (born May 19, 1968) and Alison Eastwood (born May 22, 1972). In 1972, Eastwood met married actress (later director) Sondra Locke. The two began living together while filming The Outlaw Josey Wales in the autumn of 1975, by which time, according to Locke, “He had told me that there was no real relationship left between him and Maggie.” Locke wrote in her autobiography, “Clint seemed astonished at his need for me, even admitting that he’d never been faithful to one woman — because he’d “never been in love before,” he confided. He even made up a song about it: “She made me monogamous.” That flattered and delighted me. I would never doubt his faithfulness and his love for me.” Locke moved into the Sherman Oaks house Eastwood had once shared with Johnson (who by then lived full-time in Pebble Beach), but felt uncomfortable there because “psychologically, it would always be Maggie’s.” “Finally I told Clint that I couldn’t live there any longer,” writes Locke. The couple moved to Bel-Air in a fixer-upper Locke spent three years renovating. She underwent two abortions and a tubal ligation in the late 1970s and was most reluctant about the second abortion, noting “I couldn’t help but think that that baby, with both Clint’s and my best qualities, would be extraordinary.” Johnson made no secret of her dislike for Locke, even though the two women never met. “Maggie placed severe rules on my relationship with the kids. Apparently, she never forgave me … After she learned that Clint had taken me onto her property to show me a baby deer that had just been born there, she laid down a rule that I was never to be allowed there again. I was not even allowed to phone the Pebble Beach house.” In 1978 Johnson filed for legal separation from Eastwood, but did not file for divorce until May 1984, a divorce which was finalized that November with Johnson receiving a straight cash payment reported to be between $25 and $30 million. Locke never divorced her legal husband, sculptor Gordon Anderson, who was gay and resided with his partner in a West Hollywood home purchased by Eastwood.

“I believe Clint knows who he is; he just doesn’t like who he is. I do believe that Clint loved me as much as he is capable of love, and in the first 8 or so years together he really wanted to be the man he knew I saw in him. I think he tried very hard, but eventually one’s nature cannot change.”

—Sondra Locke on Eastwood in 2013

Eastwood and Locke went on to star in The Gauntlet, Every Which Way But Loose, Bronco Billy, Any Which Way You Can and Sudden Impact. According to former longtime associate Fritz Manes, as quoted by author McGilligan, Eastwood was devoted to her between 1976 and 1980 at the least, but discreetly kept up several “maintenance relationships” (such as with Tunis) during that period. McGilligan claims Eastwood returned to his “habitual womanizing” in the early 1980s, becoming involved with story analyst Megan Rose, actress Jamie Rose (who played a bit part in Tightrope), animal rights activist Jane Brolin (who had intermittent liaisons with Eastwood between the early 1960s and late 1980s) and Jacelyn Reeves, a stewardess he met at the Hog’s Breath Inn, among others. He was still living with Locke when he conceived two children with Reeves: a son Scott Eastwood (born Scott Reeves; March 21, 1986) and daughter Kathryn Eastwood (born Kathryn Reeves; February 2, 1988), whose birth certificates both said “Father declined.” The affair with Reeves was not reported anywhere until an exposé article was published in the Star tabloid in 1990. It quoted Reeves as saying “Some family members tell me to file a paternity suit against Clint, but I don’t want to.” The children continued to be unacknowledged by mainstream news sources for more than a decade thereafter. Eastwood’s relationship with Locke (at the time unaware of his infidelities) ended acrimoniously in April 1989, and the post-breakup litigation dragged on for years. Locke filed a palimony lawsuit against him after he changed the locks on their home and moved her possessions into storage when she was at work filming her second directorial feature, Impulse. In court, Eastwood downplayed the intensity of their relationship. He described Locke as a “roommate” before quickly redescribing her as a “part-time roommate.” Locke’s estranged brother told The Tennessean that Eastwood still truly loved her, but could no longer take her “addiction” to husband Gordon Anderson. Anticipating that Eastwood was going to misrepresent the marriage, Locke asked Anderson to surrender all claims on any of her assets that as her legal spouse he was entitled to. “In an extraordinary gesture of love and faith in me, Gordon signed away everything without hesitation.” During the trial, an investigative journalist contacted Locke and informed her of Eastwood’s other family. “I spoke with the nurse in the delivery room, and she confirmed that they are Clint’s children. I’ll send copies of the birth certificates to you and a photo of Jacelyn, if you want them,” Locke quotes the informant. “My mind was still searching to get all his actions lined up. For at least the last four years of our relationship, Clint had been living this double life, going between me and this other woman, and having children with her. Two babies had been born during the last three years of our relationship, and they weren’t mine.” As the case went on, Locke developed breast cancer and said the treatments sapped her will to fight. She dropped her suit in November 1990 in exchange for a settlement package which included a lump sum plus monthly payments from Eastwood and a $1.5 million directing deal at Warner Bros., but sued him again for fraud in 1995 when she became convinced the deal with Warner was a sham, finally settling out of court in September 1996. Since then, Locke has made discrediting comments about Eastwood.

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With his (now former) wife Dina in 2007

In 1990, actress Frances Fisher, whom Eastwood had met on the set of Pink Cadillac in late 1988, moved in with him. Fisher said of dating Eastwood, “I simply felt that this was it, the big one. I had no idea that every woman he meets probably feels as I did.” They co-starred in Unforgiven, and had a daughter, Francesca Eastwood (born Francesca Fisher-Eastwood; August 7, 1993). The birth of Francesca marked the first time Eastwood was present for one of his children being born. Eastwood and Fisher ended their relationship in early 1995, after which Fisher said it took two years to complete what she called the grieving process for her shattered dreams. Before she had moved out of Eastwood’s home, he was said to already be dating Dina Ruiz, a television news anchor 35 years his junior whom he had first met when she interviewed him in April 1993. They married on March 31, 1996, when Eastwood surprised her with a private ceremony at a home on the Shadow Creek Golf Course in Las Vegas. The marriage was noted for the fact that it was only Eastwood’s second legal union in spite of his many long-term romances over the decades. Eastwood said of his bride, “I’m proud to make this lady my wife. She’s the one I’ve been waiting for.” Ruiz commented, “The fact that I’m only the second woman he has married really touches me.” The couple has one daughter, Morgan Eastwood (born December 12, 1996). Ruiz made cameos in two of Eastwood’s films, Blood Work and True Crime (in which Fisher even appeared). In the summer of 2012, Dina, Morgan and Francesca starred with the band Overtone in the E! reality-television show Mrs. Eastwood & Company, on which Clint appeared infrequently.

In August 2013, Dina Eastwood announced that she and her husband had been living separately for an undisclosed length of time. On October 23, 2013, Dina filed for divorce after she withdrew her request for legal separation, citing irreconcilable differences. She asked for full custody of their 16-year-old daughter, Morgan, as well as spousal support. The divorce was finalized on December 22, 2014. Eastwood has since been linked publicly with photographer Erica Tomlinson-Fisher (no relation to Frances), 41 years his junior, and restaurant hostess Christina Sandera, 33 years his junior. He and Sandera went public with their relationship at the 87th Academy Awards in February 2015.

Leisure

Despite smoking in some of his films, Eastwood is a lifelong non-smoker, has been conscious of his health and fitness since he was a teenager, and practices healthful eating and daily Transcendental Meditation.

He opened an old English-inspired pub called the Hog’s Breath Inn in Carmel-by-the-Sea, California in 1971. Eastwood sold the pub and now owns the Mission Ranch Hotel and Restaurant in Carmel-by-the-Sea.

He is an avid golfer and owns the Tehàma Golf Club. He is an investor in the world-renowned Pebble Beach Golf Links west of Carmel and donates his time to charitable causes at major tournaments. Eastwood is a certified pilot and often flies his helicopter to the studios to avoid traffic.

Politics


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With Lou Gossett, Jr. and President Ronald Reagan in July 1987

Eastwood registered as a Republican to vote for Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1952 and endorsed Richard Nixon’s 1968 and 1972 presidential campaigns. However, during the subsequent Watergate scandal, Eastwood criticized Nixon’s morality and later his handling of the Vietnam War, calling it “immoral”.

Eastwood has disapproved of America’s wars in Korea (1950–1953), Vietnam (1964–1975), Afghanistan (2001–present), and Iraq (2003–2011), believing that the United States should not be overly militaristic or play the role of global policeman. He has referred to himself as “…too individualistic to be either right-wing or left-wing,” describing himself in 1974 as “a political nothing” and “a moderate” and in 1997 as a “libertarian.” “I don’t see myself as conservative,” Eastwood has stated, while noting in the same breath that he is not an “ultra-leftist,” either. At times, he has supported Democrats in California, including Senator Dianne Feinstein in 1994, liberal United States House of Representatives member Sam Farr in 2002, and Governor Gray Davis, whom he voted for in 1998 and 2002 and hosted pricey fundraisers for in 2002 and 2003.

A self-professed “liberal on civil rights,” Eastwood has stated that he is pro-choice on abortion. He has endorsed same-sex marriage and contributed to groups supporting the Equal Rights Amendment for women, which failed to receive ratification in 1982.

In 1992, Eastwood acknowledged to writer David Breskin that his political views represented a fusion of Milton Friedman and Noam Chomsky and suggested that they would make for a worthwhile presidential ticket. In 1999, Eastwood stated, “I guess I was a social liberal and fiscal conservative before it became fashionable.” Ten years later, in 2009, Eastwood said that he was now a registered Libertarian.

Despite being heavily associated with firearms in his Westerns and police movies, Eastwood has publicly endorsed gun control since at least 1973. In the April 24, 1973, edition of The Washington Post, the star said, “I’m for gun legislation myself. I don’t hunt.” Two years later, in 1975, Eastwood told People magazine that he favors “gun control to some degree.” About a year later, Eastwood remarked that “All guns should be registered. I don’t think legitimate gun owners would mind that kind of legislation. Right now the furor against a gun law is by gun owners who are overreacting. They’re worried that all guns are going to be recalled. It’s impossible to take guns out of circulation, and that’s why firearms should be registered and mail-order delivery of guns halted.” In 1993, he noted that he “…was always a backer” of the Brady Bill, with its federally mandated waiting period. In 1995, Eastwood questioned the purpose of assault weapons. Larry King, the television host and newspaper columnist, wrote in the May 22, 1995, edition of USA Today that “my interview with Eastwood will air on ‘Larry King Weekend’ … I asked him his thoughts on the NRA and gun control and he said that while people think of him as pro-gun, he has always been in favor of controls. ‘Why would anyone need or want an assault weapon?’ he said.”

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Speaking for Take Pride in America in 2005

As a politician, Eastwood has made successful forays into both local and state government. In April 1986, he won election as mayor (a nonpartisan position) of his adopted hometown, Carmel-by-the-Sea, California – a small, wealthy village and artists’ community on the Monterey Peninsula. During his two-year term, Eastwood supported small business interests while advocating environmental protection and constructing a library annex, along with public restrooms, beach walkways, and a tourists’ parking lot. In 2001 Eastwood was appointed to the California State Park and Recreation Commission by Governor Davis, then reappointed in 2004 by Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger. As the vice chairman of the commission, in 2005 along with chairman Bobby Shriver, he led the movement opposed to a six-lane 16-mile (26 km) extension of California State Route 241, a toll road that would cut through San Onofre State Beach. Eastwood and Shriver supported a 2006 lawsuit to block the toll road and urged the California Coastal Commission to reject the project, which it did in February 2008. In March 2008 Eastwood and Shriver’s non-reappointment to the commission on the expiry of their terms prompted the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) to request a legislative investigation into the decision. Governor Schwarzenegger appointed Eastwood to the California Film Commission in April 2004. He was a spokesman for Take Pride in America, an agency of the United States Department of the Interior which advocates taking responsibility for natural, cultural, and historic resources.

During the 2008 United States presidential election, Eastwood stated that he would be voting for John McCain, citing the fact that he had known McCain since he returned to the US in 1973 as a recently released POW. Eastwood said of McCain: “I met him years ago when he first came back from Vietnam. This was back when (Ronald) Reagan was the governor of California and he had a big function for all of the prisoners of war who were released. I thought he was a terrific guy, a real American hero.” Nevertheless, Eastwood wished Barack Obama well upon his subsequent victory saying, “Obama is my president now and I am going to be wishing him the very best because it is what is best for all of us.” Eastwood stated in 2010 of President Obama: “I think he’s a nice fella and I enjoyed watching him come along and I enjoyed watching him campaign and win the job. But I’m not a fan of what he’s doing at the moment. … I just don’t think he’s governing. I don’t think he’s surrounded himself with the people he could have surrounded himself with.”

In August 2010, Eastwood wrote to the then British Chancellor of the Exchequer, George Osborne, to protest the decision to close the UK Film Council, warning the closure could result in fewer foreign production companies choosing to work in the UK.

