Category Archives: City


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Read also: Liverpool Football Club

From top left: Pier Head and the Mersey Ferry; St George’s Hall and the Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool Catholic Cathedral, Liverpool Anglican Cathedral; Georgian architecture in Canning, Prince’s Dock

Liverpool is a city and metropolitan borough in Merseyside, England. As of 2018, the population is approximately 494,814. Liverpool is the ninth-largest English district by population, and the largest in Merseyside and the Liverpool City Region. It lies within the United Kingdom’s sixth-most populous urban area. Liverpool’s metropolitan area is the fifth-largest in the United Kingdom, with a population of 2.24 million.

Liverpool is on the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary, and historically lay within the ancient hundred of West Derby in the southwest of the county of Lancashire in North West England. It became a borough in 1207 and a city in 1880. In 1889, it became a county borough independent of Lancashire. Its growth as a major port was paralleled by the expansion of the city throughout the Industrial Revolution. Along with handling general cargo, freight, and raw materials such as coal and cotton, the city merchants were involved in the Atlantic slave trade. In the 19th century, it was a major port of departure for English and Irish emigrants to North America. Liverpool was home to both the Cunard and White Star Line, and was the port of registry of the ocean liners RMS Titanic, RMS Lusitania, RMS Queen Mary, and RMS Olympic.

Liverpool is the seventh most visited city in the UK. It is noted for its culture, architecture, and transport links. The city is closely associated with the arts, particularly music; the popularity of the Beatles, who are regarded as the most influential band in history, contributed to the city’s status as a tourist destination. Since then, the city has continued to produce hundreds of notable musical acts—musicians from Liverpool have produced 56 No. 1 hit singles, more than any other city in the world. Liverpool also has a long-standing reputation as the origin of countless actors and actresses, artists, comedians, journalists, novelists, poets, and sportspeople. The city has the second highest number of art galleries, national museums, and listed buildings in the UK; only the capital, London, has more. The Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City includes the Pier Head, Albert Dock, and William Brown Street. In sports, the city is best known for being the home of Premier League football clubs Liverpool and Everton, with matches between the two being known as the Merseyside derby. The annual Grand National horse race takes place at Aintree Racecourse.

Several areas of the city centre were granted World Heritage Site status by UNESCO in 2004. The city celebrated its 800th anniversary in 2007 and was named the 2008 European Capital of Culture, which it shared with the Norwegian city of Stavanger. Liverpool’s status as a port city has attracted a diverse population drawn from a wide range of cultures and religions, particularly from Ireland, Scandinavia, and Wales. The city is home to the oldest black community in the UK and the oldest Chinese community in Europe. Natives and residents of the city of Liverpool are referred to formally as Liverpudlians, but most often as Scousers, a reference to “scouse“, a form of stew. The word “Scouse” has also become synonymous with the Liverpool accent and dialect.

Liverpool visitor map
Origins of the Name

The name comes from the Old English lifer, meaning thick or muddy water, and pōl, meaning a pool or creek, and is first recorded around 1190 as Liuerpul. According to the Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names, “The original reference was to a pool or tidal creek now filled up into which two streams drained”. The place appearing as Leyrpole, in a legal record of 1418, may also refer to Liverpool. Other origins of the name have been suggested, including “elverpool”, a reference to the large number of eels in the Mersey while another such suggestion is derivation from Welsh llyvr pwl, apparently meaning “expanse or confluence at the pool”. The adjective “Liverpudlian” is first recorded in 1833.


Early History

King John’s letters patent of 1207 announced the foundation of the borough of Liverpool. By the middle of the 16th century, the population was still around 500. The original street plan of Liverpool is said to have been designed by King John near the same time it was granted a royal charter, making it a borough. The original seven streets were laid out in an H shape: Bank Street (now Water Street), Castle Street, Chapel Street, Dale Street, Juggler Street (now High Street), Moor Street (now Tithebarn Street) and Whiteacre Street (now Old Hall Street).

Liverpool in 1680, the earliest known image of Liverpool.

In the 17th century there was slow progress in trade and population growth. Battles for control of the town were waged during the English Civil War, including an eighteen-day siege in 1644. [citation needed] In 1699, the same year as its first recorded slave ship, Liverpool Merchant, set sail for Africa, Liverpool was made a parish by Act of Parliament, although arguably the legislation of 1695 that reformed the Liverpool council was of more significance to its subsequent development.Since Roman times, the nearby city of Chester on the River Dee had been the region’s principal port on the Irish Sea. However, as the Dee began to silt up, maritime trade from Chester became increasingly difficult and shifted towards Liverpool on the neighbouring River Mersey.

A map of Liverpool’s original seven streets (north to the left).

As trade from the West Indies, including sugar, surpassed that of Ireland and Europe, and as the River Dee continued to silt up, Liverpool began to grow with increasing rapidity. The first commercial wet dock was built in Liverpool in 1715. Substantial profits from the slave trade and tobacco helped the town to prosper and rapidly grow, although several prominent local men, including William Rathbone, William Roscoe and Edward Rushton, were at the forefront of the local abolitionist movement.

19th Century

By the start of the 19th century, a large volume of trade was passing through Liverpool, and the construction of major buildings reflected this wealth. In 1830, Liverpool and Manchester became the first cities to have an intercity rail link, through the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. The population continued to rise rapidly, especially during the 1840s when Irish migrants began arriving by the hundreds of thousands as a result of the Great Famine.

In her poem “Liverpool” (1832), which celebrates the city’s worldwide commerce, Letitia Elizabeth Landon refers specifically to the Macgregor Laird expedition to the Niger River, at that time in progress.

Great Britain was a major market for cotton imported from the Deep South of the United States, which fed the textile industry in the country. Given the crucial place of both cotton and slavery in the city’s economy, during the American Civil War Liverpool was, in the words of historian Sven Beckert, “the most pro-Confederate place in the world outside the Confederacy itself.”

For periods during the 19th century, the wealth of Liverpool exceeded that of London, and Liverpool’s Custom House was the single largest contributor to the British Exchequer.[31] Liverpool was the only British city ever to have its own Whitehall office.

In the early 19th century, Liverpool played a major role in the Antarctic sealing industry, in recognition of which Liverpool Beach in the South Shetland Islands is named after the city.

Inaugural journey of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway in 1830, the first ever commercial railway line.

As early as 1851 the city was described as “the New York of Europe”. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Liverpool was attracting immigrants from across Europe. This resulted in construction of a diverse array of religious buildings in the city for the new ethnic and religious groups, many of which are still in use today. The Deutsche Kirche Liverpool, Greek Orthodox Church of St Nicholas, Gustav Adolf Church and Princes Road Synagogue were all established in the 1800s to serve Liverpool’s growing German, Greek, Nordic and Jewish communities, respectively. One of Liverpool’s oldest surviving churches, St. Peter’s Roman Catholic Church, served the Polish community in its final years as a place of worship.

Lime Street, Liverpool, in the 1890s, St.George’s Hall to the left, Great North Western Hotel to the right, Walker Art Gallery and Sessions House in the background. Statues of Prince Albert, Disraeli, Queen Victoria and Wellington’s Column in the middle ground.

20th Century

The postwar period after the Great War was marked by social unrest, as society grappled with the massive war losses of young men, as well as trying to integrate veterans into the economy. Union organising and strikes took place in numerous locations, including police strikes in London among the Metropolitan Police. Numerous colonial soldiers and sailors from Africa and India, who had served with the UK, settled in Liverpool and other port cities. In June 1919 they were subject to attack by whites in racial riots; residents in the port included Swedish immigrants, and both groups had to compete with native people from Liverpool for jobs and housing.

In this period, race riots also took place in Cardiff, Newport and Barry, and there had been incidents in Glasgow, South Shields, London, Hull and Salford. Similarly, racial riots of whites against blacks took place across the United States in numerous industrial cities, so that a black leader termed the period of time Red Summer. In that first postwar year, there were also riots in Caribbean and South African cities.

Liverpool was the port of registry of the ill-fated ocean liner Titanic. The ship sank on its maiden voyage in April 1912, with the loss of 1,517 lives (including numerous Liverpudlians). A Memorial to the Engine Room Heroes of the Titanic is located on the city’s waterfront.

The Housing Act 1919 resulted in mass council housing being built across Liverpool during the 1920s and 1930s. Thousands of families were relocated from the inner-city to new suburban housing estates, based on the belief that this would improve their standard of living, though this is largely subjective. Numerous private homes were also built during this era. During the Great Depression of the early 1930s, unemployment peaked at around 30% in the city.

Liverpool was the site of Britain’s first provincial airport, operating from 1930. During the Second World War, the critical strategic importance of Liverpool was recognised by both Hitler and Churchill. The city was heavily bombed by the Germans, suffering a blitz second only to London’s. The pivotal Battle of the Atlantic was planned, fought and won from Liverpool.

The Luftwaffe made 80 air raids on Merseyside, killing 2,500 people and causing damage to almost half the homes in the metropolitan area. Significant rebuilding followed the war, including massive housing estates and the Seaforth Dock, the largest dock project in Britain. Much of the immediate reconstruction of the city centre has been deeply unpopular. It was as flawed as much subsequent town planning renewal in the 1950s and 1960s. The historic portions of the city that had survived German bombing suffered extensive destruction during urban renewal. Since 1952 Liverpool has been twinned with Cologne, Germany, a city which also suffered severe aerial bombing during the war.

A significant West Indian black community has existed in the city since the first two decades of the 20th century. Like most British cities and industrialised towns, Liverpool became home to a significant number of Commonwealth immigrants, beginning after World War I with colonial soldiers and sailors who had served in the area. More immigrants arrived after World War II, mostly settling in older inner-city areas such as Toxteth, where housing was less expensive.

The construction of suburban public housing expanded after the Second World War. Some of the older inner city areas were redeveloped for new homes.

In the 1960s Liverpool was the centre of the “Merseybeat” sound, which became synonymous with the Beatles and fellow Liverpudlian rock bands. Influenced by American rhythm and blues and rock music, they also in turn strongly affected American music for years and were internationally popular. The Beatles became internationally known in the early 1960s and performed for years together; they were the most commercially successful and musically influential band in popular history. Their co-founder singer and composer John Lennon was killed in New York City in 1980, after the Beatles stopped performing together. Liverpool airport was renamed for him in 2002, the first British airport to be named in honour of an individual.

Previously part of Lancashire, and a county borough from 1889, Liverpool in 1974 became a metropolitan borough within the newly created metropolitan county of Merseyside.

From the mid-1970s onwards, Liverpool’s docks and traditional manufacturing industries declined due to restructuring of shipping and heavy industry, causing massive losses of jobs. The advent of containerisation meant that the city’s docks became largely obsolete, and dock workers were thrown out of jobs. By the early 1980s unemployment rates in Liverpool were among the highest in the UK, standing at 17% by January 1982. This was about half the level of unemployment that had affected the city during the Great Depression 50 years previously.

In the later 20th century, Liverpool’s economy began to recover. Since the mid-1990s the city has enjoyed growth rates higher than the national average.

Mathew Street is one of many tourist attractions related to the Beatles, and the location of Europe’s largest annual free music festival.
At the end of the 20th century, Liverpool was concentrating on regeneration, a process that continues today.

21st Century

To celebrate the Golden Jubilee of Elizabeth II in 2002, the conservation charity Plantlife organised a competition to choose county flowers; the sea-holly was Liverpool’s final choice.

Capitalising on the popularity of 1960s rock groups, such as the Beatles, as well as the city’s world-class art galleries, museums and landmarks, tourism has also become a significant factor in Liverpool’s economy.

In 2004, property developer Grosvenor started the Paradise Project, a £920 m development based on Paradise Street. This produced the most significant changes to Liverpool’s city centre since the post-war reconstruction. Renamed ‘Liverpool ONE,’ the centre opened in May 2008.

In 2007, the city celebrated the 800th anniversary of the founding of the borough of Liverpool, for which a number of events were planned. Liverpool was designated as a joint European Capital of Culture for 2008. The main celebrations, in September 2008, included erection of La Princesse, a large mechanical spider 20 metres high and weighing 37 tonnes, and represents the “eight legs” of Liverpool: honour, history, music, the Mersey, the ports, governance, sunshine and culture. La Princesse roamed the streets of the city during the festivities, and concluded by entering the Queensway Tunnel.

Spearheaded by the multi-billion-pound Liverpool ONE development, regeneration has continued through to the start of the early 2010s. Some of the most significant redevelopment projects include new buildings in the Commercial District, the King’s Dock, Mann Island, the Lime Street Gateway, the Baltic Triangle, the RopeWalks, and the Edge Lane Gateway. All projects could be eclipsed by the Liverpool Waters scheme, which if built will cost in the region of £5.5billion and be one of the largest megaprojects in the UK’s history. Liverpool Waters is a mixed-use development planned to contain one of Europe’s largest skyscraper clusters. The project received outline planning permission in 2012, despite fierce opposition from such groups as UNESCO, which claimed that it would adversely affect Liverpool’s World Heritage status.

In June 2014, Prime Minister David Cameron launched the International Festival for Business in Liverpool, the world’s largest business event in 2014, and the largest in the UK since the Festival of Britain in 1951.

Mathew Street is one of many tourist attractions related to the Beatles, and the location of Europe’s largest annual free music festival.

Inventions and Innovations

Liverpool has been a centre of invention and innovation. Railways, transatlantic steamships, municipal trams, and electric trains were all pioneered in Liverpool as modes of mass transit. In 1829 and 1836, the first railway tunnels in the world were constructed under Liverpool (Wapping Tunnel). From 1950 to 1951, the world’s first scheduled passenger helicopter service ran between Liverpool and Cardiff.

The first School for the Blind, Mechanics’ Institute, High School for Girls, council house, and Juvenile Court were all founded in Liverpool. Charities such as the RSPCA, NSPCC, Age Concern, Relate, and Citizen’s Advice Bureau all evolved from work in the city.

The first lifeboat station, public bath and wash-house, sanitary act, medical officer for health (William Henry Duncan), district nurse, slum clearance, purpose-built ambulance, X-ray medical diagnosis, school of tropical medicine (Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine), motorised municipal fire-engine, free school meal, cancer research centre, and zoonosis research centre all originated in Liverpool. The first British Nobel Prize was awarded in 1902 to Ronald Ross, professor at the School of Tropical Medicine, the first school of its kind in the world. Orthopaedic surgery was pioneered in Liverpool by Hugh Owen Thomas, and modern medical anaesthetics by Thomas Cecil Gray.

The world’s first integrated sewer system was constructed in Liverpool by James Newlands, appointed in 1847 as the UK’s first borough engineer. Liverpool also founded the UK’s first Underwriters’ Association and the first Institute of Accountants. The Western world’s first financial derivatives (cotton futures) were traded on the Liverpool Cotton Exchange in the late 1700s.

In the arts, Liverpool was home to the first lending library (The Lyceum), athenaeum society (Liverpool Athenaeum), arts centre (Bluecoat Chambers), and public art conservation centre (National Conservation Centre). It is also home to the UK’s oldest surviving classical orchestra (Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Orchestra) and repertory theatre (Liverpool Playhouse).

The Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, the first such school in the world

In 1864, Peter Ellis built the world’s first iron-framed, curtain-walled office building, Oriel Chambers, which was a prototype of the skyscraper. The UK’s first purpose-built department store was Compton House, completed in 1867 for the retailer J.R. Jeffrey. It was the largest store in the world at the time.

Compton House, Church Street, Liverpool

Between 1862 and 1867, Liverpool held an annual Grand Olympic Festival. Devised by John Hulley and Charles Melly, these games were the first to be wholly amateur in nature and international in outlook. The programme of the first modern Olympiad in Athens in 1896 was almost identical to that of the Liverpool Olympics. In 1865, Hulley co-founded the National Olympian Association in Liverpool, a forerunner of the British Olympic Association. Its articles of foundation provided the framework for the International Olympic Charter.

Sir Alfred Lewis Jones, a shipowner, introduced bananas to the UK via Liverpool’s docks in 1884. The Mersey Railway, opened in 1886, incorporated the world’s first tunnel under a tidal estuary and the world’s first deep-level underground stations (Liverpool James Street railway station).

In 1889, borough engineer John Alexander Brodie invented the football goal net. He also was a pioneer in the use of pre-fabricated housing and oversaw the construction of the UK’s first ring road (A5058) and intercity highway (East Lancashire Road), as well as the Queensway Tunnel linking Liverpool and Birkenhead. Described as “the eighth wonder of the world” at the time of its construction, it was the longest underwater tunnel in the world for 24 years.

In 1897, the Lumière brothers filmed Liverpool, including what is believed to be the world’s first tracking shot, taken from the Liverpool Overhead Railway, the world’s first elevated electrified railway. The Overhead Railway was the first railway in the world to use electric multiple units, employ automatic signalling, and install an escalator.

Liverpool inventor Frank Hornby was a visionary in toy development and manufacture, producing three of the most popular lines of toys in the 20th century: Meccano, Hornby Model Railways, and Dinky Toys. The British Interplanetary Society, founded in Liverpool in 1933 by Phillip Ellaby Cleator, is the world’s oldest existing organisation devoted to the promotion of spaceflight. Its journal, the Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, is the longest-running astronautical publication in the world.

In 1999, Liverpool was the first city outside of London to be awarded blue plaques by English Heritage in recognition of the “significant contribution made by its sons and daughters in all walks of life”.

Oriel Chambers, the first “modern” building in the world

Liverpool is governed by a Unitary Authority, as when Merseyside County Council was disbanded civic functions were returned to a district borough level. However several services such as the police and fire and rescue service, continue to be run at a county-wide level. The city also elects four members of Parliament (MPs) to the Westminster Parliament.

Mayor and Local Council

The City of Liverpool is governed by the Directly elected mayor of Liverpool and Liverpool City Council, and is one of six metropolitan boroughs that combine to make up the Liverpool City Region. The mayor is elected by the citizens of Liverpool every four years and is responsible for the day-to-day running of the council. The council’s 90 elected councillors who represent local communities throughout the city, are responsible for scrutinising the mayor’s decisions, setting the budget, and policy framework of the city. The mayor’s responsibility is to be a powerful voice for the city both nationally and internationally, to lead, build investor confidence, and to direct resources to economic priorities. The mayor also exchanges direct dialogue with government ministers and the prime minister through his seat at the Cabinet of Mayors. Discussions include pressing decision makers in the government on local issues as well as building relationships with the other Directly elected mayors in England and Wales. The mayor is Joe Anderson.

The City of Liverpool effectively has two mayors. As well as the directly elected mayor, there is the ceremonial lord mayor (or civic mayor) who is elected by the full city council at its annual general meeting in May, and stands for one year in office. The lord mayor acts as the “first citizen” of Liverpool and is responsible for promoting the city, supporting local charities and community groups as well as representing the city at civic events. The Lord Mayor is Councillor Christine Banks.

The late Georgian Liverpool Town Hall

For local elections the city is split into 30 local council wards, which in alphabetical order are:

During the most recent local elections, held in May 2011, the Labour Party consolidated its control of Liverpool City Council, following on from regaining power for the first time in 12 years, during the previous elections in May 2010. The Labour Party gained 11 seats during the election, taking their total to 62 seats, compared with the 22 held by the Liberal Democrats. Of the remaining seats the Liberal Party won three and the Green Party claimed two. The Conservative Party, one of the three major political parties in the UK had no representation on Liverpool City Council.

In February 2008, Liverpool City Council was reported to be the worst-performing council in the country, receiving just a one star rating (classified as inadequate). The main cause of the poor rating was attributed to the council’s poor handling of tax-payer money, including the accumulation of a £20m shortfall on Capital of Culture funding.

While Liverpool through most of the 19th and early 20th centuries was a municipal stronghold of Toryism, support for the Conservative Party recently has been among the lowest in any part of Britain, particularly since the monetarist economic policies of prime minister Margaret Thatcher after her 1979 general election victory contributed to high unemployment in the city which did not begin to fall for many years. Liverpool is one of the Labour Party’s key strongholds; however the city has seen hard times under Labour governments as well, particularly in the Winter of Discontent (late 1978 and early 1979) when Liverpool suffered public sector strikes along with the rest of the United Kingdom but also suffered the particularly humiliating misfortune of having grave-diggers going on strike, leaving the dead unburied.

Liverpool City Region Combined Authority

The City of Liverpool is one of the six constituent local government districts of the Liverpool City Region. Since 1 April 2014, some of the city’s responsibilities have been pooled with neighbouring authorities within the metropolitan area and subsumed into the Liverpool City Region Combined Authority.

The combined authority has effectively become the top-tier administrative body for the local governance of the city region and The Mayor of Liverpool, along with the five other leaders from neighbouring local government districts, take strategic decisions over economic development, transport, employment and skills, tourism, culture, housing and physical infrastructure.

As of July 2015, negotiations are currently taking place between the UK national government and the combined authority over a possible devolution deal to confer greater powers on the region. Discussions include whether to introduce an elected ‘Metro Mayor’ to oversee the entire metropolitan area.

Parliamentary Constituencies and MPs

Liverpool has four parliamentary constituencies entirely within the city, through which MPs are elected to represent the city in Westminster: Liverpool Riverside, Liverpool Walton, Liverpool Wavertree and Liverpool West Derby. At the last general election, all were won by Labour with representation being from Kim Johnson, Dan Carden, Paula Barker and Stephen Twigg respectively. Due to boundary changes prior to the 2010 election, the Liverpool Garston constituency was merged with most of Knowsley South to form the Garston and Halewood cross-boundary seat. At the most 2019 election this seat was won by Maria Eagle of the Labour Party.



Liverpool has been described as having “the most splendid setting of any English city.” At 53°24′0″N 2°59′0″W (53.4, −2.98), 176 miles (283 km) northwest of London, located on the Liverpool Bay of the Irish Sea the city of Liverpool is built across a ridge of sandstone hills rising up to a height of around 230 feet (70 m) above sea-level at Everton Hill, which represents the southern boundary of the West Lancashire Coastal Plain.

The Mersey Estuary separates Liverpool from the Wirral Peninsula. The boundaries of Liverpool are adjacent to Bootle, Crosby and Maghull in south Sefton to the north, and Kirkby, Huyton, Prescot and Halewood in Knowsley to the east.

Satellite imagery showing Liverpool Bay, Liverpool and the wider Merseyside area


Liverpool experiences a temperate maritime climate (Köppen: Cfb), like much of the British Isles, with relatively mild summers, cool winters and rainfall spread fairly evenly throughout the year. Rainfall and Temperature records have been kept at Bidston since 1867, but records for atmospheric pressure go back as far as 1845. Bidston closed down in 2002 but the Met Office also has a weather station at Crosby. Since records began in 1867, temperatures have ranged from −17.6 °C (0.3 °F) on 21 December 2010 to 34.5 °C (94.1 °F) on 2 August 1990. Although, Liverpool Airport recorded a temperature of 35.0 °C (95.0 °F) on 19 July 2006.

The lowest amount of sunshine on record was 16.5hrs in December 1927 whereas the most was 314.5hrs in July 2013.

Tornado activity or funnel cloud formation is very rare in and around the Liverpool area and tornadoes that do form are usually weak. Recent tornadoes or funnel clouds have been seen in 1998, 2014 and 2018.

During the period 1981-2010, Crosby recorded an average of 32.8 days of air frost per year, which is low for the United Kingdom. Snow is fairly common during the winter although heavy snow is rare. Snow generally falls between November and March but can occasionally fall earlier and later. In recent times, the earliest snowfall was on 1 October 2008 while the latest occurred on 15 May 2012. Although historically, the earliest snowfall occurred on 4 September 1974 and the latest on 2 June 1975.

Rainfall, although light, is quite a common occurrence in Liverpool, with the wettest month on record being August 1956, which recorded 8.71 in (221.2 mm) of rain. The only other month to exceed 8 in (200 mm) was September 1976. However, droughts can occasionally become a problem, especially, but not exclusively, in the summer, this happened most recently in 2018. However, the longest run of days without any rainfall was 41 days between 16 July and 25 August 1995. The driest year on record was 2010, with 15.76 in (400.2 mm) of rain and the wettest was 1872, with 45.67 in (1,159.9 mm).

Since Bidston closed down in 2002, new records are:


Suburbs and Districts

Suburbs and districts of Liverpool include:

  • Aigburth
  • Allerton
  • Anfield
  • Belle Vale
  • Broadgreen
  • Canning
  • Childwall
  • Chinatown
  • City Centre
  • Clubmoor
  • Croxteth
  • Dingle
  • Dovecot
  • Edge Hill
  • Everton
  • Fairfield
  • Fazakerley
  • Garston
  • Gateacre
  • Gillmoss
  • Grassendale
  • Hunt’s Cross
  • Kensington
  • Kirkdale
  • Knotty Ash
  • Mossley Hill
  • Netherley
  • Norris Green
  • Old Swan
  • Orrell Park
  • St Michael’s Hamlet
  • Speke
  • Stoneycroft
  • Toxteth
  • Tuebrook
  • Vauxhall
  • Walton
  • Wavertree
  • West Derby
  • Woolton

Green Liverpool

In 2010 Liverpool City Council and the Primary Care Trust Commissioned The Mersey Forest to complete A Green Infrastructure Strategy for the City.

Green Belt

Liverpool is a core urban element of a green belt region that extends into the wider surrounding counties, which is in place to reduce urban sprawl, prevent the towns in the conurbation from further convergence, protect the identity of outlying communities, encourage brownfield reuse, and preserve nearby countryside. This is achieved by restricting inappropriate development within the designated areas, and imposing stricter conditions on permitted building.

Due to being already highly built up, the city contains limited portions of protected green belt area within greenfield throughout the borough, at Fazakerley, Croxteth Hall and country park and Craven Wood, Woodfields Park and nearby golf courses in Netherley, small greenfield tracts east of the Speke area by the St Ambrose primary school, and the small hamlet of Oglet and surrounding area south of Liverpool Airport.

The green belt was first drawn up in 1983 under Merseyside County Council and the size in the city amounts to 530 hectares (5.3 km2; 2.0 sq mi).



The City

At the 2011 UK Census the recorded population of Liverpool was 466,415, a 6.1% increase on the figure of 439,473 recorded in the 2001 census. The population of the central Liverpool local authority peaked in the 1930s with 846,101 recorded in the 1931 census, before suburbanisation and the establishment of new towns in the region. As with many British cities including London and Manchester, the city centre covered by the Liverpool council area had experienced negative population growth since the 1931 census. Much of the population loss was as a result of large-scale resettlement programmes to nearby areas introduced in the aftermath of the Second World War, with satellite towns such as Kirkby, Skelmersdale and Runcorn seeing a corresponding rise in their populations (Kirkby being the fastest growing town in Britain during the 1960s).

Liverpool’s population is younger than that of England as a whole, with 42.5 per cent of its population under the age of 30, compared to an English average of 37.7 per cent. As of July 2014, 66 per cent of the population was of working age.

Urban and Metropolitan Area

Liverpool is the largest local authority by populace, GDP and area in Merseyside. Liverpool and is typically grouped with the wider Merseyside area for the purpose of defining its metropolitan footprint, and there are several methodologies. Liverpool is defined as a standalone NUTS3 area by the ONS for statistical purpose, and makes up part of the NUTS2 area “Merseyside” along with East Merseyside (Knowsley, St Helens and Halton), Sefton and the Wirral. The population of this area was 1,513,306 based on 2014 estimates.

The “Liverpool Urban Area” is a term used by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) to denote the urban area around the city to the east of the River Mersey. The contiguous built-up area extends beyond the area administered by Liverpool City Council into adjoining local authority areas, particularly parts of Sefton and Knowsley. As defined by ONS, the area extends as far east as Haydock and St. Helens. Unlike the Metropolitan area, the Urban Area does not include The Wirral or its contiguous areas. The population of this area as of 2011 was 864,211.

The “Liverpool City Region” is an economic partnership between local authorities in Merseyside under the umbrella of the Liverpool City Region Combined Authority as defined by the Mersey Partnership. The area covers Merseyside and the Borough of Halton and has an estimated population between 1,500,000 and 2,000,000 and.

In 2006 ESPON (now (European Observation Network for Territorial Development and Cohesion) released a study defining a “Liverpool/Birkenhead Metropolitan area” as a functional urban area consisting of contiguous urban areas, labour pool, and commuter “Travel To Work Areas”. The analysis grouped the Merseyside metropolitan county with the borough of Halton, Wigan in Greater Manchester, the city of Chester as well as number of towns in Lancashire and Cheshire including Ormskirk and Warrington, estimating the polynuclear metropolitan area to have a population of 2,241,000 people.

Liverpool and Manchester are sometimes considered as one large polynuclear metropolitan area, or megalopolis.


According to data from the 2011 census, 84.8 per cent of Liverpool’s population was White British, 1.4 per cent White Irish, 2.6 per cent White Other, 4.1 per cent Asian or Asian British (including 1.1 per cent British Indian and 1.7 per cent British Chinese), 2.6 per cent Black or Black British (including 1.8 per cent Black African) and 2.5 per cent mixed-race. 1.8 per cent of respondents were from other ethnic groups.

Chinatown Gate Chinatown, Liverpool

Liverpool is home to Britain’s oldest Black community, dating to at least the 1730s. Some Black Liverpudlians can trace their ancestors in the city back ten generations. Early Black settlers in the city included seamen, the children of traders sent to be educated, and freed slaves, since slaves entering the country after 1722 were deemed free men. Since the 20th century, Liverpool is also noted for its large African-Caribbean, Ghanaian, and Somali communities, formed of more recent African-descended immigrants and their subsequent generations.

The city is also home to the oldest Chinese community in Europe; the first residents of the city’s Chinatown arrived as seamen in the 19th century. The traditional Chinese gateway erected in Liverpool’s Chinatown is the largest gateway outside China. Liverpool also has a long-standing Filipino community. Lita Roza, a singer from Liverpool who was the first woman to achieve a UK number one hit, had Filipino ancestry.

The city is also known for its large Irish population and its historically large Welsh population. In 1813, 10 per cent of Liverpool’s population was Welsh, leading to the city becoming known as “the capital of North Wales.” Following the start of the Great Irish Famine in the mid-19th century, up to two million Irish people travelled to Liverpool within one decade, with many subsequently departing for the United States. By 1851, more than 20 per cent of the population of Liverpool was Irish. At the 2001 Census, 1.17 per cent of the population were Welsh-born and 0.75 per cent were born in the Republic of Ireland, while 0.54 per cent were born in Northern Ireland, but many more Liverpudlians are of Welsh or Irish ancestry.

Other contemporary ethnicities include Indian, Latin American, Malaysian, and Yemeni. communities, which number several thousand each.


The thousands of migrants and sailors passing through Liverpool resulted in a religious diversity that is still apparent today. This is reflected in the equally diverse collection of religious buildings, including two Christian cathedrals.

Liverpool Metropolitan Cathedral of Christ the King

Liverpool is known to be England’s ‘most Catholic city’, with a Catholic population much larger than in other parts of England.

The parish church of Liverpool is the Anglican Our Lady and St Nicholas, colloquially known as “the sailors church”, which has existed near the waterfront since 1257. It regularly plays host to Catholic masses. Other notable churches include the Greek Orthodox Church of St Nicholas (built in the Neo-Byzantine architecture style), and the Gustav Adolf Church (the Swedish Seamen’s Church, reminiscent of Nordic styles).

Liverpool’s wealth as a port city enabled the construction of two enormous cathedrals in the 20th century. The Anglican Cathedral, which was designed by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott and plays host to the annual Liverpool Shakespeare Festival, has one of the longest naves, largest organs and heaviest and highest peals of bells in the world. The Roman Catholic Metropolitan Cathedral, on Mount Pleasant next to Liverpool Science Park, was initially planned to be even larger. Of Sir Edwin Lutyens’ original design, only the crypt was completed. The cathedral was eventually built to a simpler design by Sir Frederick Gibberd. While this is on a smaller scale than Lutyens’ original design it still incorporates the largest panel of stained glass in the world. The road running between the two cathedrals is called Hope Street, a coincidence which pleases believers. The cathedral is colloquially referred to as “Paddy’s Wigwam” due to its shape.

The Al-Rahma Mosque in the Toxteth area of Liverpool

Liverpool contains several synagogues, of which the Grade I listed Moorish Revival Princes Road Synagogue is architecturally the most notable. Princes Road is widely considered to be the most magnificent of Britain’s Moorish Revival synagogues and one of the finest buildings in Liverpool. Liverpool has a thriving Jewish community with a further two orthodox Synagogues, one in the Allerton district of the city and a second in the Childwall district of the city where a significant Jewish community reside. A third orthodox Synagogue in the Greenbank Park area of L17 has recently closed, and is a listed 1930s structure. There is also a Lubavitch Chabad House and a reform Synagogue. Liverpool has had a Jewish community since the mid-18th century. The Jewish population of Liverpool is around 5,000. The Liverpool Talmudical College existed from 1914 until 1990, when its classes moved to the Childwall Synagogue.

Liverpool also has a Hindu community, with a Mandir on Edge Lane, Edge Hill. The Shri Radha Krishna Temple from the Hindu Cultural Organisation in Liverpool is located there. Liverpool also has the Guru Nanak Sikh Gurdwara in Wavertree and a Bahá’í Centre in the same area.

The city had the earliest mosque in England, and possibly the UK, founded in 1887 by William Abdullah Quilliam, a lawyer who had converted to Islam, and set up the Liverpool Muslim Institute in a terraced house on West Derby Road. The building was used as a house of worship until 1908, when it was sold to the City Council and converted into offices. Plans have been accepted to re-convert the building where the mosque once stood into a museum. There are three mosques in Liverpool: the largest and main one, Al-Rahma mosque, in the Toxteth area of the city and a mosque recently opened in the Mossley Hill district of the city. The third mosque was also recently opened in Toxteth and is on Granby Street.

Natives of the city of Liverpool are referred to as Liverpudlians, and colloquially as “Scousers”, a reference to “scouse”, a form of stew. The word “Scouse” has also become synonymous with the Liverpool accent and dialect. Many people “self-identify” as Liverpudlians or Scousers without actually being born or living within the city boundaries of Liverpool.


Apartment buildings within Liverpool’s new commercial district

The Economy of Liverpool is one of the largest within the United Kingdom, sitting at the centre of one of the two core economies within the North West of England. In 2006, the city’s GVA was £7,626 million, providing a per capita figure of £17,489, which was above the North West average. Liverpool’s economy has seen strong growth since the mid-1990s, with its GVA increasing 71.8% between 1995 and 2006 and employment increasing 12% between 1998 and 2006. GDP per capita was estimated to stand at $32,121 in 2014, and total GDP at $65.8 billion.

In common with much of the rest of the UK today, Liverpool’s economy is dominated by service sector industries, both public and private. In 2007, over 60% of all employment in the city was in the public administration, education, health, banking, finance and insurance sectors. Over recent years there has also been significant growth in the knowledge economy of Liverpool with the establishment of the Liverpool Knowledge Quarter in sectors such as media and life sciences. Liverpool’s rich architectural base has also helped the city become the second most filmed city in the UK outside London, including doubling for Chicago, London, Moscow, New York, Paris and Rome.

Another important component of Liverpool’s economy are the tourism and leisure sectors. Liverpool is the 6th most visited city in the United Kingdom and one of the 100 most visited cities in the world by international tourists. In 2008, during the city’s European Capital of Culture celebrations, overnight visitors brought £188m into the local economy,] while tourism as a whole is worth approximately £1.3bn a year to Liverpool.The city’s new cruise liner terminal, which is situated close to the Pier Head, also makes Liverpool one of the few places in the world where cruise ships are able to berth right in the centre of the city. Other recent developments in Liverpool such as the Echo Arena and Liverpool One have made Liverpool an important leisure centre with the latter helping to lift Liverpool into the top five retail destinations in the UK.

