Los Angeles

Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

Los Angeles (i/lɒs ˈændʒələs/ loss-an-jə-ləs; bahasa Spanyol: [los ˈaŋxeles], ditulis Los Ángeles; pengucapan Britania /lɒs ˈændʒəliːz/ loss-an-jə-leez) dengan jumlah penduduk sebanyak 3.792.621 jiwa sesuai Sensus Amerika Serikat 2010, adalah kota terpadat di negara bagian California, dan kota terpadat kedua di Amerika Serikat, setelah New York City. Luasnya mencapai 468,67 mil persegi (1213,8 km2), dan terletak di California Selatan. Terkenal dengan inisial L.A.-nya, kota ini merupakan titik utama wilayah statistik metropolitan Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana dan region Wilayah Los Angeles Raya, yang dihuni 12.828.837 dan hampir 18 juta jiwa pada tahun 2010, menjadikannya salah satu wilayah metropolitan terpadat di dunia[6] dan yang terbesar kedua di Amerika Serikat. Los Angeles juga merupakan ibu kota County Los Angeles, salah satu county terpadat dan paling beragam etnisnya[8] di Amerika Serikat, sementara seluruh wilayah Los Angeles sendiri diakui sebagai kota besar yang paling beragam di negara ini. Penduduk kota Los Angeles disebut “Angelenos”.

Los Angeles didirikan tanggal 4 September 1781 oleh gubernur Spanyol Felipe de Neve.  Kota ini menjadi bagian dari Meksiko pada tahun 1821 setelah Perang Kemerdekaan Meksiko.  Tahun 1848, pada akhir Perang Meksiko-Amerika Serikat, Los Angeles dan seluruh California dibeli sebagai bagian dari Traktat Guadalupe Hidalgo, sehingga menjadi bagian dari Amerika Serikat.  Los Angeles disatukan menjadi munisipalitas pada tanggal 4 April 1850, lima bulan sebelum California mendapat status negara bagian. 

Dijuluki City of Angels, Los Angeles adalah pusat dunia bisnis, perdagangan internasional, hiburan, budaya, media, mode, ilmu pengetahuan, olahraga, teknologi, dan pendidikan terdepan, serta merupakan kota terkaya ketiga di dunia dan kota paling kuat dan berpengaruh kelima di dunia. Kota ini adalah tempat berdirinya berbagai institusi yang mencakup berbagai bidang profesional dan budaya dan merupakan salah satu mesin ekonomi terpenting di Amerika Serikat. Wilayah statistik gabungan (CSA) Los Angeles memiliki produk metropolitan bruto (PMB) senilai $831 miliar (tahun 2008), menjadikannya pusat ekonomi terbesar ketiga di dunia, setelah wilayah metropolitan Tokyo Raya dan New York.  Sebagai basis Hollywood, kota ini dijuluki “Ibu Kota Hiburan Dunia”, yang memimpin pembuatan produksi televisi, permainan video, dan musik rekaman kelas dunia. Bisnis hiburan di kota ini mendorong banyak selebriti menetap di Los Angeles dan pinggiran kotanya. Selain itu, Los Angeles pernah menyelenggarakan Olimpiade Musim Panas tahun 1932 dan 1984.

Sejarah

Kawasan pesisir Los Angeles pertama dihuni oleh suku Pribumi Amerika Tongva (atau Gabrieleños) dan Chumash ribuan tahun yang lalu. Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, seorang penjelajah kelahiran Portugal, mengklaim wilayah California Selatan sebagai bagian dari Kekaisaran Spanyol pada tahun 1542.  Gaspar de Portolà dan misionaris Fransiskan Juan Crespí, berhasil mencapai daerah yang saat ini merupakan Los Angeles pada tanggal 2 Agustus 1769. 

Pada tahun 1771, biarawan Fransiskan Junípero Serra memimpin pembangunan Mission San Gabriel Arcangel, misi pertama di daerah ini. Pada tanggal 4 September 1781, empat puluh empat pendatang yang dijuluki “Los Pobladores” mendirikan sebuah pueblo bernama “La Reyna de los Angeles”, yang diberi nama untuk Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles del Río de Porciúncula (Our Lady the Queen of the Angels of the Porciúncula River). Dua per tiga pendatang adalah mestizo atau mulatto dengan keturunan Afrika, Amerindian, dan Eropa. Permukiman tersebut tetap menjadi kota ranca kecil selama beberapa dasawarsa, tetapi pada tahun 1820, populasinya bertambah hingga 650 jiwa. Hari ini, pueblo tersebut diabadikan di distrik bersejarah Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza dan Olvera Street, kawasan tertua di Los Angeles.

Spanyol Baru merdeka dari Kekaisaran Spanyol pada tahun 1821, dan pueblo ini masih menjadi bagian dari Meksiko. Selama masa kekuasaan Meksiko, Gubernur Pío Pico menjadikan Los Angeles ibu kota regional Alta California. Kekuasaan Meksiko berakhir pada Perang Meksiko-Amerika Serikat: Amerika Serikat merebut kota ini dari Californios setelah serangkaian pertempuran yang berujung pada penandatanganan Traktat Cahuenga pada tanggal 13 Januari 1847. 

Plaza kota lama, 1869

Rel kereta api datang seiring rampungnya jalur Southern Pacific menuju Los Angeles pada tahun 1876. Minyak ditemukan tahun 1892, dan pada 1923, penemuan tersebut membantu California menjadi produsen minyak terbesar di Amerika Serikat dengan pangsa sekitar seperempat produksi minyak dunia.

Los Angeles City Hall, tahun 1931, dibangun pada tahun 1928 dan merupakan struktur tertinggi di kota ini sampai tahun 1964 ketika batas ketinggian ditiadakan.

Pada tahun 1900, populasinya tumbuh hingga lebih dari 102.000 jiwa, sehingga membebani persediaan air kota.  Rampungnya pembangunan Los Angeles Aqueduct tahun 1913, di bawah arahan William Mulholland, menjamin pertumbuhan kota secara terus menerus. 

Pada tahun 1910, tidak cuma Los Angeles menganeksasi Hollywood, tetapi di kota ini sudah ada 10 perusahaan film yang beroperasi. Pada tahun 1921, lebih dari 80 persen industri film dunia terkonsentrasi di L.A. ] Uang yang dihasilkan industri ini melindungi kota dari guncangan ekonomi yang menyebar di seluruh Amerika Serikat selama Depresi Besar.  Pada tahun 1930, populasinya melewati angka satu juta jiwa. Pada tahun 1932, kota ini mengadakan Olimpiade Musim Panas.

Setelah akhir Perang Dunia II, Los Angeles tumbuh dengan sangat cepat, menyebar hingga San Fernando Valley.  Pada tahun 1969, Los Angeles menjadi salah satu tempat kelahiran Internet, karena transmisi ARPANET pertama dikirimkan dari University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) ke SRI di Menlo Park. 

Los Angeles Coliseum menjadi tempat penyelenggaraan Olimpiade Musim Panas 1932 dan 1984.

Pada tahun 1984, kota ini menyelenggarkaan Olimpiade Musim Panas untuk kedua kalinya. Meski diboikot oleh 14 negara Komunis, Olimpiade Musim Panas 1984 lebih sukses secara finansial ketimbang Olimpiade sebelumnya,[36] sekaligus Olimpiade kedua yang menghasilkan keuntungan setelah Olimpiade Musim Panas 1932 yang juga diadakan di Los Angeles. 

Ketegangan rasial mencuat pada tanggal 29 April 1992 setelah beberapa polisi yang tertangkap kamera sedang memukul Rodney King dibebaskan oleh hakim di Simi Valley, berujung pada kerusuhan berskala besar.  Pada tahun 1994, gempa bumi Northridge berkekuatan 6,7 mengguncang kota dan mengakibatkan kerusakan senilai $12,5 miliar serta kematian sebanyak 72 orang. Abad ini ditutup dengan skandal Rampart, salah satu kasus kelakuan buruk polisi yang paling banyak didokumentasikan sepanjang sejarah Amerika Serikat. 

Pada tahun 2002, para pemberi suara menggagalkan upaya San Fernando Valley dan Hollywood untuk memisahkan diri dari Los Angeles. 

Geografi

Topografi

Los Angeles berbentuk ireguler dan mencakup wilayah seluas 502,7 mil persegi (1302 km2), yang terdiri dari 468,7 mil persegi (1214 km2) daratan dan 34,0 mil persegi (88 km2) perairan. Kota ini membujur sepanjang 44 mile (71 km) dan melintang sepanjang 29 mile (47 km). Los Angeles memiliki batas kota sepanjang 342 mile (550 km).

Cekungan Los Angeles

Los Angeles datar dan berbukit. Titik tertinggi di kota ini adalah Mount Lukens pada ketinggian 5074 ft (1547 m), terletak di ujung timur laut Lembah San Fernando. Ujung timur Pegunungan Santa Monica membentang dari Downtown hingga Samudra Pasifik dan memisahkan Cekungan Los Angeles dari Lembah San Fernando. Daerah berbukit lainnya di Los Angeles adalah kawasan Mt. Washington di sebelah utara Downtown, bagian timur Boyle Heights, distrik Crenshaw di sekitar Baldwin Hills, dan distrik San Pedro.

Mallard di Sungai Los Angeles

Sungai Los Angeles, yang mengalir musiman saja, adalah saluran drainase utama di kota ini. Sungai ini diluruskan dan dan dibentangkan dengan beton sepanjang 51 mil oleh Army Corps of Engineers untuk dimanfaatkan sebagai saluran pengendali banjir. Sungai ini berawal di distrik Canoga Park, kemudian mengalir ke timur dari Lembah San Fernando di sepanjang tepian utara Pegunungan Santa Monica, dan berbelok ke selatan melintasi pusat kota, mengalir ke muaranya di Port of Long Beach di Samudra Pasifik. Ballona Creek yang lebih kecil mengalir ke Santa Monica Bay di Playa del Rey.

MacArthur Park

Wilayah Los Angeles kaya akan spesies tanaman asli karena keragaman habitatnya, termasuk pantai, rawa, dan pegunungan. Lingkungan botani yang paling cocok untuk kota ini adalah semak sage pesisir, yang menutupi sisi perbukitan yang dipenuhi chaparral mudah terbakar. Tanaman aslinya meliputi poppy California, poppy matilija, toyon, Coast Live Oak, dan Giant Wildrye. Banyak di antara spesies asli ini, seperti bunga matahari Los Angeles, menjadi langka dan terancam punah. Meski bukan tanaman asli daerah ini, pohon resmi kota Los Angeles adalah Pohon Koral (Erythrina caffra) dan bunga resmi kota Los Angeles adalah Burung Surga (Strelitzia reginae). Palem Kipas Meksiko, Palem Kipas California, dan Palem Pulau Canary dapat dilihat di seluruh kawasan Los Angeles, meski pohon yang terakhir disebutkan tadi bukan asli California Selatan.

Geologi

Los Angeles rawan gempa karena lokasinya di Cincin Api Pasifik. Ketidakstabilan geologinya telah menghasilkan banyak patahan, yang memunculkan 10.000 gempa bumi setiap tahunnya. Salah satu patahan besar di daerah ini adalah Patahan San Andreas. Terletak di perbatasan Lempeng Pasifik dengan Lempeng Amerika Utara, patahan ini diprediksi menjadi sumber gempa bumi besar selanjutnya di California. Gempa bumi besar yang pernah mengguncang wilayah Los Angeles adalah gempa bumi Northridge 1994, gempa bumi Whittier Narrows 1987, gempa bumi San Fernando 1971 dekat Sylmar, dan gempa bumi Long Beach 1993. Meski begitu, semua kecuali beberapa gempa memiliki intensitas rendah dan tidak dapat dirasakan manusia. Cekungan dan wilayah metropolitan Los Angeles juga terancam mengalami gempa bumi dorongan kosong. Sebagian wilayah kota juga rawan terkena tsunami; daerah pelabuhan pernah dirusak oleh gelombang akibat gempa bumi Valdivia tahun 1960.

Iklim

Lanskap kota

Panorama Los Angeles dilihat dari Mulholland Drive. Kiri ke kanan: Santa Ana Mountains, Downtown, Hollywood (latar depan), Wilshire Boulevard, Port of Los Angeles, Palos Verdes Peninsula, Santa Catalina Island, dan Los Angeles International Airport.

Kota ini dibagi menjadi lebih dari 80 distrik dan permukiman, banyak di antaranya merupakan tempat gabungan atau permukiman yang dianeksasi oleh pemerintah kota. Los Angeles Raya mencakup sejumlah enklave dan permukiman sekitarnya. Secara umum, kota ini dibagi menjadi wilayah-wilayah berikut: Downtown Los Angeles, East Los Angeles dan Northeast Los Angeles, South Los Angeles, Harbor Area, Greater Hollywood, Wilshire, Westside, dan San Fernando dan Crescenta Valley.

Sejumlah permukiman terkenal di Los Angeles meliputi West Adams, Watts, Leimert Park, Baldwin Hills, Venice, Downtown Financial District, Silver Lake, Hollywood, Koreatown, Westwood dan daerah yang lebih elit seperti Bel Air, Benedict Canyon, Hollywood Hills, Los Feliz, Hancock Park, Pacific Palisades, Century City, dan Brentwood.

Hollywood, sebuah distrik terkenal di Los Angeles, sering disalahartikan sebagai sebuah kota independen (sebagaimana West Hollywood).

Markah tanah

Markah tanah utama di Los Angeles meliputi Walt Disney Concert Hall, Kodak Theatre, Griffith Observatory, Getty Center, Getty Villa, Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Grauman’s Chinese Theatre, Hollywood Sign, Bradbury Building, Hollywood Boulevard, Capitol Records Building, Los Angeles City Hall, Hollywood Bowl, Theme Building, Watts Towers, Staples Center, Dodger Stadium, dan La Placita Olvera/Olvera Street.

L.A. Live
Grauman’s Chinese Theatre
Griffith Observatory
Capitol Records Building

Budaya

Los Angeles sering dijuluki “Ibu Kota Kreatif Dunia” karena kenyataan bahwa satu dari enam penduduknya adalah pekerja industri kreatif. Menurut USC Stevens Institute for Innovation, “lebih banyak seniman, penulis, pembuat film, aktor, penari dan musisi yang tinggal dan bekerja di Los Angeles daripada kota lain dalam sejarah peradaban manusia.”

Hollywood Sign

Los Angeles adalah rumah bagi Hollywood, yang dikenal secara global sebagai pusat industri perfilman. Sebagai bukti dominasinya dalam perfilman, kota ini menjadi tempat penyelenggaraan acara tahunan Academy Awards, acara penghargaan tertua dan berpengaruh di dunia. Los Angeles adalah rumah bagi USC School of Cinematic Arts, sekolah film tertua di Amerika Serikat.

Seni panggung memainkan peran utama dalam identitas budaya Los Angeles. Menurut USC Stevens Institute for Innovation, “ada lebih dari 1.100 produksi teatrikal setiap tahunnya dan 21 pementasan setiap minggunya.” Los Angeles Music Center merupakan “satu dari tiga pusat seni panggung terbesar di negara ini,” dengan lebih dari 1,3 juta pengunjung setiap tahun.[60] Walt Disney Concert Hall, bagian utama dari Music Center, adalah rumah bagi Los Angeles Philharmonic. Organisasi ternama seperti Center Theatre Group, Los Angeles Master Chorale, dan Los Angeles Opera juga menjadi perusahaan tetap di Music Center. Bakat masyarakat terus dikembangkan di institusi-institusi utama seperti Colburn School dan USC Thornton School of Music.

Museum dan galeri

Ada 841 museum dan galeri seni di Los Angeles County. Faktanya, Los Angeles memiliki lebih banyak museum per kapita daripada kota-kota lain di dunia.  Sejumlah museum ternama di sana mencakup Los Angeles County Museum of Art (museum seni terbesar di Amerika Serikat Barat), Getty Center (bagian dari J. Paul Getty Trust, institusi seni terkaya di dunia), dan Museum of Contemporary Art. Sejumlah galeri seni berdiri di Gallery Row, dan puluhan ribu orang mengunjungi Downtown Art Walk yang diadakan setiap bulan di sana. 

Media

Harian berbahasa Inggris utama di Los Angeles adalah Los Angeles Times. La Opinión adalah harian berbahasa Spanyol terbesar di kota ini, The Korea Times merupakan harian berbahasa Korea terbesar, dan Los Angeles Sentinel merupakan harian Afrika-Amerika terbesar di kota ini, dengan jumlah pembaca berkulit Hitam terbesar di Amerika Serikat Barat. Investor’s Business Daily didistribusikan dari kantor korporatnya di L.A. yang terletak di Playa del Rey. Ada pula beberapa surat kabar regional yang lebih kecil, mingguan alternatif dan majalah, termasuk Daily News (berfokus pada pemberitaan di San Fernando Valley), LA Weekly, Los Angeles CityBeat, L.A. Record (berfokus pada musik di Wilayah Los Angeles Raya), majalah Los Angeles, Los Angeles Business Journal, Los Angeles Daily Journal (surat kabar industri hukum), The Hollywood Reporter dan Variety (surat kabar industri hiburan), dan Los Angeles Downtown News. Selain surat kabar besar, beberapa surat kabar periodik lokal melayani masyarakat imigran dalam bahasa asli mereka, termasuk Armenia, Inggris, Korea, Persia, Rusia, Cina, Jepang, Ibrani, dan Arab. Banyak kota terdekat Los Angeles memiliki hariannya sendiri yang pemberitaannya juga mencakup beberapa permukiman di Los Angeles. Contoh harian tersebut adalah The Daily Breeze (melayani South Bay), dan The Long Beach Press-Telegram.

Fox Plaza di Century City, kantor pusat 20th Century Fox, merupakan distrik keuangan besar untuk West Los Angeles

Kota ini memiliki banyak saluran televisi besar dan tiga stasiun PBS. World TV mengudara di dua saluran dan wilayah ini memiliki beberapa jaringan televisi berbahasa Spanyol. KTBN 40 adalah stasiun utama Trinity Broadcasting Network, yang berbasis di luar Santa Ana. Berbagai stasiun televisi independen juga beroperasi di wilayah ini.

Kantor pusat Los Angeles Times

Ekonomi

Perusahaan-perusahaan seperti US Bancorp, Ernst & Young, Aon, Manulife Financial, City National Bank, Wells Fargo, Bank of America, Deloitte, KPMG, dan Union Bank of California memiliki kantor di Downtown Financial District

Ekonomi Los Angeles digerakkan oleh perdagangan internasional, hiburan (televisi, film, permainan video, musik rekaman), dirgantara, teknologi, minyak, mode, perlengkapan, dan pariwisata. Los Angeles juga merupakan pusat manufaktur terbesar di Amerika Serikat Barat. Pelabuhan Los Angeles dan Long Beach bersama-sama membentuk pelabuhan tersibuk kelima di dunia dan merupakan pelabuhan terpenting di Belahan Bumi Barat dan penting bagi perdagangan di Cincin Pasifik. Industri utama lainnya mencakup produksi media, keuangan, telekomunikasi, hukum, kesehatan, dan transportasi. Wilayah statistik metropolitan (WSM) Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana memiliki produk metropolitan bruto (PMB) senilai $735,7 miliar (tahun 2010), menjadikannya pusat ekonomi terbesar ketiga di dunia, setelah Wilayah Tokyo Raya dan Wilayah Statistik Gabungan (WSG) New York-Newark-Bridgeport. Jika dianggap negara, WSG Los Angeles adalah ekonomi terbesar ke-15 di dunia menurut PDB nominal.[68] Los Angeles telah dikelompokkan sebagai sebuah “kota dunia Alpha” menurut studi tahun 2010 oleh kelompok riset di Lougborough University di Inggris. 

Distrik Keuangan (“Financial District”) di pusat kota Los Angeles

Kota ini adalah tempat berdirinya tujuh perusahaan Fortune 500, yaitu kontraktor dirgantara Northrop Grumman, perusahaan energi Occidental Petroleum, penyedia layanan kesehatan Health Net, distributor logam Reliance Steel & Aluminum, firma teknik AECOM, grup real estat CBRE Group, dan perusahaan pembangun Tutor Perini.

Perusahaan lain yang berkantor pusat di Los Angeles meliputi California Pizza Kitchen, Capital Group, Capstone Turbine, The Cheesecake Factory, Cathay Bank, City National Bank, The Coffee Bean & Tea Leaf, DeviantArt, Far East National Bank, Farmers Insurance Group, Fox Entertainment Group, Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher, Guess?, Hanmi Bank, Herbalife, J2 Global Communications, The Jim Henson Company, KB Home, Korn/Ferry, Latham & Watkins, Mercury Insurance Group, Oaktree Capital Management, O’Melveny & Myers; Pabst Blue Ribbon, Paul, Hastings, Janofsky & Walker, Premier America, Premiere Radio Networks, Rentech, Roll International, Sunkist, The TCW Group, Tokyopop, Triton Media Group, United Online, dan VCA Antech.

Wilayah metropolitannya adalah rumah bagi kantor pusat berbagai perusahaan yang pindah ke luar Kota Los Angeles untuk menghindari pajak tinggi dan tingkat kejahatan yang tinggi, namun juga berusaha mempertahankan keuntungan dari lokasinya yang dekat Los Angeles. Misalnya, Los Angeles membebankan pajak penghasilan bruto berdasarkan persentasi penghasilan bisnis, sementara banyak kota sekitarnya cuma membebankan tarif tetap yang rendah.

University of Southern California (USC) merupakan penyedia pekerjaan sektor swasta terbesar di kota ini dan menyumbang $4 miliar setiap tahunnya kepada ekonomi setempat.

Walt Disney Concert Hall

Menurut 2010 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, sepuluh penyedia pekerjaan teratas di kota ini pada tahun 2009 adalah, secara menurun, Pemerintah Kota Los Angeles, Pemerintah Los Angeles County, University of California, Los Angeles, University of Southern California, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Kaiser Permanente, Fox Entertainment Group, Farmers Insurance Group, TeamOne, dan Northrop Grumman.

Pendidikan

Perguruan tinggi dan universitas

Ada tiga universitas umum yang terletak di kota ini: California State University, Los Angeles (CSULA), California State University, Northridge (CSUN) dan University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). Perguruan tinggi swasta di kota ini meliputi American Film Institute Conservatory, Alliant International University, Syracuse University (Los Angeles Campus), American InterContinental University, American Jewish University, The American Musical and Dramatic Academy – kampus Los Angeles, kampus Los Angeles Antioch University, Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science, Fashion Institute of Design & Merchandising’s Los Angeles campus (FIDM), Los Angeles Film School, Loyola Marymount University (LMU juga merupakan universitas induk Loyola Law School yang terletak di Los Angeles), Marymount College, Mount St. Mary’s College, National University of California, Occidental College (“Oxy”), Otis College of Art and Design (Otis), Southern California Institute of Architecture (SCI-Arc), Southwestern Law School, dan University of Southern California (USC).

Cabang kedua California State Normal School di Downtown Los Angeles dibuka tahun 1882.

Sistem perguruan tinggi komunitas mencakup sembilan kampus yang dipimpin dewan kepercayaan Los Angeles Community College District: East Los Angeles College (ELAC), Los Angeles City College (LACC), Los Angeles Harbor College, Los Angeles Mission College, Los Angeles Pierce College, Los Angeles Valley College (LAVC), Los Angeles Southwest College, Los Angeles Trade-Technical College, dan West Los Angeles College.

Sekolah dan perpustakaan

Los Angeles Unified School District melayani hampir seluruh kota Los Angeles, serta beberapa permukiman sekitarnya, dengan jumlah siswa mencapai 800.000 jiwa. Setelah Proposition 13 was disetujui tahun 1978, distrik sekolah kota mengalami masalah pendanaan. LAUSD semakin dikenal karena memiliki banyak kampus yang kurang pendanaan, terlalu padat dan dikelola dengan buruk, meski 162 sekolah magnetnya sudah membantu bersaing dengan sekolah swasta setempat. Beberapa wilayah kecil Los Angeles masuk dalam Las Virgenes Unified School District. Los Angeles County Office of Education mengoperasikan Los Angeles County High School for the Arts. Sistem Los Angeles Public Library mengoperasikan 72 perpustakaan umum di kota ini. Enklave wilayah lepas dilayani oleh County of Los Angeles Public Library, banyak di antaranya terletak dekat dengan penduduk City of Los Angeles.

The Los Angeles Central Library in Downtown

Transportasi

Jalan bebas

Kota ini dan seluruh wilayah metropolitan Los Angeles dilayani oleh jaringan jalan bebas dan jalan bebas hambatan yang luas. Texas Transportation Institute, yang menerbitkan Urban Mobility Report setiap tahunnya, menempatkan kemacetan lalu lintas jalanan Los Angeles pada peringkat pertama di Amerika Serikat pada tahun 2005 berdasarkan kemacetan tahunan per penglaju. Penglaju rata-rata di Los Angeles menghabiskan 72 jam dalam kemacetan per tahun menurut studi ini. Los Angeles diikuti oleh San Francisco/Oakland, Washington, D.C., dan Atlanta (masing-masing 60 jam kemacetan). Meski macet di kota, waktu tempuh rata-rata bagi penglaju di Los Angeles lebih pendek daripada kota-kota besar lainnya, seperti New York City, Philadelphia dan Chicago. Waktu tempuh rata-rata bagi penglaju kerja di Los Angeles pada tahun 2006 adalah 29,2 menit, sama seperti San Francisco dan Washington, D.C.

Jalan-jalan bebas hambatan besar yang menghubungkan LA dengan seluruh Amerika Serikat mencakup Interstate 5, yang membentang ke selatan melewati San Diego ke Tijuana di Meksiko dan ke utara melewati Sacramento, Portland, dan Seattle ke perbatasan Kanada; Interstate 10, Interstate Highway paling selatan yang membentang timur-barat dan pantai-ke-pantai di Amerika Serikat, yang membentang hingga Jacksonville, Florida; dan U.S. Route 101, yang mengarah ke California Central Coast, San Francisco, Redwood Empire, dan pesisir Oregon dan Washington.

Sistem angkutan cepat

Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority dan badan lain mengoperasikan sistem jalur bus yang besar, serta kereta bawah tanah dan kereta ringan di seluruh Los Angeles County, dengan jumlah penumpang bulanan (diukur secara pribadi) mencapai 38,8 juta orang pada September 2011. Sebagian besar (30,5 juta) berasal dari sistem bus kota, yang merupakan sistem bus tersibuk kedua di Amerika Serikat. Rata-rata gabungan kereta bawah tanah dan kereta ringan ditempati sisanya, 8,2 juta penumpang per bulan. Pada tahun 2005, 10,2% penglaju Los Angeles memakai transportasi umum.

Peta Los Angeles Metro Rail yang memperlihatkan jalur yang sudah ada dan sedang dibangun.

Sistem kereta bawah tanah kota adalah yang tersibuk kesembilan di Amerika Serikat dan sistem kereta ringannya merupakan yang tersibuk kedua di negara ini. Sistem kereta kota meliputi jalur kereta bawah tanah Red dan Purple, serta jalur kereta ringan Gold, Blue, dan Green. Fase pertama Expo Line dijadwalkan dibuka tanggal 28 April 2012. Metro Orange Line adalah sebuah jalur angkutan cepat bus dengan perhentian dan frekuensi yang sama seperti kereta ringan. Kota ini juga merupakan pusat sistem kereta komuter Metrolink, yang menghubungkan Los Angeles dengan seluruh county sekitarnya dan banyak pinggiran kota.

Di samping layanan kereta Metrolink dan Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Los Angeles dilayani oleh kereta penumpang antarkota Amtrak. Stasiun kereta utama di kota ini adalah Union Station yang terletak di sebelah utara Downtown.

Bandar udara

Bandar udara utama di Los Angeles adalah Bandar Udara Internasional Los Angeles (IATA: LAX, ICAO: KLAX). Bandar udara komersial tersibuk keenam di dunia dan ketiga di Amerika Serikat ini menangani lebih dari 61 juta penumpang dan 2 juta ton kargo pada tahun 2006. LAX adalah hub bagi United Airlines.

Bandar udara komersial besar di sekitarnya meliputi:

  • (IATA: ONT, ICAO: KONT) Bandar Udara Internasional LA/Ontario, dimiliki pemerintah kota Los Angeles; melayani Inland Empire.
  • (IATA: BUR, ICAO: KBUR) Bandar Udara Bob Hope, sebelumnya bernama Bandar Udara Burbank; melayani Lembah San Fernando dan San Gabriel
  • (IATA: LGB, ICAO: KLGB) Bandar Udara Long Beach, melayani Long Beach/Harbor
  • (IATA: SNA, ICAO: KSNA) Bandar Udara John Wayne di Orange County.

Sa;ah satu bandara penerbangan umum tersibuk di dunia juga terletak di Los Angeles, yaitu Bandar Udara Van Nuys (IATA: VNY, ICAO: KVNY).

Theme Building di LAX

Pelabuhan

Port of Los Angeles terletak di San Pedro Bay di permukiman San Pedro, sekitar 20 mile (32 km) di selatan Downtown. Juga disebut Los Angeles Harbor dan WORLDPORT LA, komplek pelabuhan ini menduduki wilayah daratan dan perairan seluas 7500 acre (30 km2) di tepian pesisir sepanjang 43 mile (69 km). Pelabuhan ini bergabung dengan Port of Long Beach.

Pemandangan Vincent Thomas Bridge yang berujung di Terminal Island

Port of Los Angeles dan Port of Long Beach bersama membentuk Los Angeles/Long Beach Harbor. Kedua pelabuhan tersebut membentuk pelabuhan kontainer tersibuk kelima di dunia, dengan volume perdagangan senilai lebih dari 14,22 juta TEU pada tahun 2008. Port of Los Angeles sendiri adalah pelabuhan kontainer tersibuk di Amerika Serikat dan puast kapal pesiar terbesar di Pesisir Barat Amerika Serikat – The Port of Los Angeles’ World Cruise Center melayani sekitar 800.000 penumpang pada tahun 2009.

Ada pula pelabuhan-pelabuhan non-industri yang lebih kecil di sepanjang pesisir Los Angeles. Penjaga pantai berpengalaman dari Los Angeles City hanya ada di pantai-pantai yang dimiliki pemerintah kota.

Pelabuhan ini memiliki empat jembatan, yaitu Vincent Thomas Bridge, Henry Ford Bridge, Gerald Desmond Bridge, dan Commodore Schuyler F. Heim Bridge.

Layanan feri penumpang dari San Pedro ke kota Avalon di Santa Catalina Island disediakan oleh Catalina Express.

Demografi

Los Angeles adalah rumah bagi orang-orang dari 140 negara yang mempertuturkan 224 bahasa yang berbeda. Enklave etnis seperti Chinatown, Historic Filipinotown, Koreatown, Little Armenia, Little Ethiopia, Tehrangeles, Little Tokyo, dan Thai Town memberi contoh karakter Los Angeles yang poliglot.

Pemandangan pusat kota Los Angeles dari udara.

Kota kembar

Los Angeles memiliki 25 kota kembar, diurutkan secara kronologis menurut tahun bergabung:

Mission San Fernando Rey de España, circa 1910
Papan dekat City Hall yang mengarah ke kota-kota kembar Los Angeles
Gallery

Surabaya Meraih Gelar ‘Kota Terpopuler’ The Guangzhou International Award 2018

suarasurabaya[dot]net – Setelah sebelumnya Tri Rismaharini menggalang suara melalui unggahan videonya Instagram, hari ini surabaya dinobatkan sebagai Kota Terpopuler, dalam ajang The Guangzhou International Award 2018. Sebelumnya di hadapan 400 juri dan 14 finalis The Guangzhou International Award 2018, Risma … Continue reading

Surabaya Meraih Yokatta Wonderful Indonesia Tourism Award

Surabaya Jadi Kota Terbaik Yokatta Wonderful Indonesia Tourism Award


Minggu 22 Juli 2018, 09:03 WIB. detiknews.