In January 2011, Eastwood told the UK’s Daily Mail that “I loved the fact that Obama is multi-racial. I thought that was terrific, as my wife is the same racial make-up. But I felt he was a greenhorn, and it turned out he didn’t have experience in decision-making.” As for McCain, Eastwood reflected, “I voted for McCain, not because he was a Republican, but because he had been through war (in Vietnam) and I thought he might understand the war in Iraq better than somebody who hadn’t. I didn’t agree with him on a lot of stuff.” On August 3, 2012, he attended a fundraiser for Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney, suggesting that Romney would boost the country and “restore a decent tax system … so that there’s a fairness and people are not pitted against one another as [to] who’s paying taxes and who isn’t.” During a speech at the 2012 Republican National Convention, Eastwood talked to an empty chair as if President Barack Obama were sitting in it. The speech was met with a huge response by the media with both praise and criticism. Eastwood, who said he came up with the speech 5 seconds before he gave it, said that if he could do it again he would say something different. “My only message was [that] I wanted people to take the idolizing factor out of every contestant out there. Just look at the work, look at the background, and then make a judgment on that. I was just trying to say that, and did it in kind of a roundabout way which took a lot more time, I suppose, than they would have liked. I’d probably say something else but I’d try to get the same message across so that people don’t have to kiss up to politicians. No matter what party they’re in, you should evaluate their work and make your judgments accordingly. That’s the way to do it in life and every other subject, but sometimes in America we get gaga, we look at the wrong values.”

Eastwood said he has always opposed war and is a pragmatic Libertarian rather than a red-meat Republican. Eastwood further explained his anti-war stance by saying “I was a child growing up during World War II. That was supposed to be the one to end all wars. And four years later, I was standing at the draft board being drafted during the Korean conflict, and then after that there was Vietnam, and it goes on and on forever … I just wonder … does this ever stop? And no, it doesn’t. So each time we get in these conflicts, it deserves a lot of thought before we go wading in or wading out. Going in or coming out. It needs a better thought process, I think.” Furthermore, Eastwood’s 2014 movie American Sniper was met with strong critical praise, especially from many Republicans who called it a pro-War on Terror, pro-Republican, and patriotic film; Eastwood responded by saying that such notions represented a “stupid analysis” and that the movie had nothing to do with political parties. Eastwood responded to critics of American Sniper by saying his film was “the biggest anti-war statement any film can make”, and that the film depicts “the fact of what [war] does to the family and the people who have to go back into civilian life like Chris Kyle did” and “what it (war) does to the people left behind.”

In an interview with Esquire that appeared in early August 2016, Eastwood discussed Donald Trump and how this generation, as he put it, is a “pussy generation.” “All these people that say, ‘Oh, you can’t do that, and you can’t do this, and you can’t say that.’ I guess it’s just the times.” Eastwood also said that while he was not endorsing Donald Trump, he did see where he was coming from at times, even though the filmmaker stated that the candidate has said dumb things. “What Trump is onto is he’s just saying what’s on his mind. And sometimes it’s not so good. And sometimes it’s … I mean, I can understand where he’s coming from, but I don’t always agree with it. I haven’t endorsed anybody. I haven’t talked to Trump. I haven’t talked to anybody. You know, he’s a racist now because he’s talked about this judge. And yeah, it’s a dumb thing to say. I mean, to predicate your opinion on the fact that the guy was born to Mexican parents or something. He’s said a lot of dumb things. So have all of them. Both sides. But everybody—the press and everybody’s going, ‘Oh, well, that’s racist,” and they’re making a big hoodoo out of it. Just fucking get over it. It’s a sad time in history.'” Eastwood also said, when asked if he was still a Libertarian, that he was a little bit of everything and that he wants this generation to get to work and be more understanding instead of calling people names. “Kick ass and take names,” Eastwood said. When asked which candidate he would prefer between Trump and Hillary Clinton, Eastwood replied, “That’s a tough one, isn’t it? I’d have to go for Trump … you know, ’cause she’s declared that she’s gonna follow in Obama’s footsteps. There’s been just too much funny business on both sides of the aisle. She’s made a lot of dough out of being a politician. I gave up dough to be a politician. I’m sure that Ronald Reagan gave up dough to be a politician.”

However, in a subsequent interview with the Los Angeles Times that appeared a month later, Eastwood suggested that he would not necessarily vote for Trump and instead appeared agnostic regarding the 2016 presidential election. The Times’ Rebecca Keegan asked, “So when you say you’re not on either side of the aisle, does that mean you’re not voting for Trump?” Eastwood replied, “I’m totally an enigma. I’m just astounded. I hate to pick up the paper. I think both individuals and both parties backing the individuals have a certain degree of insanity.”

Eastwood had declared in that interview, “I’m not on either side of the aisle. I think most Americans are going, ‘What the … ? Is this all we can do?’ … When there were 17 people on the stage [in the early GOP debates], I thought, well, there are three or four people up there I could see voting for. They seem pretty good. I had a few …. And then I thought, what the hell happened?”

And in a red carpet interview with Extra on September 8, 2016, when asked about supposedly supporting Trump, Eastwood replied, “You know, I haven’t supported anybody, really,” and suggested that Trump and Clinton constituted a modern-day Abbott and Costello, referring to the bumbling comedians of the 1940s and early 1950s.

Music


Eastwood favors jazz (especially bebop), blues, classic rhythm and blues, classical, and country-and-western music; his favorite musicians include saxophonists Charlie Parker and Lester Young, pianists Thelonious Monk, Oscar Peterson, Dave Brubeck, and Fats Waller, and Delta bluesman Robert Johnson. He is also a pianist and composer. Jazz has played an important role in Eastwood’s life from a young age and, although he never made it as a professional musician, he passed on the influence to his son Kyle Eastwood, a successful jazz bassist and composer. Eastwood developed as a boogie-woogie pianist early on and had originally intended to pursue a career in music by studying for a music theory degree after graduating from high school. In late 1959 he produced the album Cowboy Favorites, released on the Cameo label.

Eastwood has his own Warner Bros. Records-distributed imprint Malpaso Records, as part of his deal with Warner Brothers, which has released all of the scores of Eastwood’s films from The Bridges of Madison County onward. Eastwood co-wrote “Why Should I Care” with Linda Thompson and Carole Bayer Sager, which was recorded by Diana Krall.

Eastwood composed the film scores of Mystic River, Million Dollar Baby, Flags of Our Fathers, Grace Is Gone, Changeling, Hereafter, J. Edgar, and the original piano compositions for In the Line of Fire. He wrote and performed the song heard over the credits of Gran Torino.

The music in Grace Is Gone received two Golden Globe nominations by the Hollywood Foreign Press Association for the 65th Golden Globe Awards. Eastwood was nominated for Best Original Score, while the song “Grace is Gone” with music by Eastwood and lyrics by Carole Bayer Sager was nominated for Best Original Song. It won the Satellite Award for Best Song at the 12th Satellite Awards. Changeling was nominated for Best Score at the 14th Critics’ Choice Awards, Best Original Score at the 66th Golden Globe Awards, and Best Music at the 35th Saturn Awards. On September 22, 2007, Eastwood was awarded an honorary Doctor of Music degree from the Berklee College of Music at the Monterey Jazz Festival, on which he serves as an active board member. Upon receiving the award he gave a speech claiming, “It’s one of the great honors I’ll cherish in this lifetime.”

Awards and Honors


Academy Awards

ACADEMY AWARDS

Eastwood has been recognized with multiple awards and nominations for his work in film, television, and music. His widest reception has been in film work, for which he has received Academy Awards, Directors Guild of America Awards, Golden Globe Awards, and People’s Choice Awards, among others. Eastwood is one of only two people to have been twice nominated for Best Actor and Best Director for the same film (Unforgiven and Million Dollar Baby) the other being Warren Beatty (Heaven Can Wait and Reds). Along with Beatty, Robert Redford, Richard Attenborough, Kevin Costner, and Mel Gibson, he is one of the few directors best known as an actor to win an Academy Award for directing. On February 27, 2005, he became one of only three living directors (along with Miloš Forman and Francis Ford Coppola) to have directed two Best Picture winners. Aged 74, he was the oldest recipient of the Academy Award for Best Director to date. Eastwood has directed five actors in Academy Award–winning performances: Gene Hackman in Unforgiven, Tim Robbins and Sean Penn in Mystic River, and Morgan Freeman and Hilary Swank in Million Dollar Baby.

On August 22, 1984, Eastwood was honored at a ceremony at Grauman’s Chinese theater to record his hand and footprints in cement. Eastwood received the AFI Life Achievement Award in 1996, and received an honorary degree from AFI in 2009. On December 6, 2006, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and First Lady Maria Shriver inducted Eastwood into the California Hall of Fame located at The California Museum for History, Women, and the Arts.

In early 2007, Eastwood was presented with the highest civilian distinction in France, Légion d’honneur, at a ceremony in Paris. French President Jacques Chirac told Eastwood that he embodied “the best of Hollywood.” In October 2009, he was honored by the Lumière Award (in honor of the Lumière Brothers, inventors of the Cinematograph) during the first edition of the Lumière Film Festival in Lyon, France. This award honors his entire career and his major contribution to the 7th Art. In February 2010, Eastwood was recognized by President Barack Obama with an arts and humanities award. Obama described Eastwood’s films as “essays in individuality, hard truths and the essence of what it means to be American.”

Eastwood has also been awarded at least three honorary degrees from universities and colleges, including an honorary degree from the University of the Pacific in 2006, an honorary Doctor of Humane Letters from the University of Southern California on May 27, 2007, and an honorary Doctor of Music degree from the Berklee College of Music at the Monterey Jazz Festival on September 22, 2007.

On July 22, 2009, Eastwood was bestowed by Emperor Akihito of Japan with the Order of the Rising Sun, 3rd class, Gold Rays with Neck Ribbon for his contributions to the enhancement of Japan–United States relations.

Eastwood won the Golden Pine lifetime achievement award at the 2013 International Samobor Film Music Festival, along with Ryuichi Sakamoto and Gerald Fried.

Filmography


Eastwood has contributed to over 50 films over his career as actor, director, producer, and composer. He has acted in several television series, including his starring role in Rawhide. He started directing in 1971, and made his debut as a producer in 1982, with Firefox, though he had been functioning as uncredited producer on all of his Malpaso Company films since Hang ‘Em High in 1968. Eastwood also has contributed music to his films, either through performing, writing, or composing. He has mainly starred in western, action, and drama films. According to the box office–revenue tracking website Box Office Mojo, films featuring Eastwood have grossed a total of more than $1.68 billion domestically, with an average of $37 million per film.

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Television


At the early stages of his acting career, Eastwood played several small roles in episodes for several television shows. This list includes appearances in various episodes of fictional shows, and excludes appearances as himself on talk shows, interview shows, ceremonies, and other related media.

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Awards and Nominations


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Critics Associations


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Film Festivals


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Special Awards


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John Wayne

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

John Wayne


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Wayne in 1965

  • Born: Marion Robert Morrison. May 26, 1907, Winterset, Iowa, U.S.
  • Died: June 11, 1979 (aged 72). Los Angeles, California, U.S.
  • Cause of death: Stomach cancer
  • Resting place: Pacific View Memorial Park, 33.60953°N 117.85336°W
  • Other names
    • Marion Mitchell Morrison
    • Marion Michael Morrison
    • Duke
  • Occupation: Actor, director, producer
  • Years active: 1926–1976
  • Height: 6 ft 4 in (193 cm)
  • Political party: Republican
  • Spouse(s)
    • Josephine Wayne (m. 1933; div. 1945)
    • Esperanza Baur (m. 1946; div. 1954)
    • Pilar Pallete (m. 1954; his death 1979)
  • Children: 7, including Michael, Patrick, and Ethan
  • Website: johnwayne

Marion Mitchell Morrison (born Marion Robert Morrison; May 26, 1907 – June 11, 1979), known professionally as John Wayne and nicknamed Duke, was an American actor and filmmaker. An Academy Award-winner for True Grit(1969), Wayne was among the top box office draws for three decades.

Born in Winterset, Iowa, Wayne grew up in Southern California. He found work at local film studios when he lost his football scholarship to the University of Southern California as a result of a body surfing accident.

Initially working for the Fox Film Corporation, he appeared mostly in small bit parts. His first leading role came in Raoul Walsh’s The Big Trail (1930), which led to leading roles in numerous B movies throughout the 1930s, many of them in the Western genre.

Wayne’s career took off in 1939, with John Ford’s Stagecoach making him an instant star. He went on to star in 142 pictures. Biographer Ronald Davis said, “John Wayne personified for millions the nation’s frontier heritage. Eighty-three of his movies were Westerns, and in them he played cowboys, cavalrymen, and unconquerable loners extracted from the Republic’s central creation myth.”