Historically, the economy of Liverpool was centred on the city’s port and manufacturing base, although a smaller proportion of total employment is today derived from the port. Nonetheless the city remains one of the most important ports in the United Kingdom, handling over 32.2m tonnes of cargo in 2008. A new multimillion-pound expansion to the Port of Liverpool, Liverpool2, is scheduled to be operational from the end of 2015, and is projected to greatly increase the volume of cargo which Liverpool is able to handle. Liverpool is also home to the UK headquarters of many shipping lines including Japanese firm NYK and Danish firm Maersk Line, whilst shipping firm Atlantic Container Line has recently invested significant amounts in expanding its Liverpool operations, with a new headquarters currently under construction. Future plans to redevelop the city’s northern dock system, in a project known as Liverpool Waters, could see £5.5bn invested in the city over the next 50 years, creating 17,000 new jobs.

Car manufacturing also takes place in the city at the Jaguar Land Rover Halewood plant where the Range Rover Evoque model is assembled.

The Range Rover Evoque is manufactured at Jaguar Land Rover’s plant at Halewood.
Landmarks and recent Development Projects

Liverpool’s Three Graces, the Royal Liver Building, Cunard Building and Port of Liverpool Building at the Pier Head

Liverpool’s history means that there are a considerable variety of architectural styles found within the city, ranging from 16th century Tudor buildings to modern-day contemporary architecture. The majority of buildings in the city date from the late-18th century onwards, the period during which the city grew into one of the foremost powers in the British Empire. There are over 2,500 listed buildings in Liverpool, of which 27 are Grade I listed and 85 are Grade II* listed. The city also has a greater number of public sculptures than any other location in the United Kingdom aside from Westminster and more Georgian houses than the city of Bath. This richness of architecture has subsequently seen Liverpool described by English Heritage, as England’s finest Victorian city. The value of Liverpool’s architecture and design was recognised in 2004, when several areas throughout the city were declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Known as the Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City, the sites were added in recognition of the city’s role in the development of international trade and docking technology.

Waterfront and Docks

The Albert Dock contains the UK’s largest collection of Grade I listed buildings as well as being the most visited multi-use attraction outside London

As a major British port, the docks in Liverpool have historically been central to the city’s development. Several major docking firsts have occurred in the city including the construction of the world’s first enclosed wet dock (the Old Dock) in 1715 and the first ever hydraulic lifting cranes. The best-known dock in Liverpool is the Albert Dock, which was constructed in 1846 and today comprises the largest single collection of Grade I listed buildings anywhere in Britain. Built under the guidance of Jesse Hartley, it was considered to be one of the most advanced docks anywhere in the world upon completion and is often attributed with helping the city to become one of the most important ports in the world. The Albert Dock houses restaurants, bars, shops, two hotels as well as the Merseyside Maritime Museum, International Slavery Museum, Tate Liverpool and The Beatles Story. North of the city centre is Stanley Dock, home to the Stanley Dock Tobacco Warehouse, which was at the time of its construction in 1901, the world’s largest building in terms of area and today stands as the world’s largest brick-work building.

One of the most famous locations in Liverpool is the Pier Head, renowned for the trio of buildings – the Royal Liver Building, the Cunard Building and the Port of Liverpool Building – which sit upon it. Collectively referred to as the Three Graces, these buildings stand as a testament to the great wealth in the city during the late 19th and early 20th century. Built in a variety of architectural styles, they are recognised as being the symbol of Maritime Liverpool, and are regarded by many as contributing to one of the most impressive waterfronts in the world.

Bluecoat Chambers, the oldest building in Liverpool city centre

In recent years, several areas along Liverpool’s waterfront have undergone significant redevelopment. Amongst the notable recent developments are the Museum of Liverpool, the construction of the Liverpool Arena and BT Convention Centre on Kings Dock, Alexandra Tower and 1 Princes Dock on Prince’s Dock and Liverpool Marina around Coburg and Brunswick Docks. The Wheel of Liverpool opened on 25 March 2010.

However, plans to redevelop parts of the Liverpool have been marred by controversy. In December 2016, a newly formed company called North Point Global Ltd. was given the rights to develop part of the docks under the “New Chinatown” banner. Though heavily advertised in Liverpool, Hong Kong and Chinese cities with glossy advertisements and videos, the “New Chinatown” development failed to materialise. In January 2018, the Liverpool Echo and Asia Times revealed that the site remained sans any construction, North Point Global as well as its subcontractor “Bilt” had both declared bankruptcy and the small investors (mostly middle class couples) who had already paid money for thee apartments had lost most of their savings in them. Five similar development projects, mostly targeting individual Chinese and Hong Kong based citizens were suspended due to financial misappropriations.

Commercial District and Cultural Quarter

Victoria Street like many streets in the city centre is lined with dozens of listed buildings

Liverpool’s historic position as one of the most important trading ports in the world has meant that over time many grand buildings have been constructed in the city as headquarters for shipping firms, insurance companies, banks and other large firms. The great wealth this brought, then allowed for the development of grand civic buildings, which were designed to allow the local administrators to ‘run the city with pride’.

The commercial district is centred on the Castle Street, Dale Street and Old Hall Street areas of the city, with many of the area’s roads still following their medieval layout. Having developed over a period of three centuries the area is regarded as one of the most important architectural locations in the city, as recognised by its inclusion in Liverpool’s World Heritage site.

The neo-classical St George’s Hall

The oldest building in the area is the Grade I listed Liverpool Town Hall, which is located at the top of Castle Street and dates from 1754. Often regarded as the city’s finest piece of Georgian architecture, the building is known as one of the most extravagantly decorated civic buildings anywhere in Britain. Also on Castle Street is the Grade I listed Bank of England Building, constructed between 1845 and 1848, as one of only three provincial branches of the national bank. Amongst the other buildings in the area are the Tower Buildings, Albion House (the former White Star Line headquarters), the Municipal Buildings and Oriel Chambers, which is considered to be one of the earliest Modernist style buildings ever built.

The area around William Brown Street is referred to as the city’s ‘Cultural Quarter’, owing to the presence of numerous civic buildings, including the William Brown Library, Walker Art Gallery, Picton Reading Rooms and World Museum Liverpool. The area is dominated by neo-classical architecture, of which the most prominent, St George’s Hall, is widely regarded as the best example of a neo-classical building anywhere in Europe. A Grade I listed building, it was constructed between 1840 and 1855 to serve a variety of civic functions in the city and its doors are inscribed with “S.P.Q.L.” (Latin senatus populusque Liverpudliensis), meaning “the senate and people of Liverpool”. William Brown Street is also home to numerous public monuments and sculptures, including Wellington’s Column and the Steble Fountain. Many others are located around the area, particularly in St John’s Gardens, which was specifically developed for this purpose. The William Brown Street area has been likened to a modern recreation of the Roman Forum.

Other NotableLandmarks

Speke Hall Tudor manor house is one of Liverpool’s oldest buildings

While the majority of Liverpool’s architecture dates from the mid-18th century onwards, there are several buildings that pre-date this time. One of the oldest surviving buildings is Speke Hall, a Tudor manor house located in the south of the city, which was completed in 1598. The building is one of the few remaining timber framed Tudor houses left in the north of England and is particularly noted for its Victorian interior, which was added in the mid-19th century. In addition to Speke Hall, many of the city’s other oldest surviving buildings are also former manor houses including Croxteth Hall and Woolton Hall, which were completed in 1702 and 1704 respectively. The oldest building within the city centre is the Grade I listed Bluecoat Chambers,[233] which was built between 1717 and 1718. Constructed in British Queen Anne style, the building was influenced in part by the work of Christopher Wren and was originally the home of the Bluecoat School (who later moved to larger site in the south of the city). Since 1908 it has acted as a centre for arts in Liverpool.

Liverpool Cathedral is regarded as one of the greatest buildings of the twentieth century and is one of the largest church buildings in the world

Liverpool is noted for having two Cathedrals, each of which imposes over the landscape around it. The Anglican Cathedral, which was constructed between 1904 and 1978, is the largest Cathedral in Britain and the fifth largest in the world. Designed and built in Gothic style, it is regarded as one of the greatest buildings to have been constructed during the 20th century and was described by former British Poet Laureate, John Betjeman, as ‘one of the great buildings of the world’. The Roman Catholic Metropolitan Cathedral was constructed between 1962 and 1967 and is known as one of the first Cathedrals to break the traditional longitudinal design.

In recent years, many parts of Liverpool’s city centre have undergone significant redevelopment and regeneration after years of decline. The largest of these developments has been Liverpool One, which has seen almost £1 billion invested in the redevelopment of 42 acres (170,000 m2) of land, providing new retail, commercial, residential and leisure space. Around the north of the city centre several new skyscrapers have also been constructed including the RIBA award-winning Unity Buildings and West Tower, which at 140m is Liverpool’s tallest building. Many redevelopment schemes are also in progress including Central Village / Circus, the Lime Street gateway, and the highly ambitious Liverpool Waters.

West Tower has been the city’s tallest building since completion in 2008

There are many other notable buildings in Liverpool, including the art deco former terminal building of Speke Airport, the University of Liverpool’s Victoria Building, (which provided the inspiration for the term Red Brick University), and the Adelphi Hotel, which was in that past considered to be one of the finest hotels anywhere in the world.

Parks and Gardens

The English Heritage National Register of Historic Parks describes Merseyside’s Victorian Parks as collectively the “most important in the country”. The city of Liverpool has ten listed parks and cemeteries, including two Grade I and five Grade II*, more than any other English city apart from London.


Transport in Liverpool is primarily centred on the city’s road and rail networks, both of which are extensive and provide links across the United Kingdom. Liverpool has an extensive local public transport network, which is managed by Merseytravel, and includes buses, trains and ferries. Additionally, the city also has an international airport and a major port, both of which provides links to locations outside the country.

National and International Travel

Road Links

The Wallasey entrance to the Kingsway Tunnel. Liverpool’s skyline is visible in the background

As a major city, Liverpool has direct road links with many other areas within England. To the east, the M62 motorway connects Liverpool with Hull and along the route provides links to several large cities, including Manchester, Leeds and Bradford. The M62 also provides a connection to both the M6 and M1 motorways, providing indirect links to more distant areas including Birmingham, London, Nottingham, Preston and Sheffield. To the west of the city, the Kingsway and Queensway Tunnels connect Liverpool with the Wirral Peninsula, including Birkenhead, and Wallasey. The A41 road and M53 motorway, which both begin in Birkenhead, link to Cheshire and Shropshire and via the A55, to North Wales. To the south, Liverpool is connected to Widnes and Warrington via the A562 and across the River Mersey to Runcorn, via the Silver Jubilee and Mersey Gateway bridges.

Rail Links

Liverpool Lime Street Station

Liverpool is served by two separate rail networks. The local rail network is managed and run by Merseyrail and provides links throughout Merseyside and beyond (see Local travel below), while the national network, which is managed by Network Rail, provides Liverpool with connections to major towns and cities across the England. The city’s primary mainline station is Lime Street station, which is the terminus for several lines into the city, with numerous destinations, including London (in 2 hours 8 minutes with Pendolino trains), Birmingham, Newcastle upon Tyne, Manchester, Preston, Leeds, Scarborough, Sheffield, Nottingham and Norwich. In the south of the city, Liverpool South Parkway provides a connection to the city’s airport.


The Port of Liverpool is one of Britain’s largest ports, providing passenger ferry services across the Irish Sea to Belfast, Dublin and the Isle of Man. Services are provided by several companies, including the Isle of Man Steam Packet Company, P&O Ferries and Stena Line. In 2007, a new cruise terminal was opened in Liverpool, located alongside the Pier Head in the city centre. November 2016 saw the official opening of Liverpool2, an extension to the port that allows post-Panamax vessels to dock in Liverpool.

Leeds and Liverpool Canal runs into Liverpool city centre via Liverpool Canal Link at Pier Head since 2009.

Liverpool Cruise Terminal in the city centre provides long distance passenger cruises, Fred. Olsen Cruise Lines MS Black Watch and Cruise & Maritime Voyages MS Magellan using the terminal to depart to Iceland, France, Spain and Norway.


Liverpool John Lennon Airport terminal building

Liverpool John Lennon Airport, which is located in the south of the city, provides Liverpool with direct air connections across the United Kingdom and Europe. In 2008, the airport handled over 5.3 million passengers and today offers services to 68 destinations, including Berlin, Rome, Milan, Paris, Barcelona and Zürich. The airport is primarily served by low-cost airlines, notably Ryanair and Easyjet, although it does provide additional charter services in the summer.

Local Travel


The Merseyrail network has extensive underground sections within the city centre. Liverpool Central is the UK’s busiest underground station outside London

Liverpool’s local rail network is one of the busiest and most extensive in the country. The network consists of three lines: the Northern Line, which runs to Southport, Ormskirk, Kirkby and Hunts Cross; the Wirral Line, which runs through the Mersey Railway Tunnel and has branches to New Brighton, West Kirby, Chester and Ellesmere Port; and the City Line, which begins at Lime Street, providing links to St Helens, Wigan, Preston, Warrington and Manchester.

The network is predominantly electric. Electrification of the City Line was completed in 2015. The two lines operated by Merseyrail are the busiest British urban commuter networks outside London, covering 75 miles (121 km) of track, with an average of 110,000 passenger journeys per weekday. Services are operated by the Merseyrail franchise and managed by Merseytravel. Local services on the City Line are operated by Northern rather than Merseyrail, although the line itself remains part of the Merseyrail network. Within the city centre the majority of the network is underground, with four city centre stations and over 6.5 miles (10.5 km) of tunnels.


Local bus services within and around Liverpool are managed by Merseytravel and are run by several different companies, including Arriva and Stagecoach. The two principal termini for local buses are Queen Square Bus Station (located near Lime Street railway station) for services north and east of the city, and Liverpool One Bus Station formerly known as Paradise Street Bus Interchange (located near the Albert Dock) for services to the south and east. Cross-river services to the Wirral use roadside terminus points in Castle Street and Sir Thomas Street. A night bus service also operates on Saturdays providing services from the city centre across Liverpool and Merseyside. City Sights[260] and City explorer by Maghull coaches offer a tour bus service. National Express also operates.

Mersey Ferry

MV Royal Iris of the Mersey is one of three ferries that provide cross river services between Liverpool and the Wirral

The cross river ferry service in Liverpool, known as the Mersey Ferry, is managed and operated by Merseytravel, with services operating between the Pier Head in Liverpool and both Woodside in Birkenhead and Seacombe in Wallasey. Services operate at intervals ranging from 20 minutes at peak times, to every hour during the middle of the day and during weekends. Despite remaining an important transport link between the city and the Wirral Peninsula, the Mersey Ferry has become an increasingly popular tourist attraction within the city, with daytime River Explorer Cruises providing passengers with an historical overview of the River Mersey and surrounding areas.


In May 2014, the CityBike hire scheme was launched in the city. The scheme provides access to over 1,000 bikes stationed at over 140 docking stations across the city. National Cycle Route 56, National Cycle Route 62 and National Cycle Route 810 run through Liverpool.


As with other large cities, Liverpool is an important cultural centre within the United Kingdom, incorporating music, performing arts, museums and art galleries, literature and nightlife amongst others. In 2008, the cultural heritage of the city was celebrated with the city holding the title of European Capital of Culture, during which time a wide range of cultural celebrations took place in the city, including Go Superlambananas! and La Princesse. Liverpool has also held Europe’s largest music and poetry event, the Welsh national Eisteddfod, three times, despite being in England, in 1884, 1900, and 1929.


The Beatles statue in their home city Liverpool. The group are the most commercially successful and critically acclaimed band in popular music.

Liverpool is internationally known for music and is recognised by Guinness World Records as the World Capital City of Pop. Musicians from the city have produced 56 No. 1 singles, more than any other city in the world. Both the most successful male band and girl group in global music history have contained Liverpudlian members. Liverpool is most famous as the birthplace of the Beatles and during the 1960s was at the forefront of the Beat Music movement, which would eventually lead to the British Invasion. Many notable musicians of the time originated in the city including Billy J Kramer, Cilla Black, Gerry and the Pacemakers and The Searchers. The influence of musicians from Liverpool, coupled with other cultural exploits of the time, such as the Liverpool poets, prompted American poet Allen Ginsberg to proclaim that the city was “the centre of consciousness of the human universe”. Other musicians from Liverpool include Billy Fury, A Flock of Seagulls, Echo and the Bunnymen, Frankie Goes to Hollywood, Frankie Vaughan, Anathema, Ladytron, The Zutons, Cast, Atomic Kitten and Rebecca Ferguson. The La’s 1990 hit single “There She Goes” was described by Rolling Stone as a “founding piece of Britpop’s foundation.

Philharmonic Hall, home of the Royal Liverpool Philharmonic

The city is also home to the oldest surviving professional symphony orchestra in the UK, the Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Orchestra, which is based in the Philharmonic Hall. The chief conductor of the orchestra is Vasily Petrenko. Sir Edward Elgar dedicated his Pomp and Circumstance March No. 1 to the Liverpool Orchestral Society, and the piece had its first performance in the city in 1901. Among Liverpool’s curiosities, the Austrian émigré Fritz Spiegl is notable. He not only became a world expert on the etymology of Scouse, but composed the music to Z-cars and the Radio 4 UK Theme.

The Mathew Street Festival is an annual street festival that is one of the most important musical events in Liverpool’s calendar. It is Europe’s largest free music event and takes place every August. Other well established festivals in the city include Africa Oyé and Brazilica which are the UK’s largest free African and Brazilian music festivals respectively. The dance music festival Creamfields was established by the Liverpool-based Cream clubbing brand which started life as a weekly event at Nation nightclub. There are numerous music venues located across the city, however the Echo Arena is by far the largest. Opened in 2008 the 11,000-seat arena hosted the MTV Europe Music Awards the same year and since then has held host to world-renowned acts such as Andrea Bocelli, Beyoncé, Elton John, Kanye West, Kasabian, The Killers, Lady Gaga, Oasis, Pink, Rihanna, UB40.

Visual Arts

William Brown Street, also known as the Cultural Quarter is a World Heritage Site consisting of the World Museum, Central Library, Picton Reading Room and Walker Art Gallery

Liverpool has more galleries and national museums than any other city in the United Kingdom apart from London. National Museums Liverpool is the only English national collection based wholly outside London. The Tate Liverpool gallery houses the modern art collection of the Tate in the North of England and was, until the opening of Tate Modern, the largest exhibition space dedicated to modern art in the United Kingdom. The FACT centre hosts touring multimedia exhibitions, while the Walker Art Gallery houses one of the most impressive permanent collections of Pre-Raphaelite art in the world. Sudley House contains another major collection of pre-20th-century art. Liverpool University’s Victoria Building was re-opened as a public art gallery and museum to display the University’s artwork and historical collections which include the largest display of art by Audubon outside the US. A number of artists have also come from the city, including painter George Stubbs who was born in Liverpool in 1724.

The Liverpool Biennial festival of arts runs from mid-September to late November and comprises three main sections; the International, The Independents and New Contemporaries although fringe events are timed to coincide. It was during the 2004 festival that Yoko Ono’s work “My mother is beautiful” caused widespread public protest when photographs of a naked woman’s pubic area were exhibited on the main shopping street.


Nelson Monument at Exchange Flags. The other British hero of the Napoleonic Wars is commemorated in Wellington’s Column

Felicia Hemans (née Browne) was born in Dale Street, Liverpool, in 1793, although she later moved to Flintshire, in Wales. Felicia was born in Liverpool, a granddaughter of the Venetian consul in that city. Her father’s business soon brought the family to Denbighshire in North Wales, where she spent her youth. They made their home near Abergele and St. Asaph (Flintshire), and it is clear that she came to regard herself as Welsh by adoption, later referring to Wales as “Land of my childhood, my home and my dead”. Her first poems, dedicated to the Prince of Wales, were published in Liverpool in 1808, when she was only fourteen, arousing the interest of Percy Bysshe Shelley, who briefly corresponded with her.

A number of notable authors have visited Liverpool, including Daniel Defoe, Washington Irving, Thomas De Quincey, Herman Melville, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Charles Dickens, Gerard Manley Hopkins and Hugh Walpole. Daniel Defoe, after visiting the city, described it, as “one of the wonders of Britain in his ‘Tour through England and Wales'”.

Herman Melville’s novel Redburn deals with the first seagoing voyage of 19 years old Wellingborough Redburn between New York and Liverpool in 1839. Largely autobiographical, the middle sections of the book are set in Liverpool and describe the young merchantman’s wanderings, and his reflections. Hawthorne was stationed in Liverpool as United States consul between 1853 and 1856. Charles Dickens visited the city on numerous occasions to give public readings. Hopkins served as priest at St Francis Xavier Church, Langdale St., Liverpool, between 1879 and 81. Although he is not known to have ever visited Liverpool, Jung famously had a vivid dream of the city which he analysed in one of his works.

Of all the poets who are connected with Liverpool, perhaps the greatest is Constantine P. Cavafy, a twentieth-century Greek cultural icon, although he was born in Alexandria. From a wealthy family, his father had business interests in Egypt, London and Liverpool. After his father’s death, Cavafy’s mother brought him in 1872 at the age of nine to Liverpool where he spent part of his childhood being educated. He lived first in Balmoral Road, then when the family firm crashed, he lived in poorer circumstances in Huskisson Street. After his father died in 1870, Cavafy and his family settled for a while in Liverpool. In 1876, his family faced financial problems due to the Long Depression of 1873, so, by 1877, they had to move back to Alexandria.

Her Benny, a novel telling the tragic story of Liverpool street urchins in the 1870s, written by Methodist preacher Silas K. Hocking, was a best-seller and the first book to sell a million copies in the author’s lifetime. The prolific writer of adventure novels, Harold Edward Bindloss (1866–1945), was born in Liverpool.

The writer, docker and political activist George Garrett was born in Secombe, on the Wirral Peninsula in 1896 and was brought up in Liverpool’s South end, around Park Road, the son of a fierce Liverpool–Irish Catholic mother and a staunch ‘Orange’ stevedore father. In the 1920s and 1930s his organisation within the Seamen’s Vigilance Committees, unemployed demonstrations, and hunger marches from Liverpool became part of a wider cultural force. He spoke at reconciliation meetings in sectarian Liverpool, and helped found the Unity Theatre in the 1930s as part of the Popular Front against the rise of fascism, particularly its echoes in the Spanish Civil War. Garrett died in 1966.

The novelist and playwright James Hanley (1897–1985) was born in Kirkdale, Liverpool, in 1897 (not Dublin, nor 1901 as he generally implied) to a working-class family. Hanley grew up close to the docks and much of his early writing is about seamen. The Furys (1935) is first in a sequence of five loosely autobiographical novels about working-class life in Liverpool. James Hanley’s brother, novelist Gerald Hanley (1916–92) was also born in Liverpool (not County Cork, Ireland, as he claimed). While he published a number of novels he also wrote radio plays for the BBC as well as some film scripts, most notably The Blue Max (1966). He was also one of several script writers for a life of Gandhi (1964). Novelist Beryl Bainbridge (1932–2010) was born in Liverpool and raised in nearby Formby. She was primarily known for her works of psychological fiction, often set among the English working classes. Bainbridge won the Whitbread Awards prize for best novel in 1977 and 1996 and was nominated five times for the Booker Prize. The Times newspaper named Bainbridge among their list of “The 50 greatest British writers since 1945”.

J. G. Farrell was born in Liverpool in 1935 but left at the outbreak of war in 1939. A novelist of Irish descent, Farrell gained prominence for his historical fiction, most notably his Empire Trilogy (Troubles, The Siege of Krishnapur and The Singapore Grip), dealing with the political and human consequences of British colonial rule. However, his career ended when he drowned in Ireland in 1979 at the age of 44.

Helen Forrester was the pen name of June Bhatia (née Huband) (1919–2011), who was known for her books about her early childhood in Liverpool during the Great Depression, including Twopence to Cross the Mersey (1974), as well as several works of fiction. During the late 1960s the city became well known for the Liverpool poets, who include Roger McGough and the late Adrian Henri. An anthology of poems, The Mersey Sound, written by Henri, McGough and Brian Patten, has sold well since it was first being published in 1967.

Liverpool has produced several noted writers of horror fiction, often set on Merseyside – Ramsey Campbell, Clive Barker and Peter Atkins among them. A collection of Liverpudlian horror fiction, Spook City was edited by a Liverpool expatriate, Angus Mackenzie, and introduced by Doug Bradley, also from Liverpool. Bradley is famed for portraying Barker’s creation Pinhead in the Hellraiser series of films.

Performing Arts

The Empire Theatre has the largest two-tier auditorium in the UK

Liverpool also has a long history of performing arts, reflected in several annual theatre festivals such as the Liverpool Shakespeare Festival, which takes place inside Liverpool Cathedral and in the adjacent historic St James’ Gardens every summer; the Everyword Festival of new theatre writing, the only one of its kind in the country; Physical Fest, an international festival of physical theatre; the annual festivals organised by Liverpool John Moores University’s drama department and the Liverpool Institute for Performing Arts; and other festivals by the large number of theatres in the city, such as the Empire, Epstein, Everyman, Playhouse, Royal Court, and Unity theatres.

Notable actors and actresses from Liverpool include Arthur Askey, Tom Baker, Kim Cattrall, Jodie Comer, Stephen Graham, Rex Harrison, Jason Isaacs, Tina Malone, the McGann brothers (Joe, Mark, Paul, and Stephen), David Morrissey, Elizabeth Morton, Peter Serafinowicz, Elisabeth Sladen, Alison Steadman, and Rita Tushingham. Actors and actresses from elsewhere in the world have strong ties to the city, such as Canadian actor Mike Myers (whose parents were both from Liverpool) and American actress Halle Berry (whose mother was from Liverpool).


Liverpool has a thriving and varied nightlife, with the majority of the city’s late night bars, pubs, nightclubs, live music venues and comedy clubs being located in a number of distinct districts. A 2011 TripAdvisor poll voted Liverpool as having the best nightlife of any UK city, ahead of Manchester, Leeds and even London. Concert Square, St. Peter’s Square and the adjoining Seel, Duke and Hardman Streets are home to some of Liverpool’s largest and most famed nightclubs including Alma de Cuba, Blue Angel, Bumper, Chibuku, Heebie Jeebies, Korova, The Krazyhouse, The Magnet, Nation (home of the Cream brand, and Medication, the UK’s largest and longest running weekly student event), Popworld as well as countless other smaller establishments and chain bars. Another popular nightlife destination in the city centre is Mathew Street and the Gay Quarter, located close to the city’s commercial district, this area is famed for The Cavern Club alongside numerous gay bars including Garlands and G-Bar. The Albert Dock and Lark Lane in Aigburth also contain an abundance of bars and late night venues.


University of Liverpool’s Victoria Building

In Liverpool primary and secondary education is available in various forms supported by the state including secular, Church of England, Jewish, and Roman Catholic. Islamic education is available at primary level, but there is no secondary provision. One of Liverpool’s important early schools was The Liverpool Blue Coat School; founded in 1708 as a charitable school.

The Liverpool Blue Coat School is the top-performing school in the city with 100% 5 or more A*-C grades at GCSE resulting in the 30th best GCSE results in the country and an average point score per student of 1087.4 in A/AS levels. Other notable schools include Liverpool College founded in 1840 Merchant Taylors’ School founded in 1620. Another of Liverpool’s notable senior schools is St. Edward’s College situated in the West Derby area of the city. Historic grammar schools, such as the Liverpool Institute High School and Liverpool Collegiate School—both closed in the 1980s—are still remembered as centres of academic excellence. Bellerive Catholic College is the city’s top performing non-selective school, based upon GCSE results in 2007.

Liverpool John Moores University’s James Parsons Building

Liverpool has three universities: the University of Liverpool, Liverpool John Moores University and Liverpool Hope University. Edge Hill University, founded as a teacher-training college in the Edge Hill district of Liverpool, is now located in Ormskirk in South-West Lancashire. Liverpool is also home to the Liverpool Institute for Performing Arts (LIPA).

The University of Liverpool was established in 1881 as University College Liverpool. In 1884, it became part of the federal Victoria University. Following a Royal Charter and Act of Parliament in 1903, it became an independent university, the University of Liverpool, with the right to confer its own degrees. It was the first university to offer degrees in biochemistry, architecture, civic design, veterinary science, oceanography and social science.

Liverpool Community College’s Arts Centre

Liverpool Hope University, which was formed through the merger of three colleges, the earliest of which was founded in 1844, gained university status in 2005. It is the only ecumenical university in Europe. It is situated on both sides of Taggart Avenue in Childwall and has a second campus in the city centre (the Cornerstone).

The Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, founded to address some of the problems created by trade, continues today as a post-graduate school affiliated with the University of Liverpool and houses an anti-venom repository.

Liverpool John Moores University was previously a polytechnic, and gained status in 1992. It is named in honour of Sir John Moores, one of the founders of the Littlewoods football pools and retail group, who was a major benefactor. The institution was previously owned and run by Liverpool City Council. It traces it lineage to the Liverpool Mechanics Institute, opened in 1823, making it by this measure England’s third-oldest university.

The city has one further education college, Liverpool Community College in the city centre. Liverpool City Council operates Burton Manor, a residential adult education college in nearby Burton, on the Wirral Peninsula.

There are two Jewish schools in Liverpool, both belonging to the King David Foundation. King David School, Liverpool is the High School and the King David Primary School. There is also a King David Kindergarten, featured in the community centre of Harold House. These schools are all run by the King David Foundation located in Harold House in Childwall; conveniently next door to the Childwall Synagogue.



The Merseyside Derby is the football match between the two biggest clubs in the city, Liverpool in red and Everton in blue.

The City of Liverpool is the most successful footballing city in England. Football is the most popular sport in the city, home to Everton F.C. and Liverpool F.C.. Between them, the clubs have won 27 English First Division titles, 12 FA Cup titles, 10 League Cup titles, 6 European Cup titles, 1 European Cup Winners’ Cup title, 3 UEFA Cup titles, and 24 FA Charity Shields. The clubs both compete in the Premier League, of which they are founding members, and contest the Merseyside Derby, dubbed the ‘friendly derby’ despite there having been more sending-offs in this fixture than any other. However, unlike many other derbies, it is not rare for families in the city to contain supporters of both clubs. Liverpool F.C. is the English and British club with the most European Cup titles with six, the latest in 2019.

Everton F.C. were founded in 1878 and play at Goodison Park and Liverpool F.C. were founded in 1892 and play at Anfield. Many high-profile players have played for the clubs, including Dixie Dean, Alan Ball, Gary Lineker, Neville Southall and Wayne Rooney for Everton F.C. and Kenny Dalglish, Alan Hansen, Kevin Keegan, Ian Rush and Steven Gerrard for Liverpool F.C.. Notable managers of the clubs include Harry Catterick and Howard Kendall of Everton, and Bill Shankly and Bob Paisley of Liverpool F.C.. Famous professional footballers from Liverpool include Peter Reid, Gary Ablett, Wayne Rooney, Steven Gerrard, Jamie Carragher and Tony Hibbert. The City of Liverpool is the only one in England to have staged top division football every single season since the formation of the Football League in 1888, and both of the city’s clubs play in high-capacity stadiums.


Boxing is massively popular in Liverpool. The city has a proud heritage and history in the sport and is home to around 22 amateur boxing clubs, which are responsible for producing many successful boxers, such as Ike Bradley, Alan Rudkin, John Conteh, Andy Holligan, Paul Smith, Shea Neary, Tony Bellew and David Price. The city also boasts a consistently strong amateur contingent which is highlighted by Liverpool being the most represented city on the GB Boxing team, as well as at the 2012 London Olympics, the most notable Liverpool amateur fighters include; George Turpin, Tony Willis, Robin Reid and David Price who have all medalled at the Olympic Games. Boxing events are usually hosted at the Echo Arena and Liverpool Olympia within the city, although the former home of Liverpool boxing was the renowned Liverpool Stadium.

The Earl of Derby Stand at Aintree Racecourse; home of the Grand National

Horse Racing

Aintree is home to the world’s most famous steeple-chase, the John Smith’s Grand National which takes place annually in early April. The race meeting attracts horse owners/ jockeys from around the world to compete in the demanding 4 miles (6.4 km) and 30 fence course. There have been many memorable moments of the Grand National, for instance the 100/1 outsider Foinavon in 1967, the dominant Red Rum and Ginger McCain of the 1970s and Mon Mome (100/1) who won the 2009 meeting. In 2010, the National became the first horse race to be televised in high-definition in the UK.


The Royal Liverpool Golf Club, situated in the nearby town of Hoylake on the Wirral Peninsula, has hosted The Open Championship on a number of occasions, most recently in 2014. It also hosted the Walker Cup in 1983.

The Royal Liverpool Golf Club, Hoylake

Greyhound Racing

Liverpool once contained four greyhound tracks, Seaforth Greyhound Stadium (1933-1965), Breck Park Stadium (1927-1948), Stanley Greyhound Stadium (1927-1961) and White City Stadium (1932-1973). Breck Park also hosted boxing bouts and both Stanley and Seaforth hosted Motorcycle speedway.


Wavertree Sports Park is home to the Liverpool Harriers athletics club, which has produced such athletes as Curtis Robb, Allyn Condon (the only British athlete to compete at both the Summer and Winter Olympics), and Katarina Johnson-Thompson; Great Britain was represented by Johnson-Thompson at the 2012 London Olympics in the women’s heptathlon, and she would go on to win the gold medal at the 2019 World Championships, giving Liverpool its first gold medal and breaking the British record in the process.


In August 2012, Liverpool gymnast Beth Tweddle won an Olympic bronze medal in London 2012 in the uneven bars at her third Olympic Games, thus becoming the most decorated British gymnast in history. Park Road Gymnastics Centre provides training to a high level.


Liverpool has produced several swimmers who have represented their nation at major championships such as the Olympic Games. The most notable of which is Steve Parry who claimed a bronze medal at the 2004 Athens Olympics in the 200m butterfly. Others include Herbert Nickel Haresnape, Margaret Kelly, Shellagh Ratcliffe and Austin Rawlinson. There is a purpose-built aquatics centre at Wavertree Sports Park, which opened in 2008. The City of Liverpool Swimming Club has been National Speedo League Champions 8 out of the last 11 years.


The city is the hub of the Liverpool and District Cricket Competition, an ECB Premier League. Sefton Park and Liverpool are the league’s founder members based in the city with Wavertree, Alder and Old Xaverians clubs having joined the league more recently. Liverpool plays host Lancashire County Cricket Club as an outground most seasons, including six of eight home County Championship games during Lancashire’s 2011 title winning campaign whilst Old Trafford was refurbished.


Since 2014 Liverpool Cricket Club has played host to the annual Tradition-ICAP Liverpool International tennis tournament, which has seen tennis stars such as Novak Djokovic, David Ferrer, Mardy Fish, Laura Robson and Caroline Wozniacki. Previously this had been held at Calderstones Park, situated in Allerton in the south of the city. Liverpool Tennis Development Programme at Wavertree Tennis Centre is one of the largest in the UK.