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Setelah Lee Kuan Yew World City Prize di Singapura, kini Surabaya meraih penghargaan Yokatta Wonderful Indonesia Tourism Awards 2018. Bahkan, Kota Pahlawan sukses menjadi best of the best di antara semua daerah di Indonesia.

Penghargaan ini diberikan langsung Menteri Pariwisata (Menpar) RI Arief Yahya kepada Wali Kota Surabaya Tri Rismaharini di Balairung Soesilo Soedarman, Gedung Sapta Pesona Jakarta, Jumat (20/7/2018) malam.

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Yokatta Wonderful Indonesia Tourism Awards 2018 merupakan penghargaan kepada kabupaten/kota di Indonesia yang memiliki komitmen, performansi, inovasi, kreasi dan leadership dalam membangun pariwisata daerah.

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Kota Pahlawan menyingkirkan pesaingnya. Antara lain Kota Denpasar, Bali di posisi kedua dan Bandung, Jabar di posisi ketiga.

Wali Kota Surabaya Tri Rismaharini mengaku perjuangan belum usai. Pihaknya akan terus memperbaiki dan mempercantik Surabaya ke depannya.

“Perjuangan kita bersama belum selesai. Mari kita terus bersama-sama membangun Kota Surabaya,” kata Wali Kota Risma, Minggu (22/7/2018).

Sementara Menpar Arief Yahya mengaku penghargaan ini sebagai modal sebuah daerah jika ingin menjadi pemain dunia menggunakan standar global.

“Selamat kepada para pemenang, terutama Surabaya yang size dan pertumbuhan tertinggi di atas 40 persen performancy-nya,” kata Arief Yahya usai menyerahkan penghargaan.

Menurut Arief, penghargaan ini memiliki unsur 3C, yakni calibration (kalibrasi), confidence (kepercayaan diri) dan credibility (kredibilitas).

“Yang lebih penting dari 3A adalah CEO commitment atau komitmen kepala daerah. Karena kalau CEO-nya tidak komitmen hal itu tidak akan tercapai. Pariwisata itu paling mudah dan Paling murah, sayang sekali jika rekan-rekan tidak memanfaatkanya,” ujarnya.

Arief menambahkan, kampanye branding Wonderful Indonesia telah meningkatkan performance Indonesia. “Hal ini terlihat dari popolaritas Wonderful Indonesia melonjak dari status tidak tercatat menjadi ranking 47 dunia, sedangkan Truly Asia (Malaysia) dan Amazing (Thailand) masing-masing berada di posisi 83 dan 97 dunia,” ujarnya.

Terdapat 4 indikator yang mempengaruhi penilaian penghargaan ini. Meliputi kinerja usaha pariwisata, Indeks Pariwisata Indonesia, Indonesia’s Attractiveness Award, dan Penghargaan Internasional dan Nasional.

“Jadi, penilaiannya sangat komplek dan komplit,” ungkap Ketua Dewan Juri Yokatta Wonderful Indonesia Tourism Award 2018 Didien Junaedi.  /(fat/fat)

 

Surabaya Dapat Penghargaan Lee Kuan Yew Award

Surabaya Dapat Penghargaan Lee Kuan Yew Award, Risma akan Terbang ke Singapura


Editor: Sugiyarto. tribunnews. Rabu, 4 Juli 2018 22:21 WIB

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Kota Surabaya akan menerima Lee Kuan Yew Award di Singapura, untuk kategori Special Mention. 

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Risma Terima Lee Kuan Yew Award

Penghargaan itu akan diterima Senin (9/7/2018) mendatang oleh Wali Kota Tri Rismaharini. Selama tiga hari, yakni mulai 7 Juli 2018, Risma akan berada di sana untuk terlibat dalam World Cities Summit (WCS) 2018. 

WCS 2018 merupakan acara yang diselenggarakan oleh Pemerintah Singapura yang mempertemukan para wali kota dan pemimpin kota.

Di sana, mereka akan mendiskusikan tantangan perkotaan dan berbagai pengalaman. 

Penghargaan yang diberikan dua tahun sekali ini dianugerahkan oleh Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA) di Singapura dan Centre for Liveable Cities (CLC).

Surabaya mendapatkan penghargaan dengan kategori Special Mention karena berhasil melestarikan kebudayaan dan menerapkan strategi yang berani, dalam menjaga dan membangun area perkampungan.

Selain Surabaya, kategori Special Mention juga diraih tiga kota lain yaitu Hamburg di Jerman, Kazan di Rusia dan Tokyo di Jepang.

“Itu artinya Kota Surabaya sudah sejajar dengan kota-kota lain dunia,” kata Kabag Humas Pemkot Surabaya M. Fikser, Rabu (4/7).

Sebelumnya, Surabaya sudah dua kali mengikuti ajang penghargaan Lee Kuan Yew di tahun 2014 dan 2016. Namun belum berhasil, baru tahun ini usaha Kota Surabaya berbuah hasil.

Perjuangan Kota Surabaya meraih penghargaan ini tentu tidak mudah.

Risma mengatakan, selama proses penjurian sempat sulit meyakinkan para juri dari Jerman dan Cina itu, Kota Surabaya berbeda dari kota modern lainnya di dunia.

Modern dalam arti sebenarnya yaitu transportasi massal yang masih modern dan vertical hosting.

Namun, Risma mengaku tidak menyerah dan menjelaskan perbedaan Kota Surabaya dengan kota modern lainnya dari sisi budaya dan regulasi.

“Setelah saya jelaskan dan ajak melihat kampung Jambangan, Gundih dan kampung produktif daerah Kebraon, di situ lah mereka baru tertarik,” kata Risma mengajak para juri melihat bagaimana perkampungan mengatasi masalah perekonomian dan remaja.

Untuk itu, Wali Kota Risma berharap prestasi harus dipertahankan, dia juga berkomitmen untuk terus berusaha menjadikan Surabaya sebagai Kota Metropolitan yang tidak melupakan sejarah.

Risma Jadi Pembicara

Selain menerima penghargaan Lee Kuan Yew, Tri Rismaharini juga berkesempatan menjadi pembicara pada dua forum sekaligus.

Pertama, Risma akan menjadi pembicara pada ASEAN Mayors Forum 2018. Dia akan menyampaikan pengalaman Surabaya saat menjadi tuan rumah ASEAN Mayor Forum tahun 2011.

Kedua, dia akan mengisi forum dan berbagai bagaimana upaya pemerintah beradaptasi terhadap teknologi-teknologi baru, mengatasi bisnis-bisnis model baru, menghadapi tantangan-tantangan di depan, serta menjadi pihak yang selalu peka terhadap inovasi-inovasi.

 

 

 

 

GuangZhou

Welcome to GuangZhou “Flower City”


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Guangzhou is a famous culture city and a splendid tourism city with a history of more than 2,200 years and a homeland of overseas Chinese as well.

It enjoys the name of “Flower City” as the superb geographic and climatic conditions in the South contributed to the natural beauty here. As a city of heroes, Guangzhou has a reputation of great eminence in the modern history of China. The historical sites of Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall, Huanghuagang 72 Martyr Cemetery, Guangzhou Luxun Memorial Hall, Peasant Movement Institute, Sanyuanli Anti-British Invasion, and the Former Site of Huangpu Military Academy are the witnesses of the modern history of China, and, together with Baiyun Mountain, Yuexiu Park, Liuhuahu Park, Lu Lake and South-China, constitute colorful landscape groups.

Meanwhile, Guangzhou was the starting point of the “Maritime Silk Road” and is an important port city for the opening and reform of China, making great contribution to the economic and cultural exchange and friendly contacts between China and the rest of the world and demonstrating everlasting prosperity.

Guangzhou’s famous landmarks


Canton Tower

Canton Tower is located at an intersection of Guangzhou New City Central Axes and Pearl River, directly facing Haixinsha Island where the opening and closing ceremonies of the Sixteenth Asian Games were held and the 21st century new city CBD of Guangzhou-Zhujiang New Town.

With its unique shape and design, Canton Tower has become a magnificent landmark on the New City Central Axes, adding beauty and charm to the Pearl River. There is one smaller rotating ellipse at the top twisting up counterclockwise with the other larger rotating ellipse at the bottom, which creates a “slim waist” in the middle and makes it look like a lady looking behind.

Canton Tower is not only a comprehensive sightseeing building with rich cultural connotation but also a world-famous tourist spot integrated with the multi-functions of Sightseeing, F&B, Adventure, 4D Cinema, Wedding, MICE, Science and Technology, Education, and Shopping prosperity.

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Yuexiu Park (Five Rams Sculpture & the Zhenhai Tower)

Guangzhou’s Five Rams Sculpture is located atop Yuexiu Hill. It was built in 1960 from more than 130 pieces of granite and is one of the city’s emblems.

The sculpture represents the five rams who gave Guangzhou its nickname “City of Rams” and were formerly honored at its Temple of the Five Immortals. These immortals were said to have ridden rams into the city soon after its founding, teaching its residents how to grow rice and ending the specter of famine forever. Locals consider the rams symbols of good luck.

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Zhenhai Tower/Chen Hoi Lau

Also atop Yuexiu Hill is the Five-storied Pagoda now known as Chen Hoi Lau. The present structure is 28 meters (92 ft) high and 16 meters (52 ft) wide. It has housed the Guangzhou Museum since it was opened to the public in 1928.

A guard tower was first erected at the site in 1380, one of the first to be constructed in Lingnan. Chinese legend holds that Zhu Liangzu (朱亮祖), Marquis of Yongjia and a member of the Ming dynasty, saw yellow and purple air rising over Yuexiu and was told that it was the sign of a new emperor. He then erected the tower as part of the city walls to alter the mountain’s feng shui and prevent the prophecy from coming to pass. It has been destroyed and rebuilt five times, the various towers appearing in Chinese poetry and art.

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Yuexiu Stadium/Yut Sau Shan Stadium

Yuexiu Stadium was refreshed from the old Yut Sau Shan Park Playground at the foot of the hill in 1950 at the behest of Mayor Ye Jianying. It covers an area of 43,000 square meters (462,848 sq ft). It was one of the Asian Games venues in 2010.

The stadium is not only a sports activity site, but also a large-scale concert hall. Since its opening in October 1950, it has held 200 meetings and more than 280 performances. It can hold 35,000 people.

Pavilion of Regaining

The Pavilion of Regaining is a square pavilion erected in 1948 on the spot of an earlier 1928 memorial to the Xinhai Revolution against the Qing Empire. The first pavilion was destroyed amid fighting with the Japanese during World War II.

Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall

The Sun Yat-sen or Zhongshan Memorial Hall is an octagon-shaped building in Guangzhou, capital of China’s Guangdong Province. The hall was designed by Lu Yanzhi and was built with funds raised by local and overseas Chinese people in memory of Sun Yat-sen. Construction work commenced in 1929 and completed in 1931. The hall is a large octagonal structure with a span of 71 meters without pillars, housing a large stage and seats 3,240 people.

The memorial hall stands on the site of Guangzhou’s Presidential Palace during the Constitutional Protection Movement, when the Nationalists operated a rival “Chinese” government to the Zhili Clique’s Beijing regime.[citation needed] The palace was damaged during Ye Ju’s 16 June 1922 attack on Sun Yat-sen, during which—though he had already fled—his wife narrowly escaped shelling and rifle fire before meeting him on the gunboat Yongfeng, where they were joined by Chiang Kai-shek. The hall itself has been severely damaged and repaired several times until 1998, when it was comprehensively upgraded to its present-day condition. A statue of Sun Yat-sen was erected in front of the main entrance.

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Guangzhou Museum (also known as the Zhenhai Tower)

Locating at the Yuexiu Park, Guangzhou, Zhenhai Tower is a comprehensive history museum with dense Canton characteristics. The tower is one of historic sites in Guangzhou as it is established in 1929. Now, it is used for collection and exhibition of historical data and cultural relics of the city. The museum consists of two parts: the Zhenhai Tower that houses the historical relics and the Art Gallery that exhibits many exquisite local art works.

The memorial hall stands on the site of Guangzhou’s Presidential Palace during the Constitutional Protection Movement, when the Nationalists operated a rival “Chinese” government to the Zhili Clique’s Beijing regime.[citation needed] The palace was damaged during Ye Ju’s 16 June 1922 attack on Sun Yat-sen, during which—though he had already fled—his wife narrowly escaped shelling and rifle fire before meeting him on the gunboat Yongfeng, where they were joined by Chiang Kai-shek. The hall itself has been severely damaged and repaired several times until 1998, when it was comprehensively upgraded to its present-day condition. A statue of Sun Yat-sen was erected in front of the main entrance.

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Ersha Island

Ersha Island is an island in the middle of the Pearl River. Encircled by the Pearl River, the island enjoys picturesque landscape different from the downtown. After the establishment of China, it has been the training base for provincial athletes and an ideal place for exquisite resident houses 80% of which are said to be owned by foreigners. Covered by modern apartments, and art places like Xinghai Concert Hall and Guangdong Museum of Art, the island is given a sense of art.

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Flower City Square

The square in the new central shaft line of Guangzhou has been officially named as “Huacheng Square”. It is regarded as “Guangzhou’s parlor” and is the largest square for civilian purpose in Guangzhou.

The Square is surrounded by 39 buildings, including the Guangzhou No.2 Children’s Palace, the Guangzhou Opera House, Guangzhou Library, Guangdong Museum and the West Tower (Guangzhou International Financial Center (GZIFC)), etc.

In the Square, there are a man-made lake & landscape district as well as large-scaled fountains, lamplight piazza, system for formation of cold fog and temperature drop, over 600 trees and 5 flower islands. Underneath Huacheng Square is a 150,000 square-meter high-end underground shopping mall, the “Mall of the World”.

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Shameen Island

Shameen Island is a sandbank island in the Liwan District of Guangzhou city, Guangdong province, China. The island’s name literally means “sandy surface” in Chinese. The territory was divided into two concessions given to France and the United Kingdom by the Qing government in the 19th century. The island is a gazetted historical area that serves as a tranquil reminder of the colonial European period, with quiet pedestrian avenues flanked by trees and lined by historical buildings in various states of upkeep.

The island is the location of several hotels, a youth hostel, restaurants and tourist shops selling curios and souvenirs. Shameen Island was an important port for Guangzhou’s foreign trade from the Song to the Qing Dynasty. From the 18th to the mid 19th century, the foreigners lived and did business in a row of houses known as the Thirteen Factories, on the banks of the Pearl River to the east the present Shameen, which was then an anchorage for thousands of boat people. Shameen became a strategic point for city defense during the period of the First and Second Opium Wars. In 1859,the territory was divided in two concessions given to France and the United Kingdom (of which 3/5 belonged to the British and 2/5 to the French).

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It was connected to the mainland by two bridges, which were closed at 10pm as a security measure. The British arch bridge, also called the “Bridge of England” and built in 1861, to the north was guarded by Sikh police officers, and the French bridge to the east was guarded by Vietnamese (Cochinchina) recruits with the Troupes coloniales.Trading companies from Britain, the United States, France, Holland, Italy,Germany, Portugal, and Japan built stone mansions along the waterfront. The construction on the island was characterized by climate-adapted but Western-plan detached houses with hipped roofs and large verandahs.The island was the scene of fighting during the “June 23 incident” in 1925.After 1949, the mansions of Shameeni became government offices or apartment houses and the churches were turned into factories.

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Litchi Bay

Lychee Bay or Litchi Bay, a set of creeks and lakes that flow southwest to Pearl River, is a tourist attraction in Guangzhou (Canton), Guangdong. Liwan District, where Lychee Bay is located, was named after it. There are many historical relics and historical architectures in Lychee Bay, such as Wenta and Xiguan House. Various cultural activities are held on Lychee Bay, such as the competition of Cantonese opera.

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GuangZhou Maps


GuangZhou Map 1

GuangZhou Map 2

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Read also:

New York

New York City


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York (NY), is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles (784 km2), New York City is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world’s most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described uniquely as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world, and exerts a significant impact upon commerce, entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, fashion, and sports. The city’s fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.

Situated on one of the world’s largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of which is a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. The city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product (GMP) of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world.

New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan; the post was named New Amsterdam in 1626. The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the country’s largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a world symbol of the United States and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, and environmental sustainability, and as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity.

Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world’s ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world’s “heart” and its “Crossroads”, is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world’s busiest pedestrian intersections, and a major center of the world’s entertainment industry. The names of many of the city’s landmarks, skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattan’s real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, it has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, and the city is home to the world’s two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ.

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History


Etymology

In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York, who would become King James II of England. James’s older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had recently seized from the Dutch.

Early history

During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet (300 m) in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of regolith, leaving the bedrock that serves as the geologic foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet contributed to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island.

In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the western portion of Long Island, including the area that would become Brooklyn and Queens; Manhattan; the Bronx; and the Lower Hudson Valley.

The first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême (New Angoulême). A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio (Saint Anthony’s River). The Padrón Real of 1527, the first scientific map to show the East Coast of North America continuously, was informed by Gomes’ expedition and labeled the northeastern United States as Tierra de Esteban Gómez in his honor.

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Peter Minuit is credited with the purchase of the island of Manhattan in 1626.

In 1609, the English explorer Henry Hudson rediscovered the New York Harbor while searching for the Northwest Passage to the Orient for the Dutch East India Company. He proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River (now the Hudson River), named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange. Hudson’s first mate described the harbor as “a very good Harbour for all windes” and the river as “a mile broad” and “full of fish.” Hudson sailed roughly 150 miles (240 km) north, past the site of the present-day New York State capital city of Albany, in the belief that it might be an oceanic tributary before the river became too shallow to continue. He made a ten-day exploration of the area and claimed the region for the Dutch East India Company. In 1614, the area between Cape Cod and Delaware Bay was claimed by the Netherlands and called Nieuw-Nederland (New Netherland).

The first non-Native American inhabitant of what would eventually become New York City was Juan Rodriguez (transliterated to Dutch as Jan Rodrigues), a merchant from Santo Domingo. Born in Santo Domingo of Portuguese and African descent, he arrived in Manhattan during the winter of 1613–1614, trapping for pelts and trading with the local population as a representative of the Dutch. Broadway, from 159th Street to 218th Street in Upper Manhattan, is named Juan Rodriguez Way in his honor.

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New Amsterdam, centered in the eventual Lower Manhattan, in 1664, the year England took control and renamed it “New York”.

Dutch rule

A permanent European presence in New Netherland began in 1624 – making New York the 12th oldest continuously occupied European-established settlement in the continental United States – with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement on Governors Island. In 1625, construction was started on a citadel and Fort Amsterdam, later called Nieuw Amsterdam (New Amsterdam), on present-day Manhattan Island. The colony of New Amsterdam was centered at the site which would eventually become Lower Manhattan. In 1626, the Dutch colonial Director-General Peter Minuit, acting as charged by the Dutch West India Company, purchased the island of Manhattan from the Canarsie, a small Lenape band, for 60 guilders (about $1,000 in 2006). A disproved legend claims that Manhattan was purchased for $24 worth of glass beads.

Following the purchase, New Amsterdam grew slowly. To attract settlers, the Dutch instituted the patroon system in 1628, whereby wealthy Dutchmen (patroons, or patrons) who brought 50 colonists to New Netherland would be awarded swathes of land, along with local political autonomy and rights to participate in the lucrative fur trade. This program had little success.

Since 1621, the Dutch West India Company had operated as a monopoly in New Netherland, on authority granted by the Dutch States General. In 1639–1640, in an effort to bolster economic growth, the Dutch West India Company relinquished its monopoly over the fur trade, leading to growth in the production and trade of food, timber, tobacco, and slaves (particularly with the Dutch West Indies).

In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant began his tenure as the last Director-General of New Netherland. During his tenure, the population of New Netherland grew from 2,000 to 8,000. Stuyvesant has been credited with improving law and order in the colony; however, he also earned a reputation as a despotic leader. He instituted regulations on liquor sales, attempted to assert control over the Dutch Reformed Church, and blocked other religious groups (including Quakers, Jews, and Lutherans) from establishing houses of worship. The Dutch West India Company would eventually attempt to ease tensions between Stuyvesant and residents of New Amsterdam.

English rule

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Fort George and the city of New York c. 1731

In 1664, unable to summon any significant resistance, Stuyvesant surrendered New Amsterdam to English troops, led by Colonel Richard Nicolls, without bloodshed. The terms of the surrender permitted Dutch residents to remain in the colony and allowed for religious freedom. The English promptly renamed the fledgling city “New York” after the Duke of York (the future King James II of England). The transfer was confirmed in 1667 by the Treaty of Breda, which concluded the Second Anglo-Dutch War.

On August 24, 1673, during the Third Anglo-Dutch War, Dutch captain Anthony Colve seized the colony of New York from England at the behest of Cornelis Evertsen the Youngest and rechristened it “New Orange” after William III, the Prince of Orange. The Dutch would soon return the island to England under the Treaty of Westminster of November 1674.

Several intertribal wars among the Native Americans and some epidemics brought on by contact with the Europeans caused sizeable population losses for the Lenape between the years 1660 and 1670. By 1700, the Lenape population had diminished to 200. New York experienced several yellow fever epidemics in the 18th century, losing ten percent of its population to the disease in 1702 alone.

New York grew in importance as a trading port while under British rule in the early 1700s. It also became a center of slavery, with 42% of households holding slaves by 1730, the highest percentage outside Charleston, South Carolina. Most slaveholders held a few or several domestic slaves, but others hired them out to work at labor. Slavery became integrally tied to New York’s economy through the labor of slaves throughout the port, and the banks and shipping tied to the American South. Discovery of the African Burying Ground in the 1990s, during construction of a new federal courthouse near Foley Square, revealed that tens of thousands of Africans had been buried in the area in the colonial years.

The 1735 trial and acquittal in Manhattan of John Peter Zenger, who had been accused of seditious libel after criticizing colonial governor William Cosby, helped to establish the freedom of the press in North America. In 1754, Columbia University was founded under charter by King George II as King’s College in Lower Manhattan.

American Revolution

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The Battle of Long Island, the largest battle of the American Revolution, took place in Brooklyn in 1776.

The Stamp Act Congress met in New York in October 1765, as the Sons of Liberty, organized in the city, skirmished over the next ten years with British troops stationed there. The Battle of Long Island, the largest battle of the American Revolutionary War, was fought in August 1776 within the modern-day borough of Brooklyn. After the battle, in which the Americans were defeated, the British made the city their military and political base of operations in North America. The city was a haven for Loyalist refugees and escaped slaves who joined the British lines for freedom newly promised by the Crown for all fighters. As many as 10,000 escaped slaves crowded into the city during the British occupation. When the British forces evacuated at the close of the war in 1783, they transported 3,000 freedmen for resettlement in Nova Scotia. They resettled other freedmen in England and the Caribbean.

The only attempt at a peaceful solution to the war took place at the Conference House on Staten Island between American delegates, including Benjamin Franklin, and British general Lord Howe on September 11, 1776. Shortly after the British occupation began, the Great Fire of New York occurred, a large conflagration on the West Side of Lower Manhattan, which destroyed about a quarter of the buildings in the city, including Trinity Church.

In 1785, the assembly of the Congress of the Confederation made New York City the national capital shortly after the war. New York was the last capital of the U.S. under the Articles of Confederation and the first capital under the Constitution of the United States. In 1789, the first President of the United States, George Washington, was inaugurated; the first United States Congress and the Supreme Court of the United States each assembled for the first time, and the United States Bill of Rights was drafted, all at Federal Hall on Wall Street. By 1790, New York had surpassed Philadelphia as the largest city in the United States.

Nineteenth century

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Broadway follows the Native American Wickquasgeck Trail through Manhattan.

Under New York State’s gradual abolition act of 1799, children of slave mothers were to be eventually liberated but to be held in indentured servitude until their mid-to-late twenties. Together with slaves freed by their masters after the Revolutionary War and escaped slaves, a significant free-black population gradually developed in Manhattan. Under such influential United States founders as Alexander Hamilton and John Jay, the New York Manumission Society worked for abolition and established the African Free School to educate black children. It was not until 1827 that slavery was completely abolished in the state, and free blacks struggled afterward with discrimination. New York interracial abolitionist activism continued; among its leaders were graduates of the African Free School. The city’s black population reached more than 16,000 in 1840.

In the 19th century, the city was transformed by development relating to its status as a trading center, as well as by European immigration. The city adopted the Commissioners’ Plan of 1811, which expanded the city street grid to encompass all of Manhattan. The 1825 completion of the Erie Canal through central New York connected the Atlantic port to the agricultural markets and commodities of the North American interior via the Hudson River and the Great Lakes. Local politics became dominated by Tammany Hall, a political machine supported by Irish and German immigrants.

Several prominent American literary figures lived in New York during the 1830s and 1840s, including William Cullen Bryant, Washington Irving, Herman Melville, Rufus Wilmot Griswold, John Keese, Nathaniel Parker Willis, and Edgar Allan Poe. Public-minded members of the contemporaneous business elite lobbied for the establishment of Central Park, which in 1857 became the first landscaped park in an American city.

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Manhattan’s Little Italy, Lower East Side, circa 1900.

The Great Irish Famine brought a large influx of Irish immigrants, of whom over 200,000 were living in New York by 1860, upwards of a quarter of the city’s population. There was also extensive immigration from the German provinces, where revolutions had disrupted societies, and Germans comprised another 25% of New York’s population by 1860.

Democratic Party candidates were consistently elected to local office, increasing the city’s ties to the South and its dominant party. In 1861, Mayor Fernando Wood called upon the aldermen to declare independence from Albany and the United States after the South seceded, but his proposal was not acted on. Anger at new military conscription laws during the American Civil War (1861–1865), which spared wealthier men who could afford to pay a $300 (equivalent to $5,963 in 2017) commutation fee to hire a substitute, led to the Draft Riots of 1863, whose most visible participants were ethnic Irish working class. The situation deteriorated into attacks on New York’s elite, followed by attacks on black New Yorkers and their property after fierce competition for a decade between Irish immigrants and black people for work. Rioters burned the Colored Orphan Asylum to the ground, with more than 200 children escaping harm due to efforts of the New York City Police Department, which was mainly made up of Irish immigrants. According to historian James M. McPherson (2001), at least 120 people were killed. In all, eleven black men were lynched over five days, and the riots forced hundreds of blacks to flee the city for Williamsburg, Brooklyn, and New Jersey; the black population in Manhattan fell below 10,000 by 1865, which it had last been in 1820. The white working class had established dominance. Violence by longshoremen against black men was especially fierce in the docks area. It was one of the worst incidents of civil unrest in American history.

Modern history

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A construction worker on top of the Empire State Building as it was being built in 1930. The Chrysler Building is behind him.

In 1898, the modern City of New York was formed with the consolidation of Brooklyn (until then a separate city), the County of New York (which then included parts of the Bronx), the County of Richmond, and the western portion of the County of Queens. The opening of the subway in 1904, first built as separate private systems, helped bind the new city together. Throughout the first half of the 20th century, the city became a world center for industry, commerce, and communication.

In 1904, the steamship General Slocum caught fire in the East River, killing 1,021 people on board. In 1911, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, the city’s worst industrial disaster, took the lives of 146 garment workers and spurred the growth of the International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union and major improvements in factory safety standards.

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UN Secretary General Dag Hammarskjöld in front of the United Nations Headquarters building, completed in 1952

New York’s non-white population was 36,620 in 1890. New York City was a prime destination in the early twentieth century for African Americans during the Great Migration from the American South, and by 1916, New York City had become home to the largest urban African diaspora in North America. The Harlem Renaissance of literary and cultural life flourished during the era of Prohibition. The larger economic boom generated construction of skyscrapers competing in height and creating an identifiable skyline.

New York became the most populous urbanized area in the world in the early 1920s, overtaking London. The metropolitan area surpassed the 10 million mark in the early 1930s, becoming the first megacity in human history. The difficult years of the Great Depression saw the election of reformer Fiorello La Guardia as mayor and the fall of Tammany Hall after eighty years of political dominance.

Returning World War II veterans created a post-war economic boom and the development of large housing tracts in eastern Queens and Nassau County as well as similar suburban areas in New Jersey. New York emerged from the war unscathed as the leading city of the world, with Wall Street leading America’s place as the world’s dominant economic power. The United Nations Headquarters was completed in 1952, solidifying New York’s global geopolitical influence, and the rise of abstract expressionism in the city precipitated New York’s displacement of Paris as the center of the art world.

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The Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village, a designated U.S. National Historic Landmark and National Monument, as the site of the June 1969 Stonewall riots.

The Stonewall riots were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the gay community against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan. They are widely considered to constitute the single most important event leading to the gay liberation movement and the modern fight for LGBT rights in the United States.

In the 1970s, job losses due to industrial restructuring caused New York City to suffer from economic problems and rising crime rates. While a resurgence in the financial industry greatly improved the city’s economic health in the 1980s, New York’s crime rate continued to increase through that decade and into the beginning of the 1990s. By the mid 1990s, crime rates started to drop dramatically due to revised police strategies, improving economic opportunities, gentrification, and new residents, both American transplants and new immigrants from Asia and Latin America. Important new sectors, such as Silicon Alley, emerged in the city’s economy. New York’s population reached all-time highs in the 2000 Census and then again in the 2010 Census.

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United Airlines Flight 175 hits the South Tower of the original World Trade Center on September 11, 2001.

The city and surrounding area suffered the bulk of the economic damage and largest loss of human life in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 attacks when 10 of the 19 terrorists associated with Al-Qaeda piloted American Airlines Flight 11 into the North Tower of the World Trade Center and United Airlines Flight 175 into the South Tower of the World Trade Center, and later destroyed them, killing 2,192 civilians, 343 firefighters, and 71 law enforcement officers who were in the towers and in the surrounding area. The North Tower was subsequently the tallest building ever to be destroyed and still is. The rebuilding of the area, has created a new One World Trade Center, and a 9/11 memorial and museum along with other new buildings and infrastructure. The World Trade Center PATH station, which had opened on July 19, 1909 as the Hudson Terminal, was also destroyed in the attack. A temporary station was built and opened on November 23, 2003. An 800,000-square-foot (74,000 m2) permanent rail station designed by Santiago Calatrava, the World Trade Center Transportation Hub, the city’s third-largest hub, was completed in 2016. The new One World Trade Center is the tallest skyscraper in the Western Hemisphere and the sixth-tallest building in the world by pinnacle height, with its spire reaching a symbolic 1,776 feet (541.3 m) in reference to the year of U.S. independence.

The Occupy Wall Street protests in Zuccotti Park in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan began on September 17, 2011, receiving global attention and popularizing the Occupy movement against social and economic inequality worldwide.

Geography


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The core of the New York City Metropolitan Area, with Manhattan Island at its center

New York City is situated in the Northeastern United States, in southeastern New York State, approximately halfway between Washington, D.C. and Boston. The location at the mouth of the Hudson River, which feeds into a naturally sheltered harbor and then into the Atlantic Ocean, has helped the city grow in significance as a trading port. Most of New York City is built on the three islands of Long Island, Manhattan, and Staten Island.

The Hudson River flows through the Hudson Valley into New York Bay. Between New York City and Troy, New York, the river is an estuary. The Hudson River separates the city from the U.S. state of New Jersey. The East River—a tidal strait—flows from Long Island Sound and separates the Bronx and Manhattan from Long Island. The Harlem River, another tidal strait between the East and Hudson Rivers, separates most of Manhattan from the Bronx. The Bronx River, which flows through the Bronx and Westchester County, is the only entirely fresh water river in the city.