Wayne’s other well-known Western roles include a cattleman driving his herd north on the Chisholm Trail in Red River(1948), a Civil War veteran whose young niece is abducted by a tribe of Comanches in The Searchers (1956), and a troubled rancher competing with a lawyer for a woman’s hand in marriage in The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance (1962).

He is also remembered for his roles in The Quiet Man (1952), Rio Bravo (1959), and The Longest Day (1962). In his final screen performance, he starred as an aging gunfighter battling cancer in The Shootist (1976). He appeared with many important Hollywood stars of his era, and his last public appearance was at the Academy Awards ceremony on April 9, 1979.

Early Life


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The house in Winterset, Iowa, where Wayne was born in 1907

Wayne was born Marion Robert Morrison on May 26, 1907 at 224 South Second Street in Winterset, Iowa.[9] The local paper, Winterset Madisonian, reported on page 4 of the edition of May 30, 1907 that Wayne weighed 13 pounds at birth.

His middle name was soon changed from Robert to Mitchell when his parents decided to name their next son Robert.

Wayne’s father, Clyde Leonard Morrison (1884–1937), was the son of American Civil War veteran Marion Mitchell Morrison (1845–1915). Wayne’s mother, the former Mary “Molly” Alberta Brown (1885–1970), was from Lancaster County, Nebraska. Wayne’s ancestry included Scottish, Irish, Scots-Irish, and English. He was raised Presbyterian.

Wayne’s family moved to Palmdale, California, and then in 1916 to Glendale, California, where his father worked as a pharmacist. A local fireman at the station on his route to school in Glendale started calling him “Little Duke” because he never went anywhere without his huge Airedale Terrier, Duke.

He preferred “Duke” to “Marion”, and the nickname stuck. Wayne attended Wilson Middle School in Glendale. As a teen, he worked in an ice cream shop for a man who shod horses for Hollywood studios. He was also active as a member of the Order of DeMolay, a youth organization of the Freemasons. He played football for the 1924 league champion Glendale High School team.

Wayne applied to the U.S. Naval Academy, but he was not accepted. He instead attended the University of Southern California (USC), majoring in pre-law. He was a member of the Trojan Knights and Sigma Chi fraternities.

Wayne also played on the USC football team under coach Howard Jones. A broken collarbone injury curtailed his athletic career; Wayne later noted that he was too terrified of Jones’ reaction to reveal the actual cause of his injury, a bodysurfing accident. He lost his athletic scholarship, and without funds, had to leave the university.

As a favor to USC football coach Howard Jones, who had given silent western film star Tom Mix tickets to USC games, director John Ford and Mix hired Wayne as a prop boy and extra.

Wayne later credited his walk, talk, and persona to his acquaintance with Wyatt Earp, who was good friends with Tom Mix.

Wayne soon moved to bit parts, establishing a longtime friendship with the director who provided most of those roles, John Ford. Early in this period, he had a minor, uncredited role as a guard in the 1926 film Bardelys the Magnificent.

Wayne also appeared with his USC teammates playing football in Brown of Harvard (1926), The Dropkick(1927), and Salute (1929) and Columbia’s Maker of Men (filmed in 1930, released in 1931).

Film Career


Early career and breakthrough

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John Wayne as “Singin’ Sandy” Saunders in Riders of Destiny (1933)

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With Marsha Hunt in Born to the West (1937)

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With Jean Rogers and Ward Bondin Conflict (1936)

While working for Fox Film Corporation in bit roles, Wayne was given on-screen credit as “Duke Morrison” only once, in Words and Music (1929).

Director Raoul Walsh saw him moving studio furniture while working as a prop boy and cast him in his first starring role in The Big Trail (1930).

For his screen name, Walsh suggested “Anthony Wayne”, after Revolutionary War general “Mad” Anthony Wayne. Fox Studios chief Winfield Sheehan rejected it as sounding “too Italian”. Walsh then suggested “John Wayne”.

Sheehan agreed, and the name was set. Wayne was not even present for the discussion. His pay was raised to $105 a week.

The Big Trail was to be the first big-budget outdoor spectacle of the sound era, made at a then-staggering cost of over $2 million, using hundreds of extras and wide vistas of the American southwest, still largely unpopulated at the time.

To take advantage of the breathtaking scenery, it was filmed in two versions, a standard 35-mm version and another in the new 70 mm Grandeur film process, using an innovative camera and lenses.

Many in the audience who saw it in Grandeur stood and cheered. However, only a handful of theaters were equipped to show the film in its widescreen process, and the effort was largely wasted. Despite being highly regarded by modern critics, the film was considered a huge box office flop at the time.

After the commercial failure of The Big Trail, Wayne was relegated to small roles in A-pictures, including Columbia Pictures’s The Deceiver (1931), in which he played a corpse.

He appeared in the serial The Three Musketeers (1933), an updated version of the Alexandre Dumas novel in which the protagonists were soldiers in the French Foreign Legion in then-contemporary North Africa.

He played the lead, with his name over the title, in many low-budget Poverty Row Westerns, mostly at Monogram Pictures and serials for Mascot Pictures Corporation. By Wayne’s own estimation, he appeared in about 80 of these horse operas from 1930 to 1939.

In Riders of Destiny (1933), he became one of the first singing cowboys of film, albeit via dubbing.

Wayne also appeared in some of the Three Mesquiteers Westerns, whose title was a play on the Dumas classic. He was mentored by stuntmen in riding and other Western skills.

Stuntman Yakima Canutt and Wayne developed and perfected stunts and onscreen fisticuffs techniques which are still in use.

Wayne’s breakthrough role came with John Ford’s Stagecoach (1939). Because of Wayne’s B-movie status and track record in low-budget Westerns throughout the 1930s, Ford had difficulty getting financing for what was to be an A-budget film.

After rejection by all the main studios, Ford struck a deal with independent producer Walter Wanger in which Claire Trevor—a much bigger star at the time—received top billing. 

Stagecoach was a huge critical and financial success, and Wayne became a mainstream star. Cast member Louise Platt credited Ford as saying at the time that Wayne would become the biggest star ever because of his appeal as the archetypal “everyman”.

America’s entry into World War II resulted in a deluge of support for the war effort from all sectors of society, and Hollywood was no exception. Wayne was exempted from service due to his age, although actor Henry Fonda born two years earlier volunteered and served three years, (34 at the time of Pearl Harbor) and family status, classified as 3-A (family deferment).

He repeatedly wrote to John Ford saying he wanted to enlist, on one occasion inquiring whether he could get into Ford’s military unit, but consistently kept postponing it until after “he finished just one or two pictures”.

Wayne did not attempt to prevent his reclassification as 1-A (draft eligible), but Republic Studios was emphatically resistant to losing him. Herbert J. Yates, President of Republic, threatened Wayne with a lawsuit if he walked away from his contract, and Republic Pictures intervened in the Selective Service process, requesting Wayne’s further deferment.

Wayne toured U.S. bases and hospitals in the South Pacific for three months in 1943 and 1944. By many accounts, his failure to serve in the military was the most painful part of his life. His widow later suggested that his patriotism in later decades sprang from guilt, writing: “He would become a ‘superpatriot’ for the rest of his life trying to atone for staying home.”

U.S. National Archives records indicate that Wayne had, in fact, made an application to serve in the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), that day’s equivalent of the CIA, and had been accepted within the U.S. Army’s allotted billet to the OSS. 

William J. Donovan, OSS Commander, wrote Wayne a letter informing him of his acceptance into the Field Photographic Unit, but the letter went to his estranged wife Josephine’s home. She never told him about it. Donovan also issued an OSS Certificate of Service to Wayne.

Commercial Success

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Wake of the Red Witch(1948)

Wayne’s first color film was Shepherd of the Hills (1941), in which he co-starred with his longtime friend Harry Carey. The following year, he appeared in his only film directed by Cecil B. DeMille, the Technicolor epic Reap the Wild Wind (1942), in which he co-starred with Ray Milland and Paulette Goddard; it was one of the rare times he played a character with questionable values.

In 1949, director Robert Rossen offered the starring role of All the King’s Men to Wayne. Wayne refused, believing the script to be un-American in many ways.

Broderick Crawford, who eventually got the role, won the 1949 Oscar for best male actor, ironically beating out Wayne, who had been nominated for Sands of Iwo Jima.

He lost the leading role in The Gunfighter (1950) to Gregory Peck due to his refusal to work for Columbia Pictures because its chief, Harry Cohn, had mistreated him years before when he was a young contract player. Cohn had bought the project for Wayne, but Wayne’s grudge was too deep, and Cohn sold the script to Twentieth Century Fox, which cast Peck in the role Wayne badly wanted but for which he refused to bend.

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With Joan Blondell in Lady for a Night(1942)

One of Wayne’s most popular roles was in The High and the Mighty (1954), directed by William Wellman, and based on a novel by Ernest K. Gann. His portrayal of a heroic copilot won widespread acclaim. Wayne also portrayed aviators in Flying Tigers (1942), Flying Leathernecks (1951), Island in the Sky (1953), The Wings of Eagles (1957), and Jet Pilot (1957).

He appeared in nearly two dozen of John Ford’s films over twenty years, including She Wore a Yellow Ribbon (1949), The Quiet Man (1952), The Wings of Eagles (1957), and The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance (1962) with James Stewart: the first movie in which he called someone “Pilgrim”. Ford’s The Searchers (1956), is often considered to contain Wayne’s finest and most complex performance.[citation needed] He named his youngest son Ethan after the character.

Later Career

John Wayne won a Best Actor Oscar for True Grit (1969). This came 20 years after his only other nomination. Wayne was also nominated as the producer of Best Picture for The Alamo (1960), one of two films he directed.

The other was The Green Berets (1968), the only major film made during the Vietnam War to support the war.

During the filming of The Green Berets, the Degar or Montagnard people of Vietnam’s Central Highlands, fierce fighters against communism, bestowed on Wayne a brass bracelet that he wore in the film and all subsequent films.

Wayne took on the role of the eponymous detective in the crime drama McQ (1974). His last film was The Shootist (1976), whose main character, J. B. Books, was dying of cancer—the illness to which Wayne himself succumbed three years later.

Batjac, the production company cofounded by Wayne, was named after the fictional shipping company Batjak in Wake of the Red Witch (1948), a film based on the novel by Garland Roark. (A spelling error by Wayne’s secretary was allowed to stand, accounting for the variation.) Batjac (and its predecessor, Wayne-Fellows Productions) was the arm through which Wayne produced many films for himself and other stars. Its best-known non-Wayne production was Seven Men From Now(1956), which started the classic collaboration between director Budd Boetticher and star Randolph Scott.

In the Motion Picture Herald Top Ten Money-Making Western Stars poll, Wayne was listed in 1936 and 1939. He appeared in the similar Box Office poll in 1939 and 1940.

While these two polls are really an indication only of the popularity of series stars, Wayne also appeared in the Top Ten Money Makers Poll of all films from 1949 to 1957 and 1958 to 1974, taking first place in 1950, 1951, 1954, and 1971. With a total of 25 years on the list, Wayne has more appearances than any other star, surpassing Clint Eastwood (21) who is in second place.

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Wayne in The Challenge of Ideas(1961)

In later years, Wayne was recognized as a sort of American natural resource, and his various critics, of his performances and his politics, viewed him with more respect. Abbie Hoffman, the radical of the 1960s, paid tribute to Wayne’s singularity, saying, “I like Wayne’s wholeness, his style.

As for his politics, well—I suppose even cavemen felt a little admiration for the dinosaurs that were trying to gobble them up.”[39] Reviewing The Cowboys (1972), Vincent Canby of The New York Times, who did not particularly care for the film, wrote: “Wayne is, of course, marvelously indestructible, and he has become an almost perfect father figure”.

Radio Work


Like most Hollywood stars, Wayne appeared as a guest on various radio programs, such as The Hedda Hopper Show and The Louella Parsons Show. He made a number of appearances in dramatic roles, mainly recreations for radio of his own films, on programs like Screen Directors Playhouse and Lux Radio Theatre.

For six months in 1942, Wayne starred in his own radio adventure series, Three Sheets to the Wind, produced by film director Tay Garnett. In the series, an international spy/detective show, Wayne played Dan O’Brien, a detective who used alcoholism as a mask for his investigatory endeavors.

The show was intended by Garnett to be a pilot of sorts for a film version, though the motion picture never came to fruition. No episodes of the series featuring Wayne seem to exist, though a demonstration episode with Brian Donlevy in the leading role does exist. Wayne, not Donlevy, played the role throughout the series run on NBC.