The M&S Bank Arena hosts numerous sporting events and was formerly the home of British Basketball League team, the Mersey Tigers

Liverpool is one of three cities which still host the traditional sport of British baseball and it hosts the annual England-Wales international match every two years, alternating with Cardiff and Newport. Liverpool Trojans are the oldest existing baseball club in the UK.


Liverpool is one of three cities which still host the traditional sport of British baseball and it hosts the annual England-Wales international match every two years, alternating with Cardiff and Newport. Liverpool Trojans are the oldest existing baseball club in the UK.


The 2014 Tour of Britain cycle race began in Liverpool on 7 September, utilising a city centre circuit to complete 130 km (80.8 mi) of racing. The Tour of Britain took nine stages and finished in London on 14 September.


A 2016 study of UK fitness centres found that, of the top 20 UK urban areas, Liverpool had the highest number of leisure and sports centres per capita, with 4.3 centres per 100,000 of the city population.

Sports Stadiums

Anfield, home of Liverpool F.C.

Liverpool is home to the Premier League football clubs Everton and Liverpool F.C. Liverpool have played at Anfield since 1892, when the club was formed to occupy the stadium following Everton’s departure due to a dispute with their landlord. Liverpool are still playing there 125 years later, although the ground has been completely rebuilt since the 1970s. The Spion Kop (rebuilt as an all-seater stand in 1994–95) was the most famous part of the ground, gaining cult status across the world due to the songs and celebrations of the many fans who packed onto its terraces. Anfield is classified as a 4 Star UEFA Elite Stadium with capacity for 54,000 spectators in comfort, and is a distinctive landmark in an area filled with smaller and older buildings. Liverpool club also has a multimillion-pound youth training facility called The Academy.

After leaving Anfield in 1892, Everton moved to Goodison Park on the opposite side of Stanley Park. Goodison Park was the first major football stadium built in England. Molineux (Wolves’ ground) had been opened three years earlier but was still relatively undeveloped. St. James’s Park, Newcastle, opened in 1892, was little more than a field. Only Scotland had more advanced grounds. Rangers opened Ibrox in 1887, while Celtic Park was officially inaugurated at the same time as Goodison Park. Everton performed a miraculous transformation at Mere Green, spending up to £3000 on laying out the ground and erecting stands on three sides. For £552 Mr. Barton prepared the land at 4½d a square yard. Kelly Brothers of Walton built two uncovered stands each for 4,000 people, and a covered stand seating 3,000, at a total cost of £1,460. Outside, hoardings cost a further £150, gates and sheds cost £132 10s and 12 turnstiles added another £7 15s to the bill.

Goodison Park, home of Everton F.C

The ground was immediately renamed Goodison Park and proudly opened on 24 August 1892, by Lord Kinnaird and Frederick Wall of the FA. But instead of a match the 12,000 crowd saw a short athletics meeting followed by a selection of music and a fireworks display. Everton’s first game there was on 2 September 1892 when they beat Bolton 4–2. It now has the capacity for just under 40,000 spectators all-seated, but the last expansion took place in 1994 when a new goal-end stand gave the stadium an all-seater capacity. The Main Stand dates back to the 1970s, while the other two stands are refurbished pre-Second World War structures.

Everton are currently looking to relocate. The club have had previously raised the subject before in 1996, and in 2003 were forced to scrap plans for a 55,000-seat stadium at King’s Dock due to financial reasons and also Destination Kirkby to move just beyond Liverpool’s council boundary in Kirkby. The latest plan is currently being drawn up to move to nearby Bramley-Moore Dock on Liverpool’s waterfront.


Radio City Tower, home to Radio City and a number of subsidiary stations

Made in Liverpool is a local television station serving Liverpool City Region and surrounding areas. The station is owned and operated by Made Television Ltd and forms part of a group of eight local TV stations. It broadcasts from studios and offices in Liverpool.

The ITV region which covers Liverpool is ITV Granada. In 2006, the Television company opened a new newsroom in the Royal Liver Building. Granada’s regional news broadcasts were produced at the Albert Dock News Centre during the 1980s and 1990s. The BBC also opened a new newsroom on Hanover Street in 2006.

ITV’s daily magazine programme This Morning was broadcast from studios at Albert Dock until 1996, when production was moved to London. Granada’s short-lived shopping channel “Shop!” was also produced in Liverpool until it was cancelled in 2002.

Liverpool is the home of the TV production company Lime Pictures, formerly Mersey Television, which produced the now-defunct soap operas Brookside and Grange Hill. It also produces the soap opera Hollyoaks, which was formerly filmed in Chester and began on Channel 4 in 1995. All three series were/are largely filmed in the Childwall area of Liverpool.

The city has one daily newspaper: the Echo, published by the Trinity Mirror group. The Liverpool Daily Post was also published until 2013. The UK’s first online only weekly newspaper called Southport Reporter (Southport and Mersey Reporter), is also one of the many other news outlets that covers the city.

Radio stations include BBC Radio Merseyside, Capital Liverpool, Radio City, Greatest Hits Liverpool and Radio City Talk. The last three are located in Radio City Tower which, along with the two cathedrals, dominates the city’s skyline. The independent media organisation Indymedia also covers Liverpool, while Nerve magazine publishes articles and reviews of cultural events.

Liverpool has also featured in films; see List of films set in Liverpool for some of them. In films the city has “doubled” for London, Paris, New York, Chicago, Moscow, Dublin, Venice and Berlin.

Quotes about Liverpool

  • “Lyrpole, alias Lyverpoole, a pavid towne, hath but a chapel … The king hath a castelet there, and the Earl of Darbe hath a stone howse there. Irisch merchants cum much thither, as to a good haven … At Lyrpole is smaul custom payed, that causith marchantes to resorte thither. Good marchandis at Lyrpole, and much Irish yarrn that Manchester men do buy there …” – John Leland (antiquary), Itinerary c. 1536–39
  • “Liverpoole is one of the wonders of Britain … In a word, there is no town in England, London excepted, that can equal [it] for the fineness of the streets, and the beauty of the buildings.” Daniel Defoe – A tour thro’ the Whole Island of Great Britain, 1721–26
  • “[O]ne of the neatest, best towns I have seen in England.” – John Wesley. Journal, 1755
  • “I have not come here to be insulted by a set of wretches, every brick in whose infernal town is cemented with an African’s blood.” Actor George Frederick Cooke (1756–1812) responding to being hissed when he came on stage drunk during a visit to Liverpool.
  • “That immense City which stands like another Venice upon the water … where there are riches overflowing and every thing which can delight a man who wishes to see the prosperity of a great community and a great empire … This quondam village, now fit to be the proud capital of any empire in the world, has started up like an enchanted palace even in the memory of living men.” Thomas Erskine, 1st Baron Erskine, 1791
  • “I have heard of the greatness of Liverpool but the reality far surpasses my expectation” – Prince Albert, speech, 1846
  • “Liverpool … has become a wonder of the world. It is the New York of Europe, a world city rather than merely British provincial.” – Illustrated London News, 15 May 1886
  • “Liverpool is the ‘pool of life’ ” – C.G. Jung, Memories, Dreams, Reflections, 1928
  • “The centre is imposing, dignified and darkish, like a city in a rather gloomy Victorian novel … We had now arrived in the heart of the big city, and as usual it was almost a heart of darkness. But it looked like a big city, there was no denying that. Here, emphatically, was the English seaport second only to London. The very weight of stone emphasised that fact. And even if the sun never seems to properly rise over it, I like a big city to proclaim itself a big city at once …” – J.B. Priestley, English Journey, 1934
  • “…if Liverpool can get into top gear again there is no limit to the city’s potential. The scale and resilience of the buildings and people is amazing – it is a world city, far more so than London and Manchester. It doesn’t feel like anywhere else in Lancashire: comparisons always end up overseas – Dublin, or Boston, or Hamburg. The city is tremendous, and so, right up to the First World War, were the abilities of the architects who built over it…… The centre is humane and convenient to walk around in, but never loses its scale. And, in spite of the bombings and the carelessness, it is still full of superb buildings. Fifty years ago it must have outdone anything in England.” – Ian Nairn, Britain’s Changing Towns, 1967
International Links

Twin Cities

Liverpool is twinned with:

Friendship Links

Liverpool has friendship links (without formal constitution) with the following cities:


The first overseas consulate of the United States was opened in Liverpool in 1790, and it remained operational for almost two centuries.[328] Today, a large number of consulates are located in the city serving Chile, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Romania, Sweden and Thailand. Tunisian & Ivory Coast Consulates are located in the neighbouring Metropolitan Borough of Sefton.

Freedom of the City

The following people and military units have received the Freedom of the City of Liverpool.


List of Freemen of the City of Liverpool

The title of Freedom of the City is an honorary title granted by a city or corporation. It is granted to individuals to recognise exceptional services, usually to the city, or occasionally to the nation. Since the enactment of the Honorary Freedom of Boroughs Act 1885, councils of boroughs and cities in England and Wales have been permitted to resolve to admit “persons of distinction” to be honorary freemen. This list is based on that published by the City of Liverpool.

Military Units

  • Duke of Lancaster’s Regiment: 14 September 2008.
  • War Widows Association (Merseyside Branch): 1 December 2014.
  • 208 (3rd West Lancashire) Battery 103rd (Lancashire Artillery Volunteers) Regiment Royal Artillery: 14 October 2017.

Related Posts:

Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta [Short Version]

  • Hari jadi: 22 Juni 1527 (umur 492)
  • Dasar hukum: UU Nomor 29 Tahun 2007
  • Ibu kota: Jakarta


  • Total luas: 7.659,02[2] km2
  • Luas daratan: 661,52 km2
  • Luas perairan: 6.997,50 km2
  • Lintang: 5° 19′ 12″ – 6° 23′ 54″ LS
  • Longitude: 106° 22′ 42″ – 106° 58′ 18″ BT

Populasi (2017)

  • Total: 10.374.235
  • Kepadatan: 15.663/km2


  • Gubernur: Anies Baswedan
  • Wakil Gubernur: Jabatan lowong
  • Ketua DPRD: Prasetyo Edi Marsudi
  • Sekretaris Daerah : Saefullah
  • Kabupaten: 1
  • Kota : 5
  • Kecamatan: 44
  • Kelurahan: 267

APBD (2019)

Total: Rp 89.088.351.842.504,-


Total: Rp 50.624.330.153.998,-



  • Jawa (35,16%)
  • Betawi (27,65%)
  • Sunda (15,27%)
  • Tionghoa (5,53%)
  • Batak (3,61%)
  • Minang (3,18%)
  • Melayu (1,62%)
  • Bugis, Aceh, Madura, dan lain-lain (7,98%)


  • Islam (83.30%)
  • Kristen Protestan (8.62%)
  • Katolik (4.04%)
  • Buddha (3.84%)
  • Hindu (0.21%)
  • Konghucu (0.06%)


  • Indonesia (resmi)
  • Betawi (utama)
  • Melayu, Jawa, Pecok, Sunda, Banjar, Minangkabau, Batak, Madura, Tionghoa, Mandarin, Arab, Tamil, Belanda, Portugis

IPM: 79.60 (tinggi)

  • Zona waktu: WIB (UTC+7)
  • Lagu daerah: Kicir-Kicir
  • Rumah tradisional: Rumah Bapang/Kebaya
  • Senjata tradisional: Golok

Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta (DKI Jakarta) adalah ibu kota negara dan kota terbesar di Indonesia. Jakarta merupakan satu-satunya kota di Indonesia yang memiliki status setingkat provinsi. Jakarta terletak di pesisir bagian barat laut Pulau Jawa. Dahulu pernah dikenal dengan beberapa nama di antaranya Sunda Kelapa, Jayakarta, dan Batavia. Di dunia internasional Jakarta juga mempunyai julukan J-Town, atau lebih populer lagi The Big Durian karena dianggap kota yang sebanding New York City (Big Apple) di Indonesia.

Jakarta memiliki luas sekitar 661,52 km² (lautan: 6.977,5 km²), dengan penduduk berjumlah 10.374.235 jiwa (2017). Wilayah metropolitan Jakarta (Jabodetabek) yang berpenduduk sekitar 28 juta jiwa, merupakan metropolitan terbesar di Asia Tenggara atau urutan kedua di dunia.

Sebagai pusat bisnis, politik, dan kebudayaan, Jakarta merupakan tempat berdirinya kantor-kantor pusat BUMN, perusahaan swasta, dan perusahaan asing. Kota ini juga menjadi tempat kedudukan lembaga-lembaga pemerintahan dan kantor sekretariat ASEAN. Jakarta dilayani oleh dua bandar udara, yakni Bandara Soekarno–Hatta dan Bandara Halim Perdanakusuma, serta tiga pelabuhan laut di Tanjung Priok, Sunda Kelapa, dan Ancol.

Nama-nama yang pernah diberi untuk kota Jakarta

  1. Sunda Kelapa (397–1527)
  2. Jayakarta (1527–1619)
  3. Batavia (1619–1942)
  4. Jakarta (1942–sekarang)
  5. Ibukota DKI Jakarta (1998–sekarang)
  6. Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta (1998–sekarang)

Los Angeles

Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

Los Angeles (i/lɒs ˈændʒələs/ loss-an-jə-ləs; bahasa Spanyol: [los ˈaŋxeles], ditulis Los Ángeles; pengucapan Britania /lɒs ˈændʒəliːz/ loss-an-jə-leez) dengan jumlah penduduk sebanyak 3.792.621 jiwa sesuai Sensus Amerika Serikat 2010, adalah kota terpadat di negara bagian California, dan kota terpadat kedua di Amerika Serikat, setelah New York City. Luasnya mencapai 468,67 mil persegi (1213,8 km2), dan terletak di California Selatan. Terkenal dengan inisial L.A.-nya, kota ini merupakan titik utama wilayah statistik metropolitan Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana dan region Wilayah Los Angeles Raya, yang dihuni 12.828.837 dan hampir 18 juta jiwa pada tahun 2010, menjadikannya salah satu wilayah metropolitan terpadat di dunia[6] dan yang terbesar kedua di Amerika Serikat. Los Angeles juga merupakan ibu kota County Los Angeles, salah satu county terpadat dan paling beragam etnisnya[8] di Amerika Serikat, sementara seluruh wilayah Los Angeles sendiri diakui sebagai kota besar yang paling beragam di negara ini. Penduduk kota Los Angeles disebut “Angelenos”.

Los Angeles didirikan tanggal 4 September 1781 oleh gubernur Spanyol Felipe de Neve.  Kota ini menjadi bagian dari Meksiko pada tahun 1821 setelah Perang Kemerdekaan Meksiko.  Tahun 1848, pada akhir Perang Meksiko-Amerika Serikat, Los Angeles dan seluruh California dibeli sebagai bagian dari Traktat Guadalupe Hidalgo, sehingga menjadi bagian dari Amerika Serikat.  Los Angeles disatukan menjadi munisipalitas pada tanggal 4 April 1850, lima bulan sebelum California mendapat status negara bagian. 

Dijuluki City of Angels, Los Angeles adalah pusat dunia bisnis, perdagangan internasional, hiburan, budaya, media, mode, ilmu pengetahuan, olahraga, teknologi, dan pendidikan terdepan, serta merupakan kota terkaya ketiga di dunia dan kota paling kuat dan berpengaruh kelima di dunia. Kota ini adalah tempat berdirinya berbagai institusi yang mencakup berbagai bidang profesional dan budaya dan merupakan salah satu mesin ekonomi terpenting di Amerika Serikat. Wilayah statistik gabungan (CSA) Los Angeles memiliki produk metropolitan bruto (PMB) senilai $831 miliar (tahun 2008), menjadikannya pusat ekonomi terbesar ketiga di dunia, setelah wilayah metropolitan Tokyo Raya dan New York.  Sebagai basis Hollywood, kota ini dijuluki “Ibu Kota Hiburan Dunia”, yang memimpin pembuatan produksi televisi, permainan video, dan musik rekaman kelas dunia. Bisnis hiburan di kota ini mendorong banyak selebriti menetap di Los Angeles dan pinggiran kotanya. Selain itu, Los Angeles pernah menyelenggarakan Olimpiade Musim Panas tahun 1932 dan 1984.


Kawasan pesisir Los Angeles pertama dihuni oleh suku Pribumi Amerika Tongva (atau Gabrieleños) dan Chumash ribuan tahun yang lalu. Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, seorang penjelajah kelahiran Portugal, mengklaim wilayah California Selatan sebagai bagian dari Kekaisaran Spanyol pada tahun 1542.  Gaspar de Portolà dan misionaris Fransiskan Juan Crespí, berhasil mencapai daerah yang saat ini merupakan Los Angeles pada tanggal 2 Agustus 1769. 

Pada tahun 1771, biarawan Fransiskan Junípero Serra memimpin pembangunan Mission San Gabriel Arcangel, misi pertama di daerah ini. Pada tanggal 4 September 1781, empat puluh empat pendatang yang dijuluki “Los Pobladores” mendirikan sebuah pueblo bernama “La Reyna de los Angeles”, yang diberi nama untuk Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles del Río de Porciúncula (Our Lady the Queen of the Angels of the Porciúncula River). Dua per tiga pendatang adalah mestizo atau mulatto dengan keturunan Afrika, Amerindian, dan Eropa. Permukiman tersebut tetap menjadi kota ranca kecil selama beberapa dasawarsa, tetapi pada tahun 1820, populasinya bertambah hingga 650 jiwa. Hari ini, pueblo tersebut diabadikan di distrik bersejarah Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza dan Olvera Street, kawasan tertua di Los Angeles.

Spanyol Baru merdeka dari Kekaisaran Spanyol pada tahun 1821, dan pueblo ini masih menjadi bagian dari Meksiko. Selama masa kekuasaan Meksiko, Gubernur Pío Pico menjadikan Los Angeles ibu kota regional Alta California. Kekuasaan Meksiko berakhir pada Perang Meksiko-Amerika Serikat: Amerika Serikat merebut kota ini dari Californios setelah serangkaian pertempuran yang berujung pada penandatanganan Traktat Cahuenga pada tanggal 13 Januari 1847. 

Plaza kota lama, 1869

Rel kereta api datang seiring rampungnya jalur Southern Pacific menuju Los Angeles pada tahun 1876. Minyak ditemukan tahun 1892, dan pada 1923, penemuan tersebut membantu California menjadi produsen minyak terbesar di Amerika Serikat dengan pangsa sekitar seperempat produksi minyak dunia.

Los Angeles City Hall, tahun 1931, dibangun pada tahun 1928 dan merupakan struktur tertinggi di kota ini sampai tahun 1964 ketika batas ketinggian ditiadakan.

Pada tahun 1900, populasinya tumbuh hingga lebih dari 102.000 jiwa, sehingga membebani persediaan air kota.  Rampungnya pembangunan Los Angeles Aqueduct tahun 1913, di bawah arahan William Mulholland, menjamin pertumbuhan kota secara terus menerus. 

Pada tahun 1910, tidak cuma Los Angeles menganeksasi Hollywood, tetapi di kota ini sudah ada 10 perusahaan film yang beroperasi. Pada tahun 1921, lebih dari 80 persen industri film dunia terkonsentrasi di L.A. ] Uang yang dihasilkan industri ini melindungi kota dari guncangan ekonomi yang menyebar di seluruh Amerika Serikat selama Depresi Besar.  Pada tahun 1930, populasinya melewati angka satu juta jiwa. Pada tahun 1932, kota ini mengadakan Olimpiade Musim Panas.

Setelah akhir Perang Dunia II, Los Angeles tumbuh dengan sangat cepat, menyebar hingga San Fernando Valley.  Pada tahun 1969, Los Angeles menjadi salah satu tempat kelahiran Internet, karena transmisi ARPANET pertama dikirimkan dari University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) ke SRI di Menlo Park. 

Los Angeles Coliseum menjadi tempat penyelenggaraan Olimpiade Musim Panas 1932 dan 1984.

Pada tahun 1984, kota ini menyelenggarkaan Olimpiade Musim Panas untuk kedua kalinya. Meski diboikot oleh 14 negara Komunis, Olimpiade Musim Panas 1984 lebih sukses secara finansial ketimbang Olimpiade sebelumnya,[36] sekaligus Olimpiade kedua yang menghasilkan keuntungan setelah Olimpiade Musim Panas 1932 yang juga diadakan di Los Angeles. 

Ketegangan rasial mencuat pada tanggal 29 April 1992 setelah beberapa polisi yang tertangkap kamera sedang memukul Rodney King dibebaskan oleh hakim di Simi Valley, berujung pada kerusuhan berskala besar.  Pada tahun 1994, gempa bumi Northridge berkekuatan 6,7 mengguncang kota dan mengakibatkan kerusakan senilai $12,5 miliar serta kematian sebanyak 72 orang. Abad ini ditutup dengan skandal Rampart, salah satu kasus kelakuan buruk polisi yang paling banyak didokumentasikan sepanjang sejarah Amerika Serikat. 

Pada tahun 2002, para pemberi suara menggagalkan upaya San Fernando Valley dan Hollywood untuk memisahkan diri dari Los Angeles. 



Los Angeles berbentuk ireguler dan mencakup wilayah seluas 502,7 mil persegi (1302 km2), yang terdiri dari 468,7 mil persegi (1214 km2) daratan dan 34,0 mil persegi (88 km2) perairan. Kota ini membujur sepanjang 44 mile (71 km) dan melintang sepanjang 29 mile (47 km). Los Angeles memiliki batas kota sepanjang 342 mile (550 km).

Cekungan Los Angeles

Los Angeles datar dan berbukit. Titik tertinggi di kota ini adalah Mount Lukens pada ketinggian 5074 ft (1547 m), terletak di ujung timur laut Lembah San Fernando. Ujung timur Pegunungan Santa Monica membentang dari Downtown hingga Samudra Pasifik dan memisahkan Cekungan Los Angeles dari Lembah San Fernando. Daerah berbukit lainnya di Los Angeles adalah kawasan Mt. Washington di sebelah utara Downtown, bagian timur Boyle Heights, distrik Crenshaw di sekitar Baldwin Hills, dan distrik San Pedro.

Mallard di Sungai Los Angeles

Sungai Los Angeles, yang mengalir musiman saja, adalah saluran drainase utama di kota ini. Sungai ini diluruskan dan dan dibentangkan dengan beton sepanjang 51 mil oleh Army Corps of Engineers untuk dimanfaatkan sebagai saluran pengendali banjir. Sungai ini berawal di distrik Canoga Park, kemudian mengalir ke timur dari Lembah San Fernando di sepanjang tepian utara Pegunungan Santa Monica, dan berbelok ke selatan melintasi pusat kota, mengalir ke muaranya di Port of Long Beach di Samudra Pasifik. Ballona Creek yang lebih kecil mengalir ke Santa Monica Bay di Playa del Rey.

MacArthur Park

Wilayah Los Angeles kaya akan spesies tanaman asli karena keragaman habitatnya, termasuk pantai, rawa, dan pegunungan. Lingkungan botani yang paling cocok untuk kota ini adalah semak sage pesisir, yang menutupi sisi perbukitan yang dipenuhi chaparral mudah terbakar. Tanaman aslinya meliputi poppy California, poppy matilija, toyon, Coast Live Oak, dan Giant Wildrye. Banyak di antara spesies asli ini, seperti bunga matahari Los Angeles, menjadi langka dan terancam punah. Meski bukan tanaman asli daerah ini, pohon resmi kota Los Angeles adalah Pohon Koral (Erythrina caffra) dan bunga resmi kota Los Angeles adalah Burung Surga (Strelitzia reginae). Palem Kipas Meksiko, Palem Kipas California, dan Palem Pulau Canary dapat dilihat di seluruh kawasan Los Angeles, meski pohon yang terakhir disebutkan tadi bukan asli California Selatan.


Los Angeles rawan gempa karena lokasinya di Cincin Api Pasifik. Ketidakstabilan geologinya telah menghasilkan banyak patahan, yang memunculkan 10.000 gempa bumi setiap tahunnya. Salah satu patahan besar di daerah ini adalah Patahan San Andreas. Terletak di perbatasan Lempeng Pasifik dengan Lempeng Amerika Utara, patahan ini diprediksi menjadi sumber gempa bumi besar selanjutnya di California. Gempa bumi besar yang pernah mengguncang wilayah Los Angeles adalah gempa bumi Northridge 1994, gempa bumi Whittier Narrows 1987, gempa bumi San Fernando 1971 dekat Sylmar, dan gempa bumi Long Beach 1993. Meski begitu, semua kecuali beberapa gempa memiliki intensitas rendah dan tidak dapat dirasakan manusia. Cekungan dan wilayah metropolitan Los Angeles juga terancam mengalami gempa bumi dorongan kosong. Sebagian wilayah kota juga rawan terkena tsunami; daerah pelabuhan pernah dirusak oleh gelombang akibat gempa bumi Valdivia tahun 1960.


Lanskap kota

Panorama Los Angeles dilihat dari Mulholland Drive. Kiri ke kanan: Santa Ana Mountains, Downtown, Hollywood (latar depan), Wilshire Boulevard, Port of Los Angeles, Palos Verdes Peninsula, Santa Catalina Island, dan Los Angeles International Airport.

Kota ini dibagi menjadi lebih dari 80 distrik dan permukiman, banyak di antaranya merupakan tempat gabungan atau permukiman yang dianeksasi oleh pemerintah kota. Los Angeles Raya mencakup sejumlah enklave dan permukiman sekitarnya. Secara umum, kota ini dibagi menjadi wilayah-wilayah berikut: Downtown Los Angeles, East Los Angeles dan Northeast Los Angeles, South Los Angeles, Harbor Area, Greater Hollywood, Wilshire, Westside, dan San Fernando dan Crescenta Valley.

Sejumlah permukiman terkenal di Los Angeles meliputi West Adams, Watts, Leimert Park, Baldwin Hills, Venice, Downtown Financial District, Silver Lake, Hollywood, Koreatown, Westwood dan daerah yang lebih elit seperti Bel Air, Benedict Canyon, Hollywood Hills, Los Feliz, Hancock Park, Pacific Palisades, Century City, dan Brentwood.

Hollywood, sebuah distrik terkenal di Los Angeles, sering disalahartikan sebagai sebuah kota independen (sebagaimana West Hollywood).

Markah tanah

Markah tanah utama di Los Angeles meliputi Walt Disney Concert Hall, Kodak Theatre, Griffith Observatory, Getty Center, Getty Villa, Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Grauman’s Chinese Theatre, Hollywood Sign, Bradbury Building, Hollywood Boulevard, Capitol Records Building, Los Angeles City Hall, Hollywood Bowl, Theme Building, Watts Towers, Staples Center, Dodger Stadium, dan La Placita Olvera/Olvera Street.

L.A. Live
Grauman’s Chinese Theatre
Griffith Observatory
Capitol Records Building


Los Angeles sering dijuluki “Ibu Kota Kreatif Dunia” karena kenyataan bahwa satu dari enam penduduknya adalah pekerja industri kreatif. Menurut USC Stevens Institute for Innovation, “lebih banyak seniman, penulis, pembuat film, aktor, penari dan musisi yang tinggal dan bekerja di Los Angeles daripada kota lain dalam sejarah peradaban manusia.”

Hollywood Sign

Los Angeles adalah rumah bagi Hollywood, yang dikenal secara global sebagai pusat industri perfilman. Sebagai bukti dominasinya dalam perfilman, kota ini menjadi tempat penyelenggaraan acara tahunan Academy Awards, acara penghargaan tertua dan berpengaruh di dunia. Los Angeles adalah rumah bagi USC School of Cinematic Arts, sekolah film tertua di Amerika Serikat.

Seni panggung memainkan peran utama dalam identitas budaya Los Angeles. Menurut USC Stevens Institute for Innovation, “ada lebih dari 1.100 produksi teatrikal setiap tahunnya dan 21 pementasan setiap minggunya.” Los Angeles Music Center merupakan “satu dari tiga pusat seni panggung terbesar di negara ini,” dengan lebih dari 1,3 juta pengunjung setiap tahun.[60] Walt Disney Concert Hall, bagian utama dari Music Center, adalah rumah bagi Los Angeles Philharmonic. Organisasi ternama seperti Center Theatre Group, Los Angeles Master Chorale, dan Los Angeles Opera juga menjadi perusahaan tetap di Music Center. Bakat masyarakat terus dikembangkan di institusi-institusi utama seperti Colburn School dan USC Thornton School of Music.

Museum dan galeri

Ada 841 museum dan galeri seni di Los Angeles County. Faktanya, Los Angeles memiliki lebih banyak museum per kapita daripada kota-kota lain di dunia.  Sejumlah museum ternama di sana mencakup Los Angeles County Museum of Art (museum seni terbesar di Amerika Serikat Barat), Getty Center (bagian dari J. Paul Getty Trust, institusi seni terkaya di dunia), dan Museum of Contemporary Art. Sejumlah galeri seni berdiri di Gallery Row, dan puluhan ribu orang mengunjungi Downtown Art Walk yang diadakan setiap bulan di sana. 


Harian berbahasa Inggris utama di Los Angeles adalah Los Angeles Times. La Opinión adalah harian berbahasa Spanyol terbesar di kota ini, The Korea Times merupakan harian berbahasa Korea terbesar, dan Los Angeles Sentinel merupakan harian Afrika-Amerika terbesar di kota ini, dengan jumlah pembaca berkulit Hitam terbesar di Amerika Serikat Barat. Investor’s Business Daily didistribusikan dari kantor korporatnya di L.A. yang terletak di Playa del Rey. Ada pula beberapa surat kabar regional yang lebih kecil, mingguan alternatif dan majalah, termasuk Daily News (berfokus pada pemberitaan di San Fernando Valley), LA Weekly, Los Angeles CityBeat, L.A. Record (berfokus pada musik di Wilayah Los Angeles Raya), majalah Los Angeles, Los Angeles Business Journal, Los Angeles Daily Journal (surat kabar industri hukum), The Hollywood Reporter dan Variety (surat kabar industri hiburan), dan Los Angeles Downtown News. Selain surat kabar besar, beberapa surat kabar periodik lokal melayani masyarakat imigran dalam bahasa asli mereka, termasuk Armenia, Inggris, Korea, Persia, Rusia, Cina, Jepang, Ibrani, dan Arab. Banyak kota terdekat Los Angeles memiliki hariannya sendiri yang pemberitaannya juga mencakup beberapa permukiman di Los Angeles. Contoh harian tersebut adalah The Daily Breeze (melayani South Bay), dan The Long Beach Press-Telegram.

Fox Plaza di Century City, kantor pusat 20th Century Fox, merupakan distrik keuangan besar untuk West Los Angeles

Kota ini memiliki banyak saluran televisi besar dan tiga stasiun PBS. World TV mengudara di dua saluran dan wilayah ini memiliki beberapa jaringan televisi berbahasa Spanyol. KTBN 40 adalah stasiun utama Trinity Broadcasting Network, yang berbasis di luar Santa Ana. Berbagai stasiun televisi independen juga beroperasi di wilayah ini.

Kantor pusat Los Angeles Times


Perusahaan-perusahaan seperti US Bancorp, Ernst & Young, Aon, Manulife Financial, City National Bank, Wells Fargo, Bank of America, Deloitte, KPMG, dan Union Bank of California memiliki kantor di Downtown Financial District

Ekonomi Los Angeles digerakkan oleh perdagangan internasional, hiburan (televisi, film, permainan video, musik rekaman), dirgantara, teknologi, minyak, mode, perlengkapan, dan pariwisata. Los Angeles juga merupakan pusat manufaktur terbesar di Amerika Serikat Barat. Pelabuhan Los Angeles dan Long Beach bersama-sama membentuk pelabuhan tersibuk kelima di dunia dan merupakan pelabuhan terpenting di Belahan Bumi Barat dan penting bagi perdagangan di Cincin Pasifik. Industri utama lainnya mencakup produksi media, keuangan, telekomunikasi, hukum, kesehatan, dan transportasi. Wilayah statistik metropolitan (WSM) Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana memiliki produk metropolitan bruto (PMB) senilai $735,7 miliar (tahun 2010), menjadikannya pusat ekonomi terbesar ketiga di dunia, setelah Wilayah Tokyo Raya dan Wilayah Statistik Gabungan (WSG) New York-Newark-Bridgeport. Jika dianggap negara, WSG Los Angeles adalah ekonomi terbesar ke-15 di dunia menurut PDB nominal.[68] Los Angeles telah dikelompokkan sebagai sebuah “kota dunia Alpha” menurut studi tahun 2010 oleh kelompok riset di Lougborough University di Inggris. 

Distrik Keuangan (“Financial District”) di pusat kota Los Angeles

Kota ini adalah tempat berdirinya tujuh perusahaan Fortune 500, yaitu kontraktor dirgantara Northrop Grumman, perusahaan energi Occidental Petroleum, penyedia layanan kesehatan Health Net, distributor logam Reliance Steel & Aluminum, firma teknik AECOM, grup real estat CBRE Group, dan perusahaan pembangun Tutor Perini.

Perusahaan lain yang berkantor pusat di Los Angeles meliputi California Pizza Kitchen, Capital Group, Capstone Turbine, The Cheesecake Factory, Cathay Bank, City National Bank, The Coffee Bean & Tea Leaf, DeviantArt, Far East National Bank, Farmers Insurance Group, Fox Entertainment Group, Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher, Guess?, Hanmi Bank, Herbalife, J2 Global Communications, The Jim Henson Company, KB Home, Korn/Ferry, Latham & Watkins, Mercury Insurance Group, Oaktree Capital Management, O’Melveny & Myers; Pabst Blue Ribbon, Paul, Hastings, Janofsky & Walker, Premier America, Premiere Radio Networks, Rentech, Roll International, Sunkist, The TCW Group, Tokyopop, Triton Media Group, United Online, dan VCA Antech.

Wilayah metropolitannya adalah rumah bagi kantor pusat berbagai perusahaan yang pindah ke luar Kota Los Angeles untuk menghindari pajak tinggi dan tingkat kejahatan yang tinggi, namun juga berusaha mempertahankan keuntungan dari lokasinya yang dekat Los Angeles. Misalnya, Los Angeles membebankan pajak penghasilan bruto berdasarkan persentasi penghasilan bisnis, sementara banyak kota sekitarnya cuma membebankan tarif tetap yang rendah.

University of Southern California (USC) merupakan penyedia pekerjaan sektor swasta terbesar di kota ini dan menyumbang $4 miliar setiap tahunnya kepada ekonomi setempat.

Walt Disney Concert Hall

Menurut 2010 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, sepuluh penyedia pekerjaan teratas di kota ini pada tahun 2009 adalah, secara menurun, Pemerintah Kota Los Angeles, Pemerintah Los Angeles County, University of California, Los Angeles, University of Southern California, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Kaiser Permanente, Fox Entertainment Group, Farmers Insurance Group, TeamOne, dan Northrop Grumman.


Perguruan tinggi dan universitas

Ada tiga universitas umum yang terletak di kota ini: California State University, Los Angeles (CSULA), California State University, Northridge (CSUN) dan University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). Perguruan tinggi swasta di kota ini meliputi American Film Institute Conservatory, Alliant International University, Syracuse University (Los Angeles Campus), American InterContinental University, American Jewish University, The American Musical and Dramatic Academy – kampus Los Angeles, kampus Los Angeles Antioch University, Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science, Fashion Institute of Design & Merchandising’s Los Angeles campus (FIDM), Los Angeles Film School, Loyola Marymount University (LMU juga merupakan universitas induk Loyola Law School yang terletak di Los Angeles), Marymount College, Mount St. Mary’s College, National University of California, Occidental College (“Oxy”), Otis College of Art and Design (Otis), Southern California Institute of Architecture (SCI-Arc), Southwestern Law School, dan University of Southern California (USC).