The city’s land has been altered substantially by human intervention, with considerable land reclamation along the waterfronts since Dutch colonial times; reclamation is most prominent in Lower Manhattan, with developments such as Battery Park City in the 1970s and 1980s. Some of the natural relief in topography has been evened out, especially in Manhattan.

The city’s total area is 468.484 square miles (1,213.37 km2), including 302.643 sq mi (783.84 km2) of land and 165.841 sq mi (429.53 km2) of this is water. The highest point in the city is Todt Hill on Staten Island, which, at 409.8 feet (124.9 m) above sea level, is the highest point on the Eastern Seaboard south of Maine. The summit of the ridge is mostly covered in woodlands as part of the Staten Island Greenbelt.

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Cityscapes

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Ten-mile (16km) Manhattan skyline panorama from 120th Street to the Battery, taken in February 2018 from across the Hudson River in Weehawken, New Jersey.
1. Riverside Church Time 2. Warner Center 3. 220 Central Park South 4. Central Park Tower 5. One57 6. 432 Park Avenue 7. 53W53 8. Chrysler Building 9. Bank of America Tower 11. Conde Nast Building 12. The New York Times Building 13. Empire State Building 13. Manhattan West 14a: 55 Hudson Yards, 14b: 35 Hudson Yards, 14c: 10 Hudson Yards, 14d: 15 Hudson Yards 15. 56 Leonard Street 16. 8 Spruce Street 17. Woolworth Building 18. 70 Pine Street 19. 30 Park Place 20. Trump Building 21. Three World Trade Center 22. Four World Trade Center 23. One World Trade Center

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Downtown Brooklyn at the western end of Long Island. The Manhattan Bridge (far left) and the Brooklyn Bridge (near left) are seen across the East River from Lower Manhattan at in June 2013.

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Long Island City, Queens, facing the East River at blue hour in May 2015. At left is the Queensboro Bridge, connecting Queens to Manhattan.

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The Grand Concourse in The Bronx, foreground with Manhattan in the background in February 2018

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The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, one of the world’s longest suspension bridges, connecting Brooklyn, foreground, to Staten Island, in the background, across The Narrows.

Architecture

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Modernist architecture juxtaposed with classical architecture is seen often in New York City.

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The Chrysler Building, above, built in 1930, is an example of the Art Deco style, with ornamental hub caps and a spire. The Empire State Building is a solitary icon of New York. It was the world’s tallest building 1931–70 and is defined by its setbacks, Art Deco details and the spire.

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Landmark 19th-century rowhouses, including brownstones, on tree-lined Kent Street in the Greenpoint Historic District, Brooklyn.

New York has architecturally noteworthy buildings in a wide range of styles and from distinct time periods, from the saltbox style Pieter Claesen Wyckoff House in Brooklyn, the oldest section of which dates to 1656, to the modern One World Trade Center, the skyscraper at Ground Zero in Lower Manhattan and the most expensive office tower in the world by construction cost.

Manhattan’s skyline, with its many skyscrapers, is universally recognized, and the city has been home to several of the tallest buildings in the world. As of 2011, New York City had 5,937 high-rise buildings, of which 550 completed structures were at least 330 feet (100 m) high, both second in the world after Hong Kong, with over 50 completed skyscrapers taller than 656 feet (200 m). These include the Woolworth Building, an early example of Gothic Revival architecture in skyscraper design, built with massively scaled Gothic detailing; completed in 1913, for 17 years it was the world’s tallest building.

The 1916 Zoning Resolution required setbacks in new buildings and restricted towers to a percentage of the lot size, to allow sunlight to reach the streets below. The Art Deco style of the Chrysler Building (1930) and Empire State Building (1931), with their tapered tops and steel spires, reflected the zoning requirements. The buildings have distinctive ornamentation, such as the eagles at the corners of the 61st floor on the Chrysler Building, and are considered some of the finest examples of the Art Deco style. A highly influential example of the international style in the United States is the Seagram Building (1957), distinctive for its façade using visible bronze-toned I-beams to evoke the building’s structure. The Condé Nast Building (2000) is a prominent example of green design in American skyscrapers and has received an award from the American Institute of Architects and AIA New York State for its design.

The character of New York’s large residential districts is often defined by the elegant brownstone rowhouses and townhouses and shabby tenements that were built during a period of rapid expansion from 1870 to 1930. In contrast, New York City also has neighborhoods that are less densely populated and feature free-standing dwellings. In neighborhoods such as Riverdale (in the Bronx), Ditmas Park (in Brooklyn), and Douglaston (in Queens), large single-family homes are common in various architectural styles such as Tudor Revival and Victorian.

Stone and brick became the city’s building materials of choice after the construction of wood-frame houses was limited in the aftermath of the Great Fire of 1835. A distinctive feature of many of the city’s buildings is the wooden roof-mounted water tower. In the 1800s, the city required their installation on buildings higher than six stories to prevent the need for excessively high water pressures at lower elevations, which could break municipal water pipes. Garden apartments became popular during the 1920s in outlying areas, such as Jackson Heights.

According to the United States Geological Survey, an updated analysis of seismic hazard in July 2014 revealed a “slightly lower hazard for tall buildings” in New York City than previously assessed. Scientists estimated this lessened risk based upon a lower likelihood than previously thought of slow shaking near the city, which would be more likely to cause damage to taller structures from an earthquake in the vicinity of the city.

Boroughs

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New York City is often referred to collectively as the five boroughs, and in turn, there are hundreds of distinct neighborhoods throughout the boroughs, many with a definable history and character to call their own. If the boroughs were each independent cities, four of the boroughs (Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, and the Bronx) would be among the ten most populous cities in the United States (Staten island would be ranked 37th) ; these same boroughs are coterminous with the four most densely populated counties in the United States (New York [Manhattan], Kings [Brooklyn], Bronx, and Queens).

Manhattan (New York County) is the geographically smallest and most densely populated borough, is home to Central Park and most of the city’s skyscrapers, and may be locally known simply as The City. Manhattan’s (New York County’s) population density of 72,033 people per square mile (27,812/km²) in 2015 makes it the highest of any county in the United States and higher than the density of any individual American city. Manhattan is the cultural, administrative, and financial center of New York City and contains the headquarters of many major multinational corporations, the United Nations Headquarters, Wall Street, and a number of important universities. Manhattan is often described as the financial and cultural center of the world.

Most of the borough is situated on Manhattan Island, at the mouth of the Hudson River. Several small islands also compose part of the borough of Manhattan, including Randall’s Island, Wards Island, and Roosevelt Island in the East River, and Governors Island and Liberty Island to the south in New York Harbor. Manhattan Island is loosely divided into Lower, Midtown, and Uptown regions. Uptown Manhattan is divided by Central Park into the Upper East Side and the Upper West Side, and above the park is Harlem. The borough also includes a small neighborhood on the United States mainland, called Marble Hill, which is contiguous with The Bronx. New York City’s remaining four boroughs are collectively referred to as the outer boroughs.

Brooklyn (Kings County), on the western tip of Long Island, is the city’s most populous borough. Brooklyn is known for its cultural, social, and ethnic diversity, an independent art scene, distinct neighborhoods, and a distinctive architectural heritage. Downtown Brooklyn is the largest central core neighborhood in the outer boroughs. The borough has a long beachfront shoreline including Coney Island, established in the 1870s as one of the earliest amusement grounds in the country. Marine Park and Prospect Park are the two largest parks in Brooklyn. Since 2010, Brooklyn has evolved into a thriving hub of entrepreneurship and high technology startup firms, and of postmodern art and design.

Queens (Queens County), on Long Island north and east of Brooklyn, is geographically the largest borough, the most ethnically diverse county in the United States, and the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world. Historically a collection of small towns and villages founded by the Dutch, the borough has since developed both commercial and residential prominence. Downtown Flushing has become one of the busiest central core neighborhoods in the outer boroughs. Queens is the site of Citi Field, the baseball stadium of the New York Mets, and hosts the annual U.S. Open tennis tournament at Flushing Meadows-Corona Park. Additionally, two of the three busiest airports serving the New York metropolitan area, John F. Kennedy International Airport and LaGuardia Airport, are located in Queens. (The third is Newark Liberty International Airport in Newark, New Jersey.)

Staten Island (Richmond County) is the most suburban in character of the five boroughs. Staten Island is connected to Brooklyn by the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, and to Manhattan by way of the free Staten Island Ferry, a daily commuter ferry which provides unobstructed views of the Statue of Liberty, Ellis Island, and Lower Manhattan. In central Staten Island, the Staten Island Greenbelt spans approximately 2,500 acres (10 km2), including 28 miles (45 km) of walking trails and one of the last undisturbed forests in the city. Designated in 1984 to protect the island’s natural lands, the Greenbelt comprises seven city parks.

The Bronx (Bronx County) is New York City’s northernmost borough and the only New York City borough with a majority of it a part of the mainland United States. It is the location of Yankee Stadium, the baseball park of the New York Yankees, and home to the largest cooperatively owned housing complex in the United States, Co-op City. It is also home to the Bronx Zoo, the world’s largest metropolitan zoo, which spans 265 acres (1.07 km2) and houses over 6,000 animals. The Bronx is also the birthplace of rap and hip hop culture. Pelham Bay Park is the largest park in New York City, at 2,772 acres (1,122 ha).

Climate

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Avenue C in Manhattan after flooding caused by Hurricane Sandy on October 29, 2012.

Under the Köppen climate classification, using the 0 °C (32 °F) isotherm, New York City features a humid subtropical climate (Cfa), and is thus the northernmost major city on the North American continent with this categorization. The suburbs to the immediate north and west lie in the transitional zone between humid subtropical and humid continental climates (Dfa). Annually, the city averages 234 days with at least some sunshine. The city lies in the USDA 7b plant hardiness zone.

Winters are cold and damp, and prevailing wind patterns that blow offshore temper the moderating effects of the Atlantic Ocean; yet the Atlantic and the partial shielding from colder air by the Appalachians keep the city warmer in the winter than inland North American cities at similar or lesser latitudes such as Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and Indianapolis. The daily mean temperature in January, the area’s coldest month, is 32.6 °F (0.3 °C); temperatures usually drop to 10 °F (−12 °C) several times per winter, and reach 60 °F (16 °C) several days in the coldest winter month. Spring and autumn are unpredictable and can range from chilly to warm, although they are usually mild with low humidity. Summers are typically warm to hot and humid, with a daily mean temperature of 76.5 °F (24.7 °C) in July. Nighttime conditions are often exacerbated by the urban heat island phenomenon, while daytime temperatures exceed 90 °F (32 °C) on average of 17 days each summer and in some years exceed 100 °F (38 °C). Extreme temperatures have ranged from −15 °F (−26 °C), recorded on February 9, 1934, up to 106 °F (41 °C) on July 9, 1936. The average water temperature of the nearby Atlantic Ocean ranges from 39.7 °F (4.3 °C) in February to 74.1 °F (23.4 °C) in August.

The city receives 49.9 inches (1,270 mm) of precipitation annually, which is relatively evenly spread throughout the year. Average winter snowfall between 1981 and 2010 has been 25.8 inches (66 cm); this varies considerably between years. Hurricanes and tropical storms are rare in the New York area. Hurricane Sandy brought a destructive storm surge to New York City on the evening of October 29, 2012, flooding numerous streets, tunnels, and subway lines in Lower Manhattan and other areas of the city and cutting off electricity in many parts of the city and its suburbs. The storm and its profound impacts have prompted the discussion of constructing seawalls and other coastal barriers around the shorelines of the city and the metropolitan area to minimize the risk of destructive consequences from another such event in the future.

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Parks

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Flushing Meadows–Corona Park was used in the 1964 New York World’s Fair, with the Unisphere as its centerpiece.

The City of New York has a complex park system, with various lands operated by the National Park Service, the New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation, and the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation.

In its 2013 ParkScore ranking, The Trust for Public Land reported that the park system in New York City was the second best park system among the 50 most populous US cities, behind the park system of Minneapolis. ParkScore ranks urban park systems by a formula that analyzes median park size, park acres as percent of city area, the percent of city residents within a half-mile of a park, spending of park services per resident, and the number of playgrounds per 10,000 residents.

National parks

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The Statue of Liberty on Liberty Island in New York Harbor is a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom, democracy, and opportunity.

Gateway National Recreation Area contains over 26,000 acres (10,521.83 ha) in total, most of it surrounded by New York City, including the Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge. In Brooklyn and Queens, the park contains over 9,000 acres (36 km2) of salt marsh, wetlands, islands, and water, including most of Jamaica Bay. Also in Queens, the park includes a significant portion of the western Rockaway Peninsula, most notably Jacob Riis Park and Fort Tilden. In Staten Island, Gateway National Recreation Area includes Fort Wadsworth, with historic pre-Civil War era Battery Weed and Fort Tompkins, and Great Kills Park, with beaches, trails, and a marina.

The Statue of Liberty National Monument and Ellis Island Immigration Museum are managed by the National Park Service and are in both the states of New York and New Jersey. They are joined in the harbor by Governors Island National Monument, in New York. Historic sites under federal management on Manhattan Island include Castle Clinton National Monument; Federal Hall National Memorial; Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace National Historic Site; General Grant National Memorial (“Grant’s Tomb”); African Burial Ground National Monument; and Hamilton Grange National Memorial. Hundreds of private properties are listed on the National Register of Historic Places or as a National Historic Landmark such as, for example, the Stonewall Inn, part of the Stonewall National Monument in Greenwich Village, as the catalyst of the modern gay rights movement.

State parks

There are seven state parks within the confines of New York City, including Clay Pit Ponds State Park Preserve, a natural area that includes extensive riding trails, and Riverbank State Park, a 28-acre (110,000 m2) facility that rises 69 feet (21 m) over the Hudson River.

City parks

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Reindeer at the Bronx Zoo, the world’s largest metropolitan zoo.

New York City has over 28,000 acres (110 km2) of municipal parkland and 14 miles (23 km) of public beaches. The largest municipal park in the city is Pelham Bay Park in the Bronx, with 2,772 acres (1,122 ha).

  • Central Park, an 843-acre (3.41 km2) park in middle-upper Manhattan, is the most visited urban park in the United States and one of the most filmed locations in the world, with 40 million visitors in 2013. The park contains a wide range of attractions; there are several lakes and ponds, two ice-skating rinks, the Central Park Zoo, the Central Park Conservatory Garden, and the 106-acre (0.43 km2) Jackie Onassis Reservoir. Indoor attractions include Belvedere Castle with its nature center, the Swedish Cottage Marionette Theater, and the historic Carousel. On October 23, 2012, hedge fund manager John A. Paulson announced a $100 million gift to the Central Park Conservancy, the largest ever monetary donation to New York City’s park system.
  • Washington Square Park is a prominent landmark in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan. The Washington Square Arch at the northern gateway to the park is an iconic symbol of both New York University and Greenwich Village.
  • Prospect Park in Brooklyn has a 90-acre (360,000 m2) meadow, a lake, and extensive woodlands. Within the park is the historic Battle Pass, prominent in the Battle of Long Island.
  • Flushing Meadows–Corona Park in Queens, with its 897 acres (363 ha) making it the city’s fourth largest park, was the setting for the 1939 World’s Fair and the 1964 World’s Fair and is host to the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center and the annual United States Open Tennis Championships tournament.
  • Over a fifth of the Bronx’s area, 7,000 acres (28 km2), is given over to open space and parks, including Pelham Bay Park, Van Cortlandt Park, the Bronx Zoo, and the New York Botanical Gardens.
  • In Staten Island, the Conference House Park contains the historic Conference House, site of the only attempt of a peaceful resolution to the American Revolution which was conducted in September 1775, attended by Benjamin Franklin representing the Americans and Lord Howe representing the British Crown. The historic Burial Ridge, the largest Native American burial ground within New York City, is within the park.

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Central Park, as seen from Rockefeller Center, is the most visited city park in the United States.

Military installations

New York City is home to Fort Hamilton, the U.S. military’s only active duty installation within the city. The Brooklyn facility was established in 1825 on the site of a small battery utilized during the American Revolution, and it is one of America’s longest serving military forts. Today Fort Hamilton serves as the headquarters of the North Atlantic Division of the United States Army Corps of Engineers and for the New York City Recruiting Battalion. It also houses the 1179th Transportation Brigade, the 722nd Aeromedical Staging Squadron, and a military entrance processing station. Other formerly active military reservations still utilized for National Guard and military training or reserve operations in the city include Fort Wadsworth in Staten Island and Fort Totten in Queens.

Demographics


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New York City is the most populous city in the United States, with an estimated record high of 8,622,698 residents as of 2017, incorporating more immigration into the city than outmigration since the 2010 United States Census. More than twice as many people live in New York City as in the second-most populous U.S. city (Los Angeles), and within a smaller area. New York City gained more residents between April 2010 and July 2014 (316,000) than any other U.S. city. New York City’s population is about 43% of New York State’s population and about 36% of the population of the New York metropolitan area.

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New York City had an estimated population density of 28,491 people per square mile (11,000/km²) in 2017, with Manhattan alone at 72,918/sq mi (28,154/km²).

Population density

In 2017, the city had an estimated population density of 28,491 people per square mile (11,000/km²), rendering it the most densely populated of all municipalities housing over 100,000 residents in the United States, with several small cities (of fewer than 100,000) in adjacent Hudson County, New Jersey having greater density, as per the 2010 Census. Geographically co-extensive with New York County, the borough of Manhattan’s 2017 population density of 72,918 inhabitants per square mile (28,154/km2) makes it the highest of any county in the United States and higher than the density of any individual American city.

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Race and ethnicity

The city’s population in 2010 was 44% white (33.3% non-Hispanic white), 25.5% black (23% non-Hispanic black), 0.7% Native American, and 12.7% Asian. Hispanics of any race represented 28.6% of the population, while Asians constituted the fastest-growing segment of the city’s population between 2000 and 2010; the non-Hispanic white population declined 3 percent, the smallest recorded decline in decades; and for the first time since the Civil War, the number of blacks declined over a decade.

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From top: the Manhattan Chinatown; Lower Manhattan’s Little Italy; Upper Manhattan’s Spanish Harlem; Little India, Queens; Brooklyn’s Little Russia; Midtown Manhattan’s Koreatown.

Throughout its history, the city has been a major port of entry for immigrants into the United States; more than 12 million European immigrants were received at Ellis Island between 1892 and 1924. The term “melting pot” was first coined to describe densely populated immigrant neighborhoods on the Lower East Side. By 1900, Germans constituted the largest immigrant group, followed by the Irish, Jews, and Italians. In 1940, whites represented 92% of the city’s population.

Approximately 37% of the city’s population is foreign born and more than half of all children are born to mothers who are immigrants. In New York, no single country or region of origin dominates. The ten largest sources of foreign-born individuals in the city as of 2011 were the Dominican Republic, China, Mexico, Guyana, Jamaica, Ecuador, Haiti, India, Russia, and Trinidad and Tobago, while the Bangladeshi-born immigrant population has become one of the fastest growing in the city, counting over 74,000 by 2011.

Asian Americans in New York City, according to the 2010 Census, number more than one million, greater than the combined totals of San Francisco and Los Angeles. New York contains the highest total Asian population of any U.S. city proper. The New York City borough of Queens is home to the state’s largest Asian American population and the largest Andean (Colombian, Ecuadorian, Peruvian, and Bolivian) populations in the United States, and is also the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world. The Chinese population constitutes the fastest-growing nationality in New York State; multiple satellites of the original Manhattan Chinatown, in Brooklyn, and around Flushing, Queens, are thriving as traditionally urban enclaves – while also expanding rapidly eastward into suburban Nassau County on Long Island, as the New York metropolitan region and New York State have become the top destinations for new Chinese immigrants, respectively, and large-scale Chinese immigration continues into New York City and surrounding areas, with the largest metropolitan Chinese diaspora outside Asia, including an estimated 812,410 individuals in 2015. In 2012, 6.3% of New York City was of Chinese ethnicity, with nearly three-fourths living in either Queens or Brooklyn, geographically on Long Island. A community numbering 20,000 Korean-Chinese (Chaoxianzu or Joseonjok) is centered in Flushing, Queens, while New York City is also home to the largest Tibetan population outside China, India, and Nepal, also centered in Queens. Koreans made up 1.2% of the city’s population, and Japanese 0.3%. Filipinos were the largest Southeast Asian ethnic group at 0.8%, followed by Vietnamese, who made up 0.2% of New York City’s population in 2010. Indians are the largest South Asian group, comprising 2.4% of the city’s population, with Bangladeshis and Pakistanis at 0.7% and 0.5%, respectively. Queens is the preferred borough of settlement for Asian Indians, Koreans, Filipinos, and Malaysians and other Southeast Asians; while Brooklyn is receiving large numbers of both West Indian and Asian Indian immigrants.

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Map of racial distribution in New York, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic or Other (yellow)

New York City has the largest European and non-Hispanic white population of any American city. At 2.7 million in 2012, New York’s non-Hispanic white population is larger than the non-Hispanic white populations of Los Angeles (1.1 million), Chicago (865,000), and Houston (550,000) combined. The non-Hispanic white population was 6.6 million in 1940. The non-Hispanic white population has begun to increase since 2010. The European diaspora residing in the city is very diverse. According to 2012 Census estimates, there were roughly 560,000 Italian Americans, 385,000 Irish Americans, 253,000 German Americans, 223,000 Russian Americans, 201,000 Polish Americans, and 137,000 English Americans. Additionally, Greek and French Americans numbered 65,000 each, with those of Hungarian descent estimated at 60,000 people. Ukrainian and Scottish Americans numbered 55,000 and 35,000, respectively. People identifying ancestry from Spain numbered 30,838 total in 2010. People of Norwegian and Swedish descent both stood at about 20,000 each, while people of Czech, Lithuanian, Portuguese, Scotch-Irish, and Welsh descent all numbered between 12,000–14,000 people. Arab Americans number over 160,000 in New York City, with the highest concentration in Brooklyn. Central Asians, primarily Uzbek Americans, are a rapidly growing segment of the city’s non-Hispanic white population, enumerating over 30,000, and including over half of all Central Asian immigrants to the United States, most settling in Queens or Brooklyn. Albanian Americans are most highly concentrated in the Bronx.

The wider New York City metropolitan statistical area, with over 20 million people, about 50% greater than the second-place Los Angeles metropolitan area in the United States, is also ethnically diverse, with the largest foreign-born population of any metropolitan region in the world. The New York region continues to be by far the leading metropolitan gateway for legal immigrants admitted into the United States, substantially exceeding the combined totals of Los Angeles and Miami. It is home to the largest Jewish and Israeli communities outside Israel, with the Jewish population in the region numbering over 1.5 million in 2012 and including many diverse Jewish sects predominantly from around the Middle East and Eastern Europe. The metropolitan area is also home to 20% of the nation’s Indian Americans and at least 20 Little India enclaves, and 15% of all Korean Americans and four Koreatowns; the largest Asian Indian population in the Western Hemisphere; the largest Russian American, Italian American, and African American populations; the largest Dominican American, Puerto Rican American, and South American and second-largest overall Hispanic population in the United States, numbering 4.8 million; and includes multiple established Chinatowns within New York City alone.

Ecuador, Colombia, Guyana, Peru, and Brazil were the top source countries from South America for legal immigrants to the New York City region in 2013; the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Haiti, and Trinidad and Tobago in the Caribbean; Egypt, Ghana, and Nigeria from Africa; and El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala in Central America. Amidst a resurgence of Puerto Rican migration to New York City, this population had increased to approximately 1.3 million in the metropolitan area as of 2013.

Sexual orientation and gender identity

International Transgender Day of Visibility introduced by Manila-born Geena Rocero in New York City, top. The scene at the 2015 LGBT Pride March, below. New York City is home to the largest LGBTQ community in the United States and one of the world’s largest.

The New York metropolitan area is home to a prominent self-identifying gay and bisexual community estimated at nearly 570,000 individuals, the largest in the United States and one of the world’s largest. Same-sex marriages in New York were legalized on June 24, 2011 and were authorized to take place beginning 30 days thereafter. Charles Kaiser, author of The Gay Metropolis: The Landmark History of Gay Life in America, wrote that in the era after World War II, “New York City became the literal gay metropolis for hundreds of thousands of immigrants from within and without the United States: the place they chose to learn how to live openly, honestly and without shame.” The annual New York City Pride March (or gay pride parade) traverses southward down Fifth Avenue and ends at Greenwich Village in Lower Manhattan; the parade rivals the Sao Paulo Gay Pride Parade as the largest pride parade in the world, attracting tens of thousands of participants and millions of sidewalk spectators each June.

Transgender contribution

Wayne R. Dynes, author of the Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, wrote that drag queens were the only “transgender folks around” during the June 1969 Stonewall riots. “None of them in fact made a major contribution to the movement.” Others say the transgender community in New York City played a significant role in fighting for LGBT equality during the period of the Stonewall riots and thereafter. New York City is home to the largest transgender population in the United States, estimated at 25,000 in 2016. However, until the Stonewall riots, this community had felt marginalized and neglected by the gay community.

Religion

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The landmark Neo-Gothic Roman Catholic St. Patrick’s Cathedral, Midtown Manhattan

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Ultra-Orthodox Jewish residents in Brooklyn. Brooklyn has the largest Jewish community in the United States, with approximately 600,000 individuals.

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The Islamic Cultural Center of New York in Upper Manhattan, the first mosque built in New York City.

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Ganesh Temple in Flushing, Queens, the oldest Hindu temple in the U.S.

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Mahayana Buddhist Temple in Chinatown, Manhattan

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Atheism, promoted on an electronic billboard in Times Square, is observed by a significant proportion of New Yorkers.

Christianity (59%) — made up of Roman Catholicism (33%), Protestantism (23%), and other Christians (3%) — is the most prevalent religion in New York, as of 2014. It is followed by Judaism, with approximately 1.1 million adherents, over half of whom live in Brooklyn. The Jewish population makes up 18.4% of the city. Islam ranks third in New York City, with official estimates ranging between 600,000 and 1,000,000 observers, including 10% of the city’s public school children. These three largest groups are followed by Hinduism, Buddhism, and a variety of other religions, as well as atheism. In 2014, 24% of New Yorkers self-identified with no organized religious affiliation.

Wealth and income disparity

New York City has a high degree of income disparity as indicated by its Gini Coefficient of 0.5 for the city overall and 0.6 for Manhattan. In the first quarter of 2014, the average weekly wage in New York County (Manhattan) was $2,749, representing the highest total among large counties in the United States. As of 2017, New York City was home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world at 103, including former Mayor Michael Bloomberg. New York also had the highest density of millionaires per capita among major U.S. cities in 2014, at 4.6% of residents. New York City is one of the relatively few American cities levying an income tax (currently about 3%) on its residents.

Economy


City economic overview

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New York is a global hub of business and commerce. The city is a major center for banking and finance, retailing, world trade, transportation, tourism, real estate, new media, traditional media, advertising, legal services, accountancy, insurance, theater, fashion, and the arts in the United States; while Silicon Alley, metonymous for New York’s broad-spectrum high technology sphere, continues to expand. The Port of New York and New Jersey is also a major economic engine, handling record cargo volume in 2017, over 6.7 million TEUs. New York City’s unemployment rate fell to its record low of 4.0% in September 2018.

Many Fortune 500 corporations are headquartered in New York City, as are a large number of multinational corporations. One out of ten private sector jobs in the city is with a foreign company. New York City has been ranked first among cities across the globe in attracting capital, business, and tourists. This ability to attract foreign investment helped New York City top the FDi Magazine American Cities of the Future ranking for 2013.

Real estate is a major force in the city’s economy, as the total value of all New York City property was assessed at US$1.072 trillion for the 2017 fiscal year, an increase of 10.6% from the previous year with 89% of the increase coming from market effects. The Time Warner Center is the property with the highest-listed market value in the city, at US$1.1 billion in 2006. New York City is home to some of the nation’s—and the world’s—most valuable real estate. 450 Park Avenue was sold on July 2, 2007 for US$510 million, about $1,589 per square foot ($17,104/m²), breaking the barely month-old record for an American office building of $1,476 per square foot ($15,887/m²) set in the June 2007 sale of 660 Madison Avenue. According to Forbes, in 2014, Manhattan was home to six of the top ten ZIP Codes in the United States by median housing price. Fifth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan commands the highest retail rents in the world, at US$3,000 per square foot ($32,000/m2) in 2017.

As of 2013, the global advertising agencies of Omnicom Group and Interpublic Group, both based in Manhattan, had combined annual revenues of approximately US$21 billion, reflecting New York City’s role as the top global center for the advertising industry, which is metonymously referred to as “Madison Avenue”. The city’s fashion industry provides approximately 180,000 employees with $11 billion in annual wages.

Other important sectors include medical research and technology, non-profit institutions, and universities. Manufacturing accounts for a significant but declining share of employment, although the city’s garment industry is showing a resurgence in Brooklyn. Food processing is a US$5 billion industry that employs more than 19,000 residents.

Chocolate is New York City’s leading specialty-food export, with up to US$234 million worth of exports each year. Entrepreneurs were forming a “Chocolate District” in Brooklyn as of 2014, while Godiva, one of the world’s largest chocolatiers, continues to be headquartered in Manhattan.

Wall Street

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The New York Stock Exchange on Wall Street, the world’s largest stock exchange per total market capitalization of its listed companies.

New York City’s most important economic sector lies in its role as the headquarters for the U.S. financial industry, metonymously known as Wall Street. The city’s securities industry, enumerating 163,400 jobs in August 2013, continues to form the largest segment of the city’s financial sector and an important economic engine, accounting in 2012 for 5 percent of the city’s private sector jobs, 8.5 percent (US$3.8 billion) of its tax revenue, and 22 percent of the city’s total wages, including an average salary of US$360,700. Many large financial companies are headquartered in New York City, and the city is also home to a burgeoning number of financial startup companies.

Lower Manhattan is home to the New York Stock Exchange, on Wall Street, and the NASDAQ, at 165 Broadway, representing the world’s largest and second largest stock exchanges, respectively, when measured both by overall average daily trading volume and by total market capitalization of their listed companies in 2013. Investment banking fees on Wall Street totaled approximately $40 billion in 2012, while in 2013, senior New York City bank officers who manage risk and compliance functions earned as much as $324,000 annually. In fiscal year 2013–14, Wall Street’s securities industry generated 19% of New York State’s tax revenue. New York City remains the largest global center for trading in public equity and debt capital markets, driven in part by the size and financial development of the U.S. economy. In July 2013, NYSE Euronext, the operator of the New York Stock Exchange, took over the administration of the London interbank offered rate from the British Bankers Association. New York also leads in hedge fund management; private equity; and the monetary volume of mergers and acquisitions. Several investment banks and investment managers headquartered in Manhattan are important participants in other global financial centers. New York is also the principal commercial banking center of the United States.

Many of the world’s largest media conglomerates are also based in the city. Manhattan contained over 500 million square feet (46.5 million m2) of office space in 2015, making it the largest office market in the United States, while Midtown Manhattan, with nearly 400 million square feet (37.2 million m2) in 2015, is the largest central business district in the world.

Silicon Alley

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Silicon Alley, once centered around the Flatiron District, is now metonymous for New York’s high tech sector, which has since expanded beyond the area.