Personal Life


Wayne was married three times and divorced twice. He was fluent in Spanish and his three wives, one of Spanish American descent and two of Hispanic descent, were Josephine Alicia Saenz, Esperanza Baur, and Pilar Pallete.

He had four children with Josephine: Michael Wayne (November 23, 1934 – April 2, 2003), Mary Antonia “Toni” Wayne LaCava (February 25, 1936 – December 6, 2000), Patrick Wayne (born July 15, 1939), and Melinda Wayne Munoz (born December 3, 1940).

He had three more children with Pilar: Aissa Wayne (born March 31, 1956), John Ethan Wayne (born February 22, 1962), and Marisa Wayne (born February 22, 1966).

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Wayne with third wife Pilar Pallete at Knott’s Berry Farm in 1971

Several of Wayne’s children entered the film and television industry; Wayne’s son Ethan was billed as John Ethan Wayne in a few films, and played one of the leads in the 1990s update of the Adam-12 television series.

His stormiest divorce was from Esperanza Baur, a former Mexican actress. She believed that Wayne and co-star Gail Russellwere having an affair, a claim which both Wayne and Russell denied.

The night the film Angel and the Badman (1947) wrapped, there was the usual party for cast and crew, and Wayne came home very late. Esperanza was in a drunken rage by the time he arrived, and she attempted to shoot him as he walked through the front door.

Wayne had several high-profile affairs, including one with Marlene Dietrich that lasted for three years and one with Merle Oberon that lasted from 1938 to 1947.

After his separation from his wife, Pilar, in 1973, Wayne became romantically involved and lived with his former secretary Pat Stacy (1941–1995) until his death in 1979. She published a biography of her life with him in 1983, titled Duke: A Love Story.

Wayne’s hair began to thin in the 1940s, and he had begun to wear a hairpiece by the end of the decade.

He was occasionally seen in public without the hairpiece (such as, according to Life magazine, at Gary Cooper’s funeral). During a widely noted appearance at Harvard University, Wayne was asked by a student “Is it true that your toupée is real mohair?” He responded: “Well sir, that’s real hair. Not mine, but real hair.”

A close friend of Wayne’s, California Congressman Alphonzo E. Bell, Jr., wrote of him, “Duke’s personality and sense of humor were very close to what the general public saw on the big screen.

It is perhaps best shown in these words he had engraved on a plaque: ‘Each of us is a mixture of some good and some not so good qualities. In considering one’s fellow man it’s important to remember the good things … We should refrain from making judgments just because a fella happens to be a dirty, rotten SOB.'”

Wayne biographer Michael Munn chronicled Wayne’s drinking habits. According to Sam O’Steen’s memoir, Cut to the Chase, studio directors knew to shoot Wayne’s scenes before noon, because by afternoon he “was a mean drunk”. He had been a chain smoker of cigarettes since young adulthood and was diagnosed with lung cancer in 1964.

He underwent successful surgery to remove his entire left lung[46] and four ribs. Despite efforts by his business associates to prevent him from going public with his illness for fear that it would cost him work, Wayne announced he had cancer and called on the public to get preventive examinations. Five years later, Wayne was declared cancer-free. Wayne has been credited with coining the term “The Big C” as a euphemism for cancer.

Wayne’s height has been perennially described as at least 6 ft 4 in (193 cm). He was a Freemason, a Master Mason in Marion McDaniel Lodge No. 56 F&AM, in Tucson, Arizona. He became a 32nd Degree Scottish Rite Mason and later joined the Al Malaikah Shrine Temple in Los Angeles. He became a member of the York Rite.

During the early 1960s, John Wayne traveled extensively to Panama, during which he purchased the island of Taborcillo off the main coast. It was sold by his estate at his death.

Wayne’s yacht, the Wild Goose, was one of his favorite possessions. He kept it docked in Newport Harbor and it was listed on the U.S. National Register of Historic Places in 2011.

Wayne was fond of literature, his favorite authors being Charles Dickens, Arthur Conan Doyle and Agatha Christie. His favorite books were David Copperfield, and Conan Doyle’s historical novels The White Company and Sir Nigel.

Political Views


Throughout most of his life, Wayne was a vocally prominent conservative Republican in Hollywood, supporting anti-communist positions.

Initially a self-described socialist during his college years, he voted for Democratic President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1936 presidential election and expressed admiration for Roosevelt’s successor, fellow Democratic President Harry S. Truman.

He took part in creating the Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals in February 1944, and was elected president of that organization in 1949.

An ardent anti-communist and vocal supporter of the House Un-American Activities Committee, he made Big Jim McLain (1952) with himself as a HUAC investigator to demonstrate his support for the cause of anti-communism.

Declassified Soviet documents reveal that, despite being a fan of Wayne’s movies, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin contemplated assassination of Wayne for his frequently espoused anti-communist politics.

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Wayne meets with President Richard Nixon and Henry Kissinger in San Clemente, California, July 1972

Wayne supported Vice President Richard Nixon in the presidential election of 1960, but expressed his vision of patriotism when John F. Kennedy won the election: “I didn’t vote for him but he’s my president, and I hope he does a good job.”

He used his star power to support conservative causes, including rallying support for the Vietnam War by producing, codirecting, and starring in the financially successful, critically panned The Green Berets (1968).

Due to his status as the highest profile Republican star in Hollywood, wealthy Texas Republican Party backers asked Wayne to run for national office in 1968, as had his friend and fellow actor Senator George Murphy.

He declined, joking that he did not believe the public would seriously consider an actor in the White House. Instead, he supported his friend Ronald Reagan’s runs for Governor of California in 1966 and 1970.

He was asked to be the running mate for Democratic AlabamaGovernor George Wallace in 1968, but he rejected the offer and actively campaigned for Richard Nixon; Wayne addressed the Republican National Convention on its opening day in August 1968. For a while, he was also a member of the anti-communist John Birch Society.

Wayne openly differed with the Republican Party over the issue of the Panama Canal, as he supported the Panama Canal Treaty in the mid-1970s; conservatives had wanted the U.S. to retain full control of the canal, but Wayne believed that the Panamanians had the right to the canal and sided with President Jimmy Carter and the Democrats. Wayne was a close friend of the late Panamanian leader Omar Torrijos Herrera, and Wayne’s first wife, Josephine, was a native of Panama. His support of the treaty brought him hate mail for the first time in his life.

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in Rio Bravo, 1959

In May 1971, Playboy magazine published an interview with Wayne which resulted in a firestorm of controversy. Wayne expressed his support for the Vietnam War,[4]:580 and made headlines for his resolute opinions about social issues and race relations in the United States:

I believe in white supremacy, until the blacks are educated to a point of responsibility. I don’t believe giving authority and positions of leadership and judgment to irresponsible people … I don’t feel we did wrong in taking this great country away from [the Native Americans] … Our so-called stealing of this country from them was just a matter of survival. There were great numbers of people who needed new land, and the Indians were selfishly trying to keep it for themselves.

In the same Playboy interview, Wayne also responded to questions about whether social programs were good for the country:

I know all about that. In the late Twenties, when I was a sophomore at USC, I was a socialist myself—but not when I left.

The average college kid idealistically wishes everybody could have ice cream and cake for every meal. But as he gets older and gives more thought to his and his fellow man’s responsibilities, he finds that it can’t work out that way—that some people just won’t carry their load … I believe in welfare—a welfare work program.

I don’t think a fella should be able to sit on his backside and receive welfare. I’d like to know why well-educated idiots keep apologizing for lazy and complaining people who think the world owes them a living. I’d like to know why they make excuses for cowards who spit in the faces of the police and then run behind the judicial sob sisters. I can’t understand these people who carry placards to save the life of some criminal, yet have no thought for the innocent victim.

Death


Although he enrolled in a cancer vaccine study in an attempt to ward off the disease, Wayne died of stomach cancer at the age of 72 on June 11, 1979, at the UCLA Medical Center, and was buried in the Pacific View Memorial Park cemetery in Corona del Mar, Newport Beach.

According to his son Patrick and his grandson Matthew Muñoz, a priest in the California Diocese of Orange, he converted to Roman Catholicism shortly before his death. He requested that his tombstone read “Feo, Fuerte y Formal”, a Spanish epitaph Wayne described as meaning “ugly, strong, and dignified”.

The grave, which went unmarked for 20 years, is now marked with a quotation from his controversial 1971 Playboy interview: “Tomorrow is the most important thing in life. Comes into us at midnight very clean. It’s perfect when it arrives and it puts itself in our hands. It hopes we’ve learned something from yesterday.”

Among the cast and crew who filmed The Conqueror (1956) on location near St. George, Utah, 91 developed some form of cancer at various times, including stars Wayne, Susan Hayward, Agnes Moorehead, Pedro Armendáriz, and director Dick Powell.

The film was shot in southwestern Utah, east of and generally downwindfrom the site of recent U.S. Government nuclear weapons tests in southeastern Nevada. Many contend that radioactive fallout from these tests contaminated the film location and poisoned the film crew working there.

Despite the suggestion that Wayne’s 1964 lung cancer and his 1979 stomach cancer resulted from nuclear contamination, he believed his lung cancer to have been a result of his six-packs-a-day cigarette habit.

Legacy


Awards, celebrations, and landmarks

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Wayne in The Comancheros (1961)

Wayne’s enduring status as an iconic American was formally recognized by the U.S. government in the form of the two highest civilian decorations. On May 26, 1979, he was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal.

Hollywood figures and American leaders from across the political spectrum, including Maureen O’Hara, Elizabeth Taylor, Frank Sinatra, Mike Frankovich, Katharine Hepburn, General and Mrs. Omar Bradley, Gregory Peck, Robert Stack, James Arness, and Kirk Douglas, testified to Congress in support of the award. 

Robert Aldrich, president of the Directors Guild of America, made a particularly notable statement:

It is important for you to know that I am a registered Democrat and, to my knowledge, share none of the political views espoused by Duke. However, whether he is ill disposed or healthy, John Wayne is far beyond the normal political sharpshooting in this community. Because of his courage, his dignity, his integrity, and because of his talents as an actor, his strength as a leader, his warmth as a human being throughout his illustrious career, he is entitled to a unique spot in our hearts and minds. In this industry, we often judge people, sometimes unfairly, by asking whether they have paid their dues. John Wayne has paid his dues over and over, and I’m proud to consider him a friend and am very much in favor of my government recognizing in some important fashion the contribution that Mr. Wayne has made.

Wayne was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom on June 9, 1980, by President Jimmy Carter. He had attended Carter’s inaugural ball “as a member of the loyal opposition”, as he described it. In 1998, he was awarded the Naval Heritage Award by the US Navy Memorial Foundation for his support of the Navy and military during his film career. In 1999, the American Film Institute (AFI) named Wayne 13th among the Greatest Male Screen Legends of Classic Hollywood cinema.

Various public locations are named in honor of Wayne, including the John Wayne Airport in Orange County, California, where a nine-foot bronze statue of him stands at the entrance; the John Wayne Marina for which Wayne bequeathed the land, near Sequim, Washington; John Wayne Elementary School (P.S. 380) in Brooklyn, New York, which boasts a 38-foot mosaic mural commission by New York artist Knox Martin entitled “John Wayne and the American Frontier”; and a 100-plus-mile trail named the “John Wayne Pioneer Trail” in Washington’s Iron Horse State Park.

A larger than life-size bronze statue of Wayne atop a horse was erected at the corner of La Cienega Boulevard and Wilshire Boulevard in Beverly Hills, California, at the former offices of the Great Western Savings and Loan Corporation, for which Wayne had made a number of commercials. In the city of Maricopa, Arizona, part of Arizona State Route 347 is named John Wayne Parkway, which runs through the center of town.

In 2006, friends of Wayne and his former Arizona business partner, Louis Johnson, inaugurated the “Louie and the Duke Classics” events benefiting the John Wayne Cancer Foundation and the American Cancer Society. The weekend-long event each fall in Casa Grande, Arizona, includes a golf tournament, an auction of John Wayne memorabilia, and a team roping competition.

Several celebrations took place on May 26, 2007, the centennial of Wayne’s birth. A celebration at the John Wayne birthplace in Winterset, Iowa, included chuck-wagon suppers, concerts by Michael Martin Murphey and Riders in the Sky, a Wild West Revue in the style of Buffalo Bill’s Wild West show, and a Cowboy Symposium with Wayne’s costars, producers, and costumers.

Wayne’s films ran repetitively at the local theater. Ground was broken for the New John Wayne Birthplace Museum and Learning Center at a ceremony consisting of over 30 of Wayne’s family members, including Melinda Wayne Muñoz, Aissa, Ethan, and Marisa Wayne. Later that year, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and First Lady Maria Shriver inducted Wayne into the California Hall of Fame, located at The California Museum for History, Women and the Arts.