Cabang kedua California State Normal School di Downtown Los Angeles dibuka tahun 1882.

Sistem perguruan tinggi komunitas mencakup sembilan kampus yang dipimpin dewan kepercayaan Los Angeles Community College District: East Los Angeles College (ELAC), Los Angeles City College (LACC), Los Angeles Harbor College, Los Angeles Mission College, Los Angeles Pierce College, Los Angeles Valley College (LAVC), Los Angeles Southwest College, Los Angeles Trade-Technical College, dan West Los Angeles College.

Sekolah dan perpustakaan

Los Angeles Unified School District melayani hampir seluruh kota Los Angeles, serta beberapa permukiman sekitarnya, dengan jumlah siswa mencapai 800.000 jiwa. Setelah Proposition 13 was disetujui tahun 1978, distrik sekolah kota mengalami masalah pendanaan. LAUSD semakin dikenal karena memiliki banyak kampus yang kurang pendanaan, terlalu padat dan dikelola dengan buruk, meski 162 sekolah magnetnya sudah membantu bersaing dengan sekolah swasta setempat. Beberapa wilayah kecil Los Angeles masuk dalam Las Virgenes Unified School District. Los Angeles County Office of Education mengoperasikan Los Angeles County High School for the Arts. Sistem Los Angeles Public Library mengoperasikan 72 perpustakaan umum di kota ini. Enklave wilayah lepas dilayani oleh County of Los Angeles Public Library, banyak di antaranya terletak dekat dengan penduduk City of Los Angeles.

The Los Angeles Central Library in Downtown


Jalan bebas

Kota ini dan seluruh wilayah metropolitan Los Angeles dilayani oleh jaringan jalan bebas dan jalan bebas hambatan yang luas. Texas Transportation Institute, yang menerbitkan Urban Mobility Report setiap tahunnya, menempatkan kemacetan lalu lintas jalanan Los Angeles pada peringkat pertama di Amerika Serikat pada tahun 2005 berdasarkan kemacetan tahunan per penglaju. Penglaju rata-rata di Los Angeles menghabiskan 72 jam dalam kemacetan per tahun menurut studi ini. Los Angeles diikuti oleh San Francisco/Oakland, Washington, D.C., dan Atlanta (masing-masing 60 jam kemacetan). Meski macet di kota, waktu tempuh rata-rata bagi penglaju di Los Angeles lebih pendek daripada kota-kota besar lainnya, seperti New York City, Philadelphia dan Chicago. Waktu tempuh rata-rata bagi penglaju kerja di Los Angeles pada tahun 2006 adalah 29,2 menit, sama seperti San Francisco dan Washington, D.C.

Jalan-jalan bebas hambatan besar yang menghubungkan LA dengan seluruh Amerika Serikat mencakup Interstate 5, yang membentang ke selatan melewati San Diego ke Tijuana di Meksiko dan ke utara melewati Sacramento, Portland, dan Seattle ke perbatasan Kanada; Interstate 10, Interstate Highway paling selatan yang membentang timur-barat dan pantai-ke-pantai di Amerika Serikat, yang membentang hingga Jacksonville, Florida; dan U.S. Route 101, yang mengarah ke California Central Coast, San Francisco, Redwood Empire, dan pesisir Oregon dan Washington.

Sistem angkutan cepat

Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority dan badan lain mengoperasikan sistem jalur bus yang besar, serta kereta bawah tanah dan kereta ringan di seluruh Los Angeles County, dengan jumlah penumpang bulanan (diukur secara pribadi) mencapai 38,8 juta orang pada September 2011. Sebagian besar (30,5 juta) berasal dari sistem bus kota, yang merupakan sistem bus tersibuk kedua di Amerika Serikat. Rata-rata gabungan kereta bawah tanah dan kereta ringan ditempati sisanya, 8,2 juta penumpang per bulan. Pada tahun 2005, 10,2% penglaju Los Angeles memakai transportasi umum.

Peta Los Angeles Metro Rail yang memperlihatkan jalur yang sudah ada dan sedang dibangun.

Sistem kereta bawah tanah kota adalah yang tersibuk kesembilan di Amerika Serikat dan sistem kereta ringannya merupakan yang tersibuk kedua di negara ini. Sistem kereta kota meliputi jalur kereta bawah tanah Red dan Purple, serta jalur kereta ringan Gold, Blue, dan Green. Fase pertama Expo Line dijadwalkan dibuka tanggal 28 April 2012. Metro Orange Line adalah sebuah jalur angkutan cepat bus dengan perhentian dan frekuensi yang sama seperti kereta ringan. Kota ini juga merupakan pusat sistem kereta komuter Metrolink, yang menghubungkan Los Angeles dengan seluruh county sekitarnya dan banyak pinggiran kota.

Di samping layanan kereta Metrolink dan Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Los Angeles dilayani oleh kereta penumpang antarkota Amtrak. Stasiun kereta utama di kota ini adalah Union Station yang terletak di sebelah utara Downtown.

Bandar udara

Bandar udara utama di Los Angeles adalah Bandar Udara Internasional Los Angeles (IATA: LAX, ICAO: KLAX). Bandar udara komersial tersibuk keenam di dunia dan ketiga di Amerika Serikat ini menangani lebih dari 61 juta penumpang dan 2 juta ton kargo pada tahun 2006. LAX adalah hub bagi United Airlines.

Bandar udara komersial besar di sekitarnya meliputi:

  • (IATA: ONT, ICAO: KONT) Bandar Udara Internasional LA/Ontario, dimiliki pemerintah kota Los Angeles; melayani Inland Empire.
  • (IATA: BUR, ICAO: KBUR) Bandar Udara Bob Hope, sebelumnya bernama Bandar Udara Burbank; melayani Lembah San Fernando dan San Gabriel
  • (IATA: LGB, ICAO: KLGB) Bandar Udara Long Beach, melayani Long Beach/Harbor
  • (IATA: SNA, ICAO: KSNA) Bandar Udara John Wayne di Orange County.

Sa;ah satu bandara penerbangan umum tersibuk di dunia juga terletak di Los Angeles, yaitu Bandar Udara Van Nuys (IATA: VNY, ICAO: KVNY).

Theme Building di LAX


Port of Los Angeles terletak di San Pedro Bay di permukiman San Pedro, sekitar 20 mile (32 km) di selatan Downtown. Juga disebut Los Angeles Harbor dan WORLDPORT LA, komplek pelabuhan ini menduduki wilayah daratan dan perairan seluas 7500 acre (30 km2) di tepian pesisir sepanjang 43 mile (69 km). Pelabuhan ini bergabung dengan Port of Long Beach.

Pemandangan Vincent Thomas Bridge yang berujung di Terminal Island

Port of Los Angeles dan Port of Long Beach bersama membentuk Los Angeles/Long Beach Harbor. Kedua pelabuhan tersebut membentuk pelabuhan kontainer tersibuk kelima di dunia, dengan volume perdagangan senilai lebih dari 14,22 juta TEU pada tahun 2008. Port of Los Angeles sendiri adalah pelabuhan kontainer tersibuk di Amerika Serikat dan puast kapal pesiar terbesar di Pesisir Barat Amerika Serikat – The Port of Los Angeles’ World Cruise Center melayani sekitar 800.000 penumpang pada tahun 2009.

Ada pula pelabuhan-pelabuhan non-industri yang lebih kecil di sepanjang pesisir Los Angeles. Penjaga pantai berpengalaman dari Los Angeles City hanya ada di pantai-pantai yang dimiliki pemerintah kota.

Pelabuhan ini memiliki empat jembatan, yaitu Vincent Thomas Bridge, Henry Ford Bridge, Gerald Desmond Bridge, dan Commodore Schuyler F. Heim Bridge.

Layanan feri penumpang dari San Pedro ke kota Avalon di Santa Catalina Island disediakan oleh Catalina Express.


Los Angeles adalah rumah bagi orang-orang dari 140 negara yang mempertuturkan 224 bahasa yang berbeda. Enklave etnis seperti Chinatown, Historic Filipinotown, Koreatown, Little Armenia, Little Ethiopia, Tehrangeles, Little Tokyo, dan Thai Town memberi contoh karakter Los Angeles yang poliglot.

Pemandangan pusat kota Los Angeles dari udara.

Kota kembar

Los Angeles memiliki 25 kota kembar, diurutkan secara kronologis menurut tahun bergabung:

Mission San Fernando Rey de España, circa 1910
Papan dekat City Hall yang mengarah ke kota-kota kembar Los Angeles

Surabaya Meraih Gelar ‘Kota Terpopuler’ The Guangzhou International Award 2018

suarasurabaya[dot]net – Setelah sebelumnya Tri Rismaharini menggalang suara melalui unggahan videonya Instagram, hari ini surabaya dinobatkan sebagai Kota Terpopuler, dalam ajang The Guangzhou International Award 2018.

Sebelumnya di hadapan 400 juri dan 14 finalis The Guangzhou International Award 2018, Risma menyampaikan paparan presentasinya, bagaimana perkembangan Surabaya yang terus berinovasi menuju kota Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Dalam unggahan melalui akun Instagramnya, Risma mengumumkan kebahagiaannya atas kemenangan yang diraih Kota Surabaya, Jumat (7/12/2018).

Sembari mengunggah video prosesi penerimaan penghargaan, Risma juga mengungkapkan rasa syukur dan terima kasihnya pada masyarakat Indonesia, khususnya Surabaya.

Alhamdulillah Kota Surabaya resmi memenangkan penghargaan kota terpopuler secara online dalam ajang The Guangzhou International Award 2018. Terimakasih dukungan yang luar biasa dari warga Surabaya khususnya dan Masyarakat Indonesia. = : Oky YKA,” tulisnya.

Sontak unggahan video beserta caption kemenangan Surabaya tersebut dibanjiri komentar dari warganet. Salah satunya yakni akun Instagram londocausa, dia menulis “Puji Tuhan Surabaya Menang!! Selamat buat Ibuku @trirismaharini dan makin maju, berinovasi terus Surabaya,” serunya di kolom komentar.

Komentar lain juga datang dari akun Instagram mariaandtheboys yang menulis, “Selamat Bu Risma beserta warga Surabaya terimakasih sudah mengharumkan nama Indonesia.”

Akun Instagram bernama e.k.a_99 juga menambahkan, “Selamat. Gak sia-dia nge-vote :).”

Serbuan rasa syukur juga hadir di kolom komentar Facebook e100 Suara Surabaya. Dalam unggahan yang menginformasikan kemenangan Surabaya, akun Facebook dengan nama Aryya Bima mengatakan, “Gak sia-sia aq cari sinyal buat ikut Vote… Wkwkk.. Selamat selamat, Hebat Bu Risma.. Hebat warga Surabaya.. Hebaat..”

Sampai saat ini ungkapan syukur dan bangga masih bermunculan baik di kolom komentar unggahan Walikota Surabaya maupun di Facebook e100 Suara Surabaya. (dim/ipg)

Surabaya Meraih Yokatta Wonderful Indonesia Tourism Award

Surabaya Jadi Kota Terbaik Yokatta Wonderful Indonesia Tourism Award

Minggu 22 Juli 2018, 09:03 WIB. detiknews.


Setelah Lee Kuan Yew World City Prize di Singapura, kini Surabaya meraih penghargaan Yokatta Wonderful Indonesia Tourism Awards 2018. Bahkan, Kota Pahlawan sukses menjadi best of the best di antara semua daerah di Indonesia.

Penghargaan ini diberikan langsung Menteri Pariwisata (Menpar) RI Arief Yahya kepada Wali Kota Surabaya Tri Rismaharini di Balairung Soesilo Soedarman, Gedung Sapta Pesona Jakarta, Jumat (20/7/2018) malam.


Yokatta Wonderful Indonesia Tourism Awards 2018 merupakan penghargaan kepada kabupaten/kota di Indonesia yang memiliki komitmen, performansi, inovasi, kreasi dan leadership dalam membangun pariwisata daerah.


Kota Pahlawan menyingkirkan pesaingnya. Antara lain Kota Denpasar, Bali di posisi kedua dan Bandung, Jabar di posisi ketiga.

Wali Kota Surabaya Tri Rismaharini mengaku perjuangan belum usai. Pihaknya akan terus memperbaiki dan mempercantik Surabaya ke depannya.

“Perjuangan kita bersama belum selesai. Mari kita terus bersama-sama membangun Kota Surabaya,” kata Wali Kota Risma, Minggu (22/7/2018).

Sementara Menpar Arief Yahya mengaku penghargaan ini sebagai modal sebuah daerah jika ingin menjadi pemain dunia menggunakan standar global.

“Selamat kepada para pemenang, terutama Surabaya yang size dan pertumbuhan tertinggi di atas 40 persen performancy-nya,” kata Arief Yahya usai menyerahkan penghargaan.

Menurut Arief, penghargaan ini memiliki unsur 3C, yakni calibration (kalibrasi), confidence (kepercayaan diri) dan credibility (kredibilitas).

“Yang lebih penting dari 3A adalah CEO commitment atau komitmen kepala daerah. Karena kalau CEO-nya tidak komitmen hal itu tidak akan tercapai. Pariwisata itu paling mudah dan Paling murah, sayang sekali jika rekan-rekan tidak memanfaatkanya,” ujarnya.

Arief menambahkan, kampanye branding Wonderful Indonesia telah meningkatkan performance Indonesia. “Hal ini terlihat dari popolaritas Wonderful Indonesia melonjak dari status tidak tercatat menjadi ranking 47 dunia, sedangkan Truly Asia (Malaysia) dan Amazing (Thailand) masing-masing berada di posisi 83 dan 97 dunia,” ujarnya.

Terdapat 4 indikator yang mempengaruhi penilaian penghargaan ini. Meliputi kinerja usaha pariwisata, Indeks Pariwisata Indonesia, Indonesia’s Attractiveness Award, dan Penghargaan Internasional dan Nasional.

“Jadi, penilaiannya sangat komplek dan komplit,” ungkap Ketua Dewan Juri Yokatta Wonderful Indonesia Tourism Award 2018 Didien Junaedi.  /(fat/fat)

Surabaya Dapat Penghargaan Lee Kuan Yew Award

Surabaya Dapat Penghargaan Lee Kuan Yew Award, Risma akan Terbang ke Singapura

Editor: Sugiyarto. tribunnews. Rabu, 4 Juli 2018 22:21 WIB


Kota Surabaya akan menerima Lee Kuan Yew Award di Singapura, untuk kategori Special Mention. 


Risma Terima Lee Kuan Yew Award

Penghargaan itu akan diterima Senin (9/7/2018) mendatang oleh Wali Kota Tri Rismaharini. Selama tiga hari, yakni mulai 7 Juli 2018, Risma akan berada di sana untuk terlibat dalam World Cities Summit (WCS) 2018. 

WCS 2018 merupakan acara yang diselenggarakan oleh Pemerintah Singapura yang mempertemukan para wali kota dan pemimpin kota.

Di sana, mereka akan mendiskusikan tantangan perkotaan dan berbagai pengalaman. 

Penghargaan yang diberikan dua tahun sekali ini dianugerahkan oleh Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA) di Singapura dan Centre for Liveable Cities (CLC).

Surabaya mendapatkan penghargaan dengan kategori Special Mention karena berhasil melestarikan kebudayaan dan menerapkan strategi yang berani, dalam menjaga dan membangun area perkampungan.

Selain Surabaya, kategori Special Mention juga diraih tiga kota lain yaitu Hamburg di Jerman, Kazan di Rusia dan Tokyo di Jepang.

“Itu artinya Kota Surabaya sudah sejajar dengan kota-kota lain dunia,” kata Kabag Humas Pemkot Surabaya M. Fikser, Rabu (4/7).

Sebelumnya, Surabaya sudah dua kali mengikuti ajang penghargaan Lee Kuan Yew di tahun 2014 dan 2016. Namun belum berhasil, baru tahun ini usaha Kota Surabaya berbuah hasil.

Perjuangan Kota Surabaya meraih penghargaan ini tentu tidak mudah.

Risma mengatakan, selama proses penjurian sempat sulit meyakinkan para juri dari Jerman dan Cina itu, Kota Surabaya berbeda dari kota modern lainnya di dunia.

Modern dalam arti sebenarnya yaitu transportasi massal yang masih modern dan vertical hosting.

Namun, Risma mengaku tidak menyerah dan menjelaskan perbedaan Kota Surabaya dengan kota modern lainnya dari sisi budaya dan regulasi.

“Setelah saya jelaskan dan ajak melihat kampung Jambangan, Gundih dan kampung produktif daerah Kebraon, di situ lah mereka baru tertarik,” kata Risma mengajak para juri melihat bagaimana perkampungan mengatasi masalah perekonomian dan remaja.

Untuk itu, Wali Kota Risma berharap prestasi harus dipertahankan, dia juga berkomitmen untuk terus berusaha menjadikan Surabaya sebagai Kota Metropolitan yang tidak melupakan sejarah.

Risma Jadi Pembicara

Selain menerima penghargaan Lee Kuan Yew, Tri Rismaharini juga berkesempatan menjadi pembicara pada dua forum sekaligus.

Pertama, Risma akan menjadi pembicara pada ASEAN Mayors Forum 2018. Dia akan menyampaikan pengalaman Surabaya saat menjadi tuan rumah ASEAN Mayor Forum tahun 2011.

Kedua, dia akan mengisi forum dan berbagai bagaimana upaya pemerintah beradaptasi terhadap teknologi-teknologi baru, mengatasi bisnis-bisnis model baru, menghadapi tantangan-tantangan di depan, serta menjadi pihak yang selalu peka terhadap inovasi-inovasi.

27 Tempat Wisata di Surabaya 2018

27 Tempat Wisata di Surabaya Terbaru Paling Indah & Menarik


Tempat Wisata di Surabaya – Surabaya adalah Kota yang menjadi metropolitan terbesar di provinsi Jawa Timur. Surabaya juga menjadi ibu kota dan kota terbesar setelah Jakarta. Akan tetapi jangan panik dan mari piknik karena kota ini juga memiliki banyak tempat wisata hits Surabaya lho.


Berikut daftar tempat wisata terbaru di Surabaya yang dapat anda kunjungi.

1. Panorama jembatan Suramadu

1. Panorama jembatan Suramadu

Jembatan Suramadu suatu jembatan penghubung antara pulau Jawa dan Madura. Jembatan di atas laut selat Madura.

Panjang Jembatan ini sekitar 5,5 km,dengan memecahkan rekor Jembatan terpanjang di Indonesia. Jembatan ini sekarang di jadikan icon wisata Kota Surabaya karena keindahannya sebagai tempat wisata malam di Surabaya.

2. Wisata Air Ciputra Waterpark

2. Wisata Air Ciputra Waterpark

Tempat bermain anak dengan mengedepankan wahana-wahana menarik yang bertemakan Dongeng Petualangan Sinbad. Sehingga lebih menarik minat anak-anak untuk mengunjunginya.

Ciputra Waterpark memiliki luar sekitar 5 hektar sehingga menjadi Wisata Air terluas di Surabaya. Ciputra waterpark didisain untuk bermain.

Kedalamannya dangkal,sehingga cocok sekali untuk berlibur Keluarga yang ingin memanjakan anak-anaknya. Kedalaman air yang hanya 1 meter untuk yang paling dalam di buat agar mengurangi risiko tenggelam.

Harga tiket di tempat rekreasi di Surabaya ini sebesar 70,000 Rupiah pada hari biasa,sedangkan pada akhir pekan sebesar 90,000 rupiah. Sedangkan untuk lansia berumur di atas 60 tahun hanya menunjukkan KTP saja untuk masuk objek wisata ini gratis.

3. Kebun Binatang Surabaya

3. Kebun Binatang Surabaya

Kebun Binatang Surabaya merupakan tempat berlibur yang mengedepankan edukasi,sehingga sangat terkenal. Beralamat di Jl.Setail kota surabaya.

Kebun Binatang Surabaya pernah menjadi kebun Binatang terlengkap di Asia Tenggara. Luas tempat liburan di Surabaya ini mencapai luas sekitar 37 hektar.

Hanya dengan membeli tiket sebesar 15,000 Rupiah anda bisa menikmati panorama hewan di Kebun Binatang ini.

4. Museum House of Sampoerna

4. Museum House of Sampoerna

Museum ini adalah bangunan bersejarah sekaligus di jadikan museum tua yang menarik. Bangunan bergaya kuno masa penjajahan belanda yang masih kokoh dan terawat ini harus anda kunjungi.

 Tiang-tiang penyangga museum House of Sampoerna yang berbentuk rokok semakin membuat bangunan ini menjadi eksotis. Serta membuatnya di lindungi oleh Negara.

Di tempat wisata bersejarah di Surabaya ini terdapat macam-macam koleksi alat pembuat Rokok,jenis-jenis pematik,foto keluarga,beberapa alat musik dan lain-lain. Kita dapat membeli cinderamata dan melihat proses pembuatan rokok yang menarik di House of Sampoerna lantai 2.

5. Wisata Hutan Mangrove Wonorejo yang masih Alami

5. Wisata Hutan Mangrove Wonorejo yang masih Alami

Hutan Mangrove salah satu tempat wisata paling populer di Surabaya. Tempat wisata alam Surabaya ini masih asri dan alami karena jauh dari polusi perkotaan.

Sangat cocok untuk relaksasi mata dan udara. Hutan Mangrove Wonorejo berada di dekat Bandara Juanda Kota Surabaya.

Mengelilingi dan melihat keindahan alam dengan berjalan menyusuri jembatan yang terbuat dari bambu di atas air laut dapat anda lakukan. Anda juga bisa melihat keindahan Hutan Mangrove ini dengan menaiki perahu di sekitar hutan mangrove ini.

6. Monumen Kapal Selam yang Bersejarah

Monumen Kapal Selam ini adalah sebuah monumen yang menggunakan kapal selam sungguhan. Kapal ini ialah kapal selam yang di gunakan Indonesia untuk mlakukan pembebasan Irian Barat dari penjajahan Belanda.

Tempat piknik di Surabaya ini berlokasi di pusat kota Surabaya,tepatnya di Jalan Pemuda. Tempat ini sangat menarik di kunjungi karena jarang sekali kita melihat kapal selam sesungguhnya tampak luar dan dalam.

7. Monumen Nasional Tugu Pahlawan

7. Monumen Nasional Tugu Pahlawan

Tempat hunting di Surabaya ini adalah Monumen yang paling bersejarah sekaligus terkenal di Surabaya karena sejarahnya yang sangat terkenal. Tugu ini memiliki ketinggian kurang lebih 40 meter yang di bangun dengan bentuk menyerupai Paku terbalik,sehingga membuat tugu ini indah.

Kita dapat melihat foto-foto dokumentasi di bawah tanah tugu pahlawan. Luas lahan yang mencapai 1 hektar digunakan untuk memperingati hari pahlawan, menghormati prajurit yang gugur di surabaya melawan penjajah.

8. Taman Bungkul yang eksotis

8. Taman Bungkul yang eksotis

Taman Bungkul,taman yang indah,sangat cocok untuk Kumpul-Kumpul, pemandangan yang indah,tempat yang bersih sangat nyaman untuk di kunjungi.

Berlokasi di Jalan Darmo kota Surabaya mempunyai Fasilitas bermain untuk anak-anak,jogging track,tempat bermain Skateboard,amfiteater,Kolam air mancur,suasana Hijau. Penunjang lainya yaitu fasilitas internet,sehingga berkunjung ke sini sangat di manjakan oleh fasilitas-fasilitas yang menarik.

Tempat wisata keluarga di Surabaya ini juga sering di adakan event-event hiburan dan sanggar budaya. Di Taman Bungkul juga banyak penjual yang menjajakan makanan Khas Surabaya,cocok untuk anda yang suka Berwisata Kuliner.

9. Rumah Batik

9. Rumah Batik

Tempat ini memiliki koleksi batik yang sangat banyak lebih dari 2000 lembar kain batik dengan motif dan corak yang berbeda. Batik-batik tersebut berasal dari penjuru Nusantara.

Tempat wisata edukasi di Surabaya ini Bisa di sebut Museum batik karena pernah mendapatkan rekor batik dengan logo Surabaya Terbesar. Rumah batik ini beralamat di Jalan Tambak Dukuh kota Surabaya.

10. Panorama Alam dan Wisata Pantai Kenjeran

10. Panorama Alam dan Wisata Pantai Kenjeran

Pantai yang terletak di Surabaya ini merupakan tempat wisata pantai di Surabaya yang Favorit untuk berlibur Keluarga. Yang ingin menikmati panorama pantai.

Selain berelaksasi dengan panorama pantai pengunjung bisa menikmati liburan dengan memancing dengan menaiki perahu dan membeli ikan hasil para nelayan.

Lebih syahdu lagi apabila pengunjung membawa alas untuk duduk-duduk di bibir pantai atau di bawah pohon. Banyak permainan anak di tempat ini sehingga cocok untuk berlibur bersama keluarga di pantai ini.

11. Tempat wisata patung Budha berwajah Empat

11. Tempat wisata patung Budha berwajah Empat

Patung ini menawarkan keindahan artistik,sejarah,dan sauasana. Sangat di sayangkan jika berlibur ke tempat ini tanpa Kamera karena tempat ini sangat cocok untuk mengambil gambar. Sehingga banyak yang menjadikan tempat ini sebagai tempat berfoto di Surabaya yang hits.

Patung Budha ini telah masuk dalam catatan (MURI) Museum Rekor Indonesia karena merupakan patung paling tinggi di Indonesia. Letak patung ini di sudut tempat wisata pantai Kenjeran.

12. Jembatan Merah yang bersejarah

12. Jembatan Merah yang bersejarah

Tempat yang menjadi syarat akan sejarah sekaligus saksi bisu perlawanan rakyat Surabaya dalam memerangi penjajahan yang di lakukan Belanda. Jembatan Merah telah ikut serta dalam peristiwa luar biasa pada tanggal 10 November.

Terletak di perbatasan jembatan di kelola menjadi tempat wisata oleh 2 Kota yaitu Suabaya dan Malang. Tempat ini di akui bersejarah karena merupakan saksi bisu tewasnya Jendral tinggi belanda yaitu Mallaby, yang tewas karena perlawanan rakyat.

13. Patung Citra Raya Surabaya

13. Patung Citra Raya Surabaya

Singapura di Surabaya. Karena tidak hanya singapura saja yang memiliki patung dengan bentuk menyerupaii ikon singa laut saja, surabaya juga punya loh.

Tempat wisata malam surabaya ini menawarkan fasilitas sekitar 27 Hole di lapangan golf. Tidak hanya itu disini juga ada banyak klub keluarga.

Yaitu Universitas Ciputra, masjid, pasar, Surabaya International School, pusat komersial, Waterpark, dan Gymnasium. Tempat hiburan malam di Surabaya ini sangat cocok untuk berlibur keluarga dan foto-foto.



WR.Soepratman Pencipta lagu Indonesia Raya yang sekarang dirinya diabadikan dengan bentuk patung di Surabaya.

15. Kelenteng Hong Tiek Hian yang artistik

15. Kelenteng Hong Tiek Hian yang artistik

Tempat yang eksotis dan penuh sejarah yang wajib anda kunjungi karena keindahan bangunan yang Bertemakan kultur Negeri Cina jaman dulu.

Konon tempat wisata realigi di Surabaya ini di buat oleh pasukan tartar. Pada saat Khu Nilai Khan berkuasa di wilayah Asia Tenggara.

Lebih pastinya belum bisa di ketahui, akan tetapi kontur dan keindahan bangunan ini sangat sayang bila anda lewati.

16. Monumen Bambu Runcing Surabaya

16. Monumen Bambu Runcing Surabaya

Monumen ini dibuat untuk menghormati peran Bambu runcing,karena bambu runcing adalah simbol perlawanan Indonesia terhadap penjajah di masa lampau.

17. Wisata Bunga di Pasar Bunga Bratang

17. Wisata Bunga di Pasar Bunga Bratang

Pecinta flora jangan khawatir karena Surabaya juga menyuguhkan pasar bunga yang sangat menarik untuk di kunjungi. Susunan pasar bunga ini tertata dengan baik dan bersih.

Pengunjung tidak akan kecewa berkunjung disini, karena pengunjung bisa memborong bunga-bunga tanaman hias dan pot-pot keramik dengan biaya yang terjangkau.

18. Masjid Nasional Al-Akbar Surabaya

18. Masjid Nasional Al-Akbar Surabaya

Pengunjung bisa berwisata sekaligus wisata Religi di masjid Nasional ini,karena masjid ini menjadi kebanggaan warga Surabaya.

Memiliki besar sedikit lebih kecil dari masjid Istiqlal yang membuat masjid ini menjadi masjid terbesar kedua di Indonesia. Berlokasi di Jl. Masjid Al-Akbar Timur No.1, pangesangan Surabaya.

19. Gereja Perawan Maria tak Berdosa

19. Gereja Perawan Maria tak Berdosa

Gereja ini harus anda kunjungi apabila berlibur ke Surabaya. Karena nama gereja yang unik dan memiliki nilai seni yang tinggi.

Gaya bangunan dengan arsitektur gaya abad pertengahan daerah Eropa merupakan nilai seni tersendiri.

Di tempat ini mempunyai banyak peninggalan sejarah yang indah dan bersejarah. Gereja ini cocok untuk berlibur keluarga dengan tema edukasi.

20. Taman Absari Surabaya

20. Taman Absari Surabaya

Berlokasi di depan Gedung Grahadi Surabaya. Taman ini berisikan patung Suryo dan Joko Dolog di dalamnya.

Terdapat jogging track yang sangat fovorit untuk jalan-jalan di tempat ini, sehingga banyak remaja menggunakan taman ini untuk kumpul-kumpul.

Di tempat ini juga terdapat arena skateboard yang diramaikan anak-anak pecinta skateboard. Banyak juga warga surabaya yang menghabiskan malam di tempat ini untuk nongkrong dan jeng-jeng.

21. Taman DR.Soetomo(Taman Persahabatan)

21. Taman DR.Soetomo(Taman Persahabatan)

Taman ini adalah simbol pertemanan, sangat di sayangkan bila anda berlibur ke surabaya melewatkan tempat yang satu ini. Apalagi berlibur bersama sahabat karib anda.

22. Taman Mayangkara

22. Taman Mayangkara

Taman ini di bangun oleh pemerintah Surabaya untuk menghormati pahlawan Batalyon 503 Mayangkara yang di pimpin oleh Mayor Djarot Soebyantoro.

Tempat ini berlokasi di depan RSI Surabaya. Taman ini bersimbol patung Mayor Djarot soebyantoro dan kuda putih Mayangkara dinaikinya. Sehingga masyarakat Surabaya menyebutnya Monumen Mayangkara.

Di sekeliling taman di tumbuhi dengan bunga-bunga yang indah yang berwarna-warni. Dan dengan dilengkapinya kursi taman serta arena jalan kaki yang nyaman untuk jalan-jalan bersama keluarga.

23. Taman Wisata Pelangi Surabaya

23. Taman Wisata Pelangi Surabaya

Tempat wisata yang menarik ini harus di kunjungi terutama pada malam hari,karena akan terlihat indah pada malam hari. Taman ini berlokasi di depan kantor Bulog Surabaya.

24. Taman Mundu di Surabaya

24. Taman Mundu di Surabaya

Taman ini tepat di depan gedung Gelora 10 Nopember Tambaksari,dibangun dengan disain Bernuansa Alami Modern.

Tempat ini sangat cocok untuk merelaksasi tubuh dan untuk berinteraksi dengan orang lain.

25. Taman Buah Undaan Surabaya

25. Taman Buah Undaan Surabaya

Tempat di bangun dengan tema dan desain yang unik karena banyak hiasan buah buahan dengan ukuran besar.

Replika buah-buahan ini dibuat guna menarik wisatawan untuk singgah di taman yang unik ini. Taman ini menyuguhkan pemandangan yang cantik dan udara segar.

26. Taman Prestasi Surabaya

26. Taman Prestasi Surabaya

Berlokasi di pusat kota Surabaya,taman ini cocok untuk wadah edukasi anak. Dengan wahana di taman prestasi ini anak bisa bermain sambil belajar.

Taman ini selalu ramai di kunjungi keluarga-keluarga yang ingin bermain sambil belajar. Taman ini cukup luas,dengan luas sekitar 6.000 meter persegi.

27. Museum Mpu Tantular

27. Museum Mpu Tantular

Museum Mpu Tantular didirikan oleh suatu lembaga budaya yang bernama Stedelijk Historisch Museum soerabaian.

Pendirinya sendiri adalah orang berkebangsaan Jerman totok, akan tetapi sudah mempunyai kewarganegaraan Indonesia.

Di museum mpu tantular terdapat 1500 koleksi. Koleksi bersejarah masa prasejarah,budaya hindu,budha,dan islam.

Koleksi peninggalan zaman penjajahan belanda maupun jepang. Tempat wisata bersejarah di Surabaya ini sangat cocok untuk proses edukasi belajar sejarah.

Peta Wisata Surabaya


Demikian destinasi tempat wisata di surabaya yang tentu mengasikan, maka dari itu jangan ragu berlibur di Surabaya. Dan jangan lupa ajak teman-teman, kerabat, dan keluarga berlibur ke Surabaya.

Source: tempatwisatakeluarga


Welcome to GuangZhou “Flower City”


Guangzhou is a famous culture city and a splendid tourism city with a history of more than 2,200 years and a homeland of overseas Chinese as well.

It enjoys the name of “Flower City” as the superb geographic and climatic conditions in the South contributed to the natural beauty here. As a city of heroes, Guangzhou has a reputation of great eminence in the modern history of China. The historical sites of Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall, Huanghuagang 72 Martyr Cemetery, Guangzhou Luxun Memorial Hall, Peasant Movement Institute, Sanyuanli Anti-British Invasion, and the Former Site of Huangpu Military Academy are the witnesses of the modern history of China, and, together with Baiyun Mountain, Yuexiu Park, Liuhuahu Park, Lu Lake and South-China, constitute colorful landscape groups.

Meanwhile, Guangzhou was the starting point of the “Maritime Silk Road” and is an important port city for the opening and reform of China, making great contribution to the economic and cultural exchange and friendly contacts between China and the rest of the world and demonstrating everlasting prosperity.

Guangzhou’s famous landmarks

Canton Tower

Canton Tower is located at an intersection of Guangzhou New City Central Axes and Pearl River, directly facing Haixinsha Island where the opening and closing ceremonies of the Sixteenth Asian Games were held and the 21st century new city CBD of Guangzhou-Zhujiang New Town.

With its unique shape and design, Canton Tower has become a magnificent landmark on the New City Central Axes, adding beauty and charm to the Pearl River. There is one smaller rotating ellipse at the top twisting up counterclockwise with the other larger rotating ellipse at the bottom, which creates a “slim waist” in the middle and makes it look like a lady looking behind.

Canton Tower is not only a comprehensive sightseeing building with rich cultural connotation but also a world-famous tourist spot integrated with the multi-functions of Sightseeing, F&B, Adventure, 4D Cinema, Wedding, MICE, Science and Technology, Education, and Shopping prosperity.


Yuexiu Park (Five Rams Sculpture & the Zhenhai Tower)

Guangzhou’s Five Rams Sculpture is located atop Yuexiu Hill. It was built in 1960 from more than 130 pieces of granite and is one of the city’s emblems.