Silicon Alley, centered in Manhattan, has evolved into a metonym for the sphere encompassing the New York City metropolitan region’s high technology industries involving the Internet, new media, telecommunications, digital media, software development, biotechnology, game design, financial technology (“FinTech”), and other fields within information technology that are supported by its entrepreneurship ecosystem and venture capital investments. In 2015, Silicon Alley generated over US$7.3 billion in venture capital investment across a broad spectrum of high technology enterprises, most based in Manhattan, with others in Brooklyn, Queens, and elsewhere in the region. High technology startup companies and employment are growing in New York City and the region, bolstered by the city’s position in North America as the leading Internet hub and telecommunications center, including its vicinity to several transatlantic fiber optic trunk lines, New York’s intellectual capital, and its extensive outdoor wireless connectivity. Verizon Communications, headquartered at 140 West Street in Lower Manhattan, was at the final stages in 2014 of completing a US$3 billion fiberoptic telecommunications upgrade throughout New York City. As of 2014, New York City hosted 300,000 employees in the tech sector.

The biotechnology sector is also growing in New York City, based upon the city’s strength in academic scientific research and public and commercial financial support. On December 19, 2011, then Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg announced his choice of Cornell University and Technion-Israel Institute of Technology to build a US$2 billion graduate school of applied sciences called Cornell Tech on Roosevelt Island with the goal of transforming New York City into the world’s premier technology capital. By mid-2014, Accelerator, a biotech investment firm, had raised more than US$30 million from investors, including Eli Lilly and Company, Pfizer, and Johnson & Johnson, for initial funding to create biotechnology startups at the Alexandria Center for Life Science, which encompasses more than 700,000 square feet (65,000 m2) on East 29th Street and promotes collaboration among scientists and entrepreneurs at the center and with nearby academic, medical, and research institutions. The New York City Economic Development Corporation’s Early Stage Life Sciences Funding Initiative and venture capital partners, including Celgene, General Electric Ventures, and Eli Lilly, committed a minimum of US$100 million to help launch 15 to 20 ventures in life sciences and biotechnology.

Tourism

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Times Square is the hub of the Broadway theater district and a media center. It also has one of the highest annual attendance rates of any tourist attraction in the world, estimated at 50 million.

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The I Love New York logo, designed by Milton Glaser in 1977

Tourism is a vital industry for New York City, which has witnessed a growing combined volume of international and domestic tourists, receiving an eighth consecutive annual record of approximately 62.8 million visitors in 2017. Tourism had generated an all-time high US$61.3 billion in overall economic impact for New York City in 2014, pending 2015 statistics. Approximately 12 million visitors to New York City were from outside the United States, with the highest numbers from the United Kingdom, Canada, Brazil, and China.

I Love New York (stylized I ❤ NY) is both a logo and a song that are the basis of an advertising campaign and have been used since 1977 to promote tourism in New York City, and later to promote New York State as well. The trademarked logo, owned by New York State Empire State Development, appears in souvenir shops and brochures throughout the city and state, some licensed, many not. The song is the state song of New York.

Major tourist destinations include Times Square; Broadway theater productions; the Empire State Building; the Statue of Liberty; Ellis Island; the United Nations Headquarters; museums such as the Metropolitan Museum of Art; greenspaces such as Central Park and Washington Square Park; Rockefeller Center; the Manhattan Chinatown; luxury shopping along Fifth and Madison Avenues; and events such as the Halloween Parade in Greenwich Village; the Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade; the lighting of the Rockefeller Center Christmas Tree; the St. Patrick’s Day parade; seasonal activities such as ice skating in Central Park in the wintertime; the Tribeca Film Festival; and free performances in Central Park at Summerstage. Major attractions in the boroughs outside Manhattan include Flushing Meadows-Corona Park and the Unisphere in Queens; the Bronx Zoo; Coney Island, Brooklyn; and the New York Botanical Garden in the Bronx. The New York Wheel, a 630-foot ferris wheel, was under construction at the northern shore of Staten Island in 2015, overlooking the Statue of Liberty, New York Harbor, and the Lower Manhattan skyline.

Manhattan was on track to have an estimated 90,000 hotel rooms at the end of 2014, a 10% increase from 2013. In October 2014, the Anbang Insurance Group, based in China, purchased the Waldorf Astoria New York for US$1.95 billion, making it the world’s most expensive hotel ever sold.

Media and entertainment

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Rockefeller Center is home to NBC Studios.

New York is a prominent location for the American entertainment industry, with many films, television series, books, and other media being set there. As of 2012, New York City was the second largest center for filmmaking and television production in the United States, producing about 200 feature films annually, employing 130,000 individuals; the filmed entertainment industry has been growing in New York, contributing nearly US$9 billion to the New York City economy alone as of 2015, and by volume, New York is the world leader in independent film production – one-third of all American independent films are produced in New York City. The Association of Independent Commercial Producers is also based in New York. In the first five months of 2014 alone, location filming for television pilots in New York City exceeded the record production levels for all of 2013, with New York surpassing Los Angeles as the top North American city for the same distinction during the 2013/2014 cycle.

New York City is additionally a center for the advertising, music, newspaper, digital media, and publishing industries and is also the largest media market in North America. Some of the city’s media conglomerates and institutions include Time Warner, the Thomson Reuters Corporation, the Associated Press, Bloomberg L.P., the News Corporation, The New York Times Company, NBCUniversal, the Hearst Corporation, AOL, and Viacom. Seven of the world’s top eight global advertising agency networks have their headquarters in New York. Two of the top three record labels’ headquarters are in New York: Sony Music Entertainment and Warner Music Group. Universal Music Group also has offices in New York. New media enterprises are contributing an increasingly important component to the city’s central role in the media sphere.

More than 200 newspapers and 350 consumer magazines have an office in the city, and the publishing industry employs about 25,000 people. Two of the three national daily newspapers in the United States are New York papers: The Wall Street Journal and The New York Times, which has won the most Pulitzer Prizes for journalism. Major tabloid newspapers in the city include: The New York Daily News, which was founded in 1919 by Joseph Medill Patterson and The New York Post, founded in 1801 by Alexander Hamilton. The city also has a comprehensive ethnic press, with 270 newspapers and magazines published in more than 40 languages. El Diario La Prensa is New York’s largest Spanish-language daily and the oldest in the nation. The New York Amsterdam News, published in Harlem, is a prominent African American newspaper. The Village Voice, historically the largest alternative newspaper in the United States, announced in 2017 that it would cease publication of its print edition and convert to a fully digital venture.

The television and radio industry developed in New York and is a significant employer in the city’s economy. The three major American broadcast networks are all headquartered in New York: ABC, CBS, and NBC. Many cable networks are based in the city as well, including MTV, Fox News, HBO, Showtime, Bravo, Food Network, AMC, and Comedy Central. The City of New York operates a public broadcast service, NYC Media, that has produced several original Emmy Award-winning shows covering music and culture in city neighborhoods and city government. WBAI, with news and information programming, is one of the few socialist radio stations operating in the United States.

New York is also a major center for non-commercial educational media. The oldest public-access television channel in the United States is the Manhattan Neighborhood Network, founded in 1971. WNET is the city’s major public television station and a primary source of national Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) television programming. WNYC, a public radio station owned by the city until 1997, has the largest public radio audience in the United States.

Education and scholarly activity


Primary and secondary education

The New York City Public Schools system, managed by the New York City Department of Education, is the largest public school system in the United States, serving about 1.1 million students in more than 1,700 separate primary and secondary schools. The city’s public school system includes nine specialized high schools to serve academically and artistically gifted students. The city government pays the Pelham Public Schools to educate a very small, detached section of the Bronx.

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Butler Library at Columbia University, described as one of the most beautiful college libraries in the United States.

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The Washington Square Arch, an unofficial icon of both New York University (NYU) and its Greenwich Village neighborhood.

The New York City Charter School Center assists the setup of new charter schools. There are approximately 900 additional privately run secular and religious schools in the city.

Higher education and research

Over 600,000 students are enrolled in New York City’s over 120 higher education institutions, the highest number of any city in the United States and higher than other major global cities like London and Tokyo, including over half million in the City University of New York (CUNY) system alone in 2014. In 2005, three out of five Manhattan residents were college graduates, and one out of four had a postgraduate degree, forming one of the highest concentrations of highly educated people in any American city. New York City is home to such notable private universities as Barnard College, Columbia University, Cooper Union, Fordham University, Mercy College, New York University, New York Institute of Technology, Pace University, Rockefeller University, and Yeshiva University; several of these universities are ranked among the top universities in the world. The public CUNY system is one of the largest universities in the nation, comprising 24 institutions across all five boroughs: senior colleges, community colleges, and other graduate/professional schools. The public State University of New York (SUNY) system serves New York City, as well as the rest of the state. The city also has other smaller private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions, such as St. John’s University, The Juilliard School, Manhattan College, The College of Mount Saint Vincent, Fashion Institute of Technology, Parsons School of Design, The New School, Pratt Institute, The School of Visual Arts, The King’s College, and Wagner College.

Much of the scientific research in the city is done in medicine and the life sciences. New York City has the most postgraduate life sciences degrees awarded annually in the United States, with 127 Nobel laureates having roots in local institutions as of 2005; while in 2012, 43,523 licensed physicians were practicing in New York City. Major biomedical research institutions include Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center, Rockefeller University, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, and Weill Cornell Medical College, being joined by the Cornell University/Technion-Israel Institute of Technology venture on Roosevelt Island. The graduates of SUNY Maritime College in the Bronx earned the highest average annual salary of any university graduates in the United States, US$144,000 as of 2017.

Human resources


Public health

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New York-Presbyterian Hospital, white complex at center, the largest hospital and largest private employer in New York City and one of the world’s busiest.

The New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation (HHC) operates the public hospitals and clinics in New York City. A public benefit corporation with $6.7 billion in annual revenues, HHC is the largest municipal healthcare system in the United States serving 1.4 million patients, including more than 475,000 uninsured city residents. HHC was created in 1969 by the New York State Legislature as a public benefit corporation (Chapter 1016 of the Laws 1969). HHC operates 11 acute care hospitals, five nursing homes, six diagnostic and treatment centers, and more than 70 community-based primary care sites, serving primarily the poor and working class. HHC’s MetroPlus Health Plan is one of the New York area’s largest providers of government-sponsored health insurance and is the plan of choice for nearly half million New Yorkers.

HHC’s facilities annually provide millions of New Yorkers services interpreted in more than 190 languages. The most well-known hospital in the HHC system is Bellevue Hospital, the oldest public hospital in the United States. Bellevue is the designated hospital for treatment of the President of the United States and other world leaders if they become sick or injured while in New York City. The president of HHC is Ramanathan Raju, MD, a surgeon and former CEO of the Cook County health system in Illinois. In August 2017, Mayor Bill de Blasio signed legislation outlawing pharmacies from selling cigarettes once their existing licenses to do so expired, beginning in 2018.

Public safety

Police and law enforcement

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The New York City Police Department (NYPD) represents the largest police force in the United States.

The New York City Police Department (NYPD) has been the largest police force in the United States by a significant margin, with over 35,000 sworn officers. Members of the NYPD are frequently referred to by politicians, the media, and their own police cars by the nickname, New York’s Finest.

Crime has continued an overall downward trend in New York City since the 1990s. In 2012, the NYPD came under scrutiny for its use of a stop-and-frisk program, which has undergone several policy revisions since then. In 2014, New York City had the third lowest murder rate among the largest U.S. cities, having become significantly safer after a spike in crime in the 1970s through 1990s. Violent crime in New York City decreased more than 75% from 1993 to 2005, and continued decreasing during periods when the nation as a whole saw increases. By 2002, New York City’s crime rate was similar to that of Provo, Utah, and was ranked 197th in crime among the 216 U.S. cities with populations greater than 100,000. In 2005, the homicide rate was at its lowest level since 1966, and in 2007, the city recorded fewer than 500 homicides for the first time ever since crime statistics were first published in 1963. In 2015, 50.5% of New York City misdemeanor assault suspects were black, 33.3% Hispanic, 11.1% white, 4.8% Asian/Pacific Islander and 0.3% Native American. New York City experienced 352 homicides in 2015, its second lowest number on record. In 2016 the murder rate fell to 3.9 per 100,000 residents, significantly below the US average of 5.3, and was projected to drop significantly in 2017.

Sociologists and criminologists have not reached consensus on the explanation for the dramatic decrease in the city’s crime rate. Some attribute the phenomenon to new tactics used by the NYPD, including its use of CompStat and the broken windows theory. Others cite the end of the crack epidemic and demographic changes, including from immigration. Another theory is that widespread exposure to lead pollution from automobile exhaust, which can lower intelligence and increase aggression levels, incited the initial crime wave in the mid-20th century, most acutely affecting heavily trafficked cities like New York. A strong correlation was found demonstrating that violent crime rates in New York and other big cities began to fall after lead was removed from American gasoline in the 1970s. Another theory cited to explain New York City’s falling homicide rate is the inverse correlation between the number of murders and the increasingly wetter climate in the city.

Organized crime has long been associated with New York City, beginning with the Forty Thieves and the Roach Guards in the Five Points in the 1820s. The 20th century saw a rise in the Mafia, dominated by the Five Families, as well as in gangs, including the Black Spades. The Mafia and gang presence has declined in the city in the 21st century.

Firefighting

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The New York City Fire Department (FDNY) is the largest municipal fire department in the United States.

The New York City Fire Department (FDNY), provides fire protection, technical rescue, primary response to biological, chemical, and radioactive hazards, and emergency medical services for the five boroughs of New York City. The New York City Fire Department is the largest municipal fire department in the United States and the second largest in the world after the Tokyo Fire Department. The FDNY employs approximately 11,080 uniformed firefighters and over 3,300 uniformed EMTs and paramedics. The FDNY’s motto is New York’s Bravest.

The New York City Fire Department faces multifaceted firefighting challenges in many ways unique to New York. In addition to responding to building types that range from wood-frame single family homes to high-rise structures, there are many secluded bridges and tunnels, as well as large parks and wooded areas that can give rise to brush fires. New York is also home to one of the largest subway systems in the world, consisting of hundreds of miles of tunnel with electrified track.

The FDNY headquarters is located at 9 MetroTech Center in Downtown Brooklyn, and the FDNY Fire Academy is located on Randalls Island. There are three Bureau of Fire Communications alarm offices which receive and dispatch alarms to appropriate units. One office, at 11 Metrotech Center in Brooklyn, houses Manhattan/Citywide, Brooklyn, and Staten Island Fire Communications. The Bronx and Queens offices are in separate buildings.

Public library system

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The Stephen A. Schwarzman Headquarters Building of the New York Public Library, at 5th Avenue and 42nd Street.

The New York Public Library, which has the largest collection of any public library system in the United States, serves Manhattan, the Bronx, and Staten Island. Queens is served by the Queens Borough Public Library, the nation’s second largest public library system, while the Brooklyn Public Library serves Brooklyn.

Culture and contemporary life


New York City has been described as the cultural capital of the world by the diplomatic consulates of Iceland and Latvia and by New York’s Baruch College. A book containing a series of essays titled New York, Culture Capital of the World, 1940–1965 has also been published as showcased by the National Library of Australia. In describing New York, author Tom Wolfe said, “Culture just seems to be in the air, like part of the weather.”

Numerous major American cultural movements began in the city, such as the Harlem Renaissance, which established the African-American literary canon in the United States. The city was a center of jazz in the 1940s, abstract expressionism in the 1950s, and the birthplace of hip hop in the 1970s. The city’s punk and hardcore scenes were influential in the 1970s and 1980s. New York has long had a flourishing scene for Jewish American literature.

The city is the birthplace of many cultural movements, including the Harlem Renaissance in literature and visual art; abstract expressionism (also known as the New York School) in painting; and hip hop, punk, salsa, freestyle, Tin Pan Alley, certain forms of jazz, and (along with Philadelphia) disco in music. New York City has been considered the dance capital of the world. The city is also frequently the setting for novels, movies (see List of films set in New York City), and television programs. New York Fashion Week is one of the world’s preeminent fashion events and is afforded extensive coverage by the media. New York has also frequently been ranked the top fashion capital of the world on the annual list compiled by the Global Language Monitor.

Arts

New York City has more than 2,000 arts and cultural organizations and more than 500 art galleries of all sizes. The city government funds the arts with a larger annual budget than the National Endowment for the Arts. Wealthy business magnates in the 19th century built a network of major cultural institutions, such as the famed Carnegie Hall and the Metropolitan Museum of Art, that would become internationally established. The advent of electric lighting led to elaborate theater productions, and in the 1880s, New York City theaters on Broadway and along 42nd Street began featuring a new stage form that became known as the Broadway musical. Strongly influenced by the city’s immigrants, productions such as those of Harrigan and Hart, George M. Cohan, and others used song in narratives that often reflected themes of hope and ambition. New York City itself is the subject or background of many plays and musicals.

Performing arts

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Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts

Broadway theatre is one of the premier forms of English-language theatre in the world, named after Broadway, the major thoroughfare that crosses Times Square, also sometimes referred to as “The Great White Way”. Forty-one venues in Midtown Manhattan’s Theatre District, each with at least 500 seats, are classified as Broadway theatres. According to The Broadway League, Broadway shows sold approximately US$1.27 billion worth of tickets in the 2013–2014 season, an 11.4% increase from US$1.139 billion in the 2012–2013 season. Attendance in 2013–2014 stood at 12.21 million, representing a 5.5% increase from the 2012–2013 season’s 11.57 million. Performance artists displaying diverse skills are ubiquitous on the streets of Manhattan.

Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, anchoring Lincoln Square on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, is home to numerous influential arts organizations, including the Metropolitan Opera, New York City Opera, New York Philharmonic, and New York City Ballet, as well as the Vivian Beaumont Theater, the Juilliard School, Jazz at Lincoln Center, and Alice Tully Hall. The Lee Strasberg Theatre and Film Institute is in Union Square, and Tisch School of the Arts is based at New York University, while Central Park SummerStage presents free music concerts in Central Park.

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The Metropolitan Museum of Art, part of Museum Mile, is one of the largest museums in the world.

Visual arts

New York City is home to hundreds of cultural institutions and historic sites, many of which are internationally known. Museum Mile is the name for a section of Fifth Avenue running from 82nd to 105th streets on the Upper East Side of Manhattan, in an area sometimes called Upper Carnegie Hill. The Mile, which contains one of the densest displays of culture in the world, is actually three blocks longer than one mile (1.6 km). Ten museums occupy the length of this section of Fifth Avenue. The tenth museum, the Museum for African Art, joined the ensemble in 2009, although its museum at 110th Street, the first new museum constructed on the Mile since the Guggenheim in 1959, opened in late 2012. In addition to other programming, the museums collaborate for the annual Museum Mile Festival, held each year in June, to promote the museums and increase visitation. Many of the world’s most lucrative art auctions are held in New York City.

Cuisine

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Smorgasburg opened in 2011 as an open-air food market and is part of the Brooklyn Flea.

New York City’s food culture includes an array of international cuisines influenced by the city’s immigrant history. Central and Eastern European immigrants, especially Jewish immigrants from those regions, brought bagels, cheesecake, hot dogs, knishes, and delicatessens (or delis) to the city. Italian immigrants brought New York-style pizza and Italian cuisine into the city, while Jewish immigrants and Irish immigrants brought pastrami and corned beef, respectively. Chinese and other Asian restaurants, sandwich joints, trattorias, diners, and coffeehouses are ubiquitous throughout the city. Some 4,000 mobile food vendors licensed by the city, many immigrant-owned, have made Middle Eastern foods such as falafel and kebabs examples of modern New York street food. The city is home to “nearly one thousand of the finest and most diverse haute cuisine restaurants in the world”, according to Michelin. The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene assigns letter grades to the city’s 24,000 restaurants based upon their inspection results.

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From top: the annual Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade, the world’s largest parade; the annual Halloween Parade in Greenwich Village; the annual Philippine Independence Day Parade; and the ticker-tape parade for the Apollo 11 astronauts

Parades

New York City is well known for its street parades, which celebrate a broad array of themes, including holidays, nationalities, human rights, and major league sports team championship victories. The majority of parades are held in Manhattan. The primary orientation of the annual street parades is typically from north to south, marching along major avenues. The annual Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade is the world’s largest parade, beginning alongside Central Park and processing southward to the flagship Macy’s Herald Square store; the parade is viewed on telecasts worldwide and draws millions of spectators in person. Other notable parades including the annual St. Patrick’s Day Parade in March, the LGBT Pride March in June, the Greenwich Village Halloween Parade in October, and numerous parades commemorating the independence days of many nations. Ticker-tape parades celebrating championships won by sports teams as well as other heroic accomplishments march northward along the Canyon of Heroes on Broadway from Bowling Green to City Hall Park in Lower Manhattan.

Accent and dialect

The New York area is home to a distinctive regional speech pattern called the New York dialect, alternatively known as Brooklynese or New Yorkese. It has generally been considered one of the most recognizable accents within American English.

The traditional New York area accent is characterized as non-rhotic, so that the sound  does not appear at the end of a syllable or immediately before a consonant; therefore the pronunciation of the city name as “New Yawk.” There is no [ɹ] in words like park [pɑək] or [pɒək] (with vowel backed and diphthongized due to the low-back chain shift), butter [bʌɾə], or here [hiə]. In another feature called the low back chain shift, the [ɔ] vowel sound of words like talk, law, cross, chocolate, and coffee and the often homophonous [ɔr] in core and more are tensed and usually raised more than in General American English. In the most old-fashioned and extreme versions of the New York dialect, the vowel sounds of words like “girl” and of words like “oil” became a diphthong [ɜɪ]. This is often misperceived by speakers of other accents as a reversal of the er and oy sounds, so that girl is pronounced “goil” and oil is pronounced “erl”; this leads to the caricature of New Yorkers saying things like “Joizey” (Jersey), “Toidy-Toid Street” (33rd St.) and “terlet” (toilet). The character Archie Bunker from the 1970s sitcom All in the Family (played by Carroll O’Connor) was an example of having used this pattern of speech.

The classic version of the New York City dialect is generally centered on middle and working-class New Yorkers. The influx of non-European immigrants in recent decades has led to changes in this distinctive dialect, and the traditional form of this speech pattern is no longer as prevalent among general New Yorkers as it has been in the past.

Sports

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The New York Marathon is the largest marathon in the world.

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The US Open Tennis Championships are held every August and September in Flushing Meadows-Corona Park, Queens.

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Citi Field, also in Flushing Meadows-Corona Park, has been home to the New York Mets since 2009.

New York City is home to the headquarters of the National Football League, Major League Baseball, the National Basketball Association, the National Hockey League, and Major League Soccer. The New York metropolitan area hosts the most sports teams in these five professional leagues. Participation in professional sports in the city predates all professional leagues, and the city has been continuously hosting professional sports since the birth of the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1882. The city has played host to over forty major professional teams in the five sports and their respective competing leagues, both current and historic. Four of the ten most expensive stadiums ever built worldwide (MetLife Stadium, the new Yankee Stadium, Madison Square Garden, and Citi Field) are located in the New York metropolitan area. Madison Square Garden, its predecessor, the original Yankee Stadium and Ebbets Field, are sporting venues located in New York City, the latter two having been commemorated on U.S. postage stamps.

New York has been described as the “Capital of Baseball”. There have been 35 Major League Baseball World Series and 73 pennants won by New York teams. It is one of only five metro areas (Los Angeles, Chicago, Baltimore–Washington, and the San Francisco Bay Area being the others) to have two baseball teams. Additionally, there have been 14 World Series in which two New York City teams played each other, known as a Subway Series and occurring most recently in 2000. No other metropolitan area has had this happen more than once (Chicago in 1906, St. Louis in 1944, and the San Francisco Bay Area in 1989). The city’s two current Major League Baseball teams are the New York Mets, who play at Citi Field in Queens, and the New York Yankees, who play at Yankee Stadium in the Bronx. These teams compete in six games of interleague play every regular season that has also come to be called the Subway Series. The Yankees have won a record 27 championships, while the Mets have won the World Series twice. The city also was once home to the Brooklyn Dodgers (now the Los Angeles Dodgers), who won the World Series once, and the New York Giants (now the San Francisco Giants), who won the World Series five times. Both teams moved to California in 1958. There are also two Minor League Baseball teams in the city, the Brooklyn Cyclones and Staten Island Yankees.

The city is represented in the National Football League by the New York Giants and the New York Jets, although both teams play their home games at MetLife Stadium in nearby East Rutherford, New Jersey, which hosted Super Bowl XLVIII in 2014.

The metropolitan area is home to three National Hockey League teams. The New York Rangers, the traditional representative of the city itself and one of the league’s Original Six, play at Madison Square Garden in Manhattan. The New York Islanders, traditionally representing Nassau and Suffolk Counties of Long Island, currently play at Barclays Center in Brooklyn and are planning a return to Nassau County by way of a new arena just outside the border with Queens at Belmont Park. The New Jersey Devils play at Prudential Center in nearby Newark, New Jersey and traditionally represent the counties of neighboring New Jersey which are coextensive with the boundaries of the New York metropolitan area and media market.

The city’s National Basketball Association teams are the Brooklyn Nets and the New York Knicks, while the New York Liberty is the city’s Women’s National Basketball Association team. The first national college-level basketball championship, the National Invitation Tournament, was held in New York in 1938 and remains in the city. The city is well known for its links to basketball, which is played in nearly every park in the city by local youth, many of whom have gone on to play for major college programs and in the NBA.

In soccer, New York City is represented by New York City FC of Major League Soccer, who play their home games at Yankee Stadium and the New York Red Bulls, who play their home games at Red Bull Arena in nearby Harrison, New Jersey. Historically, the city is known for the New York Cosmos, the highly successful former professional soccer team which was the American home of Pelé. A new version of the New York Cosmos was formed in 2010, and began play in the second division North American Soccer League in 2013. The Cosmos play their home games at James M. Shuart Stadium on the campus of Hofstra University, just outside the New York City limits in Hempstead, New York.

The annual United States Open Tennis Championships is one of the world’s four Grand Slam tennis tournaments and is held at the National Tennis Center in Flushing Meadows-Corona Park, Queens. The New York City Marathon, which courses through all five boroughs, is the world’s largest running marathon, with 51,394 finishers in 2016 and 98,247 applicants for the 2017 race. The Millrose Games is an annual track and field meet whose featured event is the Wanamaker Mile. Boxing is also a prominent part of the city’s sporting scene, with events like the Amateur Boxing Golden Gloves being held at Madison Square Garden each year. The city is also considered the host of the Belmont Stakes, the last, longest and oldest of horse racing’s Triple Crown races, held just over the city’s border at Belmont Park on the first or second Sunday of June. The city also hosted the 1932 U.S. Open golf tournament and the 1930 and 1939 PGA Championships, and has been host city for both events several times, most notably for nearby Winged Foot Golf Club. The Gaelic games are played in Riverdale, Bronx at Gaelic Park, home to the New York GAA, the only North American team to compete at the senior inter-county level.

Transportation


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New York City is home to the two busiest rail stations in the US, including Grand Central Terminal.

New York City’s comprehensive transportation system is both complex and extensive.

Rapid transit

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The New York City Subway is the world’s largest rapid transit system by length of routes and by number of stations.

Mass transit in New York City, most of which runs 24 hours a day, accounts for one in every three users of mass transit in the United States, and two-thirds of the nation’s rail riders live in the New York City Metropolitan Area.

Rail

The New York City Subway is the world’s largest rapid transit system by length of routes and by number of stations.

The iconic New York City Subway system is the largest rapid transit system in the world when measured by stations in operation, with 472, and by length of routes. Nearly all of New York’s subway system is open 24 hours a day, in contrast to the overnight shutdown common to systems in most cities, including Hong Kong, London, Paris, Seoul, and Tokyo. The New York City Subway is also the busiest metropolitan rail transit system in the Western Hemisphere, with 1.76 billion passenger rides in 2015, while Grand Central Terminal, also referred to as “Grand Central Station”, is the world’s largest railway station by number of train platforms.

Public transport is essential in New York City. 54.6% of New Yorkers commuted to work in 2005 using mass transit. This is in contrast to the rest of the United States, where 91% of commuters travel in automobiles to their workplace. According to the New York City Comptroller, workers in the New York City area spend an average of 6 hours and 18 minutes getting to work each week, the longest commute time in the nation among large cities. New York is the only US city in which a majority (52%) of households do not have a car; only 22% of Manhattanites own a car. Due to their high usage of mass transit, New Yorkers spend less of their household income on transportation than the national average, saving $19 billion annually on transportation compared to other urban Americans.

New York City’s commuter rail network is the largest in North America. The rail network, connecting New York City to its suburbs, consists of the Long Island Rail Road, Metro-North Railroad, and New Jersey Transit. The combined systems converge at Grand Central Terminal and Pennsylvania Station and contain more than 250 stations and 20 rail lines. In Queens, the elevated AirTrain people mover system connects JFK International Airport to the New York City Subway and the Long Island Rail Road; a separate AirTrain system is planned alongside the Grand Central Parkway to connect LaGuardia Airport to these transit systems. For intercity rail, New York City is served by Amtrak, whose busiest station by a significant margin is Pennsylvania Station on the West Side of Manhattan, from which Amtrak provides connections to Boston, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C. along the Northeast Corridor, and long-distance train service to other North American cities.

The Staten Island Railway rapid transit system solely serves Staten Island, operating 24 hours a day. The Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH train) links Midtown and Lower Manhattan to northeastern New Jersey, primarily Hoboken, Jersey City, and Newark. Like the New York City Subway, the PATH operates 24 hours a day; meaning three of the six rapid transit systems in the world which operate on 24-hour schedules are wholly or partly in New York (the others are a portion of the Chicago ‘L’, the PATCO Speedline serving Philadelphia, and the Copenhagen Metro).

Multibillion-dollar heavy rail transit projects under construction in New York City include the Second Avenue Subway, the East Side Access project, and the 7 Subway Extension.

Buses

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The Port Authority Bus Terminal, the world’s busiest bus station, at 8th Avenue and 42nd Street.

New York City’s public bus fleet is the largest in North America, and the Port Authority Bus Terminal, the main intercity bus terminal of the city, serves 7,000 buses and 200,000 commuters daily, making it the busiest bus station in the world.

Air

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John F. Kennedy Airport in Queens, the busiest international air passenger gateway to the United States.

New York’s airspace is the busiest in the United States and one of the world’s busiest air transportation corridors. The three busiest airports in the New York metropolitan area include John F. Kennedy International Airport, Newark Liberty International Airport, and LaGuardia Airport; 130.5 million travelers used these three airports in 2016, and the city’s airspace is the busiest in the nation. JFK and Newark Liberty were the busiest and fourth busiest U.S. gateways for international air passengers, respectively, in 2012; as of 2011, JFK was the busiest airport for international passengers in North America. Plans have advanced to expand passenger volume at a fourth airport, Stewart International Airport near Newburgh, New York, by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Plans were announced in July 2015 to entirely rebuild LaGuardia Airport in a multibillion-dollar project to replace its aging facilities. Other commercial airports in or serving the New York metropolitan area include Long Island MacArthur Airport, Trenton–Mercer Airport and Westchester County Airport. The primary general aviation airport serving the area is Teterboro Airport.

Ferries

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The Staten Island Ferry shuttles commuters between Manhattan and Staten Island.

The Staten Island Ferry is the world’s busiest ferry route, carrying over 23 million passengers from July 2015 through June 2016 on the 5.2-mile (8.4 km) route between Staten Island and Lower Manhattan and running 24 hours a day. Other ferry systems shuttle commuters between Manhattan and other locales within the city and the metropolitan area.