In 2016 Republican assemblyman Matthew Harper proposed marking May 26 as “John Wayne Day” in California. This resolution was struck down by a vote of 35 to 20, due to Wayne’s views on race and his support of controversial organizations such as the John Birch Society and the House Un-American Activities Committee.

Cultural image as an American icon

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With Lucille Ball in I Love Lucy, 1955

Wayne rose beyond the typical recognition for a famous actor to that of an enduring icon who symbolized and communicated American values and ideals.

By the middle of his career, Wayne had developed a larger-than-life image, and as his career progressed, he selected roles that would not compromise his off-screen image.

At a party in 1957, Wayne confronted actor Kirk Douglas about the latter’s decision to play the role of Vincent van Gogh in the film Lust for Life, saying: “Christ, Kirk, how can you play a part like that? There’s so goddamn few of us left. We got to play strong, tough characters. Not these weak queers.”

Wayne’s rise to being the quintessential movie war hero began to take shape four years after World War II, when Sands of Iwo Jima (1949) was released.

His footprints at Grauman’s Chinese theater in Hollywood were laid in concrete that contained sand from Iwo Jima.

His status grew so large and legendary that when Japanese Emperor Hirohito visited the United States in 1975, he asked to meet John Wayne, the symbolic representation of his country’s former enemy. Likewise when soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev visited the United States in 1959 he made two requests: to visit Disneyland and meet Wayne.

Wayne is the only actor to appear in every edition of the annual Harris Poll of Most Popular Film Actors, and the only actor to appear on the list after his death. Wayne has been in the top ten in this poll for 19 consecutive years, starting in 1994, 15 years after his death.

John Wayne Cancer Foundation

The John Wayne Cancer Foundation was founded in 1985 in honor of John Wayne, after his family granted the use of his name for the continued fight against cancer.[88] The foundation’s mission is to “bring courage, strength, and grit to the fight against cancer”.

The foundation provides funds for innovative programs that improve cancer patient care, including research, education, awareness, and support.

Legal problems with Duke University

John_Wayne_in_The_Longest_Day_trailer

In The Longest Day, 1962

Newport Beach, California-based John Wayne Enterprises sells products such as Kentucky straight bourbon using Wayne’s picture. When the company tried to trademark the image appearing on one of the bottles, Duke University in Durham, North Carolina, filed a notice of opposition. According to court documents, Duke has tried three times since 2005 to stop the company from trademarking the name.

The company wants a federal judge in Orange County, California, to declare that both brands can be allowed. The company’s complaint filed in federal court says the university “does not own the word ‘Duke’ in all contexts for all purposes.”

The university’s official position is not to object if Wayne’s image is used, but if the company wants to use the Duke name without Wayne, the university says, “we are also committed to protecting the integrity of Duke University’s trademarks.”

Richard Howell, an attorney for John Wayne Enterprises, said the company supports a co-use agreement, though he believed the name “Duke” would be more likely associated with Wayne than with the university.

On September 30, 2014, federal judge David Carter dismissed the suit against Duke University, saying the jurisdiction was incorrect.

Filmography


Between 1926 and 1976, Wayne appeared in over 170 motion pictures, and became one of America’s biggest box office stars. Only Clark Gable sold more tickets than Wayne, although the ticket prices were not commensurate since, although both actors started their careers at the same time, Gable’s career height preceded Wayne’s by approximately fifteen years.

Overview

John Wayne began working in films in 1926 as an extra, prop man, and stuntman, mainly for the Fox Film Corporation. He frequently worked in minor roles with director John Ford and when Raoul Walsh suggested him for the lead in The Big Trail (1930), an epic Western shot in an early widescreen process called Fox Grandeur, Ford vouched for him. Wayne’s early period as a star would be brief, as Fox dropped him after only three leads.

He moved over to Columbia Pictures, where he ran afoul of studio boss Harry Cohn. As a result, Wayne was dropped from leading man to supporting player to bit player and finally down to being an extra again. After the Columbia debacle, Wayne solidified his stardom – albeit as a minor star – in a string of low-budget action films (mostly Westerns) at Warner Bros. and Universal and the “Poverty Row” studios Mascot, Monogram, and Republic. Wayne kept on friendly terms with John Ford who, as a result, gave Wayne a career boost with Stagecoach (1939).

John Wayne had achieved stardom in motion pictures by 1941 and, by the end of the decade, was one of the cinema’s top ten box office attractions. During the latter half of the 1940s Wayne starred in what many film fans and critics regard as being among his finest work, notably the “cavalry trilogy” (Fort Apache, She Wore a Yellow Ribbon, and Rio Grande) for director John Ford, 3 Godfathers, also for Ford, and Red River for Howard Hawks. Wayne also began producing some of his own films during this period. The most discussed of Wayne’s films during the following decade remains Ford’s dark Western meditation on racism, The Searchers.

Other popular Wayne films include the seafaring adventures Reap the Wild Wind and Wake of the Red Witch and influential war movies such as Flying Tigers, The Fighting Seabees, and Sands of Iwo Jima, for which he was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actor.

 The 1950s would see Wayne continue as a major star although the artistic quality of his work varied greatly. His successes during this decade included the Ireland-set romantic comedy The Quiet Man and two classic westerns, The Searchers and Rio Bravo. Wayne also continued his producing activities during this period as well, notably with the formation of his own production company, Batjac.

In 1960, Wayne appeared in his most personal production, portraying Davy Crockett in The Alamo, which he also produced and directed.

During the 1960s and 1970s, John Wayne ranked as an American icon and one of the top box office attractions in the cinema. Wayne’s output of films consisted largely of Westerns but he also ventured into other genres as well, including several films dealing with the Second World War (notably The Longest Day and In Harm’s Way).

Wayne made some of his most prominent films during this period, including John Ford’s The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance (1962) with James Stewart.

Wayne’s political views came under harsh attack from film critics with the release of The Green Berets (1968), which Wayne produced and co-directed as well as starred in. The following year, however, he would be praised by critics for his performance in True Grit, which would earn him an Academy Award for Best Actor.

John Wayne made his last picture, The Shootist, in 1976, bringing an end to a remarkable career spanning more than 50 years, 169 feature length films, and various other television appearances or voice-overs.

  • John Wayne Filmography
  • John Wayne Filmography – As Himself
  • John Wayne Filmography – As Producer Only
  • Box office Popularity

Missed Roles


  • In 1947, Wayne was offered the role of Jimmy Ringo in The Gunfighter, a script that Columbia Pictures had purchased specifically for him. Wayne turned it down, despite having expressed a strong desire to play the part, because of his longstanding feud with Columbia’s president, Harry Cohn. Columbia sold the rights to Twentieth Century Fox, and the role went to Gregory Peck. Wayne’s final film, The Shootist (1976), is often compared to The Gunfighter and contains numerous plot similarities.
  • Wayne rebuffed the lead role in the 1952 film High Noon because he felt the film’s story was an allegory against blacklisting, which he actively supported. In a 1971 interview, Wayne said he considered High Noon “the most un-American thing I’ve ever seen in my whole life”, and that he would “never regret having helped run screenwriter Carl Foreman, [who was later blacklisted] out of the country”.
  • An urban legend has it that in 1955, Wayne turned down the role of Matt Dillon in the long-running television series Gunsmoke and recommended James Arnessinstead. While he did suggest Arness for the part, and introduced him in a prologue to the first episode, no film star of Wayne’s stature would have considered a television role at the time.
  • Terry Southern’s biographer Lee Hill wrote that the role of Major T. J. “King” Kong in Dr. Strangelove (1964) was originally written with Wayne in mind, and that Stanley Kubrick offered him the part after Peter Sellers injured his ankle during filming; he immediately turned it down.
  • In 1966, Wayne accepted the role of Major Reisman in The Dirty Dozen (1967), and asked Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer for some script changes, but eventually withdrew from the project to make The Green Berets. He was replaced by Lee Marvin.
  • Though Wayne actively campaigned for the title role in Dirty Harry (1971), Warner Bros. decided that at 63 he was too old, and cast the 41-year-old Clint Eastwood.
  • Mel Brooks offered Wayne the role of the Waco Kid (eventually played by Gene Wilder) in Blazing Saddles (1974). After reading the script Wayne declined, fearing the dialogue was “too dirty” for his family image, but told Brooks that he would be “first in line” to see the movie.
  • Wayne turned down the role of the Colonel leading the Cavalry charge in Michael Todd’s Around the World in 80 Days (1956).

Awards and Nominations


Academy Awards

As shown below, Wayne was nominated for three Academy Awards, winning once for Best Actor in a Leading Role in 1969.

Best Actor

The category’s nominees for each year in which Wayne was nominated are shown, with that year’s winner highlighted in yellow.

Best Actor

Golden Globe

The Golden Globe Awards are presented annually by the Hollywood Foreign Press Association (HFPA) to recognize outstanding achievements in the entertainment industry, both domestic and foreign, and to focus wide public attention upon the best in motion pictures and television. In 1953, Wayne was awarded the Henrietta Award (a now retired award) for being World Film Favorite: Male.

The Cecil B. DeMille Award for lifetime achievement in motion pictures is an annual award given by the Hollywood Foreign Press Association at the Golden Globe Award ceremonies in Hollywood. It was named in honor of Cecil B. DeMille (1881–1959), one of the industry’s most successful filmmakers; John Wayne won the award in 1966.[99]

In 1970, Wayne won a Golden Globe Award for his performance in True Grit.

Brass Balls Award

In 1973, The Harvard Lampoon, a satirical paper run by Harvard University students, invited Wayne to receive The Brass Balls Award, created in his “honor”, after calling him “the biggest fraud in history”. 

Harvard Square had become known for leftist intellectualism and protest throughout the 1960s and 1970s. Wayne accepted the invitation as a chance to promote the recently released film McQ, and a Fort Devens Army convoy offered to drive him into the square on an armored personnel carrier.

The ceremony was held on January 15, 1974, at the Harvard Square Theater and the award was officially presented in honor of Wayne’s “outstanding machismo and penchant for punching people”.

Although the convoy was met with protests by members of the American Indian Movement and others, some of whom threw snowballs, Wayne received a standing ovation from the audience when he walked onto the stage. An internal investigation was launched into the Army’s involvement in the day.

Jackie Chan

Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

Jackie Chan

JACKIE CHAN


Jackie_Chan_2002-portrait

Jackie Chan di atas kapal USS Kitty Hawk CV-63 pada tahun 2002.

  • Nama Tionghoa: 成龍 (Tradisional)
  • Nama Tionghoa: 成龙 (Sederhana)
  • Pinyin: Chéng Lóng (Mandarin)
  • Jyutping: Sing4 Lung4 (Kanton)
  • Nama Lahir: 陳港生 (Can4 Gong2saang1)
  • Lahir: 7 April 1954 (umur 63).  Hong Kong
  • Nama Lain:
    • 房仕龍 (Fong Si Lung)
    • 元樓 (Yuen Lou)
  • Pekerjaan: aktor, sutradara, produser, koreografer, penyanyi
  • Genre: Cantopop, Mandopop
  • Tahun aktif: 1962 – sekarang
  • Anak: Jaycee Chan
  • Orang tua: Charles dan Lee-Lee Chan
  • Situs web: jackiechan
  • Pasangan: Lin Feng Jiao (1982 – sekarang)
  • Penghargaan

  • Penghargaan Perfilman Hong Kong


  • Best Picture: 1989 Rouge
  • Best Action Choreography: 
    • 1996 Rumble in the Bronx
    • 1999 Who Am I?
  • Golden Horse Awards


  • Best Actor
  • 1992 Police Story 3:
    • Super Cop
    • 1993 Crime Story
  • Golden Rooster Awards


  • Best Actor: 2005 New Police Story

Jackie Chan, S.B.S., M.B.E. (bahasa Tionghoa: 成龍; pinyin: Chéng Lóng; lahir dengan nama 陳港生; pinyin: Chén Gǎngshēng; lahir di Victoria Peak, Hong Kong, 7 April 1954; umur 63 tahun) adalah seorang aktor, sutradara, stuntman, produser, aktor bela diri, aktor komedi, penulis naskah layar lebar dan penyanyi dari Hong Kong.

Ia adalah salah satu tokoh yang terkenal dalam seni bela diri (kung fu) dari Cina dan aktor layar lebar dunia yang terkenal dengan aksi pertarungan akrobatiknya, ahli penggunaan berbagai macam alat yang ditemui di sekitarnya sebagai senjata dan aktor laga yang memiliki banyak inovasi.

Ia telah mendalami seni peran sejak tahun 1970-an, dan sudah tampil tak kurang dalam 100 film serta pernah menerima penghargaan di Hong Kong Avenue of Stars dan di Hollywood Walk of Fame.