The sculpture represents the five rams who gave Guangzhou its nickname “City of Rams” and were formerly honored at its Temple of the Five Immortals. These immortals were said to have ridden rams into the city soon after its founding, teaching its residents how to grow rice and ending the specter of famine forever. Locals consider the rams symbols of good luck.


Zhenhai Tower/Chen Hoi Lau

Also atop Yuexiu Hill is the Five-storied Pagoda now known as Chen Hoi Lau. The present structure is 28 meters (92 ft) high and 16 meters (52 ft) wide. It has housed the Guangzhou Museum since it was opened to the public in 1928.

A guard tower was first erected at the site in 1380, one of the first to be constructed in Lingnan. Chinese legend holds that Zhu Liangzu (朱亮祖), Marquis of Yongjia and a member of the Ming dynasty, saw yellow and purple air rising over Yuexiu and was told that it was the sign of a new emperor. He then erected the tower as part of the city walls to alter the mountain’s feng shui and prevent the prophecy from coming to pass. It has been destroyed and rebuilt five times, the various towers appearing in Chinese poetry and art.


Yuexiu Stadium/Yut Sau Shan Stadium

Yuexiu Stadium was refreshed from the old Yut Sau Shan Park Playground at the foot of the hill in 1950 at the behest of Mayor Ye Jianying. It covers an area of 43,000 square meters (462,848 sq ft). It was one of the Asian Games venues in 2010.

The stadium is not only a sports activity site, but also a large-scale concert hall. Since its opening in October 1950, it has held 200 meetings and more than 280 performances. It can hold 35,000 people.

Pavilion of Regaining

The Pavilion of Regaining is a square pavilion erected in 1948 on the spot of an earlier 1928 memorial to the Xinhai Revolution against the Qing Empire. The first pavilion was destroyed amid fighting with the Japanese during World War II.

Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall

The Sun Yat-sen or Zhongshan Memorial Hall is an octagon-shaped building in Guangzhou, capital of China’s Guangdong Province. The hall was designed by Lu Yanzhi and was built with funds raised by local and overseas Chinese people in memory of Sun Yat-sen. Construction work commenced in 1929 and completed in 1931. The hall is a large octagonal structure with a span of 71 meters without pillars, housing a large stage and seats 3,240 people.

The memorial hall stands on the site of Guangzhou’s Presidential Palace during the Constitutional Protection Movement, when the Nationalists operated a rival “Chinese” government to the Zhili Clique’s Beijing regime.[citation needed] The palace was damaged during Ye Ju’s 16 June 1922 attack on Sun Yat-sen, during which—though he had already fled—his wife narrowly escaped shelling and rifle fire before meeting him on the gunboat Yongfeng, where they were joined by Chiang Kai-shek. The hall itself has been severely damaged and repaired several times until 1998, when it was comprehensively upgraded to its present-day condition. A statue of Sun Yat-sen was erected in front of the main entrance.


Guangzhou Museum (also known as the Zhenhai Tower)

Locating at the Yuexiu Park, Guangzhou, Zhenhai Tower is a comprehensive history museum with dense Canton characteristics. The tower is one of historic sites in Guangzhou as it is established in 1929. Now, it is used for collection and exhibition of historical data and cultural relics of the city. The museum consists of two parts: the Zhenhai Tower that houses the historical relics and the Art Gallery that exhibits many exquisite local art works.

The memorial hall stands on the site of Guangzhou’s Presidential Palace during the Constitutional Protection Movement, when the Nationalists operated a rival “Chinese” government to the Zhili Clique’s Beijing regime.[citation needed] The palace was damaged during Ye Ju’s 16 June 1922 attack on Sun Yat-sen, during which—though he had already fled—his wife narrowly escaped shelling and rifle fire before meeting him on the gunboat Yongfeng, where they were joined by Chiang Kai-shek. The hall itself has been severely damaged and repaired several times until 1998, when it was comprehensively upgraded to its present-day condition. A statue of Sun Yat-sen was erected in front of the main entrance.


Ersha Island

Ersha Island is an island in the middle of the Pearl River. Encircled by the Pearl River, the island enjoys picturesque landscape different from the downtown. After the establishment of China, it has been the training base for provincial athletes and an ideal place for exquisite resident houses 80% of which are said to be owned by foreigners. Covered by modern apartments, and art places like Xinghai Concert Hall and Guangdong Museum of Art, the island is given a sense of art.


Flower City Square

The square in the new central shaft line of Guangzhou has been officially named as “Huacheng Square”. It is regarded as “Guangzhou’s parlor” and is the largest square for civilian purpose in Guangzhou.

The Square is surrounded by 39 buildings, including the Guangzhou No.2 Children’s Palace, the Guangzhou Opera House, Guangzhou Library, Guangdong Museum and the West Tower (Guangzhou International Financial Center (GZIFC)), etc.

In the Square, there are a man-made lake & landscape district as well as large-scaled fountains, lamplight piazza, system for formation of cold fog and temperature drop, over 600 trees and 5 flower islands. Underneath Huacheng Square is a 150,000 square-meter high-end underground shopping mall, the “Mall of the World”.


Shameen Island

Shameen Island is a sandbank island in the Liwan District of Guangzhou city, Guangdong province, China. The island’s name literally means “sandy surface” in Chinese. The territory was divided into two concessions given to France and the United Kingdom by the Qing government in the 19th century. The island is a gazetted historical area that serves as a tranquil reminder of the colonial European period, with quiet pedestrian avenues flanked by trees and lined by historical buildings in various states of upkeep.

The island is the location of several hotels, a youth hostel, restaurants and tourist shops selling curios and souvenirs. Shameen Island was an important port for Guangzhou’s foreign trade from the Song to the Qing Dynasty. From the 18th to the mid 19th century, the foreigners lived and did business in a row of houses known as the Thirteen Factories, on the banks of the Pearl River to the east the present Shameen, which was then an anchorage for thousands of boat people. Shameen became a strategic point for city defense during the period of the First and Second Opium Wars. In 1859,the territory was divided in two concessions given to France and the United Kingdom (of which 3/5 belonged to the British and 2/5 to the French).


It was connected to the mainland by two bridges, which were closed at 10pm as a security measure. The British arch bridge, also called the “Bridge of England” and built in 1861, to the north was guarded by Sikh police officers, and the French bridge to the east was guarded by Vietnamese (Cochinchina) recruits with the Troupes coloniales.Trading companies from Britain, the United States, France, Holland, Italy,Germany, Portugal, and Japan built stone mansions along the waterfront. The construction on the island was characterized by climate-adapted but Western-plan detached houses with hipped roofs and large verandahs.The island was the scene of fighting during the “June 23 incident” in 1925.After 1949, the mansions of Shameeni became government offices or apartment houses and the churches were turned into factories.


Litchi Bay

Lychee Bay or Litchi Bay, a set of creeks and lakes that flow southwest to Pearl River, is a tourist attraction in Guangzhou (Canton), Guangdong. Liwan District, where Lychee Bay is located, was named after it. There are many historical relics and historical architectures in Lychee Bay, such as Wenta and Xiguan House. Various cultural activities are held on Lychee Bay, such as the competition of Cantonese opera.


GuangZhou Maps

GuangZhou Map 1

GuangZhou Map 2



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New York

New York City

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York (NY), is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles (784 km2), New York City is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world’s most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described uniquely as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world, and exerts a significant impact upon commerce, entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, fashion, and sports. The city’s fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.

Situated on one of the world’s largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of which is a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. The city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product (GMP) of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world.

New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan; the post was named New Amsterdam in 1626. The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the country’s largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a world symbol of the United States and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, and environmental sustainability, and as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity.

Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world’s ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world’s “heart” and its “Crossroads”, is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world’s busiest pedestrian intersections, and a major center of the world’s entertainment industry. The names of many of the city’s landmarks, skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattan’s real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, it has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, and the city is home to the world’s two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ.





In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York, who would become King James II of England. James’s older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had recently seized from the Dutch.

Early history

During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet (300 m) in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of regolith, leaving the bedrock that serves as the geologic foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet contributed to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island.

In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the western portion of Long Island, including the area that would become Brooklyn and Queens; Manhattan; the Bronx; and the Lower Hudson Valley.

The first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême (New Angoulême). A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio (Saint Anthony’s River). The Padrón Real of 1527, the first scientific map to show the East Coast of North America continuously, was informed by Gomes’ expedition and labeled the northeastern United States as Tierra de Esteban Gómez in his honor.


Peter Minuit is credited with the purchase of the island of Manhattan in 1626.

In 1609, the English explorer Henry Hudson rediscovered the New York Harbor while searching for the Northwest Passage to the Orient for the Dutch East India Company. He proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River (now the Hudson River), named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange. Hudson’s first mate described the harbor as “a very good Harbour for all windes” and the river as “a mile broad” and “full of fish.” Hudson sailed roughly 150 miles (240 km) north, past the site of the present-day New York State capital city of Albany, in the belief that it might be an oceanic tributary before the river became too shallow to continue. He made a ten-day exploration of the area and claimed the region for the Dutch East India Company. In 1614, the area between Cape Cod and Delaware Bay was claimed by the Netherlands and called Nieuw-Nederland (New Netherland).

The first non-Native American inhabitant of what would eventually become New York City was Juan Rodriguez (transliterated to Dutch as Jan Rodrigues), a merchant from Santo Domingo. Born in Santo Domingo of Portuguese and African descent, he arrived in Manhattan during the winter of 1613–1614, trapping for pelts and trading with the local population as a representative of the Dutch. Broadway, from 159th Street to 218th Street in Upper Manhattan, is named Juan Rodriguez Way in his honor.


New Amsterdam, centered in the eventual Lower Manhattan, in 1664, the year England took control and renamed it “New York”.

Dutch rule

A permanent European presence in New Netherland began in 1624 – making New York the 12th oldest continuously occupied European-established settlement in the continental United States – with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement on Governors Island. In 1625, construction was started on a citadel and Fort Amsterdam, later called Nieuw Amsterdam (New Amsterdam), on present-day Manhattan Island. The colony of New Amsterdam was centered at the site which would eventually become Lower Manhattan. In 1626, the Dutch colonial Director-General Peter Minuit, acting as charged by the Dutch West India Company, purchased the island of Manhattan from the Canarsie, a small Lenape band, for 60 guilders (about $1,000 in 2006). A disproved legend claims that Manhattan was purchased for $24 worth of glass beads.

Following the purchase, New Amsterdam grew slowly. To attract settlers, the Dutch instituted the patroon system in 1628, whereby wealthy Dutchmen (patroons, or patrons) who brought 50 colonists to New Netherland would be awarded swathes of land, along with local political autonomy and rights to participate in the lucrative fur trade. This program had little success.

Since 1621, the Dutch West India Company had operated as a monopoly in New Netherland, on authority granted by the Dutch States General. In 1639–1640, in an effort to bolster economic growth, the Dutch West India Company relinquished its monopoly over the fur trade, leading to growth in the production and trade of food, timber, tobacco, and slaves (particularly with the Dutch West Indies).

In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant began his tenure as the last Director-General of New Netherland. During his tenure, the population of New Netherland grew from 2,000 to 8,000. Stuyvesant has been credited with improving law and order in the colony; however, he also earned a reputation as a despotic leader. He instituted regulations on liquor sales, attempted to assert control over the Dutch Reformed Church, and blocked other religious groups (including Quakers, Jews, and Lutherans) from establishing houses of worship. The Dutch West India Company would eventually attempt to ease tensions between Stuyvesant and residents of New Amsterdam.

English rule


Fort George and the city of New York c. 1731

In 1664, unable to summon any significant resistance, Stuyvesant surrendered New Amsterdam to English troops, led by Colonel Richard Nicolls, without bloodshed. The terms of the surrender permitted Dutch residents to remain in the colony and allowed for religious freedom. The English promptly renamed the fledgling city “New York” after the Duke of York (the future King James II of England). The transfer was confirmed in 1667 by the Treaty of Breda, which concluded the Second Anglo-Dutch War.

On August 24, 1673, during the Third Anglo-Dutch War, Dutch captain Anthony Colve seized the colony of New York from England at the behest of Cornelis Evertsen the Youngest and rechristened it “New Orange” after William III, the Prince of Orange. The Dutch would soon return the island to England under the Treaty of Westminster of November 1674.

Several intertribal wars among the Native Americans and some epidemics brought on by contact with the Europeans caused sizeable population losses for the Lenape between the years 1660 and 1670. By 1700, the Lenape population had diminished to 200. New York experienced several yellow fever epidemics in the 18th century, losing ten percent of its population to the disease in 1702 alone.

New York grew in importance as a trading port while under British rule in the early 1700s. It also became a center of slavery, with 42% of households holding slaves by 1730, the highest percentage outside Charleston, South Carolina. Most slaveholders held a few or several domestic slaves, but others hired them out to work at labor. Slavery became integrally tied to New York’s economy through the labor of slaves throughout the port, and the banks and shipping tied to the American South. Discovery of the African Burying Ground in the 1990s, during construction of a new federal courthouse near Foley Square, revealed that tens of thousands of Africans had been buried in the area in the colonial years.

The 1735 trial and acquittal in Manhattan of John Peter Zenger, who had been accused of seditious libel after criticizing colonial governor William Cosby, helped to establish the freedom of the press in North America. In 1754, Columbia University was founded under charter by King George II as King’s College in Lower Manhattan.

American Revolution


The Battle of Long Island, the largest battle of the American Revolution, took place in Brooklyn in 1776.

The Stamp Act Congress met in New York in October 1765, as the Sons of Liberty, organized in the city, skirmished over the next ten years with British troops stationed there. The Battle of Long Island, the largest battle of the American Revolutionary War, was fought in August 1776 within the modern-day borough of Brooklyn. After the battle, in which the Americans were defeated, the British made the city their military and political base of operations in North America. The city was a haven for Loyalist refugees and escaped slaves who joined the British lines for freedom newly promised by the Crown for all fighters. As many as 10,000 escaped slaves crowded into the city during the British occupation. When the British forces evacuated at the close of the war in 1783, they transported 3,000 freedmen for resettlement in Nova Scotia. They resettled other freedmen in England and the Caribbean.

The only attempt at a peaceful solution to the war took place at the Conference House on Staten Island between American delegates, including Benjamin Franklin, and British general Lord Howe on September 11, 1776. Shortly after the British occupation began, the Great Fire of New York occurred, a large conflagration on the West Side of Lower Manhattan, which destroyed about a quarter of the buildings in the city, including Trinity Church.

In 1785, the assembly of the Congress of the Confederation made New York City the national capital shortly after the war. New York was the last capital of the U.S. under the Articles of Confederation and the first capital under the Constitution of the United States. In 1789, the first President of the United States, George Washington, was inaugurated; the first United States Congress and the Supreme Court of the United States each assembled for the first time, and the United States Bill of Rights was drafted, all at Federal Hall on Wall Street. By 1790, New York had surpassed Philadelphia as the largest city in the United States.

Nineteenth century


Broadway follows the Native American Wickquasgeck Trail through Manhattan.

Under New York State’s gradual abolition act of 1799, children of slave mothers were to be eventually liberated but to be held in indentured servitude until their mid-to-late twenties. Together with slaves freed by their masters after the Revolutionary War and escaped slaves, a significant free-black population gradually developed in Manhattan. Under such influential United States founders as Alexander Hamilton and John Jay, the New York Manumission Society worked for abolition and established the African Free School to educate black children. It was not until 1827 that slavery was completely abolished in the state, and free blacks struggled afterward with discrimination. New York interracial abolitionist activism continued; among its leaders were graduates of the African Free School. The city’s black population reached more than 16,000 in 1840.

In the 19th century, the city was transformed by development relating to its status as a trading center, as well as by European immigration. The city adopted the Commissioners’ Plan of 1811, which expanded the city street grid to encompass all of Manhattan. The 1825 completion of the Erie Canal through central New York connected the Atlantic port to the agricultural markets and commodities of the North American interior via the Hudson River and the Great Lakes. Local politics became dominated by Tammany Hall, a political machine supported by Irish and German immigrants.

Several prominent American literary figures lived in New York during the 1830s and 1840s, including William Cullen Bryant, Washington Irving, Herman Melville, Rufus Wilmot Griswold, John Keese, Nathaniel Parker Willis, and Edgar Allan Poe. Public-minded members of the contemporaneous business elite lobbied for the establishment of Central Park, which in 1857 became the first landscaped park in an American city.


Manhattan’s Little Italy, Lower East Side, circa 1900.

The Great Irish Famine brought a large influx of Irish immigrants, of whom over 200,000 were living in New York by 1860, upwards of a quarter of the city’s population. There was also extensive immigration from the German provinces, where revolutions had disrupted societies, and Germans comprised another 25% of New York’s population by 1860.

Democratic Party candidates were consistently elected to local office, increasing the city’s ties to the South and its dominant party. In 1861, Mayor Fernando Wood called upon the aldermen to declare independence from Albany and the United States after the South seceded, but his proposal was not acted on. Anger at new military conscription laws during the American Civil War (1861–1865), which spared wealthier men who could afford to pay a $300 (equivalent to $5,963 in 2017) commutation fee to hire a substitute, led to the Draft Riots of 1863, whose most visible participants were ethnic Irish working class. The situation deteriorated into attacks on New York’s elite, followed by attacks on black New Yorkers and their property after fierce competition for a decade between Irish immigrants and black people for work. Rioters burned the Colored Orphan Asylum to the ground, with more than 200 children escaping harm due to efforts of the New York City Police Department, which was mainly made up of Irish immigrants. According to historian James M. McPherson (2001), at least 120 people were killed. In all, eleven black men were lynched over five days, and the riots forced hundreds of blacks to flee the city for Williamsburg, Brooklyn, and New Jersey; the black population in Manhattan fell below 10,000 by 1865, which it had last been in 1820. The white working class had established dominance. Violence by longshoremen against black men was especially fierce in the docks area. It was one of the worst incidents of civil unrest in American history.

Modern history


A construction worker on top of the Empire State Building as it was being built in 1930. The Chrysler Building is behind him.

In 1898, the modern City of New York was formed with the consolidation of Brooklyn (until then a separate city), the County of New York (which then included parts of the Bronx), the County of Richmond, and the western portion of the County of Queens. The opening of the subway in 1904, first built as separate private systems, helped bind the new city together. Throughout the first half of the 20th century, the city became a world center for industry, commerce, and communication.

In 1904, the steamship General Slocum caught fire in the East River, killing 1,021 people on board. In 1911, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, the city’s worst industrial disaster, took the lives of 146 garment workers and spurred the growth of the International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union and major improvements in factory safety standards.


UN Secretary General Dag Hammarskjöld in front of the United Nations Headquarters building, completed in 1952

New York’s non-white population was 36,620 in 1890. New York City was a prime destination in the early twentieth century for African Americans during the Great Migration from the American South, and by 1916, New York City had become home to the largest urban African diaspora in North America. The Harlem Renaissance of literary and cultural life flourished during the era of Prohibition. The larger economic boom generated construction of skyscrapers competing in height and creating an identifiable skyline.

New York became the most populous urbanized area in the world in the early 1920s, overtaking London. The metropolitan area surpassed the 10 million mark in the early 1930s, becoming the first megacity in human history. The difficult years of the Great Depression saw the election of reformer Fiorello La Guardia as mayor and the fall of Tammany Hall after eighty years of political dominance.

Returning World War II veterans created a post-war economic boom and the development of large housing tracts in eastern Queens and Nassau County as well as similar suburban areas in New Jersey. New York emerged from the war unscathed as the leading city of the world, with Wall Street leading America’s place as the world’s dominant economic power. The United Nations Headquarters was completed in 1952, solidifying New York’s global geopolitical influence, and the rise of abstract expressionism in the city precipitated New York’s displacement of Paris as the center of the art world.


The Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village, a designated U.S. National Historic Landmark and National Monument, as the site of the June 1969 Stonewall riots.

The Stonewall riots were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the gay community against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan. They are widely considered to constitute the single most important event leading to the gay liberation movement and the modern fight for LGBT rights in the United States.

In the 1970s, job losses due to industrial restructuring caused New York City to suffer from economic problems and rising crime rates. While a resurgence in the financial industry greatly improved the city’s economic health in the 1980s, New York’s crime rate continued to increase through that decade and into the beginning of the 1990s. By the mid 1990s, crime rates started to drop dramatically due to revised police strategies, improving economic opportunities, gentrification, and new residents, both American transplants and new immigrants from Asia and Latin America. Important new sectors, such as Silicon Alley, emerged in the city’s economy. New York’s population reached all-time highs in the 2000 Census and then again in the 2010 Census.


United Airlines Flight 175 hits the South Tower of the original World Trade Center on September 11, 2001.

The city and surrounding area suffered the bulk of the economic damage and largest loss of human life in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 attacks when 10 of the 19 terrorists associated with Al-Qaeda piloted American Airlines Flight 11 into the North Tower of the World Trade Center and United Airlines Flight 175 into the South Tower of the World Trade Center, and later destroyed them, killing 2,192 civilians, 343 firefighters, and 71 law enforcement officers who were in the towers and in the surrounding area. The North Tower was subsequently the tallest building ever to be destroyed and still is. The rebuilding of the area, has created a new One World Trade Center, and a 9/11 memorial and museum along with other new buildings and infrastructure. The World Trade Center PATH station, which had opened on July 19, 1909 as the Hudson Terminal, was also destroyed in the attack. A temporary station was built and opened on November 23, 2003. An 800,000-square-foot (74,000 m2) permanent rail station designed by Santiago Calatrava, the World Trade Center Transportation Hub, the city’s third-largest hub, was completed in 2016. The new One World Trade Center is the tallest skyscraper in the Western Hemisphere and the sixth-tallest building in the world by pinnacle height, with its spire reaching a symbolic 1,776 feet (541.3 m) in reference to the year of U.S. independence.

The Occupy Wall Street protests in Zuccotti Park in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan began on September 17, 2011, receiving global attention and popularizing the Occupy movement against social and economic inequality worldwide.



The core of the New York City Metropolitan Area, with Manhattan Island at its center

New York City is situated in the Northeastern United States, in southeastern New York State, approximately halfway between Washington, D.C. and Boston. The location at the mouth of the Hudson River, which feeds into a naturally sheltered harbor and then into the Atlantic Ocean, has helped the city grow in significance as a trading port. Most of New York City is built on the three islands of Long Island, Manhattan, and Staten Island.

The Hudson River flows through the Hudson Valley into New York Bay. Between New York City and Troy, New York, the river is an estuary. The Hudson River separates the city from the U.S. state of New Jersey. The East River—a tidal strait—flows from Long Island Sound and separates the Bronx and Manhattan from Long Island. The Harlem River, another tidal strait between the East and Hudson Rivers, separates most of Manhattan from the Bronx. The Bronx River, which flows through the Bronx and Westchester County, is the only entirely fresh water river in the city.

The city’s land has been altered substantially by human intervention, with considerable land reclamation along the waterfronts since Dutch colonial times; reclamation is most prominent in Lower Manhattan, with developments such as Battery Park City in the 1970s and 1980s. Some of the natural relief in topography has been evened out, especially in Manhattan.

The city’s total area is 468.484 square miles (1,213.37 km2), including 302.643 sq mi (783.84 km2) of land and 165.841 sq mi (429.53 km2) of this is water. The highest point in the city is Todt Hill on Staten Island, which, at 409.8 feet (124.9 m) above sea level, is the highest point on the Eastern Seaboard south of Maine. The summit of the ridge is mostly covered in woodlands as part of the Staten Island Greenbelt.




Ten-mile (16km) Manhattan skyline panorama from 120th Street to the Battery, taken in February 2018 from across the Hudson River in Weehawken, New Jersey.
1. Riverside Church Time 2. Warner Center 3. 220 Central Park South 4. Central Park Tower 5. One57 6. 432 Park Avenue 7. 53W53 8. Chrysler Building 9. Bank of America Tower 11. Conde Nast Building 12. The New York Times Building 13. Empire State Building 13. Manhattan West 14a: 55 Hudson Yards, 14b: 35 Hudson Yards, 14c: 10 Hudson Yards, 14d: 15 Hudson Yards 15. 56 Leonard Street 16. 8 Spruce Street 17. Woolworth Building 18. 70 Pine Street 19. 30 Park Place 20. Trump Building 21. Three World Trade Center 22. Four World Trade Center 23. One World Trade Center


Downtown Brooklyn at the western end of Long Island. The Manhattan Bridge (far left) and the Brooklyn Bridge (near left) are seen across the East River from Lower Manhattan at in June 2013.


Long Island City, Queens, facing the East River at blue hour in May 2015. At left is the Queensboro Bridge, connecting Queens to Manhattan.


The Grand Concourse in The Bronx, foreground with Manhattan in the background in February 2018


The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, one of the world’s longest suspension bridges, connecting Brooklyn, foreground, to Staten Island, in the background, across The Narrows.



Modernist architecture juxtaposed with classical architecture is seen often in New York City.



The Chrysler Building, above, built in 1930, is an example of the Art Deco style, with ornamental hub caps and a spire. The Empire State Building is a solitary icon of New York. It was the world’s tallest building 1931–70 and is defined by its setbacks, Art Deco details and the spire.


Landmark 19th-century rowhouses, including brownstones, on tree-lined Kent Street in the Greenpoint Historic District, Brooklyn.

New York has architecturally noteworthy buildings in a wide range of styles and from distinct time periods, from the saltbox style Pieter Claesen Wyckoff House in Brooklyn, the oldest section of which dates to 1656, to the modern One World Trade Center, the skyscraper at Ground Zero in Lower Manhattan and the most expensive office tower in the world by construction cost.

Manhattan’s skyline, with its many skyscrapers, is universally recognized, and the city has been home to several of the tallest buildings in the world. As of 2011, New York City had 5,937 high-rise buildings, of which 550 completed structures were at least 330 feet (100 m) high, both second in the world after Hong Kong, with over 50 completed skyscrapers taller than 656 feet (200 m). These include the Woolworth Building, an early example of Gothic Revival architecture in skyscraper design, built with massively scaled Gothic detailing; completed in 1913, for 17 years it was the world’s tallest building.

The 1916 Zoning Resolution required setbacks in new buildings and restricted towers to a percentage of the lot size, to allow sunlight to reach the streets below. The Art Deco style of the Chrysler Building (1930) and Empire State Building (1931), with their tapered tops and steel spires, reflected the zoning requirements. The buildings have distinctive ornamentation, such as the eagles at the corners of the 61st floor on the Chrysler Building, and are considered some of the finest examples of the Art Deco style. A highly influential example of the international style in the United States is the Seagram Building (1957), distinctive for its façade using visible bronze-toned I-beams to evoke the building’s structure. The Condé Nast Building (2000) is a prominent example of green design in American skyscrapers and has received an award from the American Institute of Architects and AIA New York State for its design.

The character of New York’s large residential districts is often defined by the elegant brownstone rowhouses and townhouses and shabby tenements that were built during a period of rapid expansion from 1870 to 1930. In contrast, New York City also has neighborhoods that are less densely populated and feature free-standing dwellings. In neighborhoods such as Riverdale (in the Bronx), Ditmas Park (in Brooklyn), and Douglaston (in Queens), large single-family homes are common in various architectural styles such as Tudor Revival and Victorian.

Stone and brick became the city’s building materials of choice after the construction of wood-frame houses was limited in the aftermath of the Great Fire of 1835. A distinctive feature of many of the city’s buildings is the wooden roof-mounted water tower. In the 1800s, the city required their installation on buildings higher than six stories to prevent the need for excessively high water pressures at lower elevations, which could break municipal water pipes. Garden apartments became popular during the 1920s in outlying areas, such as Jackson Heights.

According to the United States Geological Survey, an updated analysis of seismic hazard in July 2014 revealed a “slightly lower hazard for tall buildings” in New York City than previously assessed. Scientists estimated this lessened risk based upon a lower likelihood than previously thought of slow shaking near the city, which would be more likely to cause damage to taller structures from an earthquake in the vicinity of the city.




New York City is often referred to collectively as the five boroughs, and in turn, there are hundreds of distinct neighborhoods throughout the boroughs, many with a definable history and character to call their own. If the boroughs were each independent cities, four of the boroughs (Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, and the Bronx) would be among the ten most populous cities in the United States (Staten island would be ranked 37th) ; these same boroughs are coterminous with the four most densely populated counties in the United States (New York [Manhattan], Kings [Brooklyn], Bronx, and Queens).

Manhattan (New York County) is the geographically smallest and most densely populated borough, is home to Central Park and most of the city’s skyscrapers, and may be locally known simply as The City. Manhattan’s (New York County’s) population density of 72,033 people per square mile (27,812/km²) in 2015 makes it the highest of any county in the United States and higher than the density of any individual American city. Manhattan is the cultural, administrative, and financial center of New York City and contains the headquarters of many major multinational corporations, the United Nations Headquarters, Wall Street, and a number of important universities. Manhattan is often described as the financial and cultural center of the world.

Most of the borough is situated on Manhattan Island, at the mouth of the Hudson River. Several small islands also compose part of the borough of Manhattan, including Randall’s Island, Wards Island, and Roosevelt Island in the East River, and Governors Island and Liberty Island to the south in New York Harbor. Manhattan Island is loosely divided into Lower, Midtown, and Uptown regions. Uptown Manhattan is divided by Central Park into the Upper East Side and the Upper West Side, and above the park is Harlem. The borough also includes a small neighborhood on the United States mainland, called Marble Hill, which is contiguous with The Bronx. New York City’s remaining four boroughs are collectively referred to as the outer boroughs.

Brooklyn (Kings County), on the western tip of Long Island, is the city’s most populous borough. Brooklyn is known for its cultural, social, and ethnic diversity, an independent art scene, distinct neighborhoods, and a distinctive architectural heritage. Downtown Brooklyn is the largest central core neighborhood in the outer boroughs. The borough has a long beachfront shoreline including Coney Island, established in the 1870s as one of the earliest amusement grounds in the country. Marine Park and Prospect Park are the two largest parks in Brooklyn. Since 2010, Brooklyn has evolved into a thriving hub of entrepreneurship and high technology startup firms, and of postmodern art and design.

Queens (Queens County), on Long Island north and east of Brooklyn, is geographically the largest borough, the most ethnically diverse county in the United States, and the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world. Historically a collection of small towns and villages founded by the Dutch, the borough has since developed both commercial and residential prominence. Downtown Flushing has become one of the busiest central core neighborhoods in the outer boroughs. Queens is the site of Citi Field, the baseball stadium of the New York Mets, and hosts the annual U.S. Open tennis tournament at Flushing Meadows-Corona Park. Additionally, two of the three busiest airports serving the New York metropolitan area, John F. Kennedy International Airport and LaGuardia Airport, are located in Queens. (The third is Newark Liberty International Airport in Newark, New Jersey.)

Staten Island (Richmond County) is the most suburban in character of the five boroughs. Staten Island is connected to Brooklyn by the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, and to Manhattan by way of the free Staten Island Ferry, a daily commuter ferry which provides unobstructed views of the Statue of Liberty, Ellis Island, and Lower Manhattan. In central Staten Island, the Staten Island Greenbelt spans approximately 2,500 acres (10 km2), including 28 miles (45 km) of walking trails and one of the last undisturbed forests in the city. Designated in 1984 to protect the island’s natural lands, the Greenbelt comprises seven city parks.

The Bronx (Bronx County) is New York City’s northernmost borough and the only New York City borough with a majority of it a part of the mainland United States. It is the location of Yankee Stadium, the baseball park of the New York Yankees, and home to the largest cooperatively owned housing complex in the United States, Co-op City. It is also home to the Bronx Zoo, the world’s largest metropolitan zoo, which spans 265 acres (1.07 km2) and houses over 6,000 animals. The Bronx is also the birthplace of rap and hip hop culture. Pelham Bay Park is the largest park in New York City, at 2,772 acres (1,122 ha).



Avenue C in Manhattan after flooding caused by Hurricane Sandy on October 29, 2012.

Under the Köppen climate classification, using the 0 °C (32 °F) isotherm, New York City features a humid subtropical climate (Cfa), and is thus the northernmost major city on the North American continent with this categorization. The suburbs to the immediate north and west lie in the transitional zone between humid subtropical and humid continental climates (Dfa). Annually, the city averages 234 days with at least some sunshine. The city lies in the USDA 7b plant hardiness zone.

Winters are cold and damp, and prevailing wind patterns that blow offshore temper the moderating effects of the Atlantic Ocean; yet the Atlantic and the partial shielding from colder air by the Appalachians keep the city warmer in the winter than inland North American cities at similar or lesser latitudes such as Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and Indianapolis. The daily mean temperature in January, the area’s coldest month, is 32.6 °F (0.3 °C); temperatures usually drop to 10 °F (−12 °C) several times per winter, and reach 60 °F (16 °C) several days in the coldest winter month. Spring and autumn are unpredictable and can range from chilly to warm, although they are usually mild with low humidity. Summers are typically warm to hot and humid, with a daily mean temperature of 76.5 °F (24.7 °C) in July. Nighttime conditions are often exacerbated by the urban heat island phenomenon, while daytime temperatures exceed 90 °F (32 °C) on average of 17 days each summer and in some years exceed 100 °F (38 °C). Extreme temperatures have ranged from −15 °F (−26 °C), recorded on February 9, 1934, up to 106 °F (41 °C) on July 9, 1936. The average water temperature of the nearby Atlantic Ocean ranges from 39.7 °F (4.3 °C) in February to 74.1 °F (23.4 °C) in August.

The city receives 49.9 inches (1,270 mm) of precipitation annually, which is relatively evenly spread throughout the year. Average winter snowfall between 1981 and 2010 has been 25.8 inches (66 cm); this varies considerably between years. Hurricanes and tropical storms are rare in the New York area. Hurricane Sandy brought a destructive storm surge to New York City on the evening of October 29, 2012, flooding numerous streets, tunnels, and subway lines in Lower Manhattan and other areas of the city and cutting off electricity in many parts of the city and its suburbs. The storm and its profound impacts have prompted the discussion of constructing seawalls and other coastal barriers around the shorelines of the city and the metropolitan area to minimize the risk of destructive consequences from another such event in the future.





Flushing Meadows–Corona Park was used in the 1964 New York World’s Fair, with the Unisphere as its centerpiece.

The City of New York has a complex park system, with various lands operated by the National Park Service, the New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation, and the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation.

In its 2013 ParkScore ranking, The Trust for Public Land reported that the park system in New York City was the second best park system among the 50 most populous US cities, behind the park system of Minneapolis. ParkScore ranks urban park systems by a formula that analyzes median park size, park acres as percent of city area, the percent of city residents within a half-mile of a park, spending of park services per resident, and the number of playgrounds per 10,000 residents.

National parks


The Statue of Liberty on Liberty Island in New York Harbor is a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom, democracy, and opportunity.

Gateway National Recreation Area contains over 26,000 acres (10,521.83 ha) in total, most of it surrounded by New York City, including the Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge. In Brooklyn and Queens, the park contains over 9,000 acres (36 km2) of salt marsh, wetlands, islands, and water, including most of Jamaica Bay. Also in Queens, the park includes a significant portion of the western Rockaway Peninsula, most notably Jacob Riis Park and Fort Tilden. In Staten Island, Gateway National Recreation Area includes Fort Wadsworth, with historic pre-Civil War era Battery Weed and Fort Tompkins, and Great Kills Park, with beaches, trails, and a marina.