NYC Ferry, a NYCEDC initiative with routes planned to travel to all five boroughs, was launched in 2017, with second graders choosing the names of the ferries. Meanwhile, Seastreak ferry announced construction of a 600-passenger high-speed luxury ferry in September 2016, to shuttle riders between the Jersey Shore and Manhattan, anticipated to start service in 2017; this would be the largest vessel in its class.

Taxis, transport startups, and trams

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Yellow medallion taxicabs are widely recognized icons of the city

Other features of the city’s transportation infrastructure encompass more than 12,000 yellow taxicabs; various competing startup transportation network companies; and an aerial tramway that transports commuters between Roosevelt Island and Manhattan Island. Ride-sharing services have become significant competition for cab drivers in New York.

Streets and highways

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8th Avenue, looking northward (“uptown”). Most streets and avenues in Manhattan’s grid plan incorporate a one-way traffic configuration.

Despite New York’s heavy reliance on its vast public transit system, streets are a defining feature of the city. Manhattan’s street grid plan greatly influenced the city’s physical development. Several of the city’s streets and avenues, like Broadway, Wall Street, Madison Avenue, and Seventh Avenue are also used as metonyms for national industries there: the theater, finance, advertising, and fashion organizations, respectively.

New York City also has an extensive web of expressways and parkways, which link the city’s boroughs to each other and to northern New Jersey, Westchester County, Long Island, and southwestern Connecticut through various bridges and tunnels. Because these highways serve millions of outer borough and suburban residents who commute into Manhattan, it is quite common for motorists to be stranded for hours in traffic jams that are a daily occurrence, particularly during rush hour.

New York City is also known for its rules regarding turning at red lights. Unlike the rest of the United States, New York State prohibits right or left turns on red in cities with a population greater than one million, to reduce traffic collisions and increase pedestrian safety. In New York City, therefore, all turns at red lights are illegal unless a sign permitting such maneuvers is present.

River crossings

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The George Washington Bridge, connecting Upper Manhattan (background) from Fort Lee, New Jersey across the Hudson River, is the world’s busiest motor vehicle bridge.

New York City is located on one of the world’s largest natural harbors, and the boroughs of Manhattan and Staten Island are (primarily) coterminous with islands of the same names, while Queens and Brooklyn are located at the west end of the larger Long Island, and The Bronx is located at the southern tip of New York State’s mainland. This situation of boroughs separated by water led to the development of an extensive infrastructure of well-known bridges and tunnels.

The George Washington Bridge is the world’s busiest motor vehicle bridge, connecting Manhattan to Bergen County, New Jersey. The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge is the longest suspension bridge in the Americas and one of the world’s longest. The Brooklyn Bridge is an icon of the city itself. The towers of the Brooklyn Bridge are built of limestone, granite, and Rosendale cement, and their architectural style is neo-Gothic, with characteristic pointed arches above the passageways through the stone towers. This bridge was also the longest suspension bridge in the world from its opening until 1903, and is the first steel-wire suspension bridge. The Queensboro Bridge is an important piece of cantilever architecture. The Manhattan Bridge, opened in 1909, is considered to be the forerunner of modern suspension bridges, and its design served as the model for many of the long-span suspension bridges around the world; the Manhattan Bridge, Throgs Neck Bridge, Triborough Bridge, and Verrazano-Narrows Bridge are all examples of Structural Expressionism.

Manhattan Island is linked to New York City’s outer boroughs and New Jersey by several tunnels as well. The Lincoln Tunnel, which carries 120,000 vehicles a day under the Hudson River between New Jersey and Midtown Manhattan, is the busiest vehicular tunnel in the world. The tunnel was built instead of a bridge to allow unfettered passage of large passenger and cargo ships that sailed through New York Harbor and up the Hudson River to Manhattan’s piers. The Holland Tunnel, connecting Lower Manhattan to Jersey City, New Jersey, was the world’s first mechanically ventilated vehicular tunnel when it opened in 1927. The Queens-Midtown Tunnel, built to relieve congestion on the bridges connecting Manhattan with Queens and Brooklyn, was the largest non-federal project in its time when it was completed in 1940. President Franklin D. Roosevelt was the first person to drive through it. The Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel (officially known as the Hugh L. Carey Tunnel) runs underneath Battery Park and connects the Financial District at the southern tip of Manhattan to Red Hook in Brooklyn.

Environment


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As of July 2010, the city had 3,715 hybrid taxis in service, the largest number of any city in North America.

Environmental impact reduction

New York City has focused on reducing its environmental impact and carbon footprint. Mass transit use in New York City is the highest in the United States. Also, by 2010, the city had 3,715 hybrid taxis and other clean diesel vehicles, representing around 28% of New York’s taxi fleet in service, the most of any city in North America.

New York’s high rate of public transit use, over 200,000 daily cyclists as of 2014, and many pedestrian commuters make it the most energy-efficient major city in the United States. Walk and bicycle modes of travel account for 21% of all modes for trips in the city; nationally the rate for metro regions is about 8%. In both its 2011 and 2015 rankings, Walk Score named New York City the most walkable large city in the United States, and in 2018, Stacker ranked New York the most walkable U.S. city. Citibank sponsored the introduction of 10,000 public bicycles for the city’s bike-share project in the summer of 2013. Research conducted by Quinnipiac University showed that a majority of New Yorkers support the initiative. New York City’s numerical “in-season cycling indicator” of bicycling in the city hit an all-time high in 2013.

The city government was a petitioner in the landmark Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency Supreme Court case forcing the EPA to regulate greenhouse gases as pollutants. The city is a leader in the construction of energy-efficient green office buildings, including the Hearst Tower among others. Mayor Bill de Blasio has committed to an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions between 2014 and 2050 to reduce the city’s contributions to climate change, beginning with a comprehensive “Green Buildings” plan.

Water purity and availability

New York City is supplied with drinking water by the protected Catskill Mountains watershed. As a result of the watershed’s integrity and undisturbed natural water filtration system, New York is one of only four major cities in the United States the majority of whose drinking water is pure enough not to require purification by water treatment plants. The city’s municipal water system is the largest in the United States, moving over one billion gallons of water per day. The Croton Watershed north of the city is undergoing construction of a US$3.2 billion water purification plant to augment New York City’s water supply by an estimated 290 million gallons daily, representing a greater than 20% addition to the city’s current availability of water. The ongoing expansion of New York City Water Tunnel No. 3, an integral part of the New York City water supply system, is the largest capital construction project in the city’s history, with segments serving Manhattan and The Bronx completed, and with segments serving Brooklyn and Queens planned for construction in 2020. In 2018, New York City announced a US$1 billion investment to protect the integrity of its water system and to maintain the purity of its unfiltered water supply.

Environmental revitalization

Newtown Creek, a 3.5-mile (6-kilometer) a long estuary that forms part of the border between the boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens, has been designated a Superfund site for environmental clean-up and remediation of the waterway’s recreational and economic resources for many communities. One of the most heavily used bodies of water in the Port of New York and New Jersey, it had been one of the most contaminated industrial sites in the country, containing years of discarded toxins, an estimated 30 million US gallons (110,000 m3) of spilled oil, including the Greenpoint oil spill, raw sewage from New York City’s sewer system, and other accumulation.

Government and politics


Government

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New York City Hall is the oldest City Hall in the United States that still houses its original governmental functions.

New York City has been a metropolitan municipality with a mayor–council form of government since its consolidation in 1898. In New York City, the city government is responsible for public education, correctional institutions, public safety, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply, and welfare services.

The Mayor and council members are elected to four-year terms. The City Council is a unicameral body consisting of 51 council members whose districts are defined by geographic population boundaries. Each term for the mayor and council members lasts four years and has a three consecutive-term limit, which is reset after a four-year break. The New York City Administrative Code, the New York City Rules, and the City Record are the code of local laws, compilation of regulations, and official journal, respectively.

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The New York County Courthouse houses the New York Supreme Court and other offices.

Each borough is coextensive with a judicial district of the state Unified Court System, of which the Criminal Court and the Civil Court are the local courts, while the New York Supreme Court conducts major trials and appeals. Manhattan hosts the First Department of the Supreme Court, Appellate Division while Brooklyn hosts the Second Department. There are also several extrajudicial administrative courts, which are executive agencies and not part of the state Unified Court System.

Uniquely among major American cities, New York is divided between, and is host to the main branches of, two different US district courts: the District Court for the Southern District of New York, whose main courthouse is on Foley Square near City Hall in Manhattan and whose jurisdiction includes Manhattan and the Bronx; and the District Court for the Eastern District of New York, whose main courthouse is in Brooklyn and whose jurisdiction includes Brooklyn, Queens, and Staten Island. The US Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit and US Court of International Trade are also based in New York, also on Foley Square in Manhattan.

Politics

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Bill de Blasio, the current and 109th Mayor of New York City

The present mayor is Bill de Blasio, the first Democrat since 1993.He was elected in 2013 with over 73% of the vote, and assumed office on January 1, 2014.

The Democratic Party holds the majority of public offices. As of April 2016, 69% of registered voters in the city are Democrats and 10% are Republicans. New York City has not been carried by a Republican in a statewide or presidential election since President Calvin Coolidge won the five boroughs in 1924. In 2012, Democrat Barack Obama became the first presidential candidate of any party to receive more than 80% of the overall vote in New York City, sweeping all five boroughs. Party platforms center on affordable housing, education, and economic development, and labor politics are of importance in the city.

New York is the most important source of political fundraising in the United States, as four of the top five ZIP Codes in the nation for political contributions are in Manhattan. The top ZIP Code, 10021 on the Upper East Side, generated the most money for the 2004 presidential campaigns of George W. Bush and John Kerry. The city has a strong imbalance of payments with the national and state governments. It receives 83 cents in services for every $1 it sends to the federal government in taxes (or annually sends $11.4 billion more than it receives back). City residents and businesses also spent an additional $4.1 billion in the 2009–2010 fiscal year to the state of New York than the city received in return.

Notable people


0–9

  • 50 Cent (Curtis Jackson) – businessman and rapper
  • 6ix9ine (Daniel Hernandez) – rapper

A

  • Aaliyah (Aaliyah Haughton, 1979–2001) singer, actress, model
  • Zaid Abdul-Aziz (born 1946) – professional basketball player
  • Kareem Abdul-Jabbar (born 1947) – basketball player
  • George Abernethy (1807–1877) – first provisional Governor of Oregon[1]
  • Cecile Abish (born 1930) – sculptor
  • Oday Aboushi (born 1991) – football player
  • Garnett Adrain (1815–1878) – member of the United States House of
  • Representatives from New Jersey 
  • Cornelius Rea Agnew (1830–1888) – ophthalmologist 
  • Eliza Agnew (1807–1883) – Presbyterian missionary 
  • Christina Aguilera (born 1980) – singer
  • Danny Aiello (born 1933) – actor
  • Marv Albert (born 1941) – sports announcer
  • Alan Alda (born 1936) – actor
  • Ira Aldridge (1805–1867) – stage actor 
  • William Alexander, Lord Stirling (1726–1783) – major general in the American
  • Revolutionary War
  • Woody Allen (born 1935) – film director, actor, screenwriter
  • Vincent Alo (1904–2001) – mobster
  • Rafer Alston – basketball player
  • Lee J. Ames – illustrator and writer; known for the Draw 50… learn-to-draw books
  • Trey Anastasio (born 1964) – rock musician and member of the band, Phish
  • Kenny Anderson – professional basketball player
  • Charles Anthon – classical scholar 
  • Carmelo Anthony – basketball player
  • Marc Anthony – singer and actor
  • Judd Apatow – producer, director, comedian, actor and screenwriter
  • Fiona Apple – singer-songwriter
  • Diane Arbus (1923–1971) – photographer
  • Nate Archibald (born 1948) – professional basketball player
  • Kenneth J. Arrow – economist; recipient, 1972 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences
  • Beatrice Arthur (1922–2009) – actress
  • William H. Aspinwall – railroad promoter 
  • John Jacob Astor III (1822–1890) – businessman and member of the Astor family
  • Vincent Astor (1891–1959) – businessman, philanthropist and member of the Astor family
  • William Backhouse Astor, Sr. (1792–1875) – businessman and member of the Astor family 
  • Jake T. Austin – actor, model, author
  • Awkwafina (Nora Lum, born 1988) – rapper, actress
  • AZ – rapper and former member of the rap group The Firm

B

  • Edwin Burr Babbitt – actor
  • Johnny Bach (1924–2016) – professional basketball player and coach
  • Evan Baken – musician, drummer and record company executive
  • William Bliss Baker – landscape artist
  • Azealia Banks (born 1991) – rapper, singer-songwriter, actress
  • Joseph Barbera (1911–2006) – animator, producer, director, MGM and co-founder of Hanna-Barbera
  • Bryan Bautista – Dominican-American musician, singer, and contestant from NBC’s The Voice season 10
  • Earl Beecham – football player
  • Bo Belinsky (1936–2001) – Major League Baseball player
  • Tony Bennett – iconic jazz singer and musician
  • Moe Berg (1902–1972) – Major League Baseball player and spy
  • Milton Berle – comedian
  • Paul Berlenbach (1901–1985) – light heavyweight boxing champion, 1925–1926
  • Dellin Betances – Major League Baseball pitcher
  • Bipolar Explorer – dreampop band
  • Joan Blondell – actress
  • Humphrey Bogart (1899–1957) – actor
  • William T. Bonniwell, Jr. – Wisconsin and Minnesota politician
  • Joseph Borelli – politician and conservative commentator
  • Francis Bouillon – National Hockey League defenseman playing for the Nashville Predators
  • Kate Parker Scott Boyd (1836–1922) – artist, journalist, temperance worker
  • Barbara Boxer – U.S. Senator from California
  • James J. Braddock – boxer (aka “Cinderella Man”)
  • Hermann Braun (1918–1945) – actor
  • Abigail Breslin – actress and musician
  • Jimmy Breslin – columnist
  • Spencer Breslin—actor and musician
  • Eben Britton – football player
  • Matthew Broderick – actor
  • Action Bronson – rapper
  • Mel Brooks – film director, screenwriter and actor
  • Julia Brown – madam and prostitute
  • Larry Brown – basketball player and coach
  • Tarell Brown (born 1985) – football player
  • Andrew Bryson (1822–1892) – United States Navy rear admiral
  • William F. Buckley, Jr. – author and conservative commentator
  • Sidney Jonas Budnick, abstract artist
  • George Burns (1896–1996) – comedian
  • Steve Buscemi – actor
  • Barbara Bush (1925–2018) – wife of George H. W. Bush
  • Gene Byrnes – cartoonist

C

  • James Caan – actor
  • Antón Cabaleiro – visual artist born in Spain
  • Adolph Caesar (1933–1986) – actor
  • Leslie Cagan (born 1947) – activist and writer
  • James Cagney (1899–1986) – actor
  • Eddie Cahill (born 1978) – actor
  • Edward L. Cahn (1899–1963) – film director known for the Our Gang comedies
  • Sarth Calhoun – electronic musician
  • Joseph A. Califano – Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare
  • Maria Callas (1923–1977) – Greek-American opera singer
  • Richard Camacho – singer, musician, member of Latin music band CNCO, Dominican-origin
  • Christian Camargo – actor
  • Schuyler V. Cammann – anthropologist
  • Chris Canty – football player
  • Al Capone (1899–1947) – Prohibition gangster, boss of Chicago Outfit
  • Mae Capone (1897–1986) – wife of Al Capone
  • Francis Capra (born 1983) – actor
  • Nestor Carbonell (born 1967) – actor
  • Cardi B (born 1992) – rapper
  • Benjamin Cardozo – Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court
  • Hugh Carey – Governor of New York
  • Timothy Carey (1929–1994) – actor
  • George Carlin (1937–2008) – comedian
  • Alan Carney (1909–1973) – actor and comedian
  • Caleb Carr (born 1955) – novelist and military historian
  • Eric Carr – rock musician, songwriter
  • John Carradine (1906–1988) – actor
  • Julian Casablancas – lead singer of rock band The Strokes; musician
  • Colin Cassady (born 1986) – professional wrestler working for WWE
  • John Cassavetes – actor
  • DJ Cassidy (born 1981) – DJ, record producer and MC
  • Luis Castillo – football player
  • Vinnie Caruana – musician, singer
  • Phoebe Cates – actress
  • Jose Ceballos – trade unionist and political campaign manager
  • Bennett Cerf (1898–1971) – publisher, TV personality
  • Jeff Chandler – actor
  • Frank Chanfrau – actor
  • James S.C. Chao – Chinese-American entrepreneur and philanthropist
  • Harry Chapin (1942–1981) – singer-songwriter
  • Paddy Chayefsky – author
  • Maury Chaykin – actor
  • Julie Chen – television personality
  • Edmund A. Chester – executive at CBS
  • Jennie Jerome Churchill – mother of Winston Churchill
  • Peter Cincotti – singer-songwriter
  • Robert Clohessy – actor
  • Evan Cole – CEO of H.D. Buttercup
  • Margaret Colin – actress
  • Irv Constantine – football player
  • Hugh E. Conway – labor economist
  • Anderson Cooper – television journalist
  • George H. Cooper (1821–1891) – United States Navy rear admiral[2][3]
  • Shaun Cooper – rock musician, bassist
  • William R. Cosentini – mechanical engineer and founder of Cosentini Associates
  • Ann Coulter – conservative commentator, writer
  • Freddie Crawford – basketball player
  • Peter Criss – rock musician, songwriter
  • Billy Crystal – comedian, actor, director
  • George Cukor – film director
  • Kieran Culkin – actor
  • Kit Culkin – actor
  • Macaulay Culkin – actor
  • Rory Culkin – actor
  • Jermaine Cunningham – football player
  • Mario Cuomo – Governor of New York
  • Quentin Curry – landscape painter
  • Valerie Curtin – actress and screenwriter
  • Tony Curtis – actor

D

  • Alexandra Daddario – actress
  • Matthew Daddario – actor
  • Charles Patrick Daly – judge
  • Al D’Amato – politician
  • Claire Danes – actress
  • Rodney Dangerfield – comedian
  • Lloyd Daniels – basketball player
  • Ron Dante – singer-songwriter and record producer
  • Tony Danza – actor
  • Bobby Darin – singer, entertainer, actor, songwriter
  • Candy Darling actress and Warhol Superstar
  • Larry David – actor, writer, comedian, producer
  • Marion Davies – actress
  • Al “Bummy” Davis – boxer
  • Sammy Davis, Jr. (1925–1990) – singer and entertainer
  • Dawin (full name Dawin Polanco) – hip hop-R&B singer, musician, and record producer
  • Rosario Dawson – actress
  • Clarence Day (1874–1935) – author and humorist
  • Dorothy Day – Catholic social activist
  • Bill de Blasio – Mayor of New York City
  • Robert De Niro – actor
  • Éamon de Valera – Taoiseach (prime minister) and President of Ireland
  • Philip DeFranco – YouTuber and video blogger
  • Lana Del Rey – model and singer-songwriter
  • Samuel R. Delany – author and critic
  • Don DeLillo – author
  • Aaron T. Demarest – carriage manufacturer
  • Derek Dennis – football player
  • Jerry Denny – Major League Baseball player[4]
  • Desiigner – rapper
  • Willy DeVille (1950–2009) – singer
  • Kevin Devine – musician and songwriter
  • Neil Diamond – singer and composer
  • Vin Diesel – actor
  • Vincent D’Onofrio –actor
  • Phoebe Doty – prostitute and madam
  • Jim Dooley – composer
  • Amanda Minnie Douglas (1831–1916) – writer
  • Kirk Douglas – actor
  • Robert Downey Jr. – actor, producer and singer
  • Ervin Drake – composer, producer, writer, musician
  • Fran Drescher – actor
  • Julia Louis-Dreyfus – actress
  • Richard Dreyfuss – actor
  • Eric Drooker – artist and illustrator
  • David Duchovny – actor
  • Patty Duke (1946–2016) – actress and activist for mental-health issues
  • Lena Dunham – actress, screenwriter, producer and director
  • Joseph Dunninger – mentalist

E

  • Dominique Easley – football player
  • Gertrude Ederle (1905–2003) – swimmer
  • Eddie Egan – police detective
  • Gladys Egan – child actress
  • Jesse Eisenberg – actor
  • Ansel Elgort – actor, singer, dancer, DJ
  • Lapo Elkann – chief executive officer, Fiat
  • Bill Elko – football player
  • Mario Elie – basketball player
  • Duke Ellington – jazz pianist
  • Abby Elliott – actress
  • Nora Ephron – director, screenwriter, author
  • Omar Epps – actor
  • Theo Epstein – formerly the youngest general manager in the history of MLB, when the Boston Red Sox hired him at the age of 28; currently President of Baseball Operations for the Chicago Cubs
  • Eru – singer

F

  • Peter Facinelli – actor
  • Douglas Fairbanks, Jr. – actor
  • Edie Falco – actress
  • Jonah Falcon – actor and writer; achieved fame in early 2000s for his penis size
  • Jimmy Fallon – comedian
  • Peter Falk – actor
  • Louis Farrakhan – leader of the Nation of Islam
  • Perry Farrell – musician
  • Alice Faye – actress
  • Charles Fazzino – pop artist
  • Harry Feldman (1919–1962) – Major League Baseball pitcher
  • Jack Feldman – lyricist
  • Morton Feldman – composer
  • Julissa Ferreras – New York City Council Member, Finance Committee chair
  • Richard Feynman – theoretical physicist; recipient 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics
  • Harvey Fierstein – actor and playwright
  • Hamilton Fish – Governor of New York and U.S. Secretary of State
  • Herbert Flam (1928–1980) – tennis player
  • Bobby Flay – chef
  • Jeffrey Flier – Dean of Harvard Medical School
  • Jane Fonda – actress
  • Peter Fonda – actor
  • Hector Fonseca – deejay
  • Malcolm Forbes – publisher
  • Davy Force – major league baseball player[4]
  • Whitey Ford – pitcher for the New York Yankees
  • Anthony Franciosa – actor
  • David Frankel – film director
  • Al Franken – comedian and radio host, U.S. Senator from Minnesota
  • Michael Freeman – inventor, entrepreneur, author, and business consultant
  • Ace Frehley – guitarist
  • Milton Friedman – economist
  • Eric Fromm – tennis player
  • John Frusciante – musician, artist

G

  • Jim Gaffigan – comedian, actor, writer, and author
  • Gus Gardella – football player
  • Art Garfunkel – singer-songwriter, actor
  • Lou Gehrig – baseball player
  • Sarah Michelle Gellar – actress
  • Richard Genelle – actor
  • Stefani Germanotta – aka Lady Gaga – singer-songwriter, actor
  • George Gershwin – composer
  • Ira Gershwin – lyricist
  • Tiffany Giardina – singer-songwriter
  • Mel Gibson – American-born Australian/Irish actor and director
  • Vitas Gerulaitis – tennis player
  • Guy Gillette – photographer
  • Ruth Bader Ginsburg – Associate Justice of U.S. Supreme Court
  • Rabbi Issamar Ginzberg – business strategist, rabbi, motivational speaker
  • Rudolph Giuliani – former Mayor of New York City
  • Jackie Gleason – comedian, actor
  • James Gleason – actor
  • Joel Glucksman (born 1949) – Olympic fencer
  • Whoopi Goldberg – comedian, actress, TV personality
  • William Goldberg – diamond dealer
  • Daniel S. Goldin – NASA director
  • Ben Goldwasser – member of the psychedelic-rock band MGMT
  • Cuba Gooding Jr. – actor
  • Doris Kearns Goodwin – author
  • Leo Gorcey – film actor and comedian, leader of the Dead End Kids, East Side Kids, and Bowery Boys in several movies
  • Victor Gotbaum – labor leader
  • Elliott Gould – actor
  • David C. Gowdey – politician
  • Topher Grace – actor
  • Sean Grande – television and radio sportscaster
  • Rocky Graziano (born Thomas Rocco Barbella) – boxer
  • Hank Greenberg – Hall of Fame baseball player
  • Alan Greenspan – economist, former Federal Reserve chairman
  • Adrian Grenier – actor
  • Bill Griffith – cartoonist (Zippy) 
  • Melanie Griffith – actress
  • Bob Guccione – publisher
  • Peggy Guggenheim – art collector
  • Steve Guttenberg – actor
  • Maggie Gyllenhaal – actress

H

  • Adelaide Hall – jazz singer, Broadway star, actress
  • Huntz Hall – comedian, actor; co-starred in several Dead End Kids, East Side Kids and Bowery Boys movies
  • Mortimer Halpern – Broadway stage manager
  • Eddy Hamel (1902–1943) – Jewish-American soccer player for Dutch club AFC Ajax who was killed by the Nazis in Auschwitz concentration camp
  • Pete Hamill – journalist
  • Marvin Hamlisch – composer
  • Armand Hammer – industrialist and philanthropist
  • Oscar Hammerstein II – composer
  • Han Terra – polymath
  • Frank Hankinson – major league baseball player[4]
  • Sean Hannity – television host, author, conservative political commentator
  • Nelson Harding (1879–1944) – editorial cartoonist
  • Donald J. Harlin – Chief of Chaplains of the U.S. Air Force
  • W. Averell Harriman – diplomat and Governor of New York
  • Zelda Harris – actress
  • Anne Hathaway – actress
  • Marcia Haufrecht – actor, director, playwright
  • Curt Hawkins – WWE wrestler
  • Susan Hayward (1917–1975) – actress
  • Rita Hayworth – actress
  • Anthony Hecht – poet
  • Carol Heiss – Olympic figure skater (silver 1956, gold 1960)
  • Joseph Heller – author
  • Lance Henriksen – actor
  • Brian Henson – puppeteer, director, producer
  • Bernard Herrmann (1911–1975) – composer
  • Robert Hess (1935–2014) – sculptor, art educator
  • Peter Cooper Hewitt (1861–1921) – inventor
  • William Hickey – actor
  • Logan Hicks – artist
  • Hildegarde – cabaret singer
  • Paris Hilton – socialite, actress
  • Gregory Hines – dancer and actor
  • Judd Hirsch (born 1935) – actor
  • William E. Hoehle – member of the Wisconsin State Assembly
  • Lena Horne (1917–2010) – singer
  • Edward Everett Horton – actor
  • Curly Howard – actor of comedy team The Three Stooges
  • Moe Howard – actor of comedy team The Three Stooges
  • Shemp Howard – actor of comedy team The Three Stooges
  • Tina Huang – actress
  • Richard Hunt – puppeteer and television director
  • Tab Hunter (born 1931) – actor
  • Barbara Hutton (1912–1979) – socialite dubbed “Poor Little Rich Girl”

I

  • Washington Irving – author
  • John Isaac – photographer

J

  • Wolfman Jack (also known as Robert Weston Smith; 1938–1995) – radio personality
  • Jane Jacobs (1916–2006) – economist, urban theorist, activist
  • Ken Jacobs (born 1933) – artist and filmmaker
  • Marc Jacobs (born 1963) – fashion designer
  • Henry James (1843–1916) – writer
  • William James (1842–1910) – philosopher and psychologist
  • Jaiquawn Jarrett (born 1989) – football player
  • John Jay (1745–1829) – diplomat, jurist (including Chief Justice of the United States) and politician (including Governor of New York)
  • Jay-Z (born 1969) – businessperson and rapper
  • Karine Jean-Pierre – political campaign organizer
  • Charles Jenkins (born 1989) – basketball player
  • Max Jenkins (born 1985) – actor and writer
  • Jessi (born 1988) – rapper
  • Jipsta (John Patrick Masterson; born 1974) – rapper
  • MC Jin (born 1982) – rapper
  • Billy Joel (born 1949) – singer and songwriter
  • David Johansen (born 1950) – actor, singer and songwriter
  • Scarlett Johansson (born 1984) – actress
  • Crockett Johnson (1906–1975) – cartoonist and children’s writer (Harold and the Purple Crayon)
  • Boris Johnson (born 1964) – American-born British politician and former Mayor of London (2008–2016)
  • Nasir Jones (born 1973) – actor, rapper and former member of the rap group The Firm
  • Norah Jones (born 1979) – actress, instrumentalist and singer-songwriter
  • Julia Jones-Pugliese (1909–1993) – national champion fencer and fencing coach
  • Michael Jordan (born 1963) – basketball player
  • William Joyce (also known as Lord Haw-Haw; 1906–1946) – Nazi propaganda broadcaster

K

  • Philip Mayer Kaiser (1913–2007) – U.S. diplomat
  • Andy Kaufman (1949–1984) – comedian
  • Charlie Kaufman (born 1958) – screenwriter
  • Danny Kaye (1913–1987) – actor and comedian
  • Lenny Kaye (born 1946) – guitarist
  • Thomas Kean (born 1935) – Governor of New Jersey
  • Harvey Keitel (born 1939) – actor
  • Bridget Kelly (born 1986) – singer
  • George Kennedy (1925–2016) – actor
  • Jacqueline Kennedy (1929–1994) – First Lady of the United States and editor
  • Jerome Kern (1885–1945) – composer
  • Alicia Keys (born 1981) – R&B singer
  • Jimmy Kimmel (born 1967) – comedian and television talk-show host
  • Keith Kinkaid (born 1989) – professional ice hockey player
  • Nancy Kissinger (born 1934) – philanthropist
  • Calvin Klein (born 1942) – fashion designer
  • John “Julius” Knight — music producer, DJ
  • Miss Ko (born 1985) – rapper
  • Ed Koch (1924–2013) – Mayor of New York City
  • E. L. Konigsburg (born 1930) – writer
  • Peter Koo (born 1952) – politician, pharmacist
  • C. Everett Koop (1916–2013) – physician
  • Yaphet Kotto (born 1939) – actor
  • Joey Kramer (born 1950) – drummer, Aerosmith
  • Lenny Kravitz (born 1964) – singer and songwriter
  • Stanley Kubrick (1928–1999) – film director and screenwriter
  • Bruce Kulick (born 1953) – guitarist
  • William Kunstler (1919–1955) – lawyer
  • Tony Kushner (born 1956) – playwright and screenwriter
  • Allan Kwartler (1917–1998) – sabre and foil fencer, Pan American Games and Maccabiah Games champion

L

  • Fiorello La Guardia (1882–1947) – Mayor of New York City
  • Jesse Lacey – musician and singer
  • Lady Gaga (born 1986) – singer-songwriter, actress
  • Bert Lahr (1895–1967) – actor and comedian
  • Veronica Lake – actress
  • Jake LaMotta – boxer
  • Burt Lancaster (1913–1994) – actor
  • Martin Landau – actor
  • Diane Lane (born 1965) – actress
  • Leo Laporte – founder/host of TWiT.tv
  • Floria Lasky (1923–2007) – theater world lawyer
  • Cyndi Lauper – singer
  • Ralph Lauren – fashion designer
  • Emma Lazarus – author and poet
  • Steve Lawrence – singer and actor
  • Derek Lee – baseball player
  • Jeanette Lee (born 1971) – professional pool player
  • Stan Lee – comic-book writer, editor, film executive producer, actor, and publisher for Marvel Comics
  • Madeleine L’Engle – author
  • Franz Leichter (born 1930) – politician
  • Melissa Leo (born 1960) – actress
  • Princess Leonore, Duchess of Gotland (born 2014) – fifth in line to the Swedish throne
  • Huey Lewis – musician and singer
  • Joe E. Lewis (1902–1971) – comedian
  • Miranda Lichtenstein (born 1969) – artist
  • Roy Lichtenstein – artist
  • Joe Lieberman – former long-time U.S. Senator from Connecticut (1989–2013); 2000 vice presidential nominee under Al Gore
  • Lil’ Kim (Kimberly Denise Jones; born 1976) – actress and rapper
  • John Lindsay – Mayor of New York City
  • Deborah Lipstadt – historian and author
  • Peggy Lipton – actress
  • Lisa Lisa (born 1966) – freestyle singer; fronted Cult Jam; born Lisa Velez
  • John Liu (born 1967) – American politician, 43rd New York City Comptroller
  • Lucy Liu – actress
  • Robert R. Livingston – U.S. founding father and diplomat
  • Tommy Lockhart – Inductee into Hockey Hall of Fame, and United States Hockey  Hall of Fame 
  • Robert Loggia – actor
  • Lindsay Lohan – actress
  • Vince Lombardi – football coach
  • Ki Longfellow – novelist
  • Jennifer Lopez – singer and actress
  • Julia Louis-Dreyfus – actress
  • Willie Lozado – baseball player
  • Bennet Nathaniel “Nate” Lubell (1916–2006) – Olympic fencer
  • Edna Luby – Broadway and vaudeville performer
  • Lucky Luciano – gangster
  • Sid Luckman – football player and coach
  • Frankie Lymon – singer
  • Carol Lynley – actress