Sebagai seorang ikon kebudayaan, ia telah direferensikan dalam berbagai lagu-lagu pop, kartun dan permainan video.

Selain berakting, dia adalah seorang bintang Cantopop dan Mandopop, dan sudah menerbitkan tidak kurang dari 20 album sejak tahun 1984 dan menyanyikan banyak musik tema dari film-film yang diperaninya.

Pada tahun 2008, dia, bersama-sama dengan Andy Lau, Liu Huan dan Emil Chau, menyanyikan lagu perpisahan “Hard to Say Goodbye” pada upacara penutupan Olimpiade musim panas tahun 2008 di Beijing, Cina.

Kehidupan Awal


Dia dilahirkan pada tahun 1954 di Victoria Peak, Hong Kong, dengan nama Chan Kong Sang (yang artinya “dilahirkan di Hong Kong”) anak dari Charles dan Lee-Lee Chan, pengungsi dari masa Perang Saudara Cina.

Nama julukannya adalah Pao Pao (Tionghoa: 炮炮, yang secara literal berarti “peluru meriam”) karena dia selalu berguling-guling ketika masih bayi.

Orang tuanya bekerja pada Kedutaan Perancis untuk Hong Kong, sehingga otomatis ia menghabiskan masa kecilnya di lingkungan kediaman kedutaan di daerah distrik Victoria Peak.

Chan bersekolah di Nah-Hwa Primary School di daratan Hong Kong, namun sayang, dia tidak lulus sehingga orang tuanya mengeluarkannya dari sekolah.

Pada tahun 1960, ayahnya beremigrasi ke Canberra, Australia dan bekerja sebagai kepala juru masak untuk kedutaan Amerika, dan Chan disekolahkan ke Chinese Drama Academy, sebuah Sekolah Opera Peking yang dimiliki dan dijalankan oleh Master Yu Jim Yuen.

Selama bersekolah di sana, ia banyak mendapatkan pelajaran berharga dan memiliki keahlian di bidang seni bela diri kung fu dan akrobatik. Beberapa kali dia pernah ikut dalam kelompok Seven Little Fortunes, sebuah kelompok penampil yang diambil dari murid-murid terbaik dari sekolah tersebut, dan mendapatkan nama panggung Yuen Lo atas pencapainnya yang tertinggi.

Dalam waktu itulah dia berteman dekat dengan Sammo Hung dan Yuen Biao, dimana tiga serangkai ini kemudian terkenal dengan nama julukan Tiga Bersaudara atau Tiga Naga.

Ketika masih berumur 8 tahun, dia pernah tampil dengan kelompoknya dari “Little Fortunes”, dalam film Big and Little Wong Tin Bar (1962), dengan Li Li Hua berakting sebagai ibunya.

Ia muncul lagi dengan Li pada tahun berikutnya, dalam kisah The Love Eterne (1963) dan mendapatkan peran kecil di film King Hu’ 1966, Come Drink with Me.

Pada tahun 1971, sesudah tampil lagi dalam film layar lebar dari King Hu yang berjudul, A Touch of Zen, dia mulai berkarier sebagai orang dewasa di dunia industri perfilman, dengan menandatangani kontrak dengan perusahaan Chu Mu’s Great Earth Film.

Di umurnya yang menginjak 17 tahun, ia bekerja sebagai peran pengganti dalam film-film Bruce Lee berjudul Fist of Fury dan Enter the Dragon dengan nama panggung Chen Yuen Long.

Ia mendapatkan peran utamanya pada tahun yang sama dalam sebuah film berjudul Little Tiger of Canton, yang hanya diedarkan secara terbatas di Hong Kong pada tahun 1973.

Karena menemui beberapa kali kegagalan dalam petualangan di industri perfilman dalam awal-awal kariernya dan kesulitan mendapatkan peran pengganti, dia akhirnya turut beremigrasi ke Canberra, Australia pada tahun 1976, dimana ia pernah menimba ilmu di Dickson College dan bekerja sebagai pekerja bangunan.

Teman pekerja bangunannya yang bernama Jack menjadi pengawasnya, sehingga lambat laun ia mendapatkan nama julukan sebagai “Little Jack” (si Jack kecil) yang nantinya dipendekkan menjadi “Jackie”, yang pada akhirnya nama “Jackie Chan” melekat padanya sejak itu.

Selain itu, ia mengubah nama Cinanya menjadi Fong Si Lung, karena nama keluarganya adalah Fong.

Karier Film


DrunkenMaster_DVDcover

Film yang dibuat pada tahun 1978, Drunken Master yang membawa ketenaran baginya.

Awal-awal tahun: 1976–1980

Pada tahun 1976, Jackie Chan menerima sebuah telegram dari Willie Chan, seorang produser film di dunia industri perfilman Hong Kong yang amat terkesan dengan aksi-aksi stuntnya.

Willie Chan menawarkan sebuah peran dalam sebuah film arahan Lo Wei. Lo pernah melihat aksi-aksinya dalam film arahan John Woo Hand of Death (1976) dan sudah merencanakannya untuk menjadi penerus Bruce Lee dengan film New Fist of Fury.

Jackie_Chan_Fist

Ia memulai kariernya di dunia industri perfilman sebagai peran pengganti dalam film-film Bruce Lee.

Nama panggungnya diganti menjadi Sing Lung (Chinese: 成龍, secara literal berarti “menjadi naga”) untuk menonjolkan kemiripannya dengan Bruce Lee, yang memiliki nama panggung Lei Siu Lung (Chinese: 李小龍, yang berarti “Naga Kecil”).

Namun sayangnya film tersebut tidak mendulang keberhasilan karena Chan memiliki gaya yang sedikit berbeda dengan seni bela diri kung fu Bruce Lee. Walaupun mengalami kegagalan, Lo Wei tetap membuat film dengan tema-tema yang hampir mirip, namun hanya mengangkatnya sedikit dalam urutan film-film terlaris.

Debut Chan yang membuatnya terkenal adalah sebuah film buatan tahun 1978, Snake in the Eagle’s Shadow. Di bawah arahan Yuen Woo Ping, Chan mendapatkan kebebasan untuk melakukan berbagai aksi seni bela diri sesukanya.

Film tersebut dikategorikan sebagai film kung fu komedi, dan terbukti menjadi karya terbaik untuk para penonton dari Hong Kong.

Chan kemudian beraksi dalam peran berikutnya dalam film Drunken Master, yang membawanya ke puncak ketenaran.

Ketika Chan kembali ke studio milik Lo Wei, Lo mencoba meniru ulang pendekatan komedi dari film terdahulunya, Drunken Master, sehingga menghasilkan film dengan judul Half a Loaf of Kung Fu dan Spiritual Kung Fu.

Dia juga memberikan kesempatan pada Chan untuk membantu penyutradaraan dari Fearless Hyena dengan Kenneth Tsang.

Ketika Willie Chan keluar dari perusahaan, ia menyarankan Jackie untuk memutuskan sendiri untuk tetap bersama Lo Wei atau tidak.

Selama kurun waktu pengambilan gambar Fearless Hyena Part II, Chan memutuskan kontraknya di tengah jalan dan memilih untuk bergabung dengan Golden Harvest, yang mengakibatkan Lo memeras Chan mempergunakan jasa triad, dan menyalahkan Willie karena bintang utamanya telah meninggalkan mereka.

Perselisihan di antara mereka berakhir dengan bantuan dari rekan aktor dan sutradara, Jimmy Wang Yu, yang memperbolehkan Chan untuk tetap bersama dengan Golden Harvest.

Dalam Tipe film Komedi : 1980–1987

Jcpmall

Film Police Story, atau yang julukannya “Glass Story” atas karya stunt-nya, dibuat dalam masa-masa modern.

Willie Chan akhirnya menjadi “personal manager” dari Jackie dan menjadikannya sebagai teman sejatinya selama tidak kurang dari 30 tahun. Ia telah berjasa mengorbitkan Chan dalam karier internasionalnya, dengan terjun langsung kedalam dunia industri perfilman Amerika pada tahun 1980-an.

Film Hollywood pertamanya adalah Battle Creek Brawl yang diedarkan pada tahun 1980.

Chan kemudian mendapatkan peran kecil dalam sebuah film produksi tahun 1981The Cannonball Run, yang menghasilkan pendapatan kotor sebesar US$100 juta secara keseluruhan di seluruh penjuru dunia.

Walaupun tidak begitu diperhitungkan oleh khalayak ramai atas pemasangan aktor Amerika seperti Burt Reynolds, Chan terkenal dengan tampilan closing credit titlenya, yang memberinya inspirasi untuk melakukan hal yang sama dalam film-film berikutnya.

Sesudah kegagalan secara komersil atas filmnya, The Protector pada tahun 1985, Chan beristirahat untuk sementara waktu dalam usahanya menembus pasar Amerika, dan mengembalikan fokusnya pada film Hong Kong.

Kembali ke Hong Kong, film Chan mulai mendapatkan pengakuan dari khalayak ramai, khususnya kawasan Asia Tenggara, dengan sukses pembuka di pasar Jepang termasuk The Young Master (1980) dan Dragon Lord (1982).

Chan membuat beberapa film komedi dengan teman main operanya Sammo Hung dan Yuen Biao.

Untuk pertama kalinya mereka bermain bersama dalam sebuah film buatan tahun 1983, Project A, dan mendapat penghargaan Best Action Design Award pada Hong Kong Film Awards dalam acara tahunannya yang ketiga.

Selama lebih dari dua tahun, “Tiga Bersaudara” tampil beberapa kali dalam film-film Wheels on Meals dan film trilogi Lucky Stars.

Pada tahun 1985, Chan membuat film pertama dari Police Story, sebuah film aksi komedi yang dipengaruhi oleh Amerika, dimana Chan memainkan sendiri peran-peran stuntnya.

Film ini mendapatkan gelar sebagai “Best Movie” dalam Hong Kong Film Awards pada tahun 1986.

Kemudian pada tahun 1987, Chan bermain sebagai “Asian Hawk”, sebuah karakter yang mirip dengan karakter dari Indiana Jones, dalam film Armour of God.

Film ini adalah film yang memberikan pemasukan dalam negeri terbesar dari Chan selama ini, dengan pendapatan kotor sekitar HK$ (Dolar Hong Kong) 35 juta.

Film lanjutan dan penetrasinya ke Hollywood: 1988–1998

Rumble_In_The_Bronx

Chan dalam filmnya yang mampu menembus dominasi film-film Amerikamelalui film Rumble in the Bronx.

Pada tahun 1988 Chan mendapatkan peran bersama dengan Hung dan Yuen, dalam film Dragons Forever. Hung menjadi sutradara bersama-sama dengan Corey Yuen, dan yang mendapatkan peran sebagai penjahat adalah Yuen Wah, dimana mereka sama-sama lulusan dari China Drama Academy.

Di akhir tahun 1980an dan awal-awal tahun 1990an, Chan mendapatkan peran yang cukup berhasil mulai dari Police Story 2, yang memenangkan penghargaan untuk

  • Best Action Choreography pada tahun 1989 dalam acara Hong Kong Film Awards.
  • Yang kemudian diikuti dengan kesuksesan Armour of God II:
    • Operation Condor, dan 
    • Police Story 3, dimana Chan memenangkan penghargaan sebagai Best Actor Award pada tahun 1993 dalam acara Golden Horse Film Festival.
  • Tahun 1994, Chan mengulang kembali perannya sebagai Wong Fei Hung dalam Drunken Master II, yang terdaftar dalam Time Magazine’s sebagai 100 film yang diingat sepanjang masa.
  • Film kelanjutannya, Police Story 4: First Strike, memberikannya banyak penghargaan dan menyumbangkan keberhasilan di domestik untuk Chan, tetapi tidak untuk pasar internasionalnya.

Jackie Chan memulai lagi usahanya untuk memenuhi ambisinya untuk menaklukkan dunia industri perfilman di Hollywood pada tahun 1990-an, tetapi dia tidak mau menerima peran sebagai penjahat dalam film-film Hollywood untuk menghindari mendapatkan peran yang sama pada masa-masa yang akan datang.

Sebagai contoh, Sylvester Stallone menawarkan kepadanya peran sebagai Simon Phoenix, seorang penjahat kambuhan dalam film bertema kejahatan futuristik, Demolition Man, hingga akhirnya peran tersebut jatuh ke tangan Wesley Snipes.

Chan akhirnya berhasil menapakkan kakinya di pasar Amerika Utara pada tahun 1995 dengan diedarkannya film untuk kalangan internasional berjudul Rumble in the Bronx, yang selanjutnya membuka jalannya untuk masuk dan menguasai pasar Amerika Serikat, dimana hal ini sangat jarang didapatkan oleh sineas-sineas dari Hong Kong.