The Statue of Liberty National Monument and Ellis Island Immigration Museum are managed by the National Park Service and are in both the states of New York and New Jersey. They are joined in the harbor by Governors Island National Monument, in New York. Historic sites under federal management on Manhattan Island include Castle Clinton National Monument; Federal Hall National Memorial; Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace National Historic Site; General Grant National Memorial (“Grant’s Tomb”); African Burial Ground National Monument; and Hamilton Grange National Memorial. Hundreds of private properties are listed on the National Register of Historic Places or as a National Historic Landmark such as, for example, the Stonewall Inn, part of the Stonewall National Monument in Greenwich Village, as the catalyst of the modern gay rights movement.

State parks

There are seven state parks within the confines of New York City, including Clay Pit Ponds State Park Preserve, a natural area that includes extensive riding trails, and Riverbank State Park, a 28-acre (110,000 m2) facility that rises 69 feet (21 m) over the Hudson River.

City parks


Reindeer at the Bronx Zoo, the world’s largest metropolitan zoo.

New York City has over 28,000 acres (110 km2) of municipal parkland and 14 miles (23 km) of public beaches. The largest municipal park in the city is Pelham Bay Park in the Bronx, with 2,772 acres (1,122 ha).

  • Central Park, an 843-acre (3.41 km2) park in middle-upper Manhattan, is the most visited urban park in the United States and one of the most filmed locations in the world, with 40 million visitors in 2013. The park contains a wide range of attractions; there are several lakes and ponds, two ice-skating rinks, the Central Park Zoo, the Central Park Conservatory Garden, and the 106-acre (0.43 km2) Jackie Onassis Reservoir. Indoor attractions include Belvedere Castle with its nature center, the Swedish Cottage Marionette Theater, and the historic Carousel. On October 23, 2012, hedge fund manager John A. Paulson announced a $100 million gift to the Central Park Conservancy, the largest ever monetary donation to New York City’s park system.
  • Washington Square Park is a prominent landmark in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan. The Washington Square Arch at the northern gateway to the park is an iconic symbol of both New York University and Greenwich Village.
  • Prospect Park in Brooklyn has a 90-acre (360,000 m2) meadow, a lake, and extensive woodlands. Within the park is the historic Battle Pass, prominent in the Battle of Long Island.
  • Flushing Meadows–Corona Park in Queens, with its 897 acres (363 ha) making it the city’s fourth largest park, was the setting for the 1939 World’s Fair and the 1964 World’s Fair and is host to the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center and the annual United States Open Tennis Championships tournament.
  • Over a fifth of the Bronx’s area, 7,000 acres (28 km2), is given over to open space and parks, including Pelham Bay Park, Van Cortlandt Park, the Bronx Zoo, and the New York Botanical Gardens.
  • In Staten Island, the Conference House Park contains the historic Conference House, site of the only attempt of a peaceful resolution to the American Revolution which was conducted in September 1775, attended by Benjamin Franklin representing the Americans and Lord Howe representing the British Crown. The historic Burial Ridge, the largest Native American burial ground within New York City, is within the park.


Central Park, as seen from Rockefeller Center, is the most visited city park in the United States.

Military installations

New York City is home to Fort Hamilton, the U.S. military’s only active duty installation within the city. The Brooklyn facility was established in 1825 on the site of a small battery utilized during the American Revolution, and it is one of America’s longest serving military forts. Today Fort Hamilton serves as the headquarters of the North Atlantic Division of the United States Army Corps of Engineers and for the New York City Recruiting Battalion. It also houses the 1179th Transportation Brigade, the 722nd Aeromedical Staging Squadron, and a military entrance processing station. Other formerly active military reservations still utilized for National Guard and military training or reserve operations in the city include Fort Wadsworth in Staten Island and Fort Totten in Queens.




New York City is the most populous city in the United States, with an estimated record high of 8,622,698 residents as of 2017, incorporating more immigration into the city than outmigration since the 2010 United States Census. More than twice as many people live in New York City as in the second-most populous U.S. city (Los Angeles), and within a smaller area. New York City gained more residents between April 2010 and July 2014 (316,000) than any other U.S. city. New York City’s population is about 43% of New York State’s population and about 36% of the population of the New York metropolitan area.


New York City had an estimated population density of 28,491 people per square mile (11,000/km²) in 2017, with Manhattan alone at 72,918/sq mi (28,154/km²).

Population density

In 2017, the city had an estimated population density of 28,491 people per square mile (11,000/km²), rendering it the most densely populated of all municipalities housing over 100,000 residents in the United States, with several small cities (of fewer than 100,000) in adjacent Hudson County, New Jersey having greater density, as per the 2010 Census. Geographically co-extensive with New York County, the borough of Manhattan’s 2017 population density of 72,918 inhabitants per square mile (28,154/km2) makes it the highest of any county in the United States and higher than the density of any individual American city.


Race and ethnicity

The city’s population in 2010 was 44% white (33.3% non-Hispanic white), 25.5% black (23% non-Hispanic black), 0.7% Native American, and 12.7% Asian. Hispanics of any race represented 28.6% of the population, while Asians constituted the fastest-growing segment of the city’s population between 2000 and 2010; the non-Hispanic white population declined 3 percent, the smallest recorded decline in decades; and for the first time since the Civil War, the number of blacks declined over a decade.







From top: the Manhattan Chinatown; Lower Manhattan’s Little Italy; Upper Manhattan’s Spanish Harlem; Little India, Queens; Brooklyn’s Little Russia; Midtown Manhattan’s Koreatown.

Throughout its history, the city has been a major port of entry for immigrants into the United States; more than 12 million European immigrants were received at Ellis Island between 1892 and 1924. The term “melting pot” was first coined to describe densely populated immigrant neighborhoods on the Lower East Side. By 1900, Germans constituted the largest immigrant group, followed by the Irish, Jews, and Italians. In 1940, whites represented 92% of the city’s population.

Approximately 37% of the city’s population is foreign born and more than half of all children are born to mothers who are immigrants. In New York, no single country or region of origin dominates. The ten largest sources of foreign-born individuals in the city as of 2011 were the Dominican Republic, China, Mexico, Guyana, Jamaica, Ecuador, Haiti, India, Russia, and Trinidad and Tobago, while the Bangladeshi-born immigrant population has become one of the fastest growing in the city, counting over 74,000 by 2011.

Asian Americans in New York City, according to the 2010 Census, number more than one million, greater than the combined totals of San Francisco and Los Angeles. New York contains the highest total Asian population of any U.S. city proper. The New York City borough of Queens is home to the state’s largest Asian American population and the largest Andean (Colombian, Ecuadorian, Peruvian, and Bolivian) populations in the United States, and is also the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world. The Chinese population constitutes the fastest-growing nationality in New York State; multiple satellites of the original Manhattan Chinatown, in Brooklyn, and around Flushing, Queens, are thriving as traditionally urban enclaves – while also expanding rapidly eastward into suburban Nassau County on Long Island, as the New York metropolitan region and New York State have become the top destinations for new Chinese immigrants, respectively, and large-scale Chinese immigration continues into New York City and surrounding areas, with the largest metropolitan Chinese diaspora outside Asia, including an estimated 812,410 individuals in 2015. In 2012, 6.3% of New York City was of Chinese ethnicity, with nearly three-fourths living in either Queens or Brooklyn, geographically on Long Island. A community numbering 20,000 Korean-Chinese (Chaoxianzu or Joseonjok) is centered in Flushing, Queens, while New York City is also home to the largest Tibetan population outside China, India, and Nepal, also centered in Queens. Koreans made up 1.2% of the city’s population, and Japanese 0.3%. Filipinos were the largest Southeast Asian ethnic group at 0.8%, followed by Vietnamese, who made up 0.2% of New York City’s population in 2010. Indians are the largest South Asian group, comprising 2.4% of the city’s population, with Bangladeshis and Pakistanis at 0.7% and 0.5%, respectively. Queens is the preferred borough of settlement for Asian Indians, Koreans, Filipinos, and Malaysians and other Southeast Asians; while Brooklyn is receiving large numbers of both West Indian and Asian Indian immigrants.


Map of racial distribution in New York, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic or Other (yellow)

New York City has the largest European and non-Hispanic white population of any American city. At 2.7 million in 2012, New York’s non-Hispanic white population is larger than the non-Hispanic white populations of Los Angeles (1.1 million), Chicago (865,000), and Houston (550,000) combined. The non-Hispanic white population was 6.6 million in 1940. The non-Hispanic white population has begun to increase since 2010. The European diaspora residing in the city is very diverse. According to 2012 Census estimates, there were roughly 560,000 Italian Americans, 385,000 Irish Americans, 253,000 German Americans, 223,000 Russian Americans, 201,000 Polish Americans, and 137,000 English Americans. Additionally, Greek and French Americans numbered 65,000 each, with those of Hungarian descent estimated at 60,000 people. Ukrainian and Scottish Americans numbered 55,000 and 35,000, respectively. People identifying ancestry from Spain numbered 30,838 total in 2010. People of Norwegian and Swedish descent both stood at about 20,000 each, while people of Czech, Lithuanian, Portuguese, Scotch-Irish, and Welsh descent all numbered between 12,000–14,000 people. Arab Americans number over 160,000 in New York City, with the highest concentration in Brooklyn. Central Asians, primarily Uzbek Americans, are a rapidly growing segment of the city’s non-Hispanic white population, enumerating over 30,000, and including over half of all Central Asian immigrants to the United States, most settling in Queens or Brooklyn. Albanian Americans are most highly concentrated in the Bronx.

The wider New York City metropolitan statistical area, with over 20 million people, about 50% greater than the second-place Los Angeles metropolitan area in the United States, is also ethnically diverse, with the largest foreign-born population of any metropolitan region in the world. The New York region continues to be by far the leading metropolitan gateway for legal immigrants admitted into the United States, substantially exceeding the combined totals of Los Angeles and Miami. It is home to the largest Jewish and Israeli communities outside Israel, with the Jewish population in the region numbering over 1.5 million in 2012 and including many diverse Jewish sects predominantly from around the Middle East and Eastern Europe. The metropolitan area is also home to 20% of the nation’s Indian Americans and at least 20 Little India enclaves, and 15% of all Korean Americans and four Koreatowns; the largest Asian Indian population in the Western Hemisphere; the largest Russian American, Italian American, and African American populations; the largest Dominican American, Puerto Rican American, and South American and second-largest overall Hispanic population in the United States, numbering 4.8 million; and includes multiple established Chinatowns within New York City alone.

Ecuador, Colombia, Guyana, Peru, and Brazil were the top source countries from South America for legal immigrants to the New York City region in 2013; the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Haiti, and Trinidad and Tobago in the Caribbean; Egypt, Ghana, and Nigeria from Africa; and El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala in Central America. Amidst a resurgence of Puerto Rican migration to New York City, this population had increased to approximately 1.3 million in the metropolitan area as of 2013.

Sexual orientation and gender identity

International Transgender Day of Visibility introduced by Manila-born Geena Rocero in New York City, top. The scene at the 2015 LGBT Pride March, below. New York City is home to the largest LGBTQ community in the United States and one of the world’s largest.

The New York metropolitan area is home to a prominent self-identifying gay and bisexual community estimated at nearly 570,000 individuals, the largest in the United States and one of the world’s largest. Same-sex marriages in New York were legalized on June 24, 2011 and were authorized to take place beginning 30 days thereafter. Charles Kaiser, author of The Gay Metropolis: The Landmark History of Gay Life in America, wrote that in the era after World War II, “New York City became the literal gay metropolis for hundreds of thousands of immigrants from within and without the United States: the place they chose to learn how to live openly, honestly and without shame.” The annual New York City Pride March (or gay pride parade) traverses southward down Fifth Avenue and ends at Greenwich Village in Lower Manhattan; the parade rivals the Sao Paulo Gay Pride Parade as the largest pride parade in the world, attracting tens of thousands of participants and millions of sidewalk spectators each June.

Transgender contribution

Wayne R. Dynes, author of the Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, wrote that drag queens were the only “transgender folks around” during the June 1969 Stonewall riots. “None of them in fact made a major contribution to the movement.” Others say the transgender community in New York City played a significant role in fighting for LGBT equality during the period of the Stonewall riots and thereafter. New York City is home to the largest transgender population in the United States, estimated at 25,000 in 2016. However, until the Stonewall riots, this community had felt marginalized and neglected by the gay community.


The landmark Neo-Gothic Roman Catholic St. Patrick’s Cathedral, Midtown Manhattan

Ultra-Orthodox Jewish residents in Brooklyn. Brooklyn has the largest Jewish community in the United States, with approximately 600,000 individuals.

The Islamic Cultural Center of New York in Upper Manhattan, the first mosque built in New York City.

Ganesh Temple in Flushing, Queens, the oldest Hindu temple in the U.S.

Mahayana Buddhist Temple in Chinatown, Manhattan

Atheism, promoted on an electronic billboard in Times Square, is observed by a significant proportion of New Yorkers.

Christianity (59%) — made up of Roman Catholicism (33%), Protestantism (23%), and other Christians (3%) — is the most prevalent religion in New York, as of 2014. It is followed by Judaism, with approximately 1.1 million adherents, over half of whom live in Brooklyn. The Jewish population makes up 18.4% of the city. Islam ranks third in New York City, with official estimates ranging between 600,000 and 1,000,000 observers, including 10% of the city’s public school children. These three largest groups are followed by Hinduism, Buddhism, and a variety of other religions, as well as atheism. In 2014, 24% of New Yorkers self-identified with no organized religious affiliation.

Wealth and income disparity

New York City has a high degree of income disparity as indicated by its Gini Coefficient of 0.5 for the city overall and 0.6 for Manhattan. In the first quarter of 2014, the average weekly wage in New York County (Manhattan) was $2,749, representing the highest total among large counties in the United States. As of 2017, New York City was home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world at 103, including former Mayor Michael Bloomberg. New York also had the highest density of millionaires per capita among major U.S. cities in 2014, at 4.6% of residents. New York City is one of the relatively few American cities levying an income tax (currently about 3%) on its residents.


City economic overview


New York is a global hub of business and commerce. The city is a major center for banking and finance, retailing, world trade, transportation, tourism, real estate, new media, traditional media, advertising, legal services, accountancy, insurance, theater, fashion, and the arts in the United States; while Silicon Alley, metonymous for New York’s broad-spectrum high technology sphere, continues to expand. The Port of New York and New Jersey is also a major economic engine, handling record cargo volume in 2017, over 6.7 million TEUs. New York City’s unemployment rate fell to its record low of 4.0% in September 2018.

Many Fortune 500 corporations are headquartered in New York City, as are a large number of multinational corporations. One out of ten private sector jobs in the city is with a foreign company. New York City has been ranked first among cities across the globe in attracting capital, business, and tourists. This ability to attract foreign investment helped New York City top the FDi Magazine American Cities of the Future ranking for 2013.

Real estate is a major force in the city’s economy, as the total value of all New York City property was assessed at US$1.072 trillion for the 2017 fiscal year, an increase of 10.6% from the previous year with 89% of the increase coming from market effects. The Time Warner Center is the property with the highest-listed market value in the city, at US$1.1 billion in 2006. New York City is home to some of the nation’s—and the world’s—most valuable real estate. 450 Park Avenue was sold on July 2, 2007 for US$510 million, about $1,589 per square foot ($17,104/m²), breaking the barely month-old record for an American office building of $1,476 per square foot ($15,887/m²) set in the June 2007 sale of 660 Madison Avenue. According to Forbes, in 2014, Manhattan was home to six of the top ten ZIP Codes in the United States by median housing price. Fifth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan commands the highest retail rents in the world, at US$3,000 per square foot ($32,000/m2) in 2017.

As of 2013, the global advertising agencies of Omnicom Group and Interpublic Group, both based in Manhattan, had combined annual revenues of approximately US$21 billion, reflecting New York City’s role as the top global center for the advertising industry, which is metonymously referred to as “Madison Avenue”. The city’s fashion industry provides approximately 180,000 employees with $11 billion in annual wages.

Other important sectors include medical research and technology, non-profit institutions, and universities. Manufacturing accounts for a significant but declining share of employment, although the city’s garment industry is showing a resurgence in Brooklyn. Food processing is a US$5 billion industry that employs more than 19,000 residents.

Chocolate is New York City’s leading specialty-food export, with up to US$234 million worth of exports each year. Entrepreneurs were forming a “Chocolate District” in Brooklyn as of 2014, while Godiva, one of the world’s largest chocolatiers, continues to be headquartered in Manhattan.

Wall Street


The New York Stock Exchange on Wall Street, the world’s largest stock exchange per total market capitalization of its listed companies.

New York City’s most important economic sector lies in its role as the headquarters for the U.S. financial industry, metonymously known as Wall Street. The city’s securities industry, enumerating 163,400 jobs in August 2013, continues to form the largest segment of the city’s financial sector and an important economic engine, accounting in 2012 for 5 percent of the city’s private sector jobs, 8.5 percent (US$3.8 billion) of its tax revenue, and 22 percent of the city’s total wages, including an average salary of US$360,700. Many large financial companies are headquartered in New York City, and the city is also home to a burgeoning number of financial startup companies.

Lower Manhattan is home to the New York Stock Exchange, on Wall Street, and the NASDAQ, at 165 Broadway, representing the world’s largest and second largest stock exchanges, respectively, when measured both by overall average daily trading volume and by total market capitalization of their listed companies in 2013. Investment banking fees on Wall Street totaled approximately $40 billion in 2012, while in 2013, senior New York City bank officers who manage risk and compliance functions earned as much as $324,000 annually. In fiscal year 2013–14, Wall Street’s securities industry generated 19% of New York State’s tax revenue. New York City remains the largest global center for trading in public equity and debt capital markets, driven in part by the size and financial development of the U.S. economy. In July 2013, NYSE Euronext, the operator of the New York Stock Exchange, took over the administration of the London interbank offered rate from the British Bankers Association. New York also leads in hedge fund management; private equity; and the monetary volume of mergers and acquisitions. Several investment banks and investment managers headquartered in Manhattan are important participants in other global financial centers. New York is also the principal commercial banking center of the United States.

Many of the world’s largest media conglomerates are also based in the city. Manhattan contained over 500 million square feet (46.5 million m2) of office space in 2015, making it the largest office market in the United States, while Midtown Manhattan, with nearly 400 million square feet (37.2 million m2) in 2015, is the largest central business district in the world.

Silicon Alley


Silicon Alley, once centered around the Flatiron District, is now metonymous for New York’s high tech sector, which has since expanded beyond the area.

Silicon Alley, centered in Manhattan, has evolved into a metonym for the sphere encompassing the New York City metropolitan region’s high technology industries involving the Internet, new media, telecommunications, digital media, software development, biotechnology, game design, financial technology (“FinTech”), and other fields within information technology that are supported by its entrepreneurship ecosystem and venture capital investments. In 2015, Silicon Alley generated over US$7.3 billion in venture capital investment across a broad spectrum of high technology enterprises, most based in Manhattan, with others in Brooklyn, Queens, and elsewhere in the region. High technology startup companies and employment are growing in New York City and the region, bolstered by the city’s position in North America as the leading Internet hub and telecommunications center, including its vicinity to several transatlantic fiber optic trunk lines, New York’s intellectual capital, and its extensive outdoor wireless connectivity. Verizon Communications, headquartered at 140 West Street in Lower Manhattan, was at the final stages in 2014 of completing a US$3 billion fiberoptic telecommunications upgrade throughout New York City. As of 2014, New York City hosted 300,000 employees in the tech sector.

The biotechnology sector is also growing in New York City, based upon the city’s strength in academic scientific research and public and commercial financial support. On December 19, 2011, then Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg announced his choice of Cornell University and Technion-Israel Institute of Technology to build a US$2 billion graduate school of applied sciences called Cornell Tech on Roosevelt Island with the goal of transforming New York City into the world’s premier technology capital. By mid-2014, Accelerator, a biotech investment firm, had raised more than US$30 million from investors, including Eli Lilly and Company, Pfizer, and Johnson & Johnson, for initial funding to create biotechnology startups at the Alexandria Center for Life Science, which encompasses more than 700,000 square feet (65,000 m2) on East 29th Street and promotes collaboration among scientists and entrepreneurs at the center and with nearby academic, medical, and research institutions. The New York City Economic Development Corporation’s Early Stage Life Sciences Funding Initiative and venture capital partners, including Celgene, General Electric Ventures, and Eli Lilly, committed a minimum of US$100 million to help launch 15 to 20 ventures in life sciences and biotechnology.



Times Square is the hub of the Broadway theater district and a media center. It also has one of the highest annual attendance rates of any tourist attraction in the world, estimated at 50 million.


The I Love New York logo, designed by Milton Glaser in 1977

Tourism is a vital industry for New York City, which has witnessed a growing combined volume of international and domestic tourists, receiving an eighth consecutive annual record of approximately 62.8 million visitors in 2017. Tourism had generated an all-time high US$61.3 billion in overall economic impact for New York City in 2014, pending 2015 statistics. Approximately 12 million visitors to New York City were from outside the United States, with the highest numbers from the United Kingdom, Canada, Brazil, and China.

I Love New York (stylized I ❤ NY) is both a logo and a song that are the basis of an advertising campaign and have been used since 1977 to promote tourism in New York City, and later to promote New York State as well. The trademarked logo, owned by New York State Empire State Development, appears in souvenir shops and brochures throughout the city and state, some licensed, many not. The song is the state song of New York.

Major tourist destinations include Times Square; Broadway theater productions; the Empire State Building; the Statue of Liberty; Ellis Island; the United Nations Headquarters; museums such as the Metropolitan Museum of Art; greenspaces such as Central Park and Washington Square Park; Rockefeller Center; the Manhattan Chinatown; luxury shopping along Fifth and Madison Avenues; and events such as the Halloween Parade in Greenwich Village; the Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade; the lighting of the Rockefeller Center Christmas Tree; the St. Patrick’s Day parade; seasonal activities such as ice skating in Central Park in the wintertime; the Tribeca Film Festival; and free performances in Central Park at Summerstage. Major attractions in the boroughs outside Manhattan include Flushing Meadows-Corona Park and the Unisphere in Queens; the Bronx Zoo; Coney Island, Brooklyn; and the New York Botanical Garden in the Bronx. The New York Wheel, a 630-foot ferris wheel, was under construction at the northern shore of Staten Island in 2015, overlooking the Statue of Liberty, New York Harbor, and the Lower Manhattan skyline.

Manhattan was on track to have an estimated 90,000 hotel rooms at the end of 2014, a 10% increase from 2013. In October 2014, the Anbang Insurance Group, based in China, purchased the Waldorf Astoria New York for US$1.95 billion, making it the world’s most expensive hotel ever sold.

Media and entertainment


Rockefeller Center is home to NBC Studios.

New York is a prominent location for the American entertainment industry, with many films, television series, books, and other media being set there. As of 2012, New York City was the second largest center for filmmaking and television production in the United States, producing about 200 feature films annually, employing 130,000 individuals; the filmed entertainment industry has been growing in New York, contributing nearly US$9 billion to the New York City economy alone as of 2015, and by volume, New York is the world leader in independent film production – one-third of all American independent films are produced in New York City. The Association of Independent Commercial Producers is also based in New York. In the first five months of 2014 alone, location filming for television pilots in New York City exceeded the record production levels for all of 2013, with New York surpassing Los Angeles as the top North American city for the same distinction during the 2013/2014 cycle.

New York City is additionally a center for the advertising, music, newspaper, digital media, and publishing industries and is also the largest media market in North America. Some of the city’s media conglomerates and institutions include Time Warner, the Thomson Reuters Corporation, the Associated Press, Bloomberg L.P., the News Corporation, The New York Times Company, NBCUniversal, the Hearst Corporation, AOL, and Viacom. Seven of the world’s top eight global advertising agency networks have their headquarters in New York. Two of the top three record labels’ headquarters are in New York: Sony Music Entertainment and Warner Music Group. Universal Music Group also has offices in New York. New media enterprises are contributing an increasingly important component to the city’s central role in the media sphere.

More than 200 newspapers and 350 consumer magazines have an office in the city, and the publishing industry employs about 25,000 people. Two of the three national daily newspapers in the United States are New York papers: The Wall Street Journal and The New York Times, which has won the most Pulitzer Prizes for journalism. Major tabloid newspapers in the city include: The New York Daily News, which was founded in 1919 by Joseph Medill Patterson and The New York Post, founded in 1801 by Alexander Hamilton. The city also has a comprehensive ethnic press, with 270 newspapers and magazines published in more than 40 languages. El Diario La Prensa is New York’s largest Spanish-language daily and the oldest in the nation. The New York Amsterdam News, published in Harlem, is a prominent African American newspaper. The Village Voice, historically the largest alternative newspaper in the United States, announced in 2017 that it would cease publication of its print edition and convert to a fully digital venture.

The television and radio industry developed in New York and is a significant employer in the city’s economy. The three major American broadcast networks are all headquartered in New York: ABC, CBS, and NBC. Many cable networks are based in the city as well, including MTV, Fox News, HBO, Showtime, Bravo, Food Network, AMC, and Comedy Central. The City of New York operates a public broadcast service, NYC Media, that has produced several original Emmy Award-winning shows covering music and culture in city neighborhoods and city government. WBAI, with news and information programming, is one of the few socialist radio stations operating in the United States.

New York is also a major center for non-commercial educational media. The oldest public-access television channel in the United States is the Manhattan Neighborhood Network, founded in 1971. WNET is the city’s major public television station and a primary source of national Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) television programming. WNYC, a public radio station owned by the city until 1997, has the largest public radio audience in the United States.

Education and scholarly activity

Primary and secondary education

The New York City Public Schools system, managed by the New York City Department of Education, is the largest public school system in the United States, serving about 1.1 million students in more than 1,700 separate primary and secondary schools. The city’s public school system includes nine specialized high schools to serve academically and artistically gifted students. The city government pays the Pelham Public Schools to educate a very small, detached section of the Bronx.


Butler Library at Columbia University, described as one of the most beautiful college libraries in the United States.


The Washington Square Arch, an unofficial icon of both New York University (NYU) and its Greenwich Village neighborhood.

The New York City Charter School Center assists the setup of new charter schools. There are approximately 900 additional privately run secular and religious schools in the city.

Higher education and research

Over 600,000 students are enrolled in New York City’s over 120 higher education institutions, the highest number of any city in the United States and higher than other major global cities like London and Tokyo, including over half million in the City University of New York (CUNY) system alone in 2014. In 2005, three out of five Manhattan residents were college graduates, and one out of four had a postgraduate degree, forming one of the highest concentrations of highly educated people in any American city. New York City is home to such notable private universities as Barnard College, Columbia University, Cooper Union, Fordham University, Mercy College, New York University, New York Institute of Technology, Pace University, Rockefeller University, and Yeshiva University; several of these universities are ranked among the top universities in the world. The public CUNY system is one of the largest universities in the nation, comprising 24 institutions across all five boroughs: senior colleges, community colleges, and other graduate/professional schools. The public State University of New York (SUNY) system serves New York City, as well as the rest of the state. The city also has other smaller private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions, such as St. John’s University, The Juilliard School, Manhattan College, The College of Mount Saint Vincent, Fashion Institute of Technology, Parsons School of Design, The New School, Pratt Institute, The School of Visual Arts, The King’s College, and Wagner College.

Much of the scientific research in the city is done in medicine and the life sciences. New York City has the most postgraduate life sciences degrees awarded annually in the United States, with 127 Nobel laureates having roots in local institutions as of 2005; while in 2012, 43,523 licensed physicians were practicing in New York City. Major biomedical research institutions include Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center, Rockefeller University, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, and Weill Cornell Medical College, being joined by the Cornell University/Technion-Israel Institute of Technology venture on Roosevelt Island. The graduates of SUNY Maritime College in the Bronx earned the highest average annual salary of any university graduates in the United States, US$144,000 as of 2017.

Human resources

Public health


New York-Presbyterian Hospital, white complex at center, the largest hospital and largest private employer in New York City and one of the world’s busiest.

The New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation (HHC) operates the public hospitals and clinics in New York City. A public benefit corporation with $6.7 billion in annual revenues, HHC is the largest municipal healthcare system in the United States serving 1.4 million patients, including more than 475,000 uninsured city residents. HHC was created in 1969 by the New York State Legislature as a public benefit corporation (Chapter 1016 of the Laws 1969). HHC operates 11 acute care hospitals, five nursing homes, six diagnostic and treatment centers, and more than 70 community-based primary care sites, serving primarily the poor and working class. HHC’s MetroPlus Health Plan is one of the New York area’s largest providers of government-sponsored health insurance and is the plan of choice for nearly half million New Yorkers.

HHC’s facilities annually provide millions of New Yorkers services interpreted in more than 190 languages. The most well-known hospital in the HHC system is Bellevue Hospital, the oldest public hospital in the United States. Bellevue is the designated hospital for treatment of the President of the United States and other world leaders if they become sick or injured while in New York City. The president of HHC is Ramanathan Raju, MD, a surgeon and former CEO of the Cook County health system in Illinois. In August 2017, Mayor Bill de Blasio signed legislation outlawing pharmacies from selling cigarettes once their existing licenses to do so expired, beginning in 2018.

Public safety

Police and law enforcement


The New York City Police Department (NYPD) represents the largest police force in the United States.

The New York City Police Department (NYPD) has been the largest police force in the United States by a significant margin, with over 35,000 sworn officers. Members of the NYPD are frequently referred to by politicians, the media, and their own police cars by the nickname, New York’s Finest.

Crime has continued an overall downward trend in New York City since the 1990s. In 2012, the NYPD came under scrutiny for its use of a stop-and-frisk program, which has undergone several policy revisions since then. In 2014, New York City had the third lowest murder rate among the largest U.S. cities, having become significantly safer after a spike in crime in the 1970s through 1990s. Violent crime in New York City decreased more than 75% from 1993 to 2005, and continued decreasing during periods when the nation as a whole saw increases. By 2002, New York City’s crime rate was similar to that of Provo, Utah, and was ranked 197th in crime among the 216 U.S. cities with populations greater than 100,000. In 2005, the homicide rate was at its lowest level since 1966, and in 2007, the city recorded fewer than 500 homicides for the first time ever since crime statistics were first published in 1963. In 2015, 50.5% of New York City misdemeanor assault suspects were black, 33.3% Hispanic, 11.1% white, 4.8% Asian/Pacific Islander and 0.3% Native American. New York City experienced 352 homicides in 2015, its second lowest number on record. In 2016 the murder rate fell to 3.9 per 100,000 residents, significantly below the US average of 5.3, and was projected to drop significantly in 2017.

Sociologists and criminologists have not reached consensus on the explanation for the dramatic decrease in the city’s crime rate. Some attribute the phenomenon to new tactics used by the NYPD, including its use of CompStat and the broken windows theory. Others cite the end of the crack epidemic and demographic changes, including from immigration. Another theory is that widespread exposure to lead pollution from automobile exhaust, which can lower intelligence and increase aggression levels, incited the initial crime wave in the mid-20th century, most acutely affecting heavily trafficked cities like New York. A strong correlation was found demonstrating that violent crime rates in New York and other big cities began to fall after lead was removed from American gasoline in the 1970s. Another theory cited to explain New York City’s falling homicide rate is the inverse correlation between the number of murders and the increasingly wetter climate in the city.

Organized crime has long been associated with New York City, beginning with the Forty Thieves and the Roach Guards in the Five Points in the 1820s. The 20th century saw a rise in the Mafia, dominated by the Five Families, as well as in gangs, including the Black Spades. The Mafia and gang presence has declined in the city in the 21st century.



The New York City Fire Department (FDNY) is the largest municipal fire department in the United States.

The New York City Fire Department (FDNY), provides fire protection, technical rescue, primary response to biological, chemical, and radioactive hazards, and emergency medical services for the five boroughs of New York City. The New York City Fire Department is the largest municipal fire department in the United States and the second largest in the world after the Tokyo Fire Department. The FDNY employs approximately 11,080 uniformed firefighters and over 3,300 uniformed EMTs and paramedics. The FDNY’s motto is New York’s Bravest.

The New York City Fire Department faces multifaceted firefighting challenges in many ways unique to New York. In addition to responding to building types that range from wood-frame single family homes to high-rise structures, there are many secluded bridges and tunnels, as well as large parks and wooded areas that can give rise to brush fires. New York is also home to one of the largest subway systems in the world, consisting of hundreds of miles of tunnel with electrified track.

The FDNY headquarters is located at 9 MetroTech Center in Downtown Brooklyn, and the FDNY Fire Academy is located on Randalls Island. There are three Bureau of Fire Communications alarm offices which receive and dispatch alarms to appropriate units. One office, at 11 Metrotech Center in Brooklyn, houses Manhattan/Citywide, Brooklyn, and Staten Island Fire Communications. The Bronx and Queens offices are in separate buildings.

Public library system


The Stephen A. Schwarzman Headquarters Building of the New York Public Library, at 5th Avenue and 42nd Street.

The New York Public Library, which has the largest collection of any public library system in the United States, serves Manhattan, the Bronx, and Staten Island. Queens is served by the Queens Borough Public Library, the nation’s second largest public library system, while the Brooklyn Public Library serves Brooklyn.

Culture and contemporary life

New York City has been described as the cultural capital of the world by the diplomatic consulates of Iceland and Latvia and by New York’s Baruch College. A book containing a series of essays titled New York, Culture Capital of the World, 1940–1965 has also been published as showcased by the National Library of Australia. In describing New York, author Tom Wolfe said, “Culture just seems to be in the air, like part of the weather.”

Numerous major American cultural movements began in the city, such as the Harlem Renaissance, which established the African-American literary canon in the United States. The city was a center of jazz in the 1940s, abstract expressionism in the 1950s, and the birthplace of hip hop in the 1970s. The city’s punk and hardcore scenes were influential in the 1970s and 1980s. New York has long had a flourishing scene for Jewish American literature.

The city is the birthplace of many cultural movements, including the Harlem Renaissance in literature and visual art; abstract expressionism (also known as the New York School) in painting; and hip hop, punk, salsa, freestyle, Tin Pan Alley, certain forms of jazz, and (along with Philadelphia) disco in music. New York City has been considered the dance capital of the world. The city is also frequently the setting for novels, movies (see List of films set in New York City), and television programs. New York Fashion Week is one of the world’s preeminent fashion events and is afforded extensive coverage by the media. New York has also frequently been ranked the top fashion capital of the world on the annual list compiled by the Global Language Monitor.


New York City has more than 2,000 arts and cultural organizations and more than 500 art galleries of all sizes. The city government funds the arts with a larger annual budget than the National Endowment for the Arts. Wealthy business magnates in the 19th century built a network of major cultural institutions, such as the famed Carnegie Hall and the Metropolitan Museum of Art, that would become internationally established. The advent of electric lighting led to elaborate theater productions, and in the 1880s, New York City theaters on Broadway and along 42nd Street began featuring a new stage form that became known as the Broadway musical. Strongly influenced by the city’s immigrants, productions such as those of Harrigan and Hart, George M. Cohan, and others used song in narratives that often reflected themes of hope and ambition. New York City itself is the subject or background of many plays and musicals.

Performing arts


Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts

Broadway theatre is one of the premier forms of English-language theatre in the world, named after Broadway, the major thoroughfare that crosses Times Square, also sometimes referred to as “The Great White Way”. Forty-one venues in Midtown Manhattan’s Theatre District, each with at least 500 seats, are classified as Broadway theatres. According to The Broadway League, Broadway shows sold approximately US$1.27 billion worth of tickets in the 2013–2014 season, an 11.4% increase from US$1.139 billion in the 2012–2013 season. Attendance in 2013–2014 stood at 12.21 million, representing a 5.5% increase from the 2012–2013 season’s 11.57 million. Performance artists displaying diverse skills are ubiquitous on the streets of Manhattan.

Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, anchoring Lincoln Square on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, is home to numerous influential arts organizations, including the Metropolitan Opera, New York City Opera, New York Philharmonic, and New York City Ballet, as well as the Vivian Beaumont Theater, the Juilliard School, Jazz at Lincoln Center, and Alice Tully Hall. The Lee Strasberg Theatre and Film Institute is in Union Square, and Tisch School of the Arts is based at New York University, while Central Park SummerStage presents free music concerts in Central Park.


The Metropolitan Museum of Art, part of Museum Mile, is one of the largest museums in the world.

Visual arts

New York City is home to hundreds of cultural institutions and historic sites, many of which are internationally known. Museum Mile is the name for a section of Fifth Avenue running from 82nd to 105th streets on the Upper East Side of Manhattan, in an area sometimes called Upper Carnegie Hill. The Mile, which contains one of the densest displays of culture in the world, is actually three blocks longer than one mile (1.6 km). Ten museums occupy the length of this section of Fifth Avenue. The tenth museum, the Museum for African Art, joined the ensemble in 2009, although its museum at 110th Street, the first new museum constructed on the Mile since the Guggenheim in 1959, opened in late 2012. In addition to other programming, the museums collaborate for the annual Museum Mile Festival, held each year in June, to promote the museums and increase visitation. Many of the world’s most lucrative art auctions are held in New York City.



Smorgasburg opened in 2011 as an open-air food market and is part of the Brooklyn Flea.

New York City’s food culture includes an array of international cuisines influenced by the city’s immigrant history. Central and Eastern European immigrants, especially Jewish immigrants from those regions, brought bagels, cheesecake, hot dogs, knishes, and delicatessens (or delis) to the city. Italian immigrants brought New York-style pizza and Italian cuisine into the city, while Jewish immigrants and Irish immigrants brought pastrami and corned beef, respectively. Chinese and other Asian restaurants, sandwich joints, trattorias, diners, and coffeehouses are ubiquitous throughout the city. Some 4,000 mobile food vendors licensed by the city, many immigrant-owned, have made Middle Eastern foods such as falafel and kebabs examples of modern New York street food. The city is home to “nearly one thousand of the finest and most diverse haute cuisine restaurants in the world”, according to Michelin. The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene assigns letter grades to the city’s 24,000 restaurants based upon their inspection results.





From top: the annual Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade, the world’s largest parade; the annual Halloween Parade in Greenwich Village; the annual Philippine Independence Day Parade; and the ticker-tape parade for the Apollo 11 astronauts


New York City is well known for its street parades, which celebrate a broad array of themes, including holidays, nationalities, human rights, and major league sports team championship victories. The majority of parades are held in Manhattan. The primary orientation of the annual street parades is typically from north to south, marching along major avenues. The annual Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade is the world’s largest parade, beginning alongside Central Park and processing southward to the flagship Macy’s Herald Square store; the parade is viewed on telecasts worldwide and draws millions of spectators in person. Other notable parades including the annual St. Patrick’s Day Parade in March, the LGBT Pride March in June, the Greenwich Village Halloween Parade in October, and numerous parades commemorating the independence days of many nations. Ticker-tape parades celebrating championships won by sports teams as well as other heroic accomplishments march northward along the Canyon of Heroes on Broadway from Bowling Green to City Hall Park in Lower Manhattan.

Accent and dialect

The New York area is home to a distinctive regional speech pattern called the New York dialect, alternatively known as Brooklynese or New Yorkese. It has generally been considered one of the most recognizable accents within American English.

The traditional New York area accent is characterized as non-rhotic, so that the sound  does not appear at the end of a syllable or immediately before a consonant; therefore the pronunciation of the city name as “New Yawk.” There is no [ɹ] in words like park [pɑək] or [pɒək] (with vowel backed and diphthongized due to the low-back chain shift), butter [bʌɾə], or here [hiə]. In another feature called the low back chain shift, the [ɔ] vowel sound of words like talk, law, cross, chocolate, and coffee and the often homophonous [ɔr] in core and more are tensed and usually raised more than in General American English. In the most old-fashioned and extreme versions of the New York dialect, the vowel sounds of words like “girl” and of words like “oil” became a diphthong [ɜɪ]. This is often misperceived by speakers of other accents as a reversal of the er and oy sounds, so that girl is pronounced “goil” and oil is pronounced “erl”; this leads to the caricature of New Yorkers saying things like “Joizey” (Jersey), “Toidy-Toid Street” (33rd St.) and “terlet” (toilet). The character Archie Bunker from the 1970s sitcom All in the Family (played by Carroll O’Connor) was an example of having used this pattern of speech.

The classic version of the New York City dialect is generally centered on middle and working-class New Yorkers. The influx of non-European immigrants in recent decades has led to changes in this distinctive dialect, and the traditional form of this speech pattern is no longer as prevalent among general New Yorkers as it has been in the past.



The New York Marathon is the largest marathon in the world.


The US Open Tennis Championships are held every August and September in Flushing Meadows-Corona Park, Queens.


Citi Field, also in Flushing Meadows-Corona Park, has been home to the New York Mets since 2009.

New York City is home to the headquarters of the National Football League, Major League Baseball, the National Basketball Association, the National Hockey League, and Major League Soccer. The New York metropolitan area hosts the most sports teams in these five professional leagues. Participation in professional sports in the city predates all professional leagues, and the city has been continuously hosting professional sports since the birth of the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1882. The city has played host to over forty major professional teams in the five sports and their respective competing leagues, both current and historic. Four of the ten most expensive stadiums ever built worldwide (MetLife Stadium, the new Yankee Stadium, Madison Square Garden, and Citi Field) are located in the New York metropolitan area. Madison Square Garden, its predecessor, the original Yankee Stadium and Ebbets Field, are sporting venues located in New York City, the latter two having been commemorated on U.S. postage stamps.

New York has been described as the “Capital of Baseball”. There have been 35 Major League Baseball World Series and 73 pennants won by New York teams. It is one of only five metro areas (Los Angeles, Chicago, Baltimore–Washington, and the San Francisco Bay Area being the others) to have two baseball teams. Additionally, there have been 14 World Series in which two New York City teams played each other, known as a Subway Series and occurring most recently in 2000. No other metropolitan area has had this happen more than once (Chicago in 1906, St. Louis in 1944, and the San Francisco Bay Area in 1989). The city’s two current Major League Baseball teams are the New York Mets, who play at Citi Field in Queens, and the New York Yankees, who play at Yankee Stadium in the Bronx. These teams compete in six games of interleague play every regular season that has also come to be called the Subway Series. The Yankees have won a record 27 championships, while the Mets have won the World Series twice. The city also was once home to the Brooklyn Dodgers (now the Los Angeles Dodgers), who won the World Series once, and the New York Giants (now the San Francisco Giants), who won the World Series five times. Both teams moved to California in 1958. There are also two Minor League Baseball teams in the city, the Brooklyn Cyclones and Staten Island Yankees.

The city is represented in the National Football League by the New York Giants and the New York Jets, although both teams play their home games at MetLife Stadium in nearby East Rutherford, New Jersey, which hosted Super Bowl XLVIII in 2014.

The metropolitan area is home to three National Hockey League teams. The New York Rangers, the traditional representative of the city itself and one of the league’s Original Six, play at Madison Square Garden in Manhattan. The New York Islanders, traditionally representing Nassau and Suffolk Counties of Long Island, currently play at Barclays Center in Brooklyn and are planning a return to Nassau County by way of a new arena just outside the border with Queens at Belmont Park. The New Jersey Devils play at Prudential Center in nearby Newark, New Jersey and traditionally represent the counties of neighboring New Jersey which are coextensive with the boundaries of the New York metropolitan area and media market.

The city’s National Basketball Association teams are the Brooklyn Nets and the New York Knicks, while the New York Liberty is the city’s Women’s National Basketball Association team. The first national college-level basketball championship, the National Invitation Tournament, was held in New York in 1938 and remains in the city. The city is well known for its links to basketball, which is played in nearly every park in the city by local youth, many of whom have gone on to play for major college programs and in the NBA.

In soccer, New York City is represented by New York City FC of Major League Soccer, who play their home games at Yankee Stadium and the New York Red Bulls, who play their home games at Red Bull Arena in nearby Harrison, New Jersey. Historically, the city is known for the New York Cosmos, the highly successful former professional soccer team which was the American home of Pelé. A new version of the New York Cosmos was formed in 2010, and began play in the second division North American Soccer League in 2013. The Cosmos play their home games at James M. Shuart Stadium on the campus of Hofstra University, just outside the New York City limits in Hempstead, New York.

The annual United States Open Tennis Championships is one of the world’s four Grand Slam tennis tournaments and is held at the National Tennis Center in Flushing Meadows-Corona Park, Queens. The New York City Marathon, which courses through all five boroughs, is the world’s largest running marathon, with 51,394 finishers in 2016 and 98,247 applicants for the 2017 race. The Millrose Games is an annual track and field meet whose featured event is the Wanamaker Mile. Boxing is also a prominent part of the city’s sporting scene, with events like the Amateur Boxing Golden Gloves being held at Madison Square Garden each year. The city is also considered the host of the Belmont Stakes, the last, longest and oldest of horse racing’s Triple Crown races, held just over the city’s border at Belmont Park on the first or second Sunday of June. The city also hosted the 1932 U.S. Open golf tournament and the 1930 and 1939 PGA Championships, and has been host city for both events several times, most notably for nearby Winged Foot Golf Club. The Gaelic games are played in Riverdale, Bronx at Gaelic Park, home to the New York GAA, the only North American team to compete at the senior inter-county level.



New York City is home to the two busiest rail stations in the US, including Grand Central Terminal.

New York City’s comprehensive transportation system is both complex and extensive.

Rapid transit


The New York City Subway is the world’s largest rapid transit system by length of routes and by number of stations.

Mass transit in New York City, most of which runs 24 hours a day, accounts for one in every three users of mass transit in the United States, and two-thirds of the nation’s rail riders live in the New York City Metropolitan Area.


The New York City Subway is the world’s largest rapid transit system by length of routes and by number of stations.

The iconic New York City Subway system is the largest rapid transit system in the world when measured by stations in operation, with 472, and by length of routes. Nearly all of New York’s subway system is open 24 hours a day, in contrast to the overnight shutdown common to systems in most cities, including Hong Kong, London, Paris, Seoul, and Tokyo. The New York City Subway is also the busiest metropolitan rail transit system in the Western Hemisphere, with 1.76 billion passenger rides in 2015, while Grand Central Terminal, also referred to as “Grand Central Station”, is the world’s largest railway station by number of train platforms.

Public transport is essential in New York City. 54.6% of New Yorkers commuted to work in 2005 using mass transit. This is in contrast to the rest of the United States, where 91% of commuters travel in automobiles to their workplace. According to the New York City Comptroller, workers in the New York City area spend an average of 6 hours and 18 minutes getting to work each week, the longest commute time in the nation among large cities. New York is the only US city in which a majority (52%) of households do not have a car; only 22% of Manhattanites own a car. Due to their high usage of mass transit, New Yorkers spend less of their household income on transportation than the national average, saving $19 billion annually on transportation compared to other urban Americans.

New York City’s commuter rail network is the largest in North America. The rail network, connecting New York City to its suburbs, consists of the Long Island Rail Road, Metro-North Railroad, and New Jersey Transit. The combined systems converge at Grand Central Terminal and Pennsylvania Station and contain more than 250 stations and 20 rail lines. In Queens, the elevated AirTrain people mover system connects JFK International Airport to the New York City Subway and the Long Island Rail Road; a separate AirTrain system is planned alongside the Grand Central Parkway to connect LaGuardia Airport to these transit systems. For intercity rail, New York City is served by Amtrak, whose busiest station by a significant margin is Pennsylvania Station on the West Side of Manhattan, from which Amtrak provides connections to Boston, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C. along the Northeast Corridor, and long-distance train service to other North American cities.

The Staten Island Railway rapid transit system solely serves Staten Island, operating 24 hours a day. The Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH train) links Midtown and Lower Manhattan to northeastern New Jersey, primarily Hoboken, Jersey City, and Newark. Like the New York City Subway, the PATH operates 24 hours a day; meaning three of the six rapid transit systems in the world which operate on 24-hour schedules are wholly or partly in New York (the others are a portion of the Chicago ‘L’, the PATCO Speedline serving Philadelphia, and the Copenhagen Metro).

Multibillion-dollar heavy rail transit projects under construction in New York City include the Second Avenue Subway, the East Side Access project, and the 7 Subway Extension.



The Port Authority Bus Terminal, the world’s busiest bus station, at 8th Avenue and 42nd Street.

New York City’s public bus fleet is the largest in North America, and the Port Authority Bus Terminal, the main intercity bus terminal of the city, serves 7,000 buses and 200,000 commuters daily, making it the busiest bus station in the world.



John F. Kennedy Airport in Queens, the busiest international air passenger gateway to the United States.

New York’s airspace is the busiest in the United States and one of the world’s busiest air transportation corridors. The three busiest airports in the New York metropolitan area include John F. Kennedy International Airport, Newark Liberty International Airport, and LaGuardia Airport; 130.5 million travelers used these three airports in 2016, and the city’s airspace is the busiest in the nation. JFK and Newark Liberty were the busiest and fourth busiest U.S. gateways for international air passengers, respectively, in 2012; as of 2011, JFK was the busiest airport for international passengers in North America. Plans have advanced to expand passenger volume at a fourth airport, Stewart International Airport near Newburgh, New York, by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Plans were announced in July 2015 to entirely rebuild LaGuardia Airport in a multibillion-dollar project to replace its aging facilities. Other commercial airports in or serving the New York metropolitan area include Long Island MacArthur Airport, Trenton–Mercer Airport and Westchester County Airport. The primary general aviation airport serving the area is Teterboro Airport.



The Staten Island Ferry shuttles commuters between Manhattan and Staten Island.

The Staten Island Ferry is the world’s busiest ferry route, carrying over 23 million passengers from July 2015 through June 2016 on the 5.2-mile (8.4 km) route between Staten Island and Lower Manhattan and running 24 hours a day. Other ferry systems shuttle commuters between Manhattan and other locales within the city and the metropolitan area.

NYC Ferry, a NYCEDC initiative with routes planned to travel to all five boroughs, was launched in 2017, with second graders choosing the names of the ferries. Meanwhile, Seastreak ferry announced construction of a 600-passenger high-speed luxury ferry in September 2016, to shuttle riders between the Jersey Shore and Manhattan, anticipated to start service in 2017; this would be the largest vessel in its class.

Taxis, transport startups, and trams


Yellow medallion taxicabs are widely recognized icons of the city

Other features of the city’s transportation infrastructure encompass more than 12,000 yellow taxicabs; various competing startup transportation network companies; and an aerial tramway that transports commuters between Roosevelt Island and Manhattan Island. Ride-sharing services have become significant competition for cab drivers in New York.

Streets and highways


8th Avenue, looking northward (“uptown”). Most streets and avenues in Manhattan’s grid plan incorporate a one-way traffic configuration.

Despite New York’s heavy reliance on its vast public transit system, streets are a defining feature of the city. Manhattan’s street grid plan greatly influenced the city’s physical development. Several of the city’s streets and avenues, like Broadway, Wall Street, Madison Avenue, and Seventh Avenue are also used as metonyms for national industries there: the theater, finance, advertising, and fashion organizations, respectively.

New York City also has an extensive web of expressways and parkways, which link the city’s boroughs to each other and to northern New Jersey, Westchester County, Long Island, and southwestern Connecticut through various bridges and tunnels. Because these highways serve millions of outer borough and suburban residents who commute into Manhattan, it is quite common for motorists to be stranded for hours in traffic jams that are a daily occurrence, particularly during rush hour.

New York City is also known for its rules regarding turning at red lights. Unlike the rest of the United States, New York State prohibits right or left turns on red in cities with a population greater than one million, to reduce traffic collisions and increase pedestrian safety. In New York City, therefore, all turns at red lights are illegal unless a sign permitting such maneuvers is present.

River crossings


The George Washington Bridge, connecting Upper Manhattan (background) from Fort Lee, New Jersey across the Hudson River, is the world’s busiest motor vehicle bridge.

New York City is located on one of the world’s largest natural harbors, and the boroughs of Manhattan and Staten Island are (primarily) coterminous with islands of the same names, while Queens and Brooklyn are located at the west end of the larger Long Island, and The Bronx is located at the southern tip of New York State’s mainland. This situation of boroughs separated by water led to the development of an extensive infrastructure of well-known bridges and tunnels.

The George Washington Bridge is the world’s busiest motor vehicle bridge, connecting Manhattan to Bergen County, New Jersey. The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge is the longest suspension bridge in the Americas and one of the world’s longest. The Brooklyn Bridge is an icon of the city itself. The towers of the Brooklyn Bridge are built of limestone, granite, and Rosendale cement, and their architectural style is neo-Gothic, with characteristic pointed arches above the passageways through the stone towers. This bridge was also the longest suspension bridge in the world from its opening until 1903, and is the first steel-wire suspension bridge. The Queensboro Bridge is an important piece of cantilever architecture. The Manhattan Bridge, opened in 1909, is considered to be the forerunner of modern suspension bridges, and its design served as the model for many of the long-span suspension bridges around the world; the Manhattan Bridge, Throgs Neck Bridge, Triborough Bridge, and Verrazano-Narrows Bridge are all examples of Structural Expressionism.

Manhattan Island is linked to New York City’s outer boroughs and New Jersey by several tunnels as well. The Lincoln Tunnel, which carries 120,000 vehicles a day under the Hudson River between New Jersey and Midtown Manhattan, is the busiest vehicular tunnel in the world. The tunnel was built instead of a bridge to allow unfettered passage of large passenger and cargo ships that sailed through New York Harbor and up the Hudson River to Manhattan’s piers. The Holland Tunnel, connecting Lower Manhattan to Jersey City, New Jersey, was the world’s first mechanically ventilated vehicular tunnel when it opened in 1927. The Queens-Midtown Tunnel, built to relieve congestion on the bridges connecting Manhattan with Queens and Brooklyn, was the largest non-federal project in its time when it was completed in 1940. President Franklin D. Roosevelt was the first person to drive through it. The Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel (officially known as the Hugh L. Carey Tunnel) runs underneath Battery Park and connects the Financial District at the southern tip of Manhattan to Red Hook in Brooklyn.



As of July 2010, the city had 3,715 hybrid taxis in service, the largest number of any city in North America.

Environmental impact reduction

New York City has focused on reducing its environmental impact and carbon footprint. Mass transit use in New York City is the highest in the United States. Also, by 2010, the city had 3,715 hybrid taxis and other clean diesel vehicles, representing around 28% of New York’s taxi fleet in service, the most of any city in North America.

New York’s high rate of public transit use, over 200,000 daily cyclists as of 2014, and many pedestrian commuters make it the most energy-efficient major city in the United States. Walk and bicycle modes of travel account for 21% of all modes for trips in the city; nationally the rate for metro regions is about 8%. In both its 2011 and 2015 rankings, Walk Score named New York City the most walkable large city in the United States, and in 2018, Stacker ranked New York the most walkable U.S. city. Citibank sponsored the introduction of 10,000 public bicycles for the city’s bike-share project in the summer of 2013. Research conducted by Quinnipiac University showed that a majority of New Yorkers support the initiative. New York City’s numerical “in-season cycling indicator” of bicycling in the city hit an all-time high in 2013.

The city government was a petitioner in the landmark Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency Supreme Court case forcing the EPA to regulate greenhouse gases as pollutants. The city is a leader in the construction of energy-efficient green office buildings, including the Hearst Tower among others. Mayor Bill de Blasio has committed to an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions between 2014 and 2050 to reduce the city’s contributions to climate change, beginning with a comprehensive “Green Buildings” plan.

Water purity and availability

New York City is supplied with drinking water by the protected Catskill Mountains watershed. As a result of the watershed’s integrity and undisturbed natural water filtration system, New York is one of only four major cities in the United States the majority of whose drinking water is pure enough not to require purification by water treatment plants. The city’s municipal water system is the largest in the United States, moving over one billion gallons of water per day. The Croton Watershed north of the city is undergoing construction of a US$3.2 billion water purification plant to augment New York City’s water supply by an estimated 290 million gallons daily, representing a greater than 20% addition to the city’s current availability of water. The ongoing expansion of New York City Water Tunnel No. 3, an integral part of the New York City water supply system, is the largest capital construction project in the city’s history, with segments serving Manhattan and The Bronx completed, and with segments serving Brooklyn and Queens planned for construction in 2020. In 2018, New York City announced a US$1 billion investment to protect the integrity of its water system and to maintain the purity of its unfiltered water supply.

Environmental revitalization

Newtown Creek, a 3.5-mile (6-kilometer) a long estuary that forms part of the border between the boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens, has been designated a Superfund site for environmental clean-up and remediation of the waterway’s recreational and economic resources for many communities. One of the most heavily used bodies of water in the Port of New York and New Jersey, it had been one of the most contaminated industrial sites in the country, containing years of discarded toxins, an estimated 30 million US gallons (110,000 m3) of spilled oil, including the Greenpoint oil spill, raw sewage from New York City’s sewer system, and other accumulation.

Government and politics



New York City Hall is the oldest City Hall in the United States that still houses its original governmental functions.

New York City has been a metropolitan municipality with a mayor–council form of government since its consolidation in 1898. In New York City, the city government is responsible for public education, correctional institutions, public safety, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply, and welfare services.

The Mayor and council members are elected to four-year terms. The City Council is a unicameral body consisting of 51 council members whose districts are defined by geographic population boundaries. Each term for the mayor and council members lasts four years and has a three consecutive-term limit, which is reset after a four-year break. The New York City Administrative Code, the New York City Rules, and the City Record are the code of local laws, compilation of regulations, and official journal, respectively.


The New York County Courthouse houses the New York Supreme Court and other offices.

Each borough is coextensive with a judicial district of the state Unified Court System, of which the Criminal Court and the Civil Court are the local courts, while the New York Supreme Court conducts major trials and appeals. Manhattan hosts the First Department of the Supreme Court, Appellate Division while Brooklyn hosts the Second Department. There are also several extrajudicial administrative courts, which are executive agencies and not part of the state Unified Court System.

Uniquely among major American cities, New York is divided between, and is host to the main branches of, two different US district courts: the District Court for the Southern District of New York, whose main courthouse is on Foley Square near City Hall in Manhattan and whose jurisdiction includes Manhattan and the Bronx; and the District Court for the Eastern District of New York, whose main courthouse is in Brooklyn and whose jurisdiction includes Brooklyn, Queens, and Staten Island. The US Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit and US Court of International Trade are also based in New York, also on Foley Square in Manhattan.



Bill de Blasio, the current and 109th Mayor of New York City

The present mayor is Bill de Blasio, the first Democrat since 1993.He was elected in 2013 with over 73% of the vote, and assumed office on January 1, 2014.

The Democratic Party holds the majority of public offices. As of April 2016, 69% of registered voters in the city are Democrats and 10% are Republicans. New York City has not been carried by a Republican in a statewide or presidential election since President Calvin Coolidge won the five boroughs in 1924. In 2012, Democrat Barack Obama became the first presidential candidate of any party to receive more than 80% of the overall vote in New York City, sweeping all five boroughs. Party platforms center on affordable housing, education, and economic development, and labor politics are of importance in the city.

New York is the most important source of political fundraising in the United States, as four of the top five ZIP Codes in the nation for political contributions are in Manhattan. The top ZIP Code, 10021 on the Upper East Side, generated the most money for the 2004 presidential campaigns of George W. Bush and John Kerry. The city has a strong imbalance of payments with the national and state governments. It receives 83 cents in services for every $1 it sends to the federal government in taxes (or annually sends $11.4 billion more than it receives back). City residents and businesses also spent an additional $4.1 billion in the 2009–2010 fiscal year to the state of New York than the city received in return.

Notable people


  • 50 Cent (Curtis Jackson) – businessman and rapper
  • 6ix9ine (Daniel Hernandez) – rapper


  • Aaliyah (Aaliyah Haughton, 1979–2001) singer, actress, model
  • Zaid Abdul-Aziz (born 1946) – professional basketball player
  • Kareem Abdul-Jabbar (born 1947) – basketball player
  • George Abernethy (1807–1877) – first provisional Governor of Oregon[1]
  • Cecile Abish (born 1930) – sculptor
  • Oday Aboushi (born 1991) – football player
  • Garnett Adrain (1815–1878) – member of the United States House of
  • Representatives from New Jersey 
  • Cornelius Rea Agnew (1830–1888) – ophthalmologist 
  • Eliza Agnew (1807–1883) – Presbyterian missionary 
  • Christina Aguilera (born 1980) – singer
  • Danny Aiello (born 1933) – actor
  • Marv Albert (born 1941) – sports announcer
  • Alan Alda (born 1936) – actor
  • Ira Aldridge (1805–1867) – stage actor 
  • William Alexander, Lord Stirling (1726–1783) – major general in the American
  • Revolutionary War
  • Woody Allen (born 1935) – film director, actor, screenwriter
  • Vincent Alo (1904–2001) – mobster
  • Rafer Alston – basketball player
  • Lee J. Ames – illustrator and writer; known for the Draw 50… learn-to-draw books
  • Trey Anastasio (born 1964) – rock musician and member of the band, Phish
  • Kenny Anderson – professional basketball player
  • Charles Anthon – classical scholar 
  • Carmelo Anthony – basketball player
  • Marc Anthony – singer and actor
  • Judd Apatow – producer, director, comedian, actor and screenwriter
  • Fiona Apple – singer-songwriter
  • Diane Arbus (1923–1971) – photographer
  • Nate Archibald (born 1948) – professional basketball player
  • Kenneth J. Arrow – economist; recipient, 1972 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences
  • Beatrice Arthur (1922–2009) – actress
  • William H. Aspinwall – railroad promoter 
  • John Jacob Astor III (1822–1890) – businessman and member of the Astor family
  • Vincent Astor (1891–1959) – businessman, philanthropist and member of the Astor family
  • William Backhouse Astor, Sr. (1792–1875) – businessman and member of the Astor family 
  • Jake T. Austin – actor, model, author
  • Awkwafina (Nora Lum, born 1988) – rapper, actress
  • AZ – rapper and former member of the rap group The Firm


  • Edwin Burr Babbitt – actor
  • Johnny Bach (1924–2016) – professional basketball player and coach
  • Evan Baken – musician, drummer and record company executive
  • William Bliss Baker – landscape artist
  • Azealia Banks (born 1991) – rapper, singer-songwriter, actress
  • Joseph Barbera (1911–2006) – animator, producer, director, MGM and co-founder of Hanna-Barbera
  • Bryan Bautista – Dominican-American musician, singer, and contestant from NBC’s The Voice season 10
  • Earl Beecham – football player
  • Bo Belinsky (1936–2001) – Major League Baseball player
  • Tony Bennett – iconic jazz singer and musician
  • Moe Berg (1902–1972) – Major League Baseball player and spy
  • Milton Berle – comedian
  • Paul Berlenbach (1901–1985) – light heavyweight boxing champion, 1925–1926
  • Dellin Betances – Major League Baseball pitcher
  • Bipolar Explorer – dreampop band
  • Joan Blondell – actress
  • Humphrey Bogart (1899–1957) – actor
  • William T. Bonniwell, Jr. – Wisconsin and Minnesota politician
  • Joseph Borelli – politician and conservative commentator
  • Francis Bouillon – National Hockey League defenseman playing for the Nashville Predators
  • Kate Parker Scott Boyd (1836–1922) – artist, journalist, temperance worker
  • Barbara Boxer – U.S. Senator from California
  • James J. Braddock – boxer (aka “Cinderella Man”)
  • Hermann Braun (1918–1945) – actor
  • Abigail Breslin – actress and musician
  • Jimmy Breslin – columnist
  • Spencer Breslin—actor and musician
  • Eben Britton – football player
  • Matthew Broderick – actor
  • Action Bronson – rapper
  • Mel Brooks – film director, screenwriter and actor
  • Julia Brown – madam and prostitute
  • Larry Brown – basketball player and coach
  • Tarell Brown (born 1985) – football player
  • Andrew Bryson (1822–1892) – United States Navy rear admiral
  • William F. Buckley, Jr. – author and conservative commentator
  • Sidney Jonas Budnick, abstract artist
  • George Burns (1896–1996) – comedian
  • Steve Buscemi – actor
  • Barbara Bush (1925–2018) – wife of George H. W. Bush
  • Gene Byrnes – cartoonist


  • James Caan – actor
  • Antón Cabaleiro – visual artist born in Spain
  • Adolph Caesar (1933–1986) – actor
  • Leslie Cagan (born 1947) – activist and writer
  • James Cagney (1899–1986) – actor
  • Eddie Cahill (born 1978) – actor
  • Edward L. Cahn (1899–1963) – film director known for the Our Gang comedies
  • Sarth Calhoun – electronic musician
  • Joseph A. Califano – Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare
  • Maria Callas (1923–1977) – Greek-American opera singer
  • Richard Camacho – singer, musician, member of Latin music band CNCO, Dominican-origin
  • Christian Camargo – actor
  • Schuyler V. Cammann – anthropologist
  • Chris Canty – football player
  • Al Capone (1899–1947) – Prohibition gangster, boss of Chicago Outfit
  • Mae Capone (1897–1986) – wife of Al Capone
  • Francis Capra (born 1983) – actor
  • Nestor Carbonell (born 1967) – actor
  • Cardi B (born 1992) – rapper
  • Benjamin Cardozo – Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court
  • Hugh Carey – Governor of New York
  • Timothy Carey (1929–1994) – actor
  • George Carlin (1937–2008) – comedian
  • Alan Carney (1909–1973) – actor and comedian
  • Caleb Carr (born 1955) – novelist and military historian
  • Eric Carr – rock musician, songwriter
  • John Carradine (1906–1988) – actor
  • Julian Casablancas – lead singer of rock band The Strokes; musician
  • Colin Cassady (born 1986) – professional wrestler working for WWE
  • John Cassavetes – actor
  • DJ Cassidy (born 1981) – DJ, record producer and MC
  • Luis Castillo – football player
  • Vinnie Caruana – musician, singer
  • Phoebe Cates – actress
  • Jose Ceballos – trade unionist and political campaign manager
  • Bennett Cerf (1898–1971) – publisher, TV personality
  • Jeff Chandler – actor
  • Frank Chanfrau – actor
  • James S.C. Chao – Chinese-American entrepreneur and philanthropist
  • Harry Chapin (1942–1981) – singer-songwriter
  • Paddy Chayefsky – author
  • Maury Chaykin – actor
  • Julie Chen – television personality
  • Edmund A. Chester – executive at CBS
  • Jennie Jerome Churchill – mother of Winston Churchill
  • Peter Cincotti – singer-songwriter
  • Robert Clohessy – actor
  • Evan Cole – CEO of H.D. Buttercup
  • Margaret Colin – actress
  • Irv Constantine – football player
  • Hugh E. Conway – labor economist
  • Anderson Cooper – television journalist
  • George H. Cooper (1821–1891) – United States Navy rear admiral[2][3]
  • Shaun Cooper – rock musician, bassist
  • William R. Cosentini – mechanical engineer and founder of Cosentini Associates
  • Ann Coulter – conservative commentator, writer
  • Freddie Crawford – basketball player
  • Peter Criss – rock musician, songwriter
  • Billy Crystal – comedian, actor, director
  • George Cukor – film director
  • Kieran Culkin – actor
  • Kit Culkin – actor
  • Macaulay Culkin – actor
  • Rory Culkin – actor
  • Jermaine Cunningham – football player
  • Mario Cuomo – Governor of New York
  • Quentin Curry – landscape painter
  • Valerie Curtin – actress and screenwriter
  • Tony Curtis – actor


  • Alexandra Daddario – actress
  • Matthew Daddario – actor
  • Charles Patrick Daly – judge
  • Al D’Amato – politician
  • Claire Danes – actress
  • Rodney Dangerfield – comedian
  • Lloyd Daniels – basketball player
  • Ron Dante – singer-songwriter and record producer
  • Tony Danza – actor
  • Bobby Darin – singer, entertainer, actor, songwriter
  • Candy Darling actress and Warhol Superstar
  • Larry David – actor, writer, comedian, producer
  • Marion Davies – actress
  • Al “Bummy” Davis – boxer
  • Sammy Davis, Jr. (1925–1990) – singer and entertainer
  • Dawin (full name Dawin Polanco) – hip hop-R&B singer, musician, and record producer
  • Rosario Dawson – actress
  • Clarence Day (1874–1935) – author and humorist
  • Dorothy Day – Catholic social activist
  • Bill de Blasio – Mayor of New York City
  • Robert De Niro – actor
  • Éamon de Valera – Taoiseach (prime minister) and President of Ireland
  • Philip DeFranco – YouTuber and video blogger
  • Lana Del Rey – model and singer-songwriter
  • Samuel R. Delany – author and critic
  • Don DeLillo – author
  • Aaron T. Demarest – carriage manufacturer
  • Derek Dennis – football player
  • Jerry Denny – Major League Baseball player[4]
  • Desiigner – rapper
  • Willy DeVille (1950–2009) – singer
  • Kevin Devine – musician and songwriter
  • Neil Diamond – singer and composer
  • Vin Diesel – actor
  • Vincent D’Onofrio –actor
  • Phoebe Doty – prostitute and madam
  • Jim Dooley – composer
  • Amanda Minnie Douglas (1831–1916) – writer
  • Kirk Douglas – actor
  • Robert Downey Jr. – actor, producer and singer
  • Ervin Drake – composer, producer, writer, musician
  • Fran Drescher – actor
  • Julia Louis-Dreyfus – actress
  • Richard Dreyfuss – actor
  • Eric Drooker – artist and illustrator
  • David Duchovny – actor
  • Patty Duke (1946–2016) – actress and activist for mental-health issues
  • Lena Dunham – actress, screenwriter, producer and director
  • Joseph Dunninger – mentalist


  • Dominique Easley – football player
  • Gertrude Ederle (1905–2003) – swimmer
  • Eddie Egan – police detective
  • Gladys Egan – child actress
  • Jesse Eisenberg – actor
  • Ansel Elgort – actor, singer, dancer, DJ
  • Lapo Elkann – chief executive officer, Fiat
  • Bill Elko – football player
  • Mario Elie – basketball player
  • Duke Ellington – jazz pianist
  • Abby Elliott – actress
  • Nora Ephron – director, screenwriter, author
  • Omar Epps – actor
  • Theo Epstein – formerly the youngest general manager in the history of MLB, when the Boston Red Sox hired him at the age of 28; currently President of Baseball Operations for the Chicago Cubs
  • Eru – singer