M

  • Bernard Malamud – author
  • Melissa Manchester – singer
  • Barry Manilow – singer, songwriter, musician
  • Mike Mansfield – Senator from Montana (raised in Montana)
  • Stephon Marbury – professional basketball player
  • James Margolis (born 1936) – Olympic fencer
  • Rose Marie (Mazetta) – actress
  • Ernest Martin – theatre director and manager
  • Soraida Martinez – artist, designer
  • Sadie Martinot – singer, actress
  • Constantine Maroulis – American Idol finalist
  • Lee Marvin – actor
  • Chico Marx – member of the Marx Brothers
  • Groucho Marx – member of the Marx Brothers
  • Gummo Marx – member of the Marx Brothers
  • Harpo Marx – member of the Marx Brothers
  • Zeppo Marx – member of the Marx Brothers
  • James Maslow – actor and singer (raised in California)
  • Jackie Mason (born 1931) – comedian and actor (born in Wisconsin)
  • John Massari – composer, sound designer
  • Walter Matthau – actor
  • John McCloskey – Cardinal Archbishop of New York, 1864–1885
  • Frank McCourt – author (raised in Ireland, returned later in life)
  • Malachy McCourt – author (raised in Ireland, returned later in life)
  • Allie McGuire – professional basketball player
  • Kenneth McMillan (1932–1989) – actor
  • Andrea Mitchell – journalist, NBC News
  • Paul Meltsner – WPA-era painter and muralist
  • Bob Melvin (born 1961) – Major League Baseball player and manager
  • Dave Meltzer – pro wrestling journalist
  • Herman Melville (1819–1891) – author
  • Grace Meng (born 1975) – lawyer and politician, Vice Chair of the Democratic National Committee
  • Yehudi Menuhin (1916–1999) – violinist
  • Idina Menzel (born 1971) – singer and actress
  • Ethel Merman (1908–1984) – singer and actress
  • Helen Merrill – jazz singer
  • Robert Merrill (1917–2004) – singer
  • Lea Michele – actress, singer
  • Vera Michelena (1885–1961) – actress, dancer and singer
  • Alyssa Milano – actress
  • Adeline Miller – prostitute and madam
  • Arthur Miller (1915–2005) – playwright
  • Marcus Miller – bassist and composer
  • Stephanie Mills – singer and former Broadway star
  • Harvey Milk – gay activist and politician
  • Andy Mineo – Christian rapper
  • Sal Mineo (1939–1976) – actor
  • John Joseph Mitty – Roman Catholic Archbishop of San Francisco
  • Isaac Mizrahi – fashion designer
  • Eddie Money – singer
  • Mary Tyler Moore – actress and producer
  • Melba Moore – actress and singer
  • Nancie Monelle (born 1841) – physician and missionary
  • Tom Morello – guitarist
  • Henry Morgan – radio and television personality
  • Huey Morgan – musician, radio DJ, songwriter, television personality
  • Gouverneur Morris – US founding father; U.S. Senator
  • Zero Mostel – actor and comedian
  • Tommy Mottola – music executive
  • Maria Muldaur – folk and blues singer-songwriter
  • Gerry Mulligan – musician
  • Richard Mulligan – actor
  • Robert Mulligan – director
  • Chris Mullin – basketball player
  • Charlie Murphy – actor and comedian
  • Chris Murphy – US Senator from Connecticut since 2013
  • Eddie Murphy – actor and comedian

N

  • James M. Nack (1809–1879) – deaf and mute poet
  • Dominic Napolitano (1930–1981) – Mafia caporegime
  • Janet Napolitano (born 1957) – third US Secretary of Homeland Security
  • Nas (born 1973) – rapper born Nasir Jones
  • Michael H. Nash (1946–2012) – labor historian, librairan, and archivist
  • Russell Nash (1518–2002) – antiques dealer on Hudson Street
  • Tonie Nathan (born 1923) – Libertarian Party political figure
  • Oscar Neebe (1850–1916) – anarchist, labor activist, one of Haymarket bombing trial defendants
  • Casey Neistat (born 1981) – film director, producer, designer
  • Howard Nemerov (1920–1991) – poet
  • Sylvester Nevins – politician
  • Sam Newfield (1899–1964) – film director
  • John Philip Newman (1826–1899) – Methodist bishop
  • Denise Nickerson (born 1957) – actress
  • Harry Nilsson (1941–1994) – singer-songwriter
  • Cynthia Nixon (born 1966) – actress
  • Joakim Noah (born 1985) – NBA center for the New York Knicks
  • Jerry Nolan (1946–1992) – rock drummer
  • John Nolan (born 1978) – musician and singer
  • Charles Nordhoff (1830–1901) – journalist, descriptive and miscellaneous writer
  • Dagmar Nordstrom (1903–1976) – composer, pianist and singer; member of the cabaret singing duo the Nordstrom Sisters
  • Siggie Nordstrom (1893–1980) – actress, model and singer; member of the cabaret singing duo the Nordstrom Sisters
  • Ed Norris (born 1960) – radio host
  • Chris Noth (born 1954) – actor
  • Geoffrey Notkin (born 1961) – TV science educator
  • The Notorious B.I.G. (Christopher George Latore Wallace) – rapper
  • Carrie Nye (1936–2006) – actress

O

  • Simon Oakland – actor
  • Jerry O’Connell – actor and television personality
  • Al Oerter (1935–2007) – four-time Olympic champion in discus throw
  • Kevin Ogletree – football player
  • Keith Olbermann – television sportscaster and commentator
  • Jon Oliva – Savatage singer and keyboardist
  • Chris O’Loughlin (born 1967) – Olympic fencer
  • Eugene O’Neill – playwright
  • Paul O’Neill (1956–2017) – music composer and producer
  • Robert Oppenheimer – physicist; “father of the atomic bomb”
  • Jerry Orbach – actor
  • Bill O’Reilly – former Fox News anchor
  • Rick Overton – actor and comedian

P

  • P. Diddy (born 1969) – rapper
  • Al Pacino (born 1940) – actor
  • Saul K. Padover (1905–1981) – historian
  • Joseph Papp – theater producer, impresario and founder of The Public Theater
  • Rob Parker – sportswriter and TV analyst
  • Lana Parrilla – actress
  • Joe Paterno – football coach
  • James Patterson – novelist
  • Sarah Paulson – actress
  • Josh Peck – actor
  • Jan Peerce (1904–1984) – opera tenor
  • Amanda Peet – actress
  • Richard Pelham – blackface performer
  • Claiborne Pell – Senator from Rhode Island
  • Caroline Pennell – singer-songwriter, musician, and contestant on NBC’s The Voice season 5
  • Sam Perkins – basketball player
  • Bernadette Peters – actress and singer
  • Regis Philbin – actor, entertainer, television personality, and former host of ABC’s Who Wants to be a Millionaire? (1999–2002) and Live! with Regis and Kelly (1983–2011)
  • Lip Pike – baseball player, four-time home-run champion 
  • John Pleshette – actor
  • Suzanne Pleshette (1937–2008) – actress from Bob Newhart Show
  • Christopher Poole – creator of websites 4chan and Canvas Networks
  • Ted Post – movie and TV director
  • Neil Postman – author and cultural critic
  • Chaim Potok (1929–2002) – author
  • Bud Powell – jazz pianist
  • Colin Powell – U.S. Army general and U.S. Secretary of State
  • Gary Powell – drummer
  • Joshua Prager – physician
  • Priscilla Presley – actress
  • Tito Puente – bandleader
  • Mario Puzo – author

Q

  • Q-Tip – rapper

R

  • Renee Rabinowitz (born 1934) – psychologist and lawyer
  • Raekwon – rapper (Wu-tang Clan)
  • Bill Rafferty – comedian
  • Joey Ramone and Marky Ramone – punk-rock musicians
  • Michael Rapaport – actor, comedian, director
  • Ray Ratkowski – football player
  • Ray Rice – football player
  • Melissa Rauch – actress and comedian
  • Lou Reed – rock musician, songwriter
  • A$AP Rocky – rapper
  • Christopher Reeve – actor
  • Carl Reiner – comedian, actor, director, author
  • Rob Reiner – actor and director
  • Paul Reiser – actor
  • Charlie Reiter (born 1988) – footballer
  • Ed Rendell – former Mayor of Philadelphia, Governor of Pennsylvania
  • Brandon Reilly – musician, guitarist, singer
  • Leah Remini – actress
  • Bebe Rexha (born 1989) – singer and songwriter
  • Vincent Rey – football player
  • Charles E. Rice – legal scholar, university professor
  • Buddy Rich – jazz drummer
  • Renée Richards (born 1934) – tennis player
  • Terry Richardson – fashion photographer
  • Burton Richter – Nobel Prize-winning physicist
  • Kathleen Ridder – Women’s equal rights activist, writer, educator, philanthropist 
  • Robert Ridder – Ice hockey administrator and media mogul 
  • Robin Riker – actress and book author
  • Thelma Ritter – actress
  • Joan Rivers – comedian
  • Chris Rock – comedian and actor
  • Laurance Rockefeller – conservationist and philanthropist
  • Winthrop Rockefeller – Governor of Arkansas
  • Norman Rockwell – artist
  • Alex Rodriguez – baseball player
  • John Rogan – football player
  • Sonny Rollins – jazz saxophonist
  • Ray Romano – comedian and actor
  • Saoirse Ronan – American-born Irish actress
  • Igal Roodenko (1917–1991) – civil-rights activist, pacifist
  • Sean Rooks – basketball player and coach[10]
  • Mickey Rooney – actor
  • Franklin Roosevelt – 32nd President of the United States
  • Remy Ma – rapper
  • Eleanor Roosevelt – U.S. First Lady and human-rights activist
  • Theodore Roosevelt – 26th President of the United States
  • Ethel Greenglass Rosenberg – convicted spy
  • Beatrice Rosen – actress (raised in Paris)
  • Julius Rosenberg – convicted spy
  • Emmy Rossum – actress
  • Veronica Roth – novelist
  • Mercedes Ruehl – actress
  • Vic Ruggiero – ska musician frontman of The Slackers
  • Louis Rukeyser – business columnist, economic commentator
  • Damien Russell – NFL player
  • Art Rust Jr. – sportscaster

S

  • Carl Sagan – physicist and astronomer
  • Boris Said – NASCAR driver
  • J. D. Salinger – author
  • Jonas Salk – medical researcher
  • John Salley – basketball player
  • Jerry Saltz – art critic, art historian
  • Claudio Sanchez – musician
  • Bernie Sanders – politician and U.S. Senator from Vermont since 2007
  • Adam Sandler – actor, comedian
  • Dustin Satloff – boy entrepreneur
  • Francesco Scavullo – photographer
  • Dick Schaap – journalist
  • Jeremy Schaap – journalist
  • Vincent Schiavelli – actor and food writer
  • Julian Schnabel – artist and director
  • Mathieu Schneider – hockey player
  • Sandra Schnur – disability-rights activist
  • Loretta Schrijver – Dutch television host
  • Rick Schroder – actor
  • Amy Schumer – actress and comedian
  • Chuck Schumer – U.S. Senator from New York since 1999; cousin of Amy
  • Julius Schwartz – comic book editor
  • Martin Scorsese – film director
  • Vin Scully – sportscaster
  • Malik Sealy – basketball player
  • Jon Seda – comedian
  • Barney Sedran (1891–1964) – Hall of Fame basketball player
  • Jerry Seinfeld – comedian
  • Julius Seligson (1909–1987) – tennis player
  • Edward Selzer (1893–1970) – film producer, Warner Bros.
  • Maurice Sendak (1928–2012) – author and illustrator
  • John Serry, Sr. – accordionist, organist, composer, arranger
  • Saint Elizabeth Ann Seton – founder of Sisters of Charity; first native-born US citizen canonized
  • Cynthia Propper Seton (1926–1982) – novelist
  • Tupac Shakur – rapper
  • Gene Shalit – film critic; raised in New Jersey
  • Frank Shannon – conservative political analyst, columnist, and candidate
  • Artie Shaw (1910–2004) – bandleader
  • Judy Sheindlin (“Judge Judy”) (born 1942) – judge and television personality
  • Brooke Shields – actress
  • Daniel Sickles – Civil War general
  • Bugsy Siegel – gangster
  • Jules Siegel – author
  • Maggie Siff – actress
  • Beverly Sills (1929–2007) – opera singer
  • Ron Silver – actor, radio show host
  • Robert Silverberg – author
  • Dean Silvers – film producer
  • Alan Silvestri – film music composer
  • Carly Simon – singer-songwriter
  • Neil Simon – playwright
  • Richard L. Simon (1899–1960) – businessman and publisher
  • Kaseem Sinceno – football player
  • John Slidell – Senator from Louisiana and Confederate diplomat
  • Al Smith (1873–1944) – Governor of New York and presidential candidate
  • Will Smith (1981–2016) – former football player
  • Phoebe Snow – singer-songwriter
  • Stephen Sondheim – musical theatre composer and lyricist
  • Aaron Sorkin – playwright and screenwriter
  • Sonia Sotomayor – United States Supreme Court Justice
  • Mickey Spillane – author
  • Eliot Spitzer – former Governor of New York
  • Sylvester Stallone – actor, director, screenwriter
  • Paul Stanley – hard-rock guitarist, singer and songwriter
  • Barbara Stanwyck (1907–1990) – actress
  • Joe Start – Major League Baseball player[4]
  • James Steen – football player
  • Howard Stern – radio and television host
  • John Stevens – delegate to Continental Congress for New Jersey
  • Andrew Stewart – player of gridiron football
  • Foley Stewart – musician
  • Jon Stewart – writer, producer, political satirist, actor, television personality, comedian, and former host of The Daily Show (1999–2015); born in New York City, raised in New Jersey
  • Julia Stiles – actress
  • Ben Stiller – actor known for Madagascar, Night at the Museum and Zoolander
  • Henry L. Stimson – politician and diplomat
  • Oliver Stone – film director
  • Susan Strasberg – actress
  • Robert Strassburg – composer, conductor, musicologist
  • James Strauch (1921–1998) – Olympic fencer
  • Barbra Streisand – singer and actress
  • Meryl Streep – actress
  • Jill Stuart – fashion designer
  • Big Sue – shopkeeper and underworld figure
  • Ed Sullivan (1901–1974) – television variety show host
  • Susan Sullivan – actress
  • Kevin Sussman – actor known for The Big Bang Theory

T

  • Vic Tayback (1930–1990) – actor
  • Alma Tell (1898–1937) – stage and screen actress
  • Olive Tell (1894–1951) – stage and screen actress
  • Maurice Tempelsman (born 1929) – businessman
  • Chloe Temtchine (born 1982/1983) – singer-songwriter
  • The Tenderloins (born 1976) – an American comedy troupe currently composed of
  • Joseph “Joe” Gatto, James “Murr” Murray, Brian “Q” Quinn, and Salvatore “Sal” Vulcano
  • Studs Terkel (1912–2008) – author and historian
  • Milton Terris (1915–2002) – public health physician and epidemiologist
  • Roy M. Terry – Chief of Chaplains of the U.S. Air Force
  • Vinny Testaverde – football player
  • Irving Thalberg – film producer
  • Leon Thomas III – actor
  • Soren Thompson (born 1981) – two-time Olympic and team World Champion épée fencer
  • Johnny Thunders – rock musician
  • Gene Tierney (1920–1991) – actress
  • Harry Tietlebaum (born 1889) – organized crime figure
  • Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848–1933) – artist
  • Matt Titus – professional matchmaker
  • James Toback (born 1944) – screenwriter and director
  • Isabella Tobias (born 1991) – ice dancer
  • Lola Todd (1904–1995) – silent film actress
  • Bill Todman – game show producer
  • Michael Tolkin (born 1950) – filmmaker and novelist
  • Marisa Tomei (born 1964) – actress
  • Joe Torre – baseball player and manager
  • Douglas Townsend (1921–2012) – composer and musicologist
  • Michelle Trachtenberg – actress
  • Mary Travers – singer with Peter, Paul, and Mary
  • Alex Treves (born 1929) – Italian-born American Olympic fencer
  • Barron Trump – socialite
  • Donald Trump – 45th President of the United States
  • Donald Trump Jr. – businessman
  • Eric Trump – businessman
  • Fred Trump – real estate developer and philanthropist
  • Ivanka Trump – businesswoman
  • Tiffany Trump – socialite
  • Barbara Tuchman (1912–1989) – historian; author
  • Richard Tucker (1913–1975) – opera tenor
  • Gene Tunney – 1926–28 heavyweight boxing champion
  • John V. Tunney – former U.S. Senator
  • John Turturro – actor and director
  • William Tweed (1823–1878) – politician
  • Liv Tyler – actress
  • Steven Tyler (born 1948) – singer, Aerosmith
  • Mike Tyson (born 1966) – boxer
  • Neil deGrasse Tyson – astronomer, science communicator

U

  • Leslie Uggams – singer; actress
  • The Ultimate Warrior (born Jim Hellwig and also known as Warrior) – professional wrestler
  • Louis Untermeyer (1885–1977) – poet, anthologist, critic, and editor
  • Hikaru Utada – singer, musician

V

  • Andrew Vachss – lawyer and author
  • Cornelius Vanderbilt – businessman
  • Robert Vaughn (1932–2016) – actor
  • George Vergara – NFL player
  • Jennifer von Mayrhauser – costume designer

W

  • Stanley M. Wagner (1932–2013) – rabbi and academic
  • Josh Waitzkin (born 1976) – chess player, martial arts competitor, and author
  • Christopher Walken – actor
  • Adam Walker – football player
  • Hezekiah Walker – bishop and gospel artist
  • Jimmy Walker (1881–1946) – Mayor of New York City
  • Kemba Walker – basketball player
  • Eli Wallach – actor
  • Donald A. Wallance – industrial designer[11]
  • Fats Waller – jazz pianist
  • Abby Wambach – soccer player
  • Charles B. Wang (born 1944) – businessman, philanthropist
  • Vera Wang – fashion designer
  • Raees Warsi – poet, journalist, social and worker
  • Kerry Washington – actress
  • Damon Wayans – actor and producer
  • Dwayne Wayans – director, producer and writer
  • Keenen Ivory Wayans – actor, director, producer and writer
  • Kim Wayans – actress
  • Marlon Wayans – actor and producer
  • Nadia Wayans – actress
  • Shawn Wayans – actor and producer
  • Michael Weatherly – actor
  • Sigourney Weaver – actress
  • Brian Wecht (born 1975) – musician, producer for Ninja Sex Party and Starbomb, and member of Game Grumps
  • Steven Weinberg – Nobel Prize-winning physicist
  • Leslie West – rock musician
  • Mae West (1893–1980) – actress
  • Nathanael West – author
  • Edith Wharton – author
  • Joss Whedon – screenwriter, film and television producer, author and composer
  • Maggie Wheeler – actress
  • White Light Motorcade –music group[12]
  • Billy Whitlock – blackface performer
  • Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney – sculptor and art patron
  • Edward W. Whitson – Wisconsin State Assemblyman
  • Kristen Wiig – actress, comedian and writer
  • Charles Wilkes – naval officer and explorer
  • Lenny Wilkens – basketball player and coach
  • Billy Dee Williams (born 1937) – actor
  • Vanessa L. Williams – singer and actress
  • Walter Winchell (1897–1972) – newspaper and radio gossip commentator
  • Harry Winitsky – political activist; founding member of the Communist Party USA
    Dean Winters – actor
  • Mike Witteck – football player
  • George Worth – born György Woittitz (1915–2006), Olympic medalist saber fencer
  • James Hood Wright – businessman
  • William H. H. Wroe – member of the Wisconsin State Assembly
  • Charles Wuorinen – composer

Y

  • Izzy Yablok – football player
  • Tony Yayo – rapper
  • Burt Young – actor
  • Tony Young – actor

Global outreach


In 2006, the Sister City Program of the City of New York, Inc. was restructured and renamed New York City Global Partners. Through this program, New York City has expanded its international outreach to a network of cities worldwide, promoting the exchange of ideas and innovation between their citizenry and policymakers. New York’s historic sister cities are denoted below by the year they joined New York City’s partnership network.

The World’s Least Populated Capital Cities

World Facts


Ngerulmud, the capital city of the Pacific island nation of Palau, is the world’s least populated national capital.

shutterstock-786594109

The Capitol Building in Ngerulmud, Palau.

By July 1, 2017, the global population reached approximately 7.550 billion. Exactly one year earlier, the global population stood at 7.466 billion, and by January 2018 it had surpassed the 7.6 billion mark. In 2016, the majority of the global population lived in Asia (59.69%), followed by Africa (16.36%), Europe (9.94%), North America (7.79%), South America (5.68%), Oceania (0.54%), and Antarctica (less than 0.1%). China remains the world’s most populous country, with an estimated population of 1.41 billion as of January 2018, while India ranks a close second with 1.35 billion. Both counties account for 19% and 18% of the global, respectively. However, the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs estimates that India will be the world’s most populous country by 2024 based on current trends in birth rate. Between 2010 and 2017 China experienced an annual population increase of 0.4%, while India experienced an annual increase of 1.1%. More than half (54%) of the global population resides in an urban environment. Urbanization of the rural environment and migration to urban areas mean that 66% of the global population will live in an urban environment by 2050. As some countries record high populations, others register less than 10,000 inhabitants. Vatican City remains the least populous country, with between 790-800 people. Tokelau and Niue both have less than 2,000 residents.

The World’s Least Populated Capital Cities

Palau is the capital of Ngerulmud and is the least populous capital city on the planet, with a population of just 400. The city became the national capital in 2006, succeeding Koror City, which is home to half of the country’s total population of 21,800. Since the 1950s the country’s population growth has been low, growing from 7,440 in 1950 to 21,800 in January 2018. The Vatican City ranks second, with a population of about 800 people, and is the world’s least populous country. The city-state is located entirely within the Italian city of Rome. Vatican City is associated with the Roman Catholic Church and is the home of the Catholic Pope.

The state of Nauru in Oceania has a population of 11,360. The capital city, Yaren, is inhabited by about 1,100 people, which represents 9.6% of the entire population. The island covers an area of 8.1 sqm. Yaren, which covers an area of 0.58 sqm on the southern part of the island, was established in 1968 surrounding an area that had clean drinking water. Nauru has no modern city, and Yaren was therefore recognized by the United Nations as the country’s de facto capital. Tuvalu, which is located in the Pacific Ocean, halfway between Australia and the U.S state of Hawaii, is a Polynesian nation with a population of about 11,200 people. The capital, Funafuti, is an atoll and home to 6,025 people, representing 56.6% of the entire population. The country’s parliament and administrative offices are located in Fongafale.

The microstate of San Marino is located in the Italian Peninsula and is enclosed by Italy. It covers an area of about 24 sqm and has a population of approximately 33,400. Serravalle is the largest city in the country, but the City of San Marino City is the capital. The City of San Marino is home to about 4,500 people, which is less than half of Serravalle’s population. It was founded by Christians in the early 4th century and remains a Christian city. The microstate of Liechtenstein in Central Europe is home to about 38,000 people. Its capital city, Vaduz, is home to about 5,250, and acts as the country’s political and administrative center. It is the most recognized city in the state, although Schaan has a larger population.

The capital city of Malta, Valletta, is home to 6,500 of the country’s 450,000 people. Founded on March 28, 1566, the city is popular for its cultural artifacts. St. George’s is the capital of Granada, and is home to about 7,500 people. Tourism has helped develop and market the city as a tourist destination, resulting in a rise in population. Granada is located in the Caribbean, is popular among tourists, and is known to be a leading export of nutmeg and mace crops.

Palikir is the capital of the Federated States of Micronesia, and is home to about 9,900 people. Micronesia has a population of 105,000 people, and maintains close relations with the United States. The capital city of Saint Kitts and Nevis, Basseterre, is the 10th least populous capital city, with a population of only 13,100.

The Least Populous Countries

Vatican City remains the least populous state, with a population of 800. Tokelau ranks second, with a population of about 1,300, and has a population growth rate of 1.3% annually. Montserrat, Falkland Islands, and Saint Helena, all register less than 6,000 people.

The World’s Least Populated Capital Cities

 

Opera Snapshot_2018-02-21_212423_www.worldatlas.com

Source: WorldAtlas

 

The Most Dangerous Cities In The World

World Facts


Caracas, Venezuela is the world’s most dangerous city with a murder rate of 130.35 per 100,000 inhabitants.

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Caracas, Venezuela, tops the list with the highest murder rate on the planet.

When planning your next trip, you may want to avoid some of the cities we’re about to mention. In 2016, they ranked among the world’s most dangerous places on the basis of murder cases per capita.

The World’s Most Dangerous Cities

Caracas, Venezuela has held on to its spot as the world’s most dangerous city with a murder rate of 130.35. This staggering number is followed by Acapulco, Mexico with 113.24 per 100,000 inhabitants and San Pedro Sula, Honduras with 112.09 homicides per 100,000 inhabitants. Violence brought on by drug trafficking and organized gangs have been blamed for the relentless violence in these cities, although the factors are generally quite complicated. Unfortunately, none of these cities are strangers to the top three positions, except for maybe the resort town of Acapulco, which violence from other regions of the country has been spilling into in recent years.

The Most Dangerous Cities in the United States

Four cities in the United States are counted the among the world’s most dangerous. The cities are, in descending order of homicide rates, St. Louis, Missouri (60.37), Baltimore, Maryland (51.14), New Orleans, Louisiana (45.17) and Detroit, Michigan (44.6). In the United States, the relaxed laws surrounding gun ownership is often subject of much debate. In the United States, gun violence is responsible for tens of thousands of deaths nationwide annually.

One city that is a notable omission from the list is Chicago. Although the city of Chicago has had a reputation for crime in recent years, its homicide rate is 27.22 murders per 100,000 residents. It is important to note that although the city of Chicago experienced an overall decrease in violent crime in the early 2000s, as of the 2010s crime again seems to be on an incline. 

Latin American Cities

Of the entries on this list, many cities can be found in a region of the world known as Latin America. Latin America generally refers to countries in Central and South America, where the predominant language is Spanish (or in the case of Brazil, Portuguese). The factors for the dominance of these countries are varied and complicated. Violence related to drug trafficking and income inequality, corrupt politicians and officials, and residue from a history of brutal colonialism have all been indicated as factors that encourage violence. 

South African Cities

Of this list provided of the 50 most dangerous cities in the world by violent crime rate, three cities in South Africa make the list: Cape Town (60.77), Nelson Mandela Bay (39.19), and Durban (34.43). South Africa, which inhabits the southernmost point of the massive African continent, has often garnered publicity for its high crime rates, including murder rates. Factors such as high employment and systemic racism have all been blamed for the violent trends in South African cities.

The 50 Most Dangerous Cities

Opera Snapshot_2018-02-21_211032_www.worldatlas.com

Source: WorldAtlas

Medan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Medan_Montage

From top, left to right:
Graha Maria Annai Velangkanni church, London Sumatra building in Kesawan, Medan’s Old City Hall, Hillpark Sibolangit amusement park, Sun Plaza mall, and Great Mosque of Medan.

Medan (Jawi: ميدن, Batak: ᯔᯮᯑ᯲, Chinese: 棉蘭, Tamil: மேடான், Indonesian pronunciation: [meˈdan]); is the capital of North Sumatra province in Indonesia. Located along the northeastern coast of Sumatra island, Medan is the fourth biggest city by population in Indonesia, behind Jakarta, Surabaya and Bandung. With 2,097,610 inhabitants at the 2010 census, Medan remains the largest settlement outside Java island together with the richness of its multicultural peoples. Bordered by the Strait of Malacca, Medan is a busy trading city around the island as located near the strait which is one of the most important shipping lanes in the world. Medan is the gateway to the western part of Indonesia, accessible via the Port of Belawan and Kuala Namu International Airport, stated the city as the third largest city in the country by economy after Jakarta and Surabaya, this city economy is linked well with Malaysian cities (especially Penang and Kuala Lumpur) and Singapore by trade, service and natural resource exchanges. Both the seaport and the airport are connected to the city center via toll road and railway. Medan also became the first city in Indonesia to have an airport supported with train service.

The city was founded by Guru Patimpus, a Karonese man who named a swampy land in confluence of Deli River and Babura river as Kampung Medan Putri (Village of Medan) as the first settlement. In 1632, the Deli Sultanate was established by Tuanku Gocah Pahlawan, who became its first king. In the 18th century, the eighth king, Sultan Mahmud Al Rasyid Perkasa Alam, started a relationship with the Dutch. Jacob Nienhuys, a Dutch tobacco merchant, pioneered the opening of tobacco plantations in Deli Land. The area’s name changed to Medan-Deli when it was established by Dutch tobacco commerce after the formation of the Deli Company. With the help from the 9th Sultanate Sultan Ma’mun Al Rasyid Perkasa Alam, and also the well-known Chinese businessmen Tjong Yong Hian and Tjong A Fie, the rapid development of the economy transformed Medan-Deli into a big trading center with the nickname het land dollar, aka the land of the money. The Deli Railway was established for shipping rubber, tea, timber, palm oil, and sugar industries from the city to Belawan, a port town located north of Medan. Medan was briefly the capital of the State of East Sumatra, which was established in 1947 as a result of the Dutch “police actions” against newly-independent Indonesia and later became part of the United States of Indonesia from 1949 to 1950. Following the establishment of the Republic of Indonesia, Medan became the capital of North Sumatra in mid-1950.

Medan was dubbed by the Dutch Parijs van Sumatra due to the city’s resemblance to Paris. Lamudi, a worldwide real estate portal, recognized Medan as one among six cities in Asia to feature and preserve several colonial architectural sites, while accompanying its growth as a metropolitan city.

In recent years, the city has undergone rapid development, and has seen large scale infrastructure projects such as a new airport, seaport, elevated railroad, toll roads, and a planned mass rapid transit system. Residential property prices in Medan have also trended upward over the period from 2013 to the first quarter of 2015, according to Bank Indonesia (BI). According to BI, Medan’s residential property price index rose from 205.24 in the fourth quarter of 2013 to 212.17 in the fourth quarter of 2014, and to 214.41 in the first quarter of 2015.

Opera Snapshot_2018-01-24_181924_en.wikipedia.org

Etymology


According to the diary of a Portuguese merchant in the early 16th century, the name of Medan was actually derived from Tamil word Maidhan, also known as Maidhāṉam (Tamil: மைதானம்), that means Ground, adopted from Malay language. One of the Karo-Indonesia dictionaries written by Darwin Prinst SH published in 2002 stated that Medan could also be defined as “recover” or “be better”.