Kesuksesan Rumble in the Bronx mendorong diedarkannya film lainnya pada tahun 1996, Police Story 3 di Amerika Serikat, dengan judul Supercop, yang menghasilkan pendapatan kotor tidak kurang dari US $ 16,270,600.

Jackie berbagi peran utama bersama dengan Chris Tucker dalam film laga komedi terbitan tahun 1998, Rush Hour, dan mengalirkan pendapatan tak kurang dari US$130 juta hanya di Amerika Serikat saja.

Dramatisasi: 1998 – 2008

Jackie_Chan_Burglar

Jackie Chan berperan sebagai penjahat untuk pertama kalinya dalam film berjudul Rob-B-Hood: Seorang pencuri yang memiliki masalah dengan perjudian.

Pada tahun 1998, Chan mengedarkan film terakhirnya dibawah bendera Golden Harvest, Who Am I?.

Setelah tidak bekerjasama lagi dengan Golden Harvest pada tahun 1999, ia menyutradari Gorgeous, sebuah film komedi romantik yang berkonsetrasi pada hubungan personal.

Chan kemudian membantu dalam pembuatan sebuah permainan anak-anak PlayStation pada tahun 2000 yang dinamakan Jackie Chan Stuntmaster, dimana ia menampilkan suara dan aksi-aksi seni bela dirinya kedalam permainan tersebut.

Sejak tahun itu pula, Chan juga tampil dalam serial film kartun animasi, Jackie Chan Adventures, yang berjalan hingga tahun 2005.[30]

Walaupun beberapa filmnya mendapatkan kesuksesan seperti Shanghai Noon pada tahun 2000, Rush Hour 2 pada tahun 2001 dan Shanghai Knights pada tahun 2003, Chan menjadi frustasi dengan Hollywood atas kesulitannya dalam mengontrol pembuatan atas film-filmnya.

Sebagai tindak lanjut atas pengunduran diri Golden Harvest dari dunia industri perfilman pada tahun 2003, Chan mulai mendirikan perusahaan perfilmannya sendiri, JCE Movies Limited(Jackie Chan Emperor Movies Limited) yang berasosiasi dengan Emperor Multimedia Group (EMG).

Sejak saat itu film-filmnya memunculkan banyak aspek-aspek dramatis namun tetap menduduki kesuksesan sebagai film-film terlaris, seperti New Police Story (2004), The Myth (2005) dan Rob-B-Hood (2006).

Film berikut dari Chan adalah Rush Hour 3 

yang diedarkan pada bulan Agustus, 2007. Film tersebut memasukkan pendapatan kotor sekitar US$ 140 juta – US$ 100 juta lebih sedikit dibandingkan film keduanya, namun hampir sama dengan pemasukan yang diterima dari film pertamanya.

Namun sayangnya film tersebut memberikan pemasukan yang cukup jelek di tanah airnya , Hong Kong, dimana film tersebut hanya memberikan pemasukan kotor sebesar HK$ 3.5 juta saja dalam pemutarannya di penghujung minggu.

Dalam pembuatan film The Forbidden Kingdom, untuk pertama kalinya Chan berkolaborasi dengan teman aktornya Chinese, Jet Li, yang berhasil diselesaikan pada 24 Agustus 2007 dan diedarkan pada bulan April 2008.

Chan mengisi suara dari tokoh Master Monkey dalam film buatan DreamWorks Animation, Kung Fu Panda, yang diedarkan pada bulan June 2008, dimana dalam film tersebut juga menampilkan beberapa bintang terkenal lainnya seperti Jack Black, Dustin Hoffman dan Angelina Jolie.

Selain itu, ia juga sudah menandatangani kontrak untuk membantu Anthony Szeto dalam kapasitasnya sebagai penasihat untuk penulis naskah dari film yang akan datang berjudul Wushu, yang saat ini masih dalam taraf pre-production.

Film tersebut akan menampilkan aktor terkenal Sammo Hung dan Wang Wenjie sebagai ayah dan anak.

Pada bulan November2007, Chan mulai melakukan pengambilan gambar untuk pembuatan film Shinjuku Incident dengan sutradara Derek Yee, di mana Chan akan berperan sebagai imigran Tionghoa di Jepang.

Sekarang pengambilan gambarnya telah selesai dan memasuki tahap pasca-produksi. Film ini diedarkan di bioskop-bioskop Hong Kong pada 25 September 2008.

Dari data yang ada di blog miliknya , Chan berkeinginan untuk menyutradarai film lainnya setelah menyelesaikan Shinjuku Incident, sesuatu yang sudah lama tidak dilakukannya dalam beberapa tahun belakangan ini.

Film diharapkan kelanjutan ketiga dari serial the Armour of God, dan dinamakan Armour of God III: Chinese Zodiac.

Chan menyatakan bahwa ia ingin mulai melakukan pengambilan gambar sejak 1 April 2008, namun target tersebut sudah terlampaui.

Jikalau the Screen Actors Guild tidak mengalami pemogokan, seharusnya Chan sudah mulai melakukan pengambilan gambar untuk film The Spy Next Door pada pertengahan Oktober, dan membuat status dari Armour of God III: Chinese Zodiacmengambang.

Dalam film The Spy Next Door, Chan berperan sebagai agen rahasia yang sedang melakukan penyamaran namun terbongkar ketika ia merawat anak-anak tetangganya.

Eksperimen baru dan perubahan gaya: 2008–sekarang

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Chan di Festival Film Cannes pada 2012

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Jackie Chan di tempat pengambilan gambar Chinese Zodiac (2 Mei 2012)

Pefilman The Forbidden Kingdom (dirilis pada 2008), kolaborasi layar lebar pertama Chan dengan aktor Tiongkok sejawatnya Jet Li, yang diselesaikan pada 24 Agustus 2007 dan film tersebut dirilis pada April 2008. Film tersebut menampilkan penggunaan efek dan jaringan keras.

Chan mengisi suara Master Monkey dalam Kung Fu Panda(yang dirilis pada Juni 2008), yang tampil bersama dengan Jack Black, Dustin Hoffman, dan Angelina Jolie.

Selain itu, ia membantu Anthony Szeto sebagai penasehat dalam film buatan penulis-sutradara tersebut Wushu, yang dirilis pada 1 Mei 2008. Film tersebut dibintangi oleh Sammo Hung dan Wang Wenjie sebagai bapak dan anak.

Pada November 2007, Chan memulai pemfilman Shinjuku Incident, sebuah peran dramatis yang tidak menampilkan adegan seni bela diri dengan sutradara Derek Yee, dimana Chan memerankan seorang imigran Tiongkok di Jepang.

Film tersebut dirilis pada 2 April 2009. Menurut blognya, Chan mendiskusikan keinginannya untuk menyutradarai sebuah film setelah menyelesaikan Shinjuku Incident, yang belum terwujud selama beberapa tahun.

Film tersebut menjadi film ketiga dalam serial Armour of God, dan memiliki judul pengerjaan Armour of God III: Chinese Zodiac. Film tersebut dirilis pada 12 Desember 2012.

Karena Screen Actors Guild tidak mencapai target, Chan memulai pengambilan gambar film Hollywood berikutnya The Spy Next Door pada akhir Oktober di New Mexico.

Dalam The Spy Next Door, Chan memerankan seorang agen undercover yang menyoroti keganjilan saat ia melibat anak pacarnya.

Dalam Little Big Soldier, Chan bersama dengan Leehom Wang berperan sebagai prajurit pada zaman Negara-negara Berperang di Tiongkok.

Ia merupakan korban selamat tunggal dari tentaranya dan harus mengirim seorang prajurit musuh yang ditangkap Leehom Wang ke ibukota provinsinya.

Pada 2010, ia beradu peran dengan Jaden Smith dalam The Karate Kid, sebuah remake dari film aslinya yang dibuat pada tahun 1984.

Ini adalah film dramatik Amerika pertama Chan. Ia berperan sebagai Tuan Han, seorang master kung fu dan orang utama yang mengajari kung fu kepada Jaden Smith sehingga ia dapat mempertahankan dirinya sendiri dari penindasan sekolah.

Perannya dalam The Karate Kid membuat Jackie Chan memenangkan penghargaan Favorite Buttkicker di Nickelodeon Kids’ Choice Awards pada 2011.

Dalam film Chan berikutnya, Shaolin, ia memerankan jurumasak kuil menggantikan salah satu karakter utamanya.

Film ke-100nya, 1911, dirilis pada 26 September 2011. Chan menjadi salah satu sutradara, produser eksekutif, dan pemeran utama pada film tersebut.

Meskipun Chan telah menyutradarai lebih dari sepuluh film sepanjang karirnya, ini merupakan karya puenytradaraan pertamanya sejak Who Am I? pada 1998. 1911 tayang perdana di Amerika Utara pada 14 Oktober.

Saat di Festival Film Cannes 2012, Chan mengumumkan bahwa ia pensiun dari perfilman aksi dengan alasan ia sidah terlalu tua untuk genre tersebut.

Ia kemudian mengklarifikasikan bahwa ia tidak secara bulat pensiun dari perfilman aksi, namun akan tampil pada adegan-adegan yang kurang berbahaya dan lebih menjaga tubuhnya.

Pada 2013, Chan membintangi Police Story 2013, sebuah reboot dari waralaba Police Story sutradaraan Ding Sheng, dan dirilis di Tiongkok pada akhir 2013. Film Chan berikutnya Dragon Blade dirilis pada awal 2015.

Pada 2015, Chan dianugerahi gelar “Datuk” oleh Malaysia karena ia membantu Malaysia memajukan wisatanya, khususnya di Kuala Lumpur dimana ia sebelumnya mengambil gambar film-filmnya.

Film-film mendatangnya meliputi proyek Tiongkok-India berjudul Kung Fu Yoga yang juga dibintangi oleh Sonu Sood dan Amyra Dastur. Film tersebut juga menyatukan lagi Chan dengan sutradara Stanley Tong, yang menyutradarai sejumlah film Chan pada 1990an.

Ia memulai produksinya sendiri Skiptrace, yang dirilis pada 2016.

Chan akan membintangi film Railroad Tigers, The Foreigner, sebuah produksi Inggris-Tiongkok, dan film fiksi-ilmiah Bleeding Steel.

Stunt


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New Police Story.

Jackie Chan hampir selalu melakukan sendiri peran-peran berbahaya di semua film-filmnya tanpa adanya peran pengganti, dimana aksi-aksi tersebut dirancang oleh timnya, 

Jackie Chan Stunt Team. Karena tim ini sudah dibentuk sejak tahun 1983, Chan selalu mempergunakan mereka dalam semua film-filmnya sehingga memudahkan dalam pengaturan koreografinya, karena dia sudah mengenal dengan baik kemampuan dari masing-masing anggota timnya.

Chan dan timnyalah yang menjadi peran pengganti dari tokoh-tokoh lainnya, dimana pengambilan gambarnya dibuat sedemikian rupa sehingga tidak langsung mengambil gambar bagian muka.

Bahaya atas pilihan Chan untuk melakukan semua adegan berbahaya dalam film-filmnya menjadikan sulit untuk mendapatkan asuransi untuk dirinya, khususnya di Amerika Serikat, dimana secara kontrak, aksinya akan dibatasi.

Chan juga menjadi salah satu pemegang Guinness World Record untuk “Most Stunts By A Living Actor”, yang artinya “tidak ada perusahaan asuransi akan mendukung produksi film Chan, karena ia melakukan sendiri aksi-aksi berbahaya itu”.

Selain itu, ia juga memegang rekor untuk pengambilan gambar terbanyak dalam sebuah adegan, dimana pernah dilakukan pengambilan gambar kembali sebanyak 2900 kali untuk suatu adegan yang cukup rumit dalam sebuah pertandingan badminton di film Dragon Lord.

Chan telah mengalami luka berkali-kali dalam melakukan pengambilan adegan berbahaya itu; dimana potongan-potongan adegan itu ditampilkan dalam adegan penutup dari semua film-filmnya.

Ia hampir saja menemui ajalnya dalam pengambilan gambar dari film Armour of God, ketika ia jatuh dari sebuah pohon dan mematahkan tulang-tulangnya, dan mengakibatkan lubang tetap di kepalanya.

Selama bertahun-tahun pula, Chan pernah mengalami memar pada pelvisnya dan mematahkan jemari tangannya, kaki, hidung, kedua tulang belakangnya, pinggang, sternum, leher dan ribs dalam beberapa kejadian.

Filmografi


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Jackie Chan di 2008 Cannes Film Festival.

Jackie Chan menciptakan karakternya di film sebagai perwujudan dari tokoh Bruce Lee, dan beberapa tiruannya yang tampil sebelum dan sesudah wafatnya Lee.