  • Peter Facinelli – actor
  • Douglas Fairbanks, Jr. – actor
  • Edie Falco – actress
  • Jonah Falcon – actor and writer; achieved fame in early 2000s for his penis size
  • Jimmy Fallon – comedian
  • Peter Falk – actor
  • Louis Farrakhan – leader of the Nation of Islam
  • Perry Farrell – musician
  • Alice Faye – actress
  • Charles Fazzino – pop artist
  • Harry Feldman (1919–1962) – Major League Baseball pitcher
  • Jack Feldman – lyricist
  • Morton Feldman – composer
  • Julissa Ferreras – New York City Council Member, Finance Committee chair
  • Richard Feynman – theoretical physicist; recipient 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics
  • Harvey Fierstein – actor and playwright
  • Hamilton Fish – Governor of New York and U.S. Secretary of State
  • Herbert Flam (1928–1980) – tennis player
  • Bobby Flay – chef
  • Jeffrey Flier – Dean of Harvard Medical School
  • Jane Fonda – actress
  • Peter Fonda – actor
  • Hector Fonseca – deejay
  • Malcolm Forbes – publisher
  • Davy Force – major league baseball player[4]
  • Whitey Ford – pitcher for the New York Yankees
  • Anthony Franciosa – actor
  • David Frankel – film director
  • Al Franken – comedian and radio host, U.S. Senator from Minnesota
  • Michael Freeman – inventor, entrepreneur, author, and business consultant
  • Ace Frehley – guitarist
  • Milton Friedman – economist
  • Eric Fromm – tennis player
  • John Frusciante – musician, artist


  • Jim Gaffigan – comedian, actor, writer, and author
  • Gus Gardella – football player
  • Art Garfunkel – singer-songwriter, actor
  • Lou Gehrig – baseball player
  • Sarah Michelle Gellar – actress
  • Richard Genelle – actor
  • Stefani Germanotta – aka Lady Gaga – singer-songwriter, actor
  • George Gershwin – composer
  • Ira Gershwin – lyricist
  • Tiffany Giardina – singer-songwriter
  • Mel Gibson – American-born Australian/Irish actor and director
  • Vitas Gerulaitis – tennis player
  • Guy Gillette – photographer
  • Ruth Bader Ginsburg – Associate Justice of U.S. Supreme Court
  • Rabbi Issamar Ginzberg – business strategist, rabbi, motivational speaker
  • Rudolph Giuliani – former Mayor of New York City
  • Jackie Gleason – comedian, actor
  • James Gleason – actor
  • Joel Glucksman (born 1949) – Olympic fencer
  • Whoopi Goldberg – comedian, actress, TV personality
  • William Goldberg – diamond dealer
  • Daniel S. Goldin – NASA director
  • Ben Goldwasser – member of the psychedelic-rock band MGMT
  • Cuba Gooding Jr. – actor
  • Doris Kearns Goodwin – author
  • Leo Gorcey – film actor and comedian, leader of the Dead End Kids, East Side Kids, and Bowery Boys in several movies
  • Victor Gotbaum – labor leader
  • Elliott Gould – actor
  • David C. Gowdey – politician
  • Topher Grace – actor
  • Sean Grande – television and radio sportscaster
  • Rocky Graziano (born Thomas Rocco Barbella) – boxer
  • Hank Greenberg – Hall of Fame baseball player
  • Alan Greenspan – economist, former Federal Reserve chairman
  • Adrian Grenier – actor
  • Bill Griffith – cartoonist (Zippy) 
  • Melanie Griffith – actress
  • Bob Guccione – publisher
  • Peggy Guggenheim – art collector
  • Steve Guttenberg – actor
  • Maggie Gyllenhaal – actress


  • Adelaide Hall – jazz singer, Broadway star, actress
  • Huntz Hall – comedian, actor; co-starred in several Dead End Kids, East Side Kids and Bowery Boys movies
  • Mortimer Halpern – Broadway stage manager
  • Eddy Hamel (1902–1943) – Jewish-American soccer player for Dutch club AFC Ajax who was killed by the Nazis in Auschwitz concentration camp
  • Pete Hamill – journalist
  • Marvin Hamlisch – composer
  • Armand Hammer – industrialist and philanthropist
  • Oscar Hammerstein II – composer
  • Han Terra – polymath
  • Frank Hankinson – major league baseball player[4]
  • Sean Hannity – television host, author, conservative political commentator
  • Nelson Harding (1879–1944) – editorial cartoonist
  • Donald J. Harlin – Chief of Chaplains of the U.S. Air Force
  • W. Averell Harriman – diplomat and Governor of New York
  • Zelda Harris – actress
  • Anne Hathaway – actress
  • Marcia Haufrecht – actor, director, playwright
  • Curt Hawkins – WWE wrestler
  • Susan Hayward (1917–1975) – actress
  • Rita Hayworth – actress
  • Anthony Hecht – poet
  • Carol Heiss – Olympic figure skater (silver 1956, gold 1960)
  • Joseph Heller – author
  • Lance Henriksen – actor
  • Brian Henson – puppeteer, director, producer
  • Bernard Herrmann (1911–1975) – composer
  • Robert Hess (1935–2014) – sculptor, art educator
  • Peter Cooper Hewitt (1861–1921) – inventor
  • William Hickey – actor
  • Logan Hicks – artist
  • Hildegarde – cabaret singer
  • Paris Hilton – socialite, actress
  • Gregory Hines – dancer and actor
  • Judd Hirsch (born 1935) – actor
  • William E. Hoehle – member of the Wisconsin State Assembly
  • Lena Horne (1917–2010) – singer
  • Edward Everett Horton – actor
  • Curly Howard – actor of comedy team The Three Stooges
  • Moe Howard – actor of comedy team The Three Stooges
  • Shemp Howard – actor of comedy team The Three Stooges
  • Tina Huang – actress
  • Richard Hunt – puppeteer and television director
  • Tab Hunter (born 1931) – actor
  • Barbara Hutton (1912–1979) – socialite dubbed “Poor Little Rich Girl”


  • Washington Irving – author
  • John Isaac – photographer


  • Wolfman Jack (also known as Robert Weston Smith; 1938–1995) – radio personality
  • Jane Jacobs (1916–2006) – economist, urban theorist, activist
  • Ken Jacobs (born 1933) – artist and filmmaker
  • Marc Jacobs (born 1963) – fashion designer
  • Henry James (1843–1916) – writer
  • William James (1842–1910) – philosopher and psychologist
  • Jaiquawn Jarrett (born 1989) – football player
  • John Jay (1745–1829) – diplomat, jurist (including Chief Justice of the United States) and politician (including Governor of New York)
  • Jay-Z (born 1969) – businessperson and rapper
  • Karine Jean-Pierre – political campaign organizer
  • Charles Jenkins (born 1989) – basketball player
  • Max Jenkins (born 1985) – actor and writer
  • Jessi (born 1988) – rapper
  • Jipsta (John Patrick Masterson; born 1974) – rapper
  • MC Jin (born 1982) – rapper
  • Billy Joel (born 1949) – singer and songwriter
  • David Johansen (born 1950) – actor, singer and songwriter
  • Scarlett Johansson (born 1984) – actress
  • Crockett Johnson (1906–1975) – cartoonist and children’s writer (Harold and the Purple Crayon)
  • Boris Johnson (born 1964) – American-born British politician and former Mayor of London (2008–2016)
  • Nasir Jones (born 1973) – actor, rapper and former member of the rap group The Firm
  • Norah Jones (born 1979) – actress, instrumentalist and singer-songwriter
  • Julia Jones-Pugliese (1909–1993) – national champion fencer and fencing coach
  • Michael Jordan (born 1963) – basketball player
  • William Joyce (also known as Lord Haw-Haw; 1906–1946) – Nazi propaganda broadcaster


  • Philip Mayer Kaiser (1913–2007) – U.S. diplomat
  • Andy Kaufman (1949–1984) – comedian
  • Charlie Kaufman (born 1958) – screenwriter
  • Danny Kaye (1913–1987) – actor and comedian
  • Lenny Kaye (born 1946) – guitarist
  • Thomas Kean (born 1935) – Governor of New Jersey
  • Harvey Keitel (born 1939) – actor
  • Bridget Kelly (born 1986) – singer
  • George Kennedy (1925–2016) – actor
  • Jacqueline Kennedy (1929–1994) – First Lady of the United States and editor
  • Jerome Kern (1885–1945) – composer
  • Alicia Keys (born 1981) – R&B singer
  • Jimmy Kimmel (born 1967) – comedian and television talk-show host
  • Keith Kinkaid (born 1989) – professional ice hockey player
  • Nancy Kissinger (born 1934) – philanthropist
  • Calvin Klein (born 1942) – fashion designer
  • John “Julius” Knight — music producer, DJ
  • Miss Ko (born 1985) – rapper
  • Ed Koch (1924–2013) – Mayor of New York City
  • E. L. Konigsburg (born 1930) – writer
  • Peter Koo (born 1952) – politician, pharmacist
  • C. Everett Koop (1916–2013) – physician
  • Yaphet Kotto (born 1939) – actor
  • Joey Kramer (born 1950) – drummer, Aerosmith
  • Lenny Kravitz (born 1964) – singer and songwriter
  • Stanley Kubrick (1928–1999) – film director and screenwriter
  • Bruce Kulick (born 1953) – guitarist
  • William Kunstler (1919–1955) – lawyer
  • Tony Kushner (born 1956) – playwright and screenwriter
  • Allan Kwartler (1917–1998) – sabre and foil fencer, Pan American Games and Maccabiah Games champion


  • Fiorello La Guardia (1882–1947) – Mayor of New York City
  • Jesse Lacey – musician and singer
  • Lady Gaga (born 1986) – singer-songwriter, actress
  • Bert Lahr (1895–1967) – actor and comedian
  • Veronica Lake – actress
  • Jake LaMotta – boxer
  • Burt Lancaster (1913–1994) – actor
  • Martin Landau – actor
  • Diane Lane (born 1965) – actress
  • Leo Laporte – founder/host of
  • Floria Lasky (1923–2007) – theater world lawyer
  • Cyndi Lauper – singer
  • Ralph Lauren – fashion designer
  • Emma Lazarus – author and poet
  • Steve Lawrence – singer and actor
  • Derek Lee – baseball player
  • Jeanette Lee (born 1971) – professional pool player
  • Stan Lee – comic-book writer, editor, film executive producer, actor, and publisher for Marvel Comics
  • Madeleine L’Engle – author
  • Franz Leichter (born 1930) – politician
  • Melissa Leo (born 1960) – actress
  • Princess Leonore, Duchess of Gotland (born 2014) – fifth in line to the Swedish throne
  • Huey Lewis – musician and singer
  • Joe E. Lewis (1902–1971) – comedian
  • Miranda Lichtenstein (born 1969) – artist
  • Roy Lichtenstein – artist
  • Joe Lieberman – former long-time U.S. Senator from Connecticut (1989–2013); 2000 vice presidential nominee under Al Gore
  • Lil’ Kim (Kimberly Denise Jones; born 1976) – actress and rapper
  • John Lindsay – Mayor of New York City
  • Deborah Lipstadt – historian and author
  • Peggy Lipton – actress
  • Lisa Lisa (born 1966) – freestyle singer; fronted Cult Jam; born Lisa Velez
  • John Liu (born 1967) – American politician, 43rd New York City Comptroller
  • Lucy Liu – actress
  • Robert R. Livingston – U.S. founding father and diplomat
  • Tommy Lockhart – Inductee into Hockey Hall of Fame, and United States Hockey  Hall of Fame 
  • Robert Loggia – actor
  • Lindsay Lohan – actress
  • Vince Lombardi – football coach
  • Ki Longfellow – novelist
  • Jennifer Lopez – singer and actress
  • Julia Louis-Dreyfus – actress
  • Willie Lozado – baseball player
  • Bennet Nathaniel “Nate” Lubell (1916–2006) – Olympic fencer
  • Edna Luby – Broadway and vaudeville performer
  • Lucky Luciano – gangster
  • Sid Luckman – football player and coach
  • Frankie Lymon – singer
  • Carol Lynley – actress


  • Bernard Malamud – author
  • Melissa Manchester – singer
  • Barry Manilow – singer, songwriter, musician
  • Mike Mansfield – Senator from Montana (raised in Montana)
  • Stephon Marbury – professional basketball player
  • James Margolis (born 1936) – Olympic fencer
  • Rose Marie (Mazetta) – actress
  • Ernest Martin – theatre director and manager
  • Soraida Martinez – artist, designer
  • Sadie Martinot – singer, actress
  • Constantine Maroulis – American Idol finalist
  • Lee Marvin – actor
  • Chico Marx – member of the Marx Brothers
  • Groucho Marx – member of the Marx Brothers
  • Gummo Marx – member of the Marx Brothers
  • Harpo Marx – member of the Marx Brothers
  • Zeppo Marx – member of the Marx Brothers
  • James Maslow – actor and singer (raised in California)
  • Jackie Mason (born 1931) – comedian and actor (born in Wisconsin)
  • John Massari – composer, sound designer
  • Walter Matthau – actor
  • John McCloskey – Cardinal Archbishop of New York, 1864–1885
  • Frank McCourt – author (raised in Ireland, returned later in life)
  • Malachy McCourt – author (raised in Ireland, returned later in life)
  • Allie McGuire – professional basketball player
  • Kenneth McMillan (1932–1989) – actor
  • Andrea Mitchell – journalist, NBC News
  • Paul Meltsner – WPA-era painter and muralist
  • Bob Melvin (born 1961) – Major League Baseball player and manager
  • Dave Meltzer – pro wrestling journalist
  • Herman Melville (1819–1891) – author
  • Grace Meng (born 1975) – lawyer and politician, Vice Chair of the Democratic National Committee
  • Yehudi Menuhin (1916–1999) – violinist
  • Idina Menzel (born 1971) – singer and actress
  • Ethel Merman (1908–1984) – singer and actress
  • Helen Merrill – jazz singer
  • Robert Merrill (1917–2004) – singer
  • Lea Michele – actress, singer
  • Vera Michelena (1885–1961) – actress, dancer and singer
  • Alyssa Milano – actress
  • Adeline Miller – prostitute and madam
  • Arthur Miller (1915–2005) – playwright
  • Marcus Miller – bassist and composer
  • Stephanie Mills – singer and former Broadway star
  • Harvey Milk – gay activist and politician
  • Andy Mineo – Christian rapper
  • Sal Mineo (1939–1976) – actor
  • John Joseph Mitty – Roman Catholic Archbishop of San Francisco
  • Isaac Mizrahi – fashion designer
  • Eddie Money – singer
  • Mary Tyler Moore – actress and producer
  • Melba Moore – actress and singer
  • Nancie Monelle (born 1841) – physician and missionary
  • Tom Morello – guitarist
  • Henry Morgan – radio and television personality
  • Huey Morgan – musician, radio DJ, songwriter, television personality
  • Gouverneur Morris – US founding father; U.S. Senator
  • Zero Mostel – actor and comedian
  • Tommy Mottola – music executive
  • Maria Muldaur – folk and blues singer-songwriter
  • Gerry Mulligan – musician
  • Richard Mulligan – actor
  • Robert Mulligan – director
  • Chris Mullin – basketball player
  • Charlie Murphy – actor and comedian
  • Chris Murphy – US Senator from Connecticut since 2013
  • Eddie Murphy – actor and comedian


  • James M. Nack (1809–1879) – deaf and mute poet
  • Dominic Napolitano (1930–1981) – Mafia caporegime
  • Janet Napolitano (born 1957) – third US Secretary of Homeland Security
  • Nas (born 1973) – rapper born Nasir Jones
  • Michael H. Nash (1946–2012) – labor historian, librairan, and archivist
  • Russell Nash (1518–2002) – antiques dealer on Hudson Street
  • Tonie Nathan (born 1923) – Libertarian Party political figure
  • Oscar Neebe (1850–1916) – anarchist, labor activist, one of Haymarket bombing trial defendants
  • Casey Neistat (born 1981) – film director, producer, designer
  • Howard Nemerov (1920–1991) – poet
  • Sylvester Nevins – politician
  • Sam Newfield (1899–1964) – film director
  • John Philip Newman (1826–1899) – Methodist bishop
  • Denise Nickerson (born 1957) – actress
  • Harry Nilsson (1941–1994) – singer-songwriter
  • Cynthia Nixon (born 1966) – actress
  • Joakim Noah (born 1985) – NBA center for the New York Knicks
  • Jerry Nolan (1946–1992) – rock drummer
  • John Nolan (born 1978) – musician and singer
  • Charles Nordhoff (1830–1901) – journalist, descriptive and miscellaneous writer
  • Dagmar Nordstrom (1903–1976) – composer, pianist and singer; member of the cabaret singing duo the Nordstrom Sisters
  • Siggie Nordstrom (1893–1980) – actress, model and singer; member of the cabaret singing duo the Nordstrom Sisters
  • Ed Norris (born 1960) – radio host
  • Chris Noth (born 1954) – actor
  • Geoffrey Notkin (born 1961) – TV science educator
  • The Notorious B.I.G. (Christopher George Latore Wallace) – rapper
  • Carrie Nye (1936–2006) – actress


  • Simon Oakland – actor
  • Jerry O’Connell – actor and television personality
  • Al Oerter (1935–2007) – four-time Olympic champion in discus throw
  • Kevin Ogletree – football player
  • Keith Olbermann – television sportscaster and commentator
  • Jon Oliva – Savatage singer and keyboardist
  • Chris O’Loughlin (born 1967) – Olympic fencer
  • Eugene O’Neill – playwright
  • Paul O’Neill (1956–2017) – music composer and producer
  • Robert Oppenheimer – physicist; “father of the atomic bomb”
  • Jerry Orbach – actor
  • Bill O’Reilly – former Fox News anchor
  • Rick Overton – actor and comedian


  • P. Diddy (born 1969) – rapper
  • Al Pacino (born 1940) – actor
  • Saul K. Padover (1905–1981) – historian
  • Joseph Papp – theater producer, impresario and founder of The Public Theater
  • Rob Parker – sportswriter and TV analyst
  • Lana Parrilla – actress
  • Joe Paterno – football coach
  • James Patterson – novelist
  • Sarah Paulson – actress
  • Josh Peck – actor
  • Jan Peerce (1904–1984) – opera tenor
  • Amanda Peet – actress
  • Richard Pelham – blackface performer
  • Claiborne Pell – Senator from Rhode Island
  • Caroline Pennell – singer-songwriter, musician, and contestant on NBC’s The Voice season 5
  • Sam Perkins – basketball player
  • Bernadette Peters – actress and singer
  • Regis Philbin – actor, entertainer, television personality, and former host of ABC’s Who Wants to be a Millionaire? (1999–2002) and Live! with Regis and Kelly (1983–2011)
  • Lip Pike – baseball player, four-time home-run champion 
  • John Pleshette – actor
  • Suzanne Pleshette (1937–2008) – actress from Bob Newhart Show
  • Christopher Poole – creator of websites 4chan and Canvas Networks
  • Ted Post – movie and TV director
  • Neil Postman – author and cultural critic
  • Chaim Potok (1929–2002) – author
  • Bud Powell – jazz pianist
  • Colin Powell – U.S. Army general and U.S. Secretary of State
  • Gary Powell – drummer
  • Joshua Prager – physician
  • Priscilla Presley – actress
  • Tito Puente – bandleader
  • Mario Puzo – author


  • Q-Tip – rapper


  • Renee Rabinowitz (born 1934) – psychologist and lawyer
  • Raekwon – rapper (Wu-tang Clan)
  • Bill Rafferty – comedian
  • Joey Ramone and Marky Ramone – punk-rock musicians
  • Michael Rapaport – actor, comedian, director
  • Ray Ratkowski – football player
  • Ray Rice – football player
  • Melissa Rauch – actress and comedian
  • Lou Reed – rock musician, songwriter
  • A$AP Rocky – rapper
  • Christopher Reeve – actor
  • Carl Reiner – comedian, actor, director, author
  • Rob Reiner – actor and director
  • Paul Reiser – actor
  • Charlie Reiter (born 1988) – footballer
  • Ed Rendell – former Mayor of Philadelphia, Governor of Pennsylvania
  • Brandon Reilly – musician, guitarist, singer
  • Leah Remini – actress
  • Bebe Rexha (born 1989) – singer and songwriter
  • Vincent Rey – football player
  • Charles E. Rice – legal scholar, university professor
  • Buddy Rich – jazz drummer
  • Renée Richards (born 1934) – tennis player
  • Terry Richardson – fashion photographer
  • Burton Richter – Nobel Prize-winning physicist
  • Kathleen Ridder – Women’s equal rights activist, writer, educator, philanthropist 
  • Robert Ridder – Ice hockey administrator and media mogul 
  • Robin Riker – actress and book author
  • Thelma Ritter – actress
  • Joan Rivers – comedian
  • Chris Rock – comedian and actor
  • Laurance Rockefeller – conservationist and philanthropist
  • Winthrop Rockefeller – Governor of Arkansas
  • Norman Rockwell – artist
  • Alex Rodriguez – baseball player
  • John Rogan – football player
  • Sonny Rollins – jazz saxophonist
  • Ray Romano – comedian and actor
  • Saoirse Ronan – American-born Irish actress
  • Igal Roodenko (1917–1991) – civil-rights activist, pacifist
  • Sean Rooks – basketball player and coach[10]
  • Mickey Rooney – actor
  • Franklin Roosevelt – 32nd President of the United States
  • Remy Ma – rapper
  • Eleanor Roosevelt – U.S. First Lady and human-rights activist
  • Theodore Roosevelt – 26th President of the United States
  • Ethel Greenglass Rosenberg – convicted spy
  • Beatrice Rosen – actress (raised in Paris)
  • Julius Rosenberg – convicted spy
  • Emmy Rossum – actress
  • Veronica Roth – novelist
  • Mercedes Ruehl – actress
  • Vic Ruggiero – ska musician frontman of The Slackers
  • Louis Rukeyser – business columnist, economic commentator
  • Damien Russell – NFL player
  • Art Rust Jr. – sportscaster


  • Carl Sagan – physicist and astronomer
  • Boris Said – NASCAR driver
  • J. D. Salinger – author
  • Jonas Salk – medical researcher
  • John Salley – basketball player
  • Jerry Saltz – art critic, art historian
  • Claudio Sanchez – musician
  • Bernie Sanders – politician and U.S. Senator from Vermont since 2007
  • Adam Sandler – actor, comedian
  • Dustin Satloff – boy entrepreneur
  • Francesco Scavullo – photographer
  • Dick Schaap – journalist
  • Jeremy Schaap – journalist
  • Vincent Schiavelli – actor and food writer
  • Julian Schnabel – artist and director
  • Mathieu Schneider – hockey player
  • Sandra Schnur – disability-rights activist
  • Loretta Schrijver – Dutch television host
  • Rick Schroder – actor
  • Amy Schumer – actress and comedian
  • Chuck Schumer – U.S. Senator from New York since 1999; cousin of Amy
  • Julius Schwartz – comic book editor
  • Martin Scorsese – film director
  • Vin Scully – sportscaster
  • Malik Sealy – basketball player
  • Jon Seda – comedian
  • Barney Sedran (1891–1964) – Hall of Fame basketball player
  • Jerry Seinfeld – comedian
  • Julius Seligson (1909–1987) – tennis player
  • Edward Selzer (1893–1970) – film producer, Warner Bros.
  • Maurice Sendak (1928–2012) – author and illustrator
  • John Serry, Sr. – accordionist, organist, composer, arranger
  • Saint Elizabeth Ann Seton – founder of Sisters of Charity; first native-born US citizen canonized
  • Cynthia Propper Seton (1926–1982) – novelist
  • Tupac Shakur – rapper
  • Gene Shalit – film critic; raised in New Jersey
  • Frank Shannon – conservative political analyst, columnist, and candidate
  • Artie Shaw (1910–2004) – bandleader
  • Judy Sheindlin (“Judge Judy”) (born 1942) – judge and television personality
  • Brooke Shields – actress
  • Daniel Sickles – Civil War general
  • Bugsy Siegel – gangster
  • Jules Siegel – author
  • Maggie Siff – actress
  • Beverly Sills (1929–2007) – opera singer
  • Ron Silver – actor, radio show host
  • Robert Silverberg – author
  • Dean Silvers – film producer
  • Alan Silvestri – film music composer
  • Carly Simon – singer-songwriter
  • Neil Simon – playwright
  • Richard L. Simon (1899–1960) – businessman and publisher
  • Kaseem Sinceno – football player
  • John Slidell – Senator from Louisiana and Confederate diplomat
  • Al Smith (1873–1944) – Governor of New York and presidential candidate
  • Will Smith (1981–2016) – former football player
  • Phoebe Snow – singer-songwriter
  • Stephen Sondheim – musical theatre composer and lyricist
  • Aaron Sorkin – playwright and screenwriter
  • Sonia Sotomayor – United States Supreme Court Justice
  • Mickey Spillane – author
  • Eliot Spitzer – former Governor of New York
  • Sylvester Stallone – actor, director, screenwriter
  • Paul Stanley – hard-rock guitarist, singer and songwriter
  • Barbara Stanwyck (1907–1990) – actress
  • Joe Start – Major League Baseball player[4]
  • James Steen – football player
  • Howard Stern – radio and television host
  • John Stevens – delegate to Continental Congress for New Jersey
  • Andrew Stewart – player of gridiron football
  • Foley Stewart – musician
  • Jon Stewart – writer, producer, political satirist, actor, television personality, comedian, and former host of The Daily Show (1999–2015); born in New York City, raised in New Jersey
  • Julia Stiles – actress
  • Ben Stiller – actor known for Madagascar, Night at the Museum and Zoolander
  • Henry L. Stimson – politician and diplomat
  • Oliver Stone – film director
  • Susan Strasberg – actress
  • Robert Strassburg – composer, conductor, musicologist
  • James Strauch (1921–1998) – Olympic fencer
  • Barbra Streisand – singer and actress
  • Meryl Streep – actress
  • Jill Stuart – fashion designer
  • Big Sue – shopkeeper and underworld figure
  • Ed Sullivan (1901–1974) – television variety show host
  • Susan Sullivan – actress
  • Kevin Sussman – actor known for The Big Bang Theory


  • Vic Tayback (1930–1990) – actor
  • Alma Tell (1898–1937) – stage and screen actress
  • Olive Tell (1894–1951) – stage and screen actress
  • Maurice Tempelsman (born 1929) – businessman
  • Chloe Temtchine (born 1982/1983) – singer-songwriter
  • The Tenderloins (born 1976) – an American comedy troupe currently composed of
  • Joseph “Joe” Gatto, James “Murr” Murray, Brian “Q” Quinn, and Salvatore “Sal” Vulcano
  • Studs Terkel (1912–2008) – author and historian
  • Milton Terris (1915–2002) – public health physician and epidemiologist
  • Roy M. Terry – Chief of Chaplains of the U.S. Air Force
  • Vinny Testaverde – football player
  • Irving Thalberg – film producer
  • Leon Thomas III – actor
  • Soren Thompson (born 1981) – two-time Olympic and team World Champion épée fencer
  • Johnny Thunders – rock musician
  • Gene Tierney (1920–1991) – actress
  • Harry Tietlebaum (born 1889) – organized crime figure
  • Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848–1933) – artist
  • Matt Titus – professional matchmaker
  • James Toback (born 1944) – screenwriter and director
  • Isabella Tobias (born 1991) – ice dancer
  • Lola Todd (1904–1995) – silent film actress
  • Bill Todman – game show producer
  • Michael Tolkin (born 1950) – filmmaker and novelist
  • Marisa Tomei (born 1964) – actress
  • Joe Torre – baseball player and manager
  • Douglas Townsend (1921–2012) – composer and musicologist
  • Michelle Trachtenberg – actress
  • Mary Travers – singer with Peter, Paul, and Mary
  • Alex Treves (born 1929) – Italian-born American Olympic fencer
  • Barron Trump – socialite
  • Donald Trump – 45th President of the United States
  • Donald Trump Jr. – businessman
  • Eric Trump – businessman
  • Fred Trump – real estate developer and philanthropist
  • Ivanka Trump – businesswoman
  • Tiffany Trump – socialite
  • Barbara Tuchman (1912–1989) – historian; author
  • Richard Tucker (1913–1975) – opera tenor
  • Gene Tunney – 1926–28 heavyweight boxing champion
  • John V. Tunney – former U.S. Senator
  • John Turturro – actor and director
  • William Tweed (1823–1878) – politician
  • Liv Tyler – actress
  • Steven Tyler (born 1948) – singer, Aerosmith
  • Mike Tyson (born 1966) – boxer
  • Neil deGrasse Tyson – astronomer, science communicator


  • Leslie Uggams – singer; actress
  • The Ultimate Warrior (born Jim Hellwig and also known as Warrior) – professional wrestler
  • Louis Untermeyer (1885–1977) – poet, anthologist, critic, and editor
  • Hikaru Utada – singer, musician


  • Andrew Vachss – lawyer and author
  • Cornelius Vanderbilt – businessman
  • Robert Vaughn (1932–2016) – actor
  • George Vergara – NFL player
  • Jennifer von Mayrhauser – costume designer


  • Stanley M. Wagner (1932–2013) – rabbi and academic
  • Josh Waitzkin (born 1976) – chess player, martial arts competitor, and author
  • Christopher Walken – actor
  • Adam Walker – football player
  • Hezekiah Walker – bishop and gospel artist
  • Jimmy Walker (1881–1946) – Mayor of New York City
  • Kemba Walker – basketball player
  • Eli Wallach – actor
  • Donald A. Wallance – industrial designer[11]
  • Fats Waller – jazz pianist
  • Abby Wambach – soccer player
  • Charles B. Wang (born 1944) – businessman, philanthropist
  • Vera Wang – fashion designer
  • Raees Warsi – poet, journalist, social and worker
  • Kerry Washington – actress
  • Damon Wayans – actor and producer
  • Dwayne Wayans – director, producer and writer
  • Keenen Ivory Wayans – actor, director, producer and writer
  • Kim Wayans – actress
  • Marlon Wayans – actor and producer
  • Nadia Wayans – actress
  • Shawn Wayans – actor and producer
  • Michael Weatherly – actor
  • Sigourney Weaver – actress
  • Brian Wecht (born 1975) – musician, producer for Ninja Sex Party and Starbomb, and member of Game Grumps
  • Steven Weinberg – Nobel Prize-winning physicist
  • Leslie West – rock musician
  • Mae West (1893–1980) – actress
  • Nathanael West – author
  • Edith Wharton – author
  • Joss Whedon – screenwriter, film and television producer, author and composer
  • Maggie Wheeler – actress
  • White Light Motorcade –music group[12]
  • Billy Whitlock – blackface performer
  • Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney – sculptor and art patron
  • Edward W. Whitson – Wisconsin State Assemblyman
  • Kristen Wiig – actress, comedian and writer
  • Charles Wilkes – naval officer and explorer
  • Lenny Wilkens – basketball player and coach
  • Billy Dee Williams (born 1937) – actor
  • Vanessa L. Williams – singer and actress
  • Walter Winchell (1897–1972) – newspaper and radio gossip commentator
  • Harry Winitsky – political activist; founding member of the Communist Party USA
    Dean Winters – actor
  • Mike Witteck – football player
  • George Worth – born György Woittitz (1915–2006), Olympic medalist saber fencer
  • James Hood Wright – businessman
  • William H. H. Wroe – member of the Wisconsin State Assembly
  • Charles Wuorinen – composer


  • Izzy Yablok – football player
  • Tony Yayo – rapper
  • Burt Young – actor
  • Tony Young – actor

Global outreach

In 2006, the Sister City Program of the City of New York, Inc. was restructured and renamed New York City Global Partners. Through this program, New York City has expanded its international outreach to a network of cities worldwide, promoting the exchange of ideas and innovation between their citizenry and policymakers. New York’s historic sister cities are denoted below by the year they joined New York City’s partnership network.

The World’s Least Populated Capital Cities

World Facts

Ngerulmud, the capital city of the Pacific island nation of Palau, is the world’s least populated national capital.


The Capitol Building in Ngerulmud, Palau.

By July 1, 2017, the global population reached approximately 7.550 billion. Exactly one year earlier, the global population stood at 7.466 billion, and by January 2018 it had surpassed the 7.6 billion mark. In 2016, the majority of the global population lived in Asia (59.69%), followed by Africa (16.36%), Europe (9.94%), North America (7.79%), South America (5.68%), Oceania (0.54%), and Antarctica (less than 0.1%). China remains the world’s most populous country, with an estimated population of 1.41 billion as of January 2018, while India ranks a close second with 1.35 billion. Both counties account for 19% and 18% of the global, respectively. However, the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs estimates that India will be the world’s most populous country by 2024 based on current trends in birth rate. Between 2010 and 2017 China experienced an annual population increase of 0.4%, while India experienced an annual increase of 1.1%. More than half (54%) of the global population resides in an urban environment. Urbanization of the rural environment and migration to urban areas mean that 66% of the global population will live in an urban environment by 2050. As some countries record high populations, others register less than 10,000 inhabitants. Vatican City remains the least populous country, with between 790-800 people. Tokelau and Niue both have less than 2,000 residents.

The World’s Least Populated Capital Cities

Palau is the capital of Ngerulmud and is the least populous capital city on the planet, with a population of just 400. The city became the national capital in 2006, succeeding Koror City, which is home to half of the country’s total population of 21,800. Since the 1950s the country’s population growth has been low, growing from 7,440 in 1950 to 21,800 in January 2018. The Vatican City ranks second, with a population of about 800 people, and is the world’s least populous country. The city-state is located entirely within the Italian city of Rome. Vatican City is associated with the Roman Catholic Church and is the home of the Catholic Pope.

The state of Nauru in Oceania has a population of 11,360. The capital city, Yaren, is inhabited by about 1,100 people, which represents 9.6% of the entire population. The island covers an area of 8.1 sqm. Yaren, which covers an area of 0.58 sqm on the southern part of the island, was established in 1968 surrounding an area that had clean drinking water. Nauru has no modern city, and Yaren was therefore recognized by the United Nations as the country’s de facto capital. Tuvalu, which is located in the Pacific Ocean, halfway between Australia and the U.S state of Hawaii, is a Polynesian nation with a population of about 11,200 people. The capital, Funafuti, is an atoll and home to 6,025 people, representing 56.6% of the entire population. The country’s parliament and administrative offices are located in Fongafale.

The microstate of San Marino is located in the Italian Peninsula and is enclosed by Italy. It covers an area of about 24 sqm and has a population of approximately 33,400. Serravalle is the largest city in the country, but the City of San Marino City is the capital. The City of San Marino is home to about 4,500 people, which is less than half of Serravalle’s population. It was founded by Christians in the early 4th century and remains a Christian city. The microstate of Liechtenstein in Central Europe is home to about 38,000 people. Its capital city, Vaduz, is home to about 5,250, and acts as the country’s political and administrative center. It is the most recognized city in the state, although Schaan has a larger population.

The capital city of Malta, Valletta, is home to 6,500 of the country’s 450,000 people. Founded on March 28, 1566, the city is popular for its cultural artifacts. St. George’s is the capital of Granada, and is home to about 7,500 people. Tourism has helped develop and market the city as a tourist destination, resulting in a rise in population. Granada is located in the Caribbean, is popular among tourists, and is known to be a leading export of nutmeg and mace crops.

Palikir is the capital of the Federated States of Micronesia, and is home to about 9,900 people. Micronesia has a population of 105,000 people, and maintains close relations with the United States. The capital city of Saint Kitts and Nevis, Basseterre, is the 10th least populous capital city, with a population of only 13,100.

The Least Populous Countries

Vatican City remains the least populous state, with a population of 800. Tokelau ranks second, with a population of about 1,300, and has a population growth rate of 1.3% annually. Montserrat, Falkland Islands, and Saint Helena, all register less than 6,000 people.

The World’s Least Populated Capital Cities



Source: WorldAtlas