History


In ancient times, the city of Medan was known as Kampung Medan (Medan Village). It was a piece of swampy land with an area of approximately 4000 ha. Some of the rivers crossing the city of Medan drain into the Straits of Malacca. These rivers are Sei Deli, Sei Babura, Sei Sikambing, Sei Denai, Sei Putih, Sei Percut and Muara Belawan.

Aru Kingdom

The area in and around Medan city, Deli and Langkat Regency was the location of ancient Kingdom of Aru (Haru). The kingdom was established by Karo people and flourished between 13th to 16th century. Several archaeological sites around Medan are connected to the Kingdom of Aru, including Kota Rentang in Hamparan Perak area, Deli Serdang Regency, the Kota Cina archaeological site in Medan Marelan, and Benteng Putri Hijau, a fort ruin in Deli Tua, Namorambe, Deli Serdang Regency.

Founding of Medan

Medan started as a village called Kampung Medan (Medan Village). Kampung Medan was founded by Guru Patimpus Sembiring Pelawi, a Karonese man who came from the Karo Land. Before he became a Muslim, he was a Pemena follower. Following the history of “trombo” and Hamparan Perak (XII Kuta), Guru Patimpus studied Islam from Datuk Kota Bangun. At the time, Guru Patimpus and his people wanted to meet Datuk Kota Bangun. Not only did they want to meet Datuk Kota Bangun, they also wanted to compete with him for power. Whenever Guru Patimpus went to Kota Bangun, he always passed Pulo Brayan. In Pulo Brayan, Guru Patimpus fell in loved with the Princess of Pulo Brayan King. Eventually, he married the princess and had two sons, Kolok and Kecik. After he got married, Guru Patimpus and his wife turned the forest area in confluence between Deli Riverand Babura River into a small village and it was called Kampung Medan. The date when that happened has been marked as the date of Medan anniversary. It happened in July, 1st 1590.

In his days, Guru Patimpus is classified as people who were thinking ahead. This was proved by sending their children studied (study) read the Qur’an to Datuk Kota Bangun and then sent them for deepen about Islam to Aceh.

In early days, the natives called the area as the Land of Deli (Indonesian: Tanah Deli), it starts from Ular River to the Wampu River in Langkat while the Deli Sultanate in power at the time of his territory does not cover the area between the two rivers.

tatement confirming that the Kampung Medan is a description H. Muhammad Said quoting through the book Deli: In Woord en Beeld written by N. ten Cate. The statement said that early Kampung Medan was a fortress which was composed of two layers of roundabout-shaped walls at a confluence between two rivers namely Deli and Babura rivers. The Administrateur house is located across the river from the Kampung Medan. The location of Kampung Medan is in the modern-day location of the Wisma Benteng building now and the Administrateur house is in present-day PTP IX Deli Tobacco building.

Deli Sultanate

COLLECTIE_TROPENMUSEUM_Studioportret_van_Ma'amun_Al_Rashid_Perkasa_Alam_Shah_Sultan_van_Deli_TMnr_10018808

Portrait of Sultan Ma’mun Al Rasyid Perkasa Alam, 1900s.

COLLECTIE_TROPENMUSEUM_Studioportret_van_Tjong_A_Fie_Majoor_der_Chinezen_in_Medan_TMnr_10018656

Tjong A Fie, a kapitan of Medan and one of contributor to the early development in the city.

In the 16th century there was a kingdom called Aru, with its center located where Deli Tua is now (south of Medan). In 1612 the Acehnese Sultan Iskandar Muda defeated Aru. The Acehnese appointed Hisyamsudin (later he changed his name to “Tuanku Gocah Pahlawan”), titled as Laksamana Kuda Bintan as their representative in this kingdom of East Sumatra. In 1632 Aceh established the Deli Sultanate (Jawi: کسلطانن دلي) and Gocah Pahlawan became the first king. Gocah Pahlawan opens a new land in Sungai Lalang and Percut. As Mayor and Deputy of Sultan of Aceh as well as by utilizing the large size of Aceh Empire, Gocah Pahlawan managed to expand his territory, thereby covering Percut Sei Tuan and Medan Deli district now. He also founded the villages of Gunung Barus, Sampali, Kota Bangun, Pulo Brayan, Kota Jawa, Kota Rengas and Sigara-gara. He died in 1669 and was followed by his son “Tuangku Panglima Perunggit” who moved the center of the kingdom to Labuhan Deli, which then proclaimed the independence of Deli Sultanate from Aceh Sultanate in 1669, with its capital in Medan Labuhan, approximately 15 km from the city center now.

During the reign of the third king, “Tuanku Panglima Padrap” (ruled 1698–1728), the kingdom was moved to Pulo Brayan due to floods. The fourth king, “Tuanku Panglima Pasutan” (ruled between 1728–1761) organized the kingdom in four tribes, each led by a Datuk (a Malay title for high ranking persons). During the time of the fifth king, “Tuanku Panglima Gandar Wahib” (ruled 1761–1805) the Datuks increased their power.

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Sultan Amaluddin, the sixth sultan leaving the Great Mosque on his crowning day, in February 1925

The sixth ruler was “Sultan Amaluddin Mengedar Alam” (ruled 1805–1850). During his years the Siak Sultanate became a stronger influence in Deli than the Acehnese Sultanate, and the ruler was given the title: Sultan. The seventh ruler was “Sultan Osman Perkasa Alam” (ruled 1850 to 1858), during his leadership the Deli Sultanate became autonomous.

The eighth ruler, “Sultan Mahmud Al Rasyid Perkasa Alam” (ruled 1858–1873) started the relationship with the Dutch, a relationship that became rather intimate. The next ruler was “Sultan Ma’mun Al Rashid Perkasa Alamyah”, who ruled from 1873 to 1924 when the tobacco trade expanded. He moved the kingdom to Medan and finished the construction of the Maimun Palace in 1888. He also built the grand mosque of Al Ma’shun which is commonly known as (Great Mosque of Medan) now in 1907, he became known as the builder of early Medan in cooperation with the Dutch and “Tjong Yong Hian” and Tjong A Fie, two Chinese businessmen brothers and also Kapitans who built a large plantation business in Deli. They all brought Medan-Deli as new development area including business centers such as banks, offices, plantation areas, housing, railroad and a port. The tenth “Sultan Amaluddin Al Sani Perkasa Alamsyah” (ruled 1924–1945) expanded harbors, with commerce increased during his period. At the declaration of Indonesian Independence, the Sultan recognized the sovereignty of the republic and was in return given an important function as administrator of Deli-Malay traditions and culture.

The Sultanate of Deli still exists until this day, even though the administrative powers has been replaced with elected Mayors. The current sultan is “Sultan Mahmud Lamanjiji Perkasa Alam” the 14th sultan, (ruled since 2005). Coronated the age of eight, he is the youngest sultan that has been coronated in Deli Sultanate history.

Dutch East Indies era

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Aerial view of Port of Belawan, 1920s

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Coolies working in the seed beds on a tobacco plantation in Medan, circa 1900s

The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 meant strongly intensified traffic between Europe and the Far East. The Dutch started the shipping company Stoomvaart Maatschappij Nederland that quickly expanded to 43 steamships in 1877. The English, however, had already 3,000 ships in those days. A journey from Europe to Indonesia took approximately 40 days. Genoa, Italy became the new transit harbor for passenger ships after the opening of the Gotthard Tunnel in Switzerland. The journey was reduced to 23 days and 20 hours to Batavia (Jakarta). The ships also became bigger and more comfortable.

This resulted in an increase in cruise ships carrying predominantly white Europeans coming to Dutch East Indies as tourists for a tour of the region, including Medan as the largest tobacco plantation in Dutch East Indies at that time. To accommodate the tourists, it was deemed necessary to have European-class hotels. Therefore, in 1898, a Dutch businessman named Aeint Herman de Boer built Hotel de Boer in the northwest of the Esplanade (now Lapangan Merdeka Medan).

Exports were very dependent on British shipping in 1890 when Sabang became a bunker harbor. Belawan got its harbor in 1923. The shipping company Koninklijke Paketvaart Maatschappij (KPM) was established for the purpose of shipping valuable Deli Company tobacco, which was shipped to Batavia. This cargo was almost as valuable and stringent rules regulated its handling. It was strictly forbidden to stow anything on top of the tobacco and coolies were not even to walk on it when they worked in the hatches.

Cleaning of roads in Medan was, until 1912, done by prisoners. After that free coolies got the job. In 1917 the authorities started to use horse-drawn carts, equipped with brooms for the cleaning. In 1928 the horse-drawn carts were replaced by motorized vehicles. The first newspaper was the ‘Deli Courant’, established in 1885 although it was not a daily publication. In 1898, Joseph Hallermann, a German, established the daily ‘De Sumatra Post’, which survived until 1939.

There were planters in Medan from many countries: England, the Netherlands, USA, France, Germany, Poland, and Switzerland. Many of them became very rich and led affluent lifestyles. Medan became known as the Paris of Sumatra. Up till today, the area in downtown where the old airport is located is called Polonia, a name given by a Polish aristocrat who once owned a plantation here. One area of Medan is still called Helvetia (the old name of Switzerland). This name was given by a plantation owner from Switzerland.

Tobacco Plantation

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Painting of Jacob Nienhuys, the founder of tobacco producer Deli Company (Deli Maatschappij) during Dutch East Indies era

Medan did not develop rapidly until the 1860s, when the Dutch authorities began to release new land for tobacco plantations. Jacob Nienhuys, Van der Falk, and Elliot, who were Dutch tobacco merchants, pioneered the opening of the tobacco plantation in Deli. Nienhuys’ previous tobacco business in Java moved to Deli after an invitation by an Arab from Surabaya named Said Abdullah Bilsagih, brother in law of the Deli Sultan Mahmud Perkasa Alam. Initially Nienhuys cultivated tobacco on 4,000 hectares of land in Tanjong Spassi, near Labuhan, owned by the Sultan of Deli. On March 1864, Nienhuys sent samples of his crop of tobacco to Rotterdam, Netherlands to test its quality. Apparently, the tobacco leaves were considered high quality for cigar materials. Hence Deli’s name rose as a producer of the best cigar wrappers for Europeans.

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Coat of arms of Medan during colonial era, showing tobacco plant as the charge.

The tobacco treaty was signed by the Sultan of Deli and the Dutch in 1865. After two years, Nienhuys along with Jannsen, P.W. Clemen, and Cremer founded the company De Deli Maatschappij abbreviated Deli Mij in Labuhan. In 1869, Nienhuys moved the head office of Deli Mij to Kampung Medan. The new office was built on the confluence of Deli and Babura river, precisely at the office of PTPN II (ex PTPN IX) now. With the transfer of the office, Medan quickly became the center of government activity and trade, as well as area with the most dominant development in western Indonesia. The rapid development of the economy transformed Deli into a major trading center nicknamed het land dollar aka the land of the money. Then, they opened up new plantations in the Martubung and Sunggal areas in 1869, as well in Sungai Beras and Klumpang in 1875, bringing the total to 22 plantation companies in the year 1874. Given the activities of the tobacco trade was already very broad and growing, Kampung Medan became increasingly crowded and then developed with a name that is known as the Medan-Deli.

The development of Medan-Deli as a trading center was followed by it becoming a center of government. In 1879, Capital Assistant of Deli Resident moved from Labuhan to Medan. On 1 March 1887, the capital of the Resident of East Sumatra also moved from Bengkalis to Medan Deli Sultanate Palace which was originally located in Kampung Bahari (Labuhan) and Pulo Brayan also moved with the completion of Maimoon Palace on May 18, 1891, and thus the Capital of Deli officially moved to Medan.

Growth of Medan-Deli

Medan taken from the air, cicra 1928–1940

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Aerial view of Medan, 1920. It can be seen from the photo: the railway station, the Esplanade (now Merdeka Walk), City Hall, the Javasche Bank (now Bank Indonesia), post office, Hotel de Boer and office of the Deli Maatschappij

In 1915, the Residency of East Sumatra enhanced its status to Gubernermen. In 1918 the city of Medan officially became Gemeente (Municipal) with Mayor Baron Daniël Mackay. Based on the “Acte van Schenking” (Grant Deed) No. 97 Notary J.M. de-Hondt Junior, dated November 30, 1918, the Sultan of Deli handed over the land of Medan-Deli to the Gemeente, thus officially becoming the region under the direct rule of the Dutch East Indies. In the early days of this township, Medan still consists of four villages, namely Kampung Kesawan, Kampung Sungai Rengas, Kampung Petisah Hulu and Kampung Petisah Hilir.

In 1918 there were 43.826 residents of Medan, made up of 409 Europeans, 35,009 Native Indonesians, 8,269 Chinese and 139 East foreign such as Indians.

Since then the Medan developed more rapidly. Various facilities are built. Some of these include the Office of Experiment Stations named AVROS in Kampung Baru (1919), now RISPA, the railway of Pangkalan Brandan – Besitang (1919), Tirtanadi Water Tower (1908), American Consulate (1919), Teacher school on Jl. H.M. Yamin now (1923), Mingguan Soematra (1924), Pool Association Medan (1924), Central Market (Grote Markt/Toa Pa Sat or 大巴刹), St. Elizabeth Hospital, Eye Hospital and Kebun Bunga Sports field (1929).

Historically, the development of the city of Medan, since the beginning, has been positioned at the center of trade (export-import). Being chosen as the Deli capital, Medan also developed into a center of government. Until now beside one of the areas of the city, also serves as the capital of North Sumatra province.

Japanese occupation and post independence era

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British troops end Japanese occupation in Medan.

The Japanese invasion began in 1942 throughout Indonesia. The Japanese troops who landed in Sumatra were XXV Army soldiers who were based in Shonanto which is currently known as Singapore, they landed on the 11 and 12 March 1942. The force was made up of Imperial Guard Division coupled with the 18th Division led by Lieutenant General Nishimura. They landed in four locations: Sabang, Ulele, Kuala Bugak (near Perlak, Aceh now) and Tanjung Tiram (Batubara region now). The Tanjung Tiram troops were the soldiers who went to the city of Medan, they rode bikes that they bought from the locals, and the Japanese troops occupied Medan until 1945.

After the Independence, the central government began to establish RIS (United States of Indonesia) In 1949, and Medan became the capital of state of East Sumatra with Tengku Mansur as State Mayor. After the RIS era ended, Medan officially became the capital of North Sumatra. The city development remained stagnant until the 1970s, when big developments, especially palm oil and rubber plantation company headquarters, making Medan the busiest city outside Java. The big migration program brought a lot of Javanese and the Bataks people began to settle in the city as many people from Java and rural part of the province sought jobs.

Medan hit the one million population mark in 1998 and 2 million in 2010, and city has begun to be referred as a Metropolis around 2006.

Geography


Medan is in the northeastern part of Sumatra island, in Sumatera Utara province. Medan lies on the banks of the Deli River and Babura River which feed into a naturally sheltered harbor and then into the Straits of Malacca, it has helped the city grow in significance as a trading port. Its elevation varies between 2.5 and 37.5 metres (8 ft 2 in and 123 ft 0 in) above sea level. Medan is close to the Barisan Mountains which is located in the southern part of the city and close to volcanoes such as Sibayak Mountain and Sinabung Mountain (located as far as 50 to 70 kilometres (31 to 43 miles) from the city).

Climate

Under the Köppen climate classification, Medan features a tropical rainforest climate (Af) with no real dry season. Medan does have noticeably wetter and drier months, with its driest month (February) on average seeing about one third of the precipitation of its wettest month (October). Temperatures in the city average approximately 27 °C (81 °F) throughout the course of the year. Annual precipitation in the Medan is around 2,200 millimetres (87 inches).

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Located in the central part of Deli Serdang Regency, Medan is surrounded by satellite cities and towns such as Binjai, Lubuk Pakam, Tanjung Morawa, Tembung, Percut Sei Tuan, and Labuhan Deli which help the city become a new urban area in Indonesia which known as ‘Mebidang’ (Medan, Binjai, Deli Serdang)

Governance


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The old and former Medan City Hall building

Mayor

Medan was governed by mayor Dr. H. Abdillah Ak, MBA (appointed for the period 2005–2010). However, Abdillah and his vice mayor were caught by Indonesian Corruption Eradication Commission officials in 2008. Syamsul Arifin, the Governor of North Sumatra Province, then appointed Affifudin Lubis to become the acting mayor. In 2009, Affifudin Lubis resigned as mayor and the Governor then appointed Rahudman Harahap as mayor. Because Rahudman wanted to be a candidate in the 2010 mayor election, he too resigned from the office. Then Syamsul Arifin himself became the acting mayor. In the 2010 mayor election, Rahudman Harahap won the election. Rahudman was arrested due to corruption which resulted in his deputy Dzulmi Eldin officially becoming the acting mayor.

Administrative divisions

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District divisions of Medan

Medan is divided into 21 districts (Indonesian: kecamatan), tabulated below, and is sub-divided into 151 neighborhoods or villages (kelurahan):

  • Medan Amplas
  • Medan Area
  • West Medan
  • Medan Baru
  • Medan Belawan
  • Medan Deli
  • Medan Denai
  • Medan Helvetia
  • Medan Johor
  • Medan Kota
  • Medan Labuhan
  • Medan Maimun
  • Medan Marelan
  • Medan Perjuangan
  • Medan Petisah
  • Medan Polonia
  • Medan Selayang
  • Medan Sunggal
  • Medan Tembung
  • East Medan
  • Medan Tuntungan

Based on the map, the city are centralised around Medan Petisah, Medan Baru, Medan Polonia, Medan Maimun, Medan Kota, and West Medan which is act as city center. Medan Labuhan is one of the largest districts by area other than Medan Belawan and Medan Marelan which is lies on the northern part of the city. Medan Tuntungan serves as the gateway to Karoland regency, Medan Helvetia to Binjai City and Langkat and Medan Amplas to Tebing Tinggi and Pematang Siantar.

Demographics


The city is Indonesia’s fourth most populous after Jakarta, Surabaya, and Bandung, as well as Indonesia’s largest city outside Java island. The population has risen from 568,000 in 1968 fourfold to 2.1 million in 2010. Much of the population lies outside its city limits, especially in Deli Serdang Regency. The official Metropolitan area (Wilayah Metropolitan Medan) was inhabited by 4,144,583 people in 2010.

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Source: BPS Sumut

Ethnicities and languages

Batak (including Mandailing and Karo people) and Javanese are the major ethnic groups in Medan, with sizeable Chinese, Minangkabau and Malay populations and smaller groups of Acehnese, Indians, Nias, and Sundanese people. Medan also has foreign residents from India, Sri Lanka Bangladesh, Thailand, China, Taiwan, Middle East and other Asian countries.

Ethnicities of Medan – 2000 Census

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The city has diverse communities, reflected by its history. The Bataks is one of the major ethnic groups in Medan, there are three sub-ethnic Bataknese in the city such as Toba, Karo and Mandailing Bataks. Karo are the natives in Medan, meanwhile Toba people cames in the past by the Dutch and employed them as workers in oil palm plantations, the last one are Mandailing people that came in big mass after the independence era to find a better jobs. The Bataks reside throughout the city, as the Karo people reside around southern area like Padang Bulan, Medan Johor and Tuntungan. Toba Batak people reside in Marindal and Amplas, there are big number also living in nearby city-center like in Medan Perjuangan district, meanwhile the Mandailing people mostly reside in Medan Tembung.

In addition, there is a large ethnic Javanese community, largely made up of the descendants of people transported from Java in the last 19th century to be employed as contract workers at various plantations in North Sumatra. They are usually known as Pujakesuma (Indonesian: Putra Jawa Kelahiran Sumatera, English: Sumatra-born Javanese). Their presence in Medan can be marked from various Javanese toponymies in Medan, such as Tanjungsari, Sarirejo, Sidodadi, Sidorejo, etc. (mostly in East Medan and Medan Tembung area). The Malays are another natives in Medan, already living in outskirt area like Belawan and Labuhan since Aru era as fisherman, and then they’re come to city area after establishment of Deli Sultanate new palace in 18th century. The Malays living spread throughout the city, but they have a big concentration population in Medan Maimun, Kota Matsum, Labuhan and Belawan.

A highly visible component of city population is the large number of Chinese as them starting migrate from China to Deli since 16th century and big flow migration in 19th century as planters and coolies. Now, Medan is home of the largest Chinese community in the Sumatra island, who are active in the business and trading activities. Mostly Chinese residents in Medan can speak fluent Hokkien, a dialect originating from Fujian in Southern China. Medan also has its own variation of Hokkien, known as Medan Hokkien, which has the same similarity with Penang’s one. The Chinese reside throughout the city, but majority lives around city centre area. The city also host a sizable community of Tamil descendants who are commonly known as Madrasis or Tamilan. A well-known Tamil neighbourhood are Kampung Madras which is located on the city-center, added up as being one of the busiest part of the city.

Alongside Chinese, Minangkabaus is also known as the merchants, peddlers, and artisans, in addition to as white collar, doctor, lawyer, and journalist. Minang people came to Medan since mid-19th century. In 1960s to 1980s, the number of Minangkabau people migrating to Medan surged, and formed 10% to population in the city. Minangkabaus living around Medan Denai and Medan Maimun area. Acehnese is other minority ethnics in Medan. Big number of Aceh people mostly coming after conflict that has happening in Aceh in late 1970s as seeking for a peace place. Nowadays, they are known working as merchant like operates grocery store and Mie Aceh restaurant around Setia Budi and Ring Road/Sunggal area.

Religion

Religion of Medan – 2015 Census

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Islam is the major religion of Medan, constituting almost 60 percent of all residents; most of those who follow Islam are Javanese, Minangkabaus, Mandailings, Malays, Acehnese and small Karonese people. Mosques and Halal food are quite easy to find anywhere around the city. Christianity is the second largest religion, constituting around 29.26 percent, most are Protestants and small (around 10 percent out of all Christians) are Catholics. The Bataks (Toba, Karo, Simalungun), Nias with a small Chinese and Indian people are the main adherents of this religion. The HKBP, GBKP and Methodist are the biggest Christian denominations in Medan.

Buddhism formed around 9.90 percent, with the Chinese being the largest group of followers. Most Buddhists in Medan follow Mahayana Buddhism. The followers worship Buddha, Maitreya and also Avalokitesvara. Hindu are the 4th largest religion at around 2.15 percent. The Indonesian government does not include Sikhs as an official religion, but the majority of the Indians who are living in Medan are followers. Hinduism in Medan is quite different from other parts of Indonesia where the branch is the Balinese version of Hindusm and the major Gods worshipped include Murugan, Shiva, Mariamman and Krishna. The last registered religion in Medan are Confucianism or in Indonesian known as Konghucu, mostly adherent are the Chinese, the Taoism and Chinese Folk religion are also including as Confucian in ID Card, Confucius, Mazu and Guandi are the most worshipped God and Goddesses for this religion followers in Medan.

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Al-Osmani Mosque, the oldest mosque in the city

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Immanuel Church, one of oldest church in the city

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Vihara Gunung Timur, the oldest Taoist also Buddhist temple in Sumatra Island

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Sri Mariamman Temple, main Hindu temple in Medan

Economy


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Bank Indonesia building in Medan

Medan has already grown to become one of the largest metropolitan cities in Indonesia and become the center of growth in the province of North Sumatra. Now the city is an important commercial and economic hub of Indonesia. Locals, as well as many foreigners have set up their business to take advantage of its dynamism and boost its economy. Medan’s economy was mainly based on tobacco, rubber, tea and coffee culture and production, but growing manufacturing sector such as automotive assembly, production of machinery, tiles, etc., also contributing now to the city’s economy. Medan is more like the most industrious city in Sumatra consisting of many small, medium and large-scale enterprises. Because of its location and its proximity to Singapore it functions strategically as the main gateway in the western region of Indonesia & for the trading of goods and financial services on domestic, regional and international levels. Many international companies maintain offices in the city, namely London Sumatra, Philips Lighting, Toba Pulp Lestari, Marriott, ABB Group and DBS Bank, etc. Medan is one of the Indonesia’s most promising property markets outside Java, and several high-value developments have transformed its property market – and skyline. Many of country’s big property developers are building condominiums, hotels, office towers and a shopping malls in the city.

Culture


Medan is inhabited by many different ethnic groups. Malay people are the natives of the Medan area, and have deep roots in Medan. They began ruling there during the Deli Sultanate until now. The empire has many lands and property of heritage in Medan, such a palace, mosque and park. The Dutch and Chinese bringing a big contributor to the city development, include during Dutch East Indies era, many historical buildings are made by Dutch and Peranakan architercture along Jalan Kesawan and Pemuda. The arrival of Minangkabaus, Bataks, Javanese and Indian people bringing more colours to the culture of Medan, especially cuisine.

Museum

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Taxidermy collection at Rahmat International Wildlife Museum and Gallery

The North Sumatra Museum is located approximately 4 kilometres (2.5 miles) to the south from the center of the city, which is in Jalan HM. Joni 15 Medan. The Minister of Education and Culture Dr. Daoed Joesoef opened north Sumatran museum in April 1982.This museum is open on: Tuesday – Thursday (08.00 – 16.00) Friday – Sunday (08.00 – 15.30) and Closed on: Monday. This museum gives a lot of information about ethnic and cultural which exists in North Sumatra, including history and stories of the museum. Some activities that can be done in this museum are: photographs and studying and learn about culture and the object of the North Sumatran history.

The Bukit Barisan Museum is a military museum opened by Brigade General Leo Lopulisa on June 21, 1971. This museum is located at 8 Jalan H. Zainul Arifin, Medan. It houses several historic weapons include weapons that were used in the struggle for independence and the revolt in North Sumatra during 1958. In this museum we could see several motives/ painting of the revolt against the Netherlands.

Rahmat International Wildlife Museum & Gallery or more known as Rahmat Gallery, opened in 1999 and is chiefly the most incredible global taxidermy collection in the city, including various collections of wildlife, located on Jalan Letjen S. Parman no.309.

Cuisine

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Soto Medan

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Bika Ambon

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Teng-Teng

Because of its multiculturality, Medan has wide varies of cuisine which are categorized as local, western, east and southern Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine, the city hosts a lot of cafes, restaurants, food centre and also street vendors with a varies prices.

Nelayan is one of the famous restaurants in Medan, serving a halal-Chinese seafood especially dim sum. Garuda is the most popular Minangkabau and Malay restaurant in Medan serves nasi padang and gulai, Cahaya Baru is an Indian restaurant located on Kampung Madras with its most recommended food as chapati and tandoori. The most visited Bataknese restaurant are OnDo Batak grill and Tesalonika with known as best babi panggang or Saksang.

This city is known as culinary heaven of Indonesia which is prominent for its street hawkers offering a great variety of cuisine which often serves cheap local delicacies, Medan has several most known culinary spots like Jalan Selat Panjang and Jalan Semarang for Chinese food, Jalan Pagaruyung for Indian and Malay food and Jalan Padang Bulan for Bataknese food.

Merdeka Walk is the first Tensile Structure (Alfresco Outdoor Concept) in Indonesia, filled with a variety of cafés and restaurants. Durian is a popular fruit in Indonesia and nowhere more so than in Medan. This thorny fruit, with its very distinctive taste and smell, is available for cheap all over the city. Ucok Durian along Jalan Iskandar Muda is the most known Durian seller in the city.

Soto Medan, is a chicken/pork/beef/innards soto with added coconut milk and served with potato croqutte (perkedel). The meat pieces are fried before being served or mixed.

Bika Ambon is a dessert from Indonesia. Made from ingredients such as tapioca flour, eggs, sugar, yeast and coconut milk, Bika Ambon are generally sold in pandan flavour, although other flavors such as banana, durian, cheese, chocolate are also available.

Babi Panggang Karo abbreviated as BPK, is a grilled pork with its blood as a dipping sauces serve with slice of tomato and cucumber. The three dishes are served with plain rice and a sambal andaliman, made from fresh sichuan peppers. The Chinese equivalent of grilled pork are called as Cha Sio (叉燒)

Tau Kua He Ci (豆干虾炸) is local Chinese version of Rojak but made with fried prawn, vegetables and tofu with chilli sauce. Its other name also called as Lap Choi (腊菜). Teng-Teng (丁丁) is a candy made with peanut.

Dried fruits and many unique cuisines can be found in Pasar Rame, which operates every day from morning to afternoon, located just beside Thamrin Plaza.

Bolu Meranti is the most famous homemade Swiss roll in Medan, usually local and international tourist always bought the cakes for souvenir from the city. The Medanese dried anchovies also is one of a “must” souvenirs from Medan, could be bought from Pusat Pasar (Central Market).

Tourism


Landmarks

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The peranakan Tjong A Fie Mansion

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Tirtanadi Water Tower, the main icon of Medan, built in 1908

There are many old buildings in Medan that still retain their Dutch architecture. These include the old City Hall, the Medan Post Office, Inna Dharma Deli Hotel, Titi Gantung (a bridge over the railway), The London Sumatra building, Tjong A Fie Mansion, AVROS, Warenhuis, and The Tirtanadi Water Tower, mostly located around the old town Kesawan.

There are several historic places such as Maimoon Palace built in years 1887–1891, where the Sultan of Deli still lives (the Sultan no longer holds any official power), The Great Mosque of Medan built in 1906 in the Moroccan style by the Dutch architect A.J. Dingemans,. both location of Maimoon Palace and The Great Mosque are close. The Mosque located on Jalan Sisingamangaraja and The Palace located on Jalan Brigjen Katamso.

Gunung Timur Temple or locally known as Tông-Yuk-Kuàng in Hokkien, is a city’s oldest Taoism temple, located on Jalan Hang Tuah. Medan has a Buddhist temple named as Maha Vihara Maitreya, and there is also a Buddhist centre nearby named as Maha Karuna Buddhist Centre (MKBC) this temple complex known as one of the biggest non-historical Buddhist temple in Indonesia, both situated around Cemara Asri housing complex. Medan Cathedral is the oldest church in the city, was built by the Dutch and Indian community nearby, and the church was named as Indische Kerk back then, located on the old town along Jalan Pemuda. Sri Mariamman Temple is the first Hindu temple in Medan built around 1881 by The Tamil peoples in the city, located on Jalan Zainul Arifin, The City’s Little India or more known as Kampung Madras, the temple has unique south Indian architecture with hundred Hindu deity statues around the building.

Since 2005, a catholic church named Graha Maria Annai Velangkanni was built with an Indo-Mogul style, devoted to Mary, this particular Saint knows its origin with an apparition in the 17th century in Tamil Nadu, India. The temple has two stories and a small tower of seven storeys, it is situated on Jalan Sakura III, besides outer ring road on Jalan TB Simatupang.

Shopping

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Sun Plaza front view

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Medan Mall, considered as one of oldest shopping mall in Medan, located on Jalan M.T Haryono

Medan is one of the major shopping destinations of Indonesia, along with Jakarta and Bandung. It has several markets and shopping malls offering a wide range of goods and qualities. Some of the more popular markets for tourists include Pasar Rame (Rame Market) and Pasar Petisah (Petisah Market), which specialize in selling clothing and food; and the Pasar Ikan Lama (Old Fish Market), a marketplace for traditional Islamic wear and souvenirs of Medan. Some other marketplaces in the city are Pasar Beruang, Pasar Hong Kong, Pasar Sambas and Pasar Aksara.

Medan also has some modern malls. The newest and most popular among them are Sun Plaza, Centre Point, Cambridge City Square, Medan Focal Point, Hermes Place Polonia and Plaza Medan Fair. The oldest malls are Thamrin Plaza, Medan Mall, Medan Plaza, Yang Lim Plaza, and Yuki Simpang Raya.

The upcoming malls in Medan are Podomoro City Medan, Metrolink Trade Center, Ring Road City Walks, and The Manhattan.