Berlawanan dengan karakter Lee, yang seringkali stern, tokoh pahlawan, Chan menampilkan tokoh yang lebih manusiawi, kadang-kadang ceroboh (dan seringkali berlindung dibalik kebaikan teman-temannya, teman wanita ataupun keluarganya).

Walaupun film serial Rush Hour mencapai kesuksesan, namun Chan tidak begitu menyukainya karena dia tidak begitu suka dengan aksi-aksi laganya maupun memahami humor khas Amerika.

Dalam tahun-tahun terakhir, Chan yang mulai berumur, mulai lelah berperan sebagai pahlawan dan lebih menampilkan sisi emosionalnya sebagai manusia yang terlihat dalam film-film terakhirnya.

Di filmnya yang terbaru New Police Story, ia memainkan peran sebagai seseorang yang berhasil terlepas dari ketergantungannya pada minuman beralkohol dan penyesalannya atas kematian rekan kerjanya.

Untuk lebih memudarkan perannya sebagai tokoh pahlawan, Mr. Nice Guy, Chan bermain sebagai tokoh jahat untuk pertama kalinya dalam film Rob-B-Hood sebagai Thongs, seorang penjudi yang memiliki permasalahan dengan perjudian.

Status Keartisannya


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Tanda Tapak Tangan Chan sebagai artis di Avenue of Stars, Hong Kong

Jackie Chan mendapatkan banyak penghargaan internasional untuk seni perannya, juga memenangkan beberapa penghargaan termasuk sebagai Innovator Award dari American Choreography Awards dan sebuah penghargaan atas pencapaiannya seumur hidup dari Taurus World Stunt Awards.

Selain itu namanya juga tertoreh dalam Hollywood Walk of Fame dan Hong Kong Avenue of Stars.

Walaupun banyak menuai kesuksesan sebagai film-film box office di Hollywood, film-film Amerika dari Chan juga mendapatkan kritikan atas aksi koreografinya. Para penilai dari Rush Hour 2, The Tuxedo, dan Shanghai Knights mengkritik atas sedikit aksi laganya dibandingkan dengan film-filmnya terdahulu.

Berbagai aksi komedinya banyak dipertanyakan, bahkan beberapa kritikus menyebutnya sebagai agak kekanak-kanakan.

Chan adalah ikon kebudayaan, disebut-sebut dalam lagu Ash “Kung Fu” dan juga sebagai “Jackie Chan” oleh Frank Chickens, dan acara-acara televisi Celebrity Deathmatch dan Family Guy.

Ia juga menjadi inspirasi untuk mangaseperti Dragon Ball (termasuk seorang tokoh dengan nama samaran “Jackie Chun”), tokoh Lei Wulong dalam Tekken dan gaya-gaya pertarungan dari Pokémon Hitmonchan.

Selain itu, Jackie Chan juga menjadi rekan dari Mitsubishi Motors. Sebagai imbalannya, mobil-mobil lansiran Mitsubishi hampir pasti dapat ditemukan dalam beberapa film terakhirnya.

Sebagai penghargaan dari pihak Mitsubishi, mereka memberikannya sebuah seri terbaru yang dinamakan Evolution, sebuah mobil edisi khusus yang dapat diatur asesorisnya sesuai kehendak masing-masing pembeli.

Beberapa permainan video menampilkan Jackie Chan. Sebelum ada permainan video Stuntmaster, Chan sudah memiliki bentuk permainan miliknya sendiri, Jackie Chan’s Action Kung Fu, yang diedarkan pada tahun 1990 untuk PC dan NES.

Pada tahun 1995, Chan tampil dalam suatu permainan pertarungan arkade, Jackie Chan The Kung-Fu Master. Selain itu juga pernah diedarkan berbagai bentuk permainan Jackie Chan dari Jepang yang diedarkan di MSX oleh Pony, yang didasarkan pada film-filmnya seperti (Project A, Project A 2, Police Story, The Protector dan Wheels On Meals).

Jackie Chan juga seorang penyanyi yang sukses, khususnya di Hong Kong dan Asia, dan mulai memiliki beberapa album lagu yang direkam secara profesional pada tahun 1980-an. Ia juga seringkali menyanyikan sendiri lagu tema dari film-filmnya, serta memainkannya pada akhir film.[68][84] Tahun 2004, Chan meluncurkan merk pakaiannya sendiri, dengan logo seekor naga dan kata-kata dalam Bahasa Inggris, “Jackie”.

Chan juga selalu ingin menjadi suatu panutan untuk anak-anak, dan tetap dikenal mereka karena aktingnya yang sangat alami. Selian itu karena dia selalu menolak untuk berperan sebagai penjahat dan tidak pernah mempergunakan kata fuck dalam semua film-filmnya.

Yang amat disesali sepanjang hidupnya adalah tidak mendapatkan kesempatan untuk mendapatkan pendidikan yang baik, menginspirasinya untuk mendanai institusi-institusi pendidikan di seluruh dunia. Ia juga mendanai pembangunan Jackie Chan Science Centre di Australian National University[88] dan penyediaan sekolah untuk kalangan tidak berpunya di Cina.

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Chan dengan tokoh-tokoh Disney terkenal, dalam upacara pembukaan situs Hong Kong Disneyland

Chan adalah juru bicara dari Pemerintah Hong Kong, dan sering tampil dalam pengumuman pelayanan publik. Dalam sebuah iklan bertema Clean Hong Kong, ia mendorong penduduk Hong Kong untuk tidak lagi menyampah, suatu masalah yang sudah menjadi masalah semua penduduk bumi selama berabad-abad.

Selain itu dalam suatu iklan yang mengkampanyekan nasionalisme, ia menjelaskan secara singkat apa yang aerti dari March of the Volunteers, lagu kebangsaan Tiongkok.

Ketika Hong Kong Disneyland dibuka pada tahun 2005, Chan turut berpartisipasi dalam upacara pembukaannya.

Di Amerika Serikat, Chan tampil bersama-sama dengan Arnold Schwarzenegger dalam iklan yang menentang pembajakan serta membuat pengumuman untuk khalayak umum bekerja sama dengan Los Angeles County Sheriff Lee Baca untuk berbondong-bondong, khususnya warga Asia, untuk bergabung dengan Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department.

Juli 2008, serial televisi China BTV yang berjudul The Disciple (Hanzi tradisional: 龍的傳人; bahasa Tionghoa: 龙的传人) berakhir.

Serial tersebut dibuat oleh , dan menampilkan Jackie Chan. Tujuannya adalah mencari calon bintang baru, memiliki keahlian dalam dunia seni bela diri, yang nantinya akan menjadi generasi penerus dari Chan serta menjadi muridnya dalam pembuatan suatu film.

Para peserta lomba sudah dilatih terlebih dahulu oleh Jackie Chan Stunt Team members Alan Wu dan He Jun serta memiliki keahlian dalam berbagai bidang lainnya, termasuk di dalamnya pemutaran adegan ledakan, berjalan di kawat tinggi, tembak-tembakan, stuntmobil, menyelam, dan menghindari beberapa rintangan.

Salah satu juri tetapnya adalah He Ping, Wu Yue dan Cheng Pei Pei. Sedangkan juri tamunya termasuk Stanley Tong, Sammo Hung dand Yuen Biao. Bagian “Final” dimulai pada 5 April 2008, dengan 16 peserta tersisa, dan berakhir pada 26 Juni 2008. Acara ini dihadiri oleh antara lain Tsui Hark, John Woo, Ng See Yuen dan Yu Rong Guang.

Pemenangnya adalah Jacky Tu (Tu Sheng Cheng), dan juara keduanya adalah Yang Zheng dan Jerry Liau. Tu sekarang sedang dipersiapkan untuk berperan dalam tiga film laga Cina masa kini, dimana salah satu naskahnya ditulisnya sendiri, dan mereka akan disutradarai oleh Chan dan perusahaannya, JCE Movies Limited.

Film tersebut akan diberi judul Speedpost 206, Won’t Tell You dan Tropical Toranado yang akan disutradarai oleh Xie Dong, Jiang Tao dan Cai Rong Hui. Ke-enam belas peserta yang berhasil mencapai tangga sebagai finalis akan diberikan kesempatan untuk tampil, atau bergabung dengan Jackie Chan Stunt Team.

Pengambilan gambar filmnya yang pertama direncakan pada September 2008. Mereka juga akan mendapatkan peran dalam acara televisi BTV action series. 

Saat ini pembangunan museum untuk Jackie Chan sedang dikerjakan di Shanghai. Pekerjaan beratnya sudah mulai dikerjakan sejak Jul 2008 dan direncanakan selesai pada Oktober 2009.[98]

Filantropi


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19 Januari 2011 Jackie Chan bertemu Presiden Barack Obama untuk sambutan Presiden TiongkokHu Jintao ke White House.

Chan adalah seorang filantropis yang sangat ramah dan seorang duta dari UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador, telah bekerja tanpa mengenal lelah untuk mengkampanyekan pekerjaan-pekerjaan sosial.

Ia juga sudah mengkampanyekan etika konservasi, melawan penganiayaan binatang dan menggalang dana untuk para korban banjir di Tiongkok Daratan dan dalam gempa bumi Samudra Hindia 2004.

Menginjak bulan Juni 2006, dia mengumumkan bahwa hampir 50% aset perusahaannya akan disumbangkan ke yayasan sosial ketika dia meninggal, yang dipicu atas kekagumannya akan tokoh-tokoh Warren Buffett dan Bill Gates untuk membantu mereka yang membutuhkannya.

Tanggal 10 Maret 2008, Chan menjadi tokoh tamu dalam suatu peluncuran yang dipimpin oleh Perdana Menteri Australia, Kevin Rudd, atas sebuah Jackie Chan Science Centre di John Curtin School of Medical Research, Universitas Nasional Australia di Canberra.

Jackie Chan juga mendukung usaha-usaha untuk pelestarian Selamatkan Harimau Cina yang bertujuan mencegah pemusnahan Harimau Cina yang teramat jarang ditemui, Harimau Cina Selatan, melalui pendidikan yang mengajarkannya untuk memunculkan jiwa binatangnya dan melepaskannya kembali ke alam bebas. Ia juga pernah menjadi duta besar untuk proyek konvesional ini.

Sesudah terjadinya gempa bumi Sichuan 2008, Chan menyumbangkan ¥10 juta untuk membantu mereka-mereka yang membutuhkan.

Selain itu ia juga merencanakan untuk membuat film tentang gempa bumi China untuk menjaring sumbangan bagi mereka yang selamat.

Chan mengalami kecanggungan dalam kunjungan pertamanya ke Taipei, Taiwan pada 18 Juni 2008 karena dia dituduh oleh presiden Taiwan dalam pemilihan umum pada tahun 2004. “I didn’t know what to say, I didn’t know what clothes to wear. So in the end, I just decided to be natural.”

Banyak warga Taiwan menyambutnya dengan ejekan: “Kami tidak menerimamu!” dan “Get Out!” di Taoyuan International Airport. Walaupun begitu Chan tidak pernah meminta maaf.

Ia akan menghadiri acara pengumpulan dana amal untuk anak-anak, “Baby is Our Hope” yang diadakan oleh salah satu saluran TV kabel TVBS. Wakil dari pemerintah, Vanessa Shih meminta warga Taiwan untuk tetap tenang.

Jackie Chan dan Beruang: Semasa Chan membuat penggambaran “Around the World in 80 Days” di Berlin, Jerman, dia bersua dengan United Buddy Bearsbuat kali pertama. Pada masa itu, terdapat Buddy Bears di seluruh bandar Berlin. Jackie tertanya-tanya tentang beruang berwarna-warni tersebut lalu menyelidik. Dia dapati beruang tersebut hasil idea penduduk Berlin, Klaus dan Eva Herlitz.

Dia diberitahu mereka ingin menyampaikan mesej penting – sesuatu yang dia sendiri telah bekerja keras untuk sampaikan: kita semua mesti hidup bersama secara aman-damai. Dia juga diberitahu bahwa Buddy Bears mengumpul wang untuk kebajikan. Chan terpikat dengan Buddy Bears, jadi dia melibatkan diri membawa United Circle of Buddy Bears ke Hong Kong pada tahun 2004.

Kehidupan Pribadi


Tahun 1982, Jackie Chan menikahi Lin Feng-Jiao, seorang aktris Taiwan. Dalam tahun yang sama mereka mendapatkan seorang anak laki-laki, penyanyi dan aktor, Jaycee Chan.

“Dalam sebuah skandal pada tahun 1999, ia mengakui memiliki seorang anak perempuan dengan pemenang Miss Asia Pageant 1990, Elaine Ng,” walaupun paparazzi juga sering menghubung-hubungkannya dengan “semua orang dari para penyanyi wanita Taiwan Teresa Teng sampai aktris terkenal Anita Mui.”