Theme parks

There are some theme parks in the city or outside city, most of them are water park.

HillPark GreenHill City – the latest theme park 1 hour from Medan on the way to Berastagi.

Pantai Cermin Themepark – the first and only water theme park in North Sumatra, which located in Cermin Beach, Serdang Bedagai. The theme park is organized by Malaysia Investor and Local Government.

Wonder Water World – latest waterpark in Medan, located on Central Business District (CBD) Polonia.

Hairos Water Park – another waterpark near the city, located on Jalan Djamin Ginting Km.14, Deliserdang.

Transportation


Medan is well-connected by road, air, rail and sea. There are plenty of options for public transport within city and intercity.

Airport

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Kualanamu International Airport.

The new Kualanamu International Airport (KNO) was opened to the public on July 25, 2013. The new airport is the second largest airport after Soekarno-Hatta International Airport with a 224,298 m2 (2,414,324 sq ft) passengers terminal and will eventually have a capacity of 50 million passengers (2030). It is the first airport in Indonesia which has direct rail links to the city. The airport is the hub for Garuda Indonesia, Indonesia AirAsia, Lion Air, Susi Air and Wings Air. The new airport is a replacement for the Polonia Airport. Unlike the old Polonia Airport which was located in the heart of the city, this new airport is approximately 39 km (24 mi) from downtown. The airport has direct domestic flights to many major cities in Sumatra and Java. There are also some international flights to Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, etc. An airport train known as Airport Railink Services (ARS) connects the airport to city center. The train runs from Medan Main Station beside the Merdeka Square at Jalan Balai Kota from 4:00 a.m. to 08:00 p.m, and from the airport from 5:25 a.m. to 9:30 p.m. It is the fastest way to reach the airport from the city, taking 30 minutes. Alternate modes of transport from the airport into the city take longer (30 to 47 minutes).

Seaport

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Port of Belawan

The Port of Belawan (Pelabuhan Belawan) is the main seaport in Medan. Located in the northeast coast of Sumatra, Belawan is situated 12 miles (19 kilometres) north of Medan city and serves as a port, which is the terminus of a railway that crosses the channel south of the island by bridge.

The port was initially built in 1890 to provide a location where tobacco could be transferred directly between rail lines from the interior and deep-draft ships. The harbor expanded in 1907 with the construction of a new section intended for Chinese and indigenous traders, reserving the existing port for European shipping. In the early twentieth century the port’s business expanded, with the growth of major rubber and palm oil plantations in northern Sumatra. In the 1920s several major berthing facilities were built. In 1938, the port was the largest port in the Dutch East Indies, in terms of cargo value. Cargo volumes dropped substantially after Indonesian independence, and did not reach pre-independence levels again until the mid-1960s. A major restructuring in 1985 saw the construction of a container terminal; it almost immediately captured about one-fifth of Indonesia’s containerized exports. Major products exported include rubber, palm oil, tea, and coffee.

There are two port terminals, one for passenger and ferry services to Penang and Langkawi and some Indonesian cities such as Batam, Jakarta and Surabaya. Another terminal known as Belawan International Container Terminal (BICT), used for export and importing services. BICT is one of the largest shipping industry port in Indonesia.

Road and highway

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Amplas toll plaza

Medan is connected by the Trans-Sumatran Highway, the main road across Sumatra, and the Belawan-Medan-Tanjung Morawa Toll Road, also known as the Belmera Toll Road, the one and only available toll road in Medan, connecting Belawan, Medan and Tanjung Morawa. Currently there are additional toll roads under construction which will connect the city to the airport, Binjai, and Tebing Tinggi.

Rail

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Commuter train in Medan.

Railway lines connect Medan to Binjai and Tanjungpura to the northwest, to port of Belawan to the north, to Tebing Tinggi and Pematang Siantar to the southeast, and also Rantau Prapat among other cities. The largest train station in Medan is Medan Station. There are also smaller stations in Medan, such as Medan Pasar, Pulu Brayan, Titi Papan, and Labuhan, and Belawan. Titi Papan and Pulu Brayan only serve as the stop for freight trains carrying oil palm and petroleum. There are also have express train connecting to another North Sumatra cities such as Tebing Tinggi, Pematang Siantar, Tanjung Balai, and Rantau Prapat. Several rail lines around medan is under-constructed to replace them with an elevated railway.

The destination from main station are:

  • Sri Bilah to Rantau Prapat
  • Lancang Kuning to Tanjung Balai
  • Putri Deli to Tanjung Balai
  • Siantar Express to Pematang Siantar
  • Feeder Putri Deli to Binjai
  • Feeder Sri Bilah to Binjai
  • Sri Lelawangsa to Binjai, Tebingtinggi and Belawan

The Railink train is an airport express train connecting from Medan Station (City Railway Station – CRS) to Kuala Namu International Airport station (Airport Railink Station – ARS), operated 18 hours (from 5 am to 11 pm) with 30-minute distances. An elevated railway is under construction to make this airport rail service 15-minute distances. The CRS provides with a city check-in services for selected airlines.

Public transport

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Motorized rickshaw in Medan.

One of the unique features of Medan are the motorized rickshaws known as Becak Motor (Bentor) or Becak Mesin. The becaks are found almost everywhere. Unlike the Javanese rickshaws, the driver sits on the right side of the vehicle and unlike traditional becaks, a motorized becak can take its passenger anywhere in the city. The fare to ride a becak is relatively cheap and is usually negotiated beforehand.

There are also more public transport like taxis and minibuses, known as Sudako or Angkutan Kota (Angkot). The angkot can be found easily in medium-to-high congested roads, and angkots always use a route number.

TransMebidang is a new bus rapid transit system in North Sumatra, Indonesia that has 2 active corridors.

  • Corridor # 1:              Medan – Binjai
  • Corridor # 2:              Medan – Lubuk Pakam

Media


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Medan Post Office

Medan serves with several Radio and TV channels, also newspaper in local and foreign language such as Indonesian, English, Chinese, Batak, Malay and others:

Television channels

Medan also has twelve tvri national television stations:The (state-owned), (private) are the and five local television stations that airing in Medan.

  • TVRI Medan
  • Indosiar
  • MNCTV
  • Trans TV
  • Antv
  • GTV
  • RCTI
  • SCTV
  • TV One
  • Metro TV
  • Trans7
  • NET.
  • iNews
  • DAAI TV
  • RTV Medan
  • INTV Medan (id)
  • Kompas TV

Radio

RRI is the only state-owned radio in Medan, provides in Indonesian and English language. Several local languages radio are also serves, such as: Kardopa Radio (in Batak language), CityRadio FM and A-Radio FM (in Chinese language) and Simphony FM (in Malay language). Medan also has several popular radio channels like Prambors FM, MNC Trijaya FM, I-Radio, KISS FM, VISI FM, Delta Fm and others.

Publication

Several national and local newspapers are running in the city with Harian Mimbar Umum as the oldest one. Other popular newspapers include Harian Waspada, Analisa, Kompas, Jurnal Medan, Berita Sore, Harian Global, Harian Medan Bisnis, Posmetro Medan, Suara Indonesia Baru, and Tribun Medan. There are also has some Mandarin language newspaper such as Harian Indonesia (印尼星洲日报), Guo Ji Ri Bao (国际日报) and Shangbao (印尼商报). English newspaper like The Jakarta Post also distributed in the city.

Aplause Magazine, is one of the magazines from the city, published monthly and brings on Food, Travel, and Inspiration theme and what’s is happening around Medan. This magazine is the pioneer of a local magazine that specializes in the discussion of the theme of lifestyle or urban lifestyle. Publication 2005, Applause Magazine itself managed by Analisa Daily, the newspaper has a circulation of 65,000 copies in North Sumatra.

Sport


Football is one of the more popular sports in Medan, with five local clubs: PSMS Medan, Medan Jaya, Medan Chiefs, Bintang PSMS and Medan United; and a basketball club named Angsapura Sania. Another locally popular sport is Wushu, with significant growth in recent years as one of the favorite sports in Medan. It has its training center in Jalan Plaju in heart of town. Medan has recently seen much success in Wushu nationally and internationally. Medan has a multi-purpose stadium named Teladan Stadium. This stadium is used mostly for football matches, and serves as a home stadium for PSMS Medan.

Healthcare


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St. Elisabeth Hospital

Medan has more than 30 registered hospitals, 3 of them are public hospital and the rest are private hospital, these hospital are:

  • Pirngadi General Hospital
  • Adam Malik General Hospital
  • Haji General Hospital
  • St. Elisabeth Hospital
  • Martha Friska Hospital
  • Columbia Asia Hospital
  • Permata Bunda Hospital
  • Murni Teguh Hospital
  • Advent Hospital
  • Siloam-Dhirga Surya Hospital
  • Imelda Hospital
  • Vina Estetica Hospital
  • Stella Maris Hospital
  • Putri Hijau Military Hospital
  • Mitra Sejati General Hospital
  • Bunda Thamrin Hospital
  • Roya Prima Hospital
  • Methodist Hospital
  • Sumatra Eye Center

Education


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State University of Medan, postgraduate campus

As the largest city outside Java island, Medan provides with more than 827 registered Elementary school, 337 Middle School and 288 High school, this is included state-owned school, private school, religious school and foreign school. Some of notable school are: Sutomo School, Chandra Kusuma School, Medan International School Prime One School, Telkom Sandhy Putra Vocational School, St. Thomas School, SMA Negeri (State high-school) 1,2,3,4, etc.

Medan also has 72 registered universities, academy, polytechnics, and colleges such as:

  • University of North Sumatra
  • Medan State Polytechnic
  • State University of Medan
  • Prima University
  • HKBP Nommensen University
  • Dharmawangsa University
  • Universitas Methodist Indonesia
  • STBA-PIA (亚洲-国际友好学院)
  • Muhammadiyah University of North Sumatra
  • IT&B Campus
  • Medan Tourism Academy
  • Technology Institute of Medan
  • University of Pembangunan Panca Budi
  • Pelita Harapan University and others.

Twin towns – sister cities


Medan has sister relationships with these cities:

Gallery


Gallery of panoramic and street view images from Medan

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Jalan Kesawan in the 1910s.

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Another old view of Jalan Kesawan.

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Night street view of Medan.

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Cityscape around Jalan Irian Barat, Medan.

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Tirtanadi Tower.

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View of Jalan Sisingamaraja, Medan.

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Medan skyline, 2010.

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Another Medan skyline, 2012.

Palembang

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jembatan_Ampera_awak

Palembang (Indonesian pronunciation: [palɛmˈbaŋ]) is the second-largest city on Sumatra island after Medan and the capital city of the South Sumatra province in Indonesia. It is one of the oldest cities in the Malay Archipelago and Southeast Asia. Palembang is located on the Musi River banks on the east coast of southern Sumatra, with a land area of 369.22 square kilometres (142.56 square miles) and a population of 1,708,413 people (2014). Palembang is the ninth most populous city in Indonesia after Jakarta, Surabaya, Bandung, Bekasi, Medan, Tangerang, Depok and Semarang, and the nineteenth most populous city in Southeast Asia. Its built-up (or metro) area with Talang Kelapa and Rambutan was home to 1,620,429 inhabitants at the 2010 census.

Palembang is the oldest city in Indonesia, and has a history of being the capital city of the Kingdom of Srivijaya, a powerful Malay kingdom, which influenced many areas in Southeast Asia. The earliest evidence of its existence dates from the 7th century; a Chinese monk, Yijing, wrote that he visited Srivijaya in the year 671 for 6 months. The first inscription in which the name Srivijaya appears also dates from the 7th century, namely the Kedukan Bukit Inscription around Palembang in Sumatra, dated 683.

Palembang’s main landmarks include Ampera Bridge and Musi River, the latter of which divides the city into two. The north bank of river in Palembang is known as Seberang Ilir and the south bank of the river in Palembang is known as Seberang Ulu. Palembang is known as the host city of 2011 Southeast Asian Games and 2018 Asian Games along with Jakarta.

Opera Snapshot_2018-01-23_232618_en.wikipedia.orgLogo_Palembang

Opera Snapshot_2018-01-24_090752_www.google.com

Etymology


The word “Palembang” is derived from two words in Malay “pa” and “lembang”. “Pa” or “Pe” in Malay is a prefix which indicates a place or situation meanwhile “lembang” or “lembeng” means lowland, a swollen root because inundated by water for a long time. In other words, “Palembang” literally means “the place which was constantly inundated by water”.

History


Srivijaya Period

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Srivijaya Archaeological Park located Southwest from Palembang city centre (green). The site forming axis connecting Bukit Seguntang and Musi River.

The Kedukan Bukit Inscription, which is dated 682 AD, is the oldest inscription found in Palembang. The inscription tells of a king who acquires magical powers and leads a large military force over water and land, setting out from Tamvan delta, arriving at a place called “Matajap,” and (in the interpretation of some scholars) founding the polity of Srivijaya. The “Matajap” of the inscription is believed to be Mukha Upang, a district of Palembang.

According to George Coedes, “in the second half of the 9th century Java and Sumatra were united under the rule of a Sailendra reigning in Java…its centre at Palembang.”

As the capital of the Srivijaya kingdom, this second oldest city in Southeast Asia has been an important trading centre in maritime Southeast Asia for more than a millennium. The kingdom flourished by controlling the international trade through the Strait of Malacca from the seventh to thirteenth century, establishing hegemony over polities in Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula. Sanskrit inscriptions and Chinese travelogues report that the kingdom prospered as an intermediary in the international trade between China and India. Because of the Monsoon, or biannual seasonal wind, after getting to Srivijaya, traders from China or India had to stay there for several months waiting the direction of the wind changes, or had to go back to China or India. Thus, Srivijaya grew to be the biggest international trade centre, and not only the market, but also infrastructures for traders such as lodging and entertainment also developed. It functioned as a cultural centre as well. Yijing, a Chinese Buddhist pilgrim who stayed in today’s Palembang and Jambi in 671, recorded that there were more than a thousand Buddhist monks and learned scholars, sponsored by the kingdom to study religion in Palembang. He also recorded that there were many “states” under the kingdom called Srivijaya (Shili Foshi).

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A statue of Buddha, discovered in Bukit Seguntang archaeological site, today displayed in Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II Museum Palembang.

In 990, an army from the Kingdom of Medang in Java attacked Srivijaya. Palembang was sacked and the palace was looted. Cudamani Warmadewa, however, requested protection from China. By 1006, the invasion was finally repelled. In retaliation, Srivijaya king sent his troops to assist King Wurawari of Luaram in his revolt against Medang. In subsequent battles, Medang Palace was destroyed and the royal family of Medang executed.

In 1068, King Virarajendra Chola of the Chola Dynasty of India conquered what is now Kedah from Srivijaya. Having lost many soldiers in the war and with its coffers almost empty due to the twenty-year disruption of trade, the reach of Srivijaya was diminished. Its territories began to free themselves from the suzerainty of Palembang and to establish many small kingdoms all over the former empire. Srivijaya finally declined with the military expedition by Javanese kingdoms in the thirteenth century.

Post-Srivijaya Period

Prince Parameswara fled from Palembang after being crushed by Javanese forces, The city was then plagued by pirates, notably Chen Zuyi and Liang Daoming. In 1407, Chen was confronted at Palembang by the returning Imperial treasure fleet under Admiral Zheng He. Zheng made the opening gambit, demanding Chen’s surrender and the pirate quickly signalled agreement while preparing for a surprise pre-emptive strike. But details of his plan had been provided to Zheng by a local Chinese informant, and in the fierce battle that ensued, the Ming soldiers and Ming superior armada finally destroyed the pirate fleet and killed 5,000 of its men. Chen was captured and held for public execution in Nanjing in 1407. Peace was finally restored to the Strait of Malacca as Shi Jinqing was installed as Palembang’s new ruler and incorporated into what would become a far-flung system of allies who acknowledged Ming supremacy in return for diplomatic recognition, military protection, and trading rights. Palembang is called Chinese: 巨港; pinyin: Jù gǎng; literally: “Giant Harbour”.

Palembang Sultanate Period

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The walled city of Palembang with its three fortresses in 1682.

After Demak Sultanate fell under Kingdom of Pajang, a Demak nobleman, Geding Suro with his followers fled to Palembang and established a new dynasty. Islam become dominant in Palembang since this period. Grand Mosque of Palembang built in 1738 under the reign of Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin I Jaya Wikrama, completed in 1748. Settlement flourished along Musi River bank, some of houses built on rafts. The Sultanate enacted legislation that portion downstream of Seberang Ilir where the palace was located, was intended for residents of Palembang, whereas foreigners who were not citizens of Palembang was at the opposite bank of the palace called Seberang Ulu.

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Local elders of Palembang during colonial period.

Several local rivals, such as Banten, Jambi, and Aceh threatened the existence of the Sultanate, meanwhile Dutch East India Company established a trade post in Palembang in 1619. In 1642, the company obtained monopoly right over pepper trading in the port. Tension mounted between the Dutch and the locals, peaked at 1657 when a Dutch ship was attacked in Palembang, gave a signal to the company to launch a punitive expedition in 1659 which burned the city to the ground.

During Napoleonic Wars in 1812, the sultan at that time, Mahmud Badaruddin II repudiated British claims to suzerainty, which was responded by British by attacking Palembang, sacking the court, and installing sultan’s more cooperative younger brother, Najamuddin to the throne. The Dutch attempted to recover their influence at the court in 1816, but Sultan Najamuddin was uncooperative with them. An expedition launched by the Dutch in 1818 and captured Sultan Najamudin and exiled him to Batavia. A Dutch garrison was established in 1821, but sultan attempted an attack and a mass poisoning to the garrison, which were intervened by Dutch. Mahmud Badaruddin II was exiled to Ternate, and his palace was burned to the ground. The Sultanate was later abolished by Dutch and direct colonial rule was established.

Colonial Period

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A painting of Palembang during Dutch rule.

Since the abolition of the Palembang Sultanate in 1825 by the Dutch, Palembang become the capital of Residency of Palembang, encompassing whole territory who will be South Sumatra province after independence, led by Jan Izaäk van Sevenhoven as its first resident.

From the late nineteenth century, with the introduction of new export crops by the Dutch companies, Palembang rose again as an economic centre. In the 1900s, the development of the petroleum and rubber industries caused unprecedented economic growth, which brought about the influx of migrants, an increase in urbanisation, and development of the socioeconomic infrastructure.

The emergence of rubber cultivation in South Sumatra began in the late 19th century. In the early 20th century, several major Western companies entered the area and operated rubber plantations. From the mid-1920s, rubber became the biggest export crop in the area, surpassing robusta coffee. Although there were large rubber estates owned by Western enterprises, rubber in Palembang was produced mainly by smallholders. By the 1920s, the Residency of Palembang (today’s South Sumatra province) was ranked sixth among the regions of smallholder rubber production, becoming the largest of the smallholder rubber regions in the 1940s, producing 58,000 tons of rubber.

There were three petroleum companies in 1900: the Sumatra-Palembang Petroleum Company (Sumpal); the French-owned Muara Enim Petroleum Company; and the Musi Ilir Petroleum Company. The Sumpal was soon assimilated into the Royal Dutch, and the Muara Enim Co. and the Musi Ilir Co. were also assimilated into the Royal Dutch, in 1904 and in 1906, respectively. Based on this assimilation, Royal Dutch and Shell established the BPM, the operating company of Royal Dutch Shell, and opened an oil refinery at Plaju, on the shore of the Musi River in Palembang, in 1907. While BPM was the only operating company in this area until the 1910s, American oil companies launched their business in the Palembang region from the 1920s. Standard Oil of New Jersey established a subsidiary, the American Petroleum Company, and, to prevent Dutch laws to restrict the activities of foreign firms, the American Petroleum Company established its own subsidiary, the Netherlands Colonial Oil Company (Nederlandche Koloniale Petroleum Maatschapij, NKPM). The NKPM began to establish itself in Sungai Gerong area in the early 1920s, and completed the construction of pipelines to send 3,500 barrels per day from their oilfields to the refinery at Sungai Gerong. The two refinery complexes were like enclaves, separate urban centres with houses, hospitals, and other cultural facilities built by the Dutch and Americans. In 1933, Standard Oil incorporated the NKPM holdings into the Standard Vacuum Company, a new joint venture corporation, which was renamed the Standard Vacuum Petroleum Maatschappij (SVPM). Caltex (a subsidiary of the Standard Oil California and Texas Company) secured extensive exploration concessions in Central Sumatra (Jambi) in 1931. By 1938, the production of crude oil in the Netherlands East Indies totalled 7,398,000 metric tons, and the shares of the BPM reached seventy two percent, while the NKPM (StandardVacuum)’s share was twenty eight percent. Whereas the most prolific area in crude oil production was East Kalimantan until the late 1930s, since then Palembang and Jambi took over the position. All crude oil production in the NEI was processed at seven refineries at this time, especially at three large export refineries: the NKPM plant at Sungai Gerong, the BPM refineries at Plaju, and the one in Balikpapan. Thus Palembang held two of the three biggest oil refineries in the archipelago.

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Coat of Arms of Palembang during colonial era, adopted in 1925.

In the 1920s, with the guidance of Thomas Karsten, one of the pioneers of architectural project in the cities in the Netherlands East Indies, the Traffic Commission (Komisi Lalu Lintas) of Palembang was to improve inland transportation conditions in Palembang. The Commission reclaimed land from rivers and asphalted roads. Traffic plan in the city of Palembang was based on Karsten’s city plan, in which the Ilir was in the form of a road ring, starting form an edge of the Musi River. From then they built many smaller bridges on both sides of the Musi River, including the Wilhelmina Bridge over the Ogan River that vertically divides the Ulu area. The bridge was built in 1939 with the intention of connecting oil refineries in the eastern bank to western bank, where the Kertapati train station was located.In the late 1920s, ocean steamers navigated the Musi River on a regular basis.

In the 1930s, the Residency of Palembang was one of the “three giants” in the export economy of the Netherlands East Indies, together with the East Sumatran Plantation Belt and Southeast Kalimantan, and the city of Palembang was the most populous urban centre outside Java. Its population was 50,703 in 1905; it reached 109,069, while the population of Makassar and Medan was 86,662 and 74,976, respectively. It was surpassed only by three larger cities located in Java: Batavia, Surabaya and Semarang.

Japanese Occupation Period

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Imperial Japanese Army paratrooper are landing during the battle of Palembang, 13 February 1942.

Palembang was a high priority objective for Japanese forces, because it was the location of some finest oil refineries in Southeast Asia. An oil embargo had been imposed on Japan by the United States, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. With the area’s abundant fuel supply and airfield, Palembang offered significant potential as a military base area, to both the Allies and the Japanese.

The main battle occurred during 13–16 February 1942. While the Allied planes were attacking Japanese shipping on 13 February, Kawasaki Ki-56 transport planes of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Chutai, Imperial Japanese Army Air Force (IJAAF), dropped Teishin Shudan (Raiding Group) paratroopers over Pangkalan Benteng airfield. At the same time Mitsubishi Ki-21 bombers from the 98th Sentai dropped supplies for paratroopers. The formation was escorted by a large force of Nakajima Ki-43 fighters from the 59th and 64th Sentai. As many as 180 men from the Japanese 2nd Parachute Regiment, under Colonel Seiichi Kume, dropped between Palembang and Pangkalan Benteng, and more than 90 men came down west of the refineries at Plaju. Although the Japanese paratroopers failed to capture the Pangkalan Benteng airfield, at the Plaju oil refinery they managed to gain possession of the entire complex, which was undamaged. However, the second oil refinery in Sungai Gerong was successfully demolished by the Allies. A makeshift counter-attack by Landstorm troops and anti-aircraft gunners from Prabumulih managed to retake the complex but took heavy losses. The planned demolition failed to do any serious damage to the refinery, but the oil stores were set ablaze. Two hours after the first drop, another 60 Japanese paratroopers were dropped near Pangkalan Benteng airfield.

As the Japanese landing force approached Sumatra, the remaining Allied aircraft attacked it, and the Japanese transport ship Otawa Maru was sunk. Hurricanes flew up the rivers, machine-gunning Japanese landing craft. However, on the afternoon of 15 February, all Allied aircraft were ordered to Java, where a major Japanese attack was anticipated, and the Allied air units had withdrawn from southern Sumatra by the evening of 16 February 1942. Other personnel were evacuated via Oosthaven (now Bandar Lampung) by ships to Java or India.

The Japanese managed to restore production at both main refineries, and these petroleum products were significant in their war effort. Despite Allied air raids, production was largely maintained.

In August 1944 USAAF B-29 bombers, flying from India, raided the Palembang refineries in what was the longest range regular bombing mission of the war.

In January 1945, in Operation Meridian, the British Royal Navy Fleet Air Arm launched two major attacks on the two refinery complexes, against determined Japanese defence.

National Revolution Period

On 8 October 1945, Resident of South Sumatra, Adnan Kapau Gani with all Gunseibu officers raised the Indonesian flag during a ceremony. On that day, it was announced that Palembang Residency was under control of Republicans.

Palembang was occupied by Dutch after an urban battle between the Republicans and the Dutch on 1–5 January 1947, which is nicknamed Pertempuran Lima Hari Lima Malam (Five Days and Nights Battle). There were three fronts during the battle which are Eastern Ilir front, Western Ilir front, and Ulu front. The battle ended with ceasefire and the Republican forces was forced to retreat as far as 20 kilometres (12 miles) from Palembang.

During the occupation, the Dutch formed the federal state of South Sumatra on September 1948. After the transfer of sovereignty on 27 December 1949, South Sumatra State, along with other federal states and the Republic had formed short-lived United States of Indonesia before the states were abolished and integrated back into the form of Republic on 17 August 1950.

Old Order and New Order Period 

During PRRI/Permesta rebellion, the rebel faction established Dewan Garuda (Garuda Council) in South Sumatra on 15 January 1957 under Lieutenant Colonel Barlian took over the local government of South Sumatra.

In April 1962, Indonesian government started the construction of Ampera Bridge which was completed and officially opened for public on 30 September 1965 by Minister/Commander of the Army Lieutenant General Ahmad Yani on 30 September 1965, only hours before he was killed by troops belonging to the 30 September Movement. At first, the bridge was known as the Bung Karno Bridge, after the president, but following his fall, it was renamed the Ampera Bridge. A second bridge in Palembang which crosses Musi River, Musi II Bridge was built on 4 August 1992.

On 6 December 1988, Indonesia government expanded Palembang’s administrative area as far as 12 kilometers from the city center, with 9 villages from Musi Banyuasin integrated into 2 new districts of Palembang and 1 village from Ogan Komering Ilir integrated into Seberang Ulu I District.

During May 1998 riots of Indonesia, Palembang was also ravaged by riots with 10 burned shops, more than a dozen burned cars, and several injured people inflicted by rioters as students marching to the Provincial People’s Representative Council office of South Sumatra. Thousands of police and soldiers were put on guard at various points in the city. The Volunteer Team for Humanity (Indonesian: Tim Relawan untuk Manusia, or TRUK) reported that cases of sexual assault also took place.

Reformasi Period

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The opening ceremony of 2011 Southeast Asian Games in Jakabaring Stadium, Palembang, 11 November 2011.

In 2001, a sport complex along with its main stadium, Gelora Sriwijaya Stadium, was built in Jakabaring, completed in 2004. It served as venues for 2004 Pekan Olahraga Nasional. Palembang became host of Pekan Olahraga Nasional in 2004 after 47 years it was last held outside Java and 51 years in Sumatra. 7 years later, Palembang became the host of more prestigious sporting event, 2011 Southeast Asian Games along with Jakarta. In 2013, Indonesian government decide to replace the host of 2013 Islamic Solidarity Games from Pekanbaru to Palembang because several problems occurred in the former host, including Riau Governor, Rusli Zainal who stumbled over a corruption scandal. Palembang, together again with Jakarta, will host the 2018 Asian Games.

Sixth president of Indonesia, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, declared Palembang as a “Water Tourism City” on 27 September 2005. More further on 5 January 2008, Palembang publicised its tourist attractions with the slogan “Visit Musi 2008”.

Palembang completed its first flyover at Simpang Polda in September 2008. Second flyover in Jakabaring completed in 2015. In 2010, Palembang launched its bus transit system, Transmusi. Since 2015, Indonesian government began to upgrade Palembang’s transportation capability with the construction of Indonesia’s first light rail transit system from Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II International Airport to Jakabaring, the city’s toll roads, two Musi River bridges, and two flyovers, all expected to be operational before 2018 Asian Games. The toll road began its operation in October 2017.

Geography and Climate


Geography

At 2°59′10″S 104°45′20″E, Palembang occupies 400.61 km2 of vast lowland area east of Bukit Barisan Mountains in southern Sumatra with average elevation of 8 metres (26 feet), approximately 105 kilometres (65 miles) from nearby coast at Bangka Strait. One of the largest rivers in Sumatra, the Musi River, runs through the city, dividing the city area into two major parts which are Seberang Ilir in the north and Seberang Ulu in the south. Palembang is also located on the confluence of two major tributaries of Musi River, which are Ogan River and Komering River. The river’s water level is influenced by tidal cycle. In rainy season, many areas on the city are inundated by the river’s tide.

Palembang’s topography is quite different between Seberang Ilir and Seberang Ulu area. Seberang Ulu topography is relatively flat, meanwhile Seberang Ilir topography is more rugged with altitude variation between 4 and 20 metres (13 and 66 feet).

Climate

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A NASA satellite image showing the extent of the haze on 24 September 2015. Palembang was directly affected by the haze during this time, disrupting air travels and worsening the health condition of its residents.

Palembang is located in the tropical rainforest climate (Köppen Af) with significant rainfall even in its driest months. The climate in Palembang is often described with “hot, humid climate with a lot of rainfall throughout the year”. The annual average temperature is around 27.3 °C (81.1 °F). Average temperatures are nearly identical throughout the year in the city. Average rainfall annually is 2,623 millimetres. During its wettest months, the city’s lowlands are frequently inundated by torrential rains. However, in its driest months, many peatlands around the city dried, making them more vulnerable to wildfires, causing haze in the city for months.

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Neighborhoods

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Panorama of Palembang from southeast to southwest as seen from Pasar 16 Ilir.

Palembang is roughly divided by Musi River into two major areas known as Seberang Ilir (lit. “downstream bank”) in the north and Seberang Ulu (lit. “upstream bank”) in the south.

Seberang Ilir is the main economic and political centre in Palembang. Some areas such as 16 Ilir, Cinde, and Km 5 are the major retail hub in Palembang while other areas like Ilir Barat Permai, Kampus, and Patal Pusri are growing into major business centres contained a prominent portion of the city’s highrises. Major residential areas in Seberang Ilir such as Tangga Buntung, Bukit Besar, Sekip, Pakjo, Kenten, Pasar Kuto, and Lemabang.

Seberang Ulu is divided into three main neighbourhoods which are Plaju, Kertapati, and Jakabaring. Seberang Ulu is less developed than its counterpart, but this area is undergoing massive development, especially in Jakabaring, with the construction of business centre, government building, and the most notably is the construction of the city’s sport complex, Jakabaring Sport City.

Administration


Government

Palembang is administratively has a status as a city and has its own local government and legislative body. The executive head of Palembang is the Mayor. The mayor and members of representatives are locally elected by popular vote for a 5-year term. The city government enjoys greater decentralization of affairs than the provincial body, such as the provision of public schools, public health facilities and public transportation. Current Mayor of the city is Harnojoyo, previous vice mayor who is appointed because the previous mayor, Romi Herton was impeached because of a bribery scandal during his election. Besides Mayor and Vice Mayor, there is Palembang Municipal People’s Representative Council, which is a legislative body of council members directly elected by the people in legislative elections every five years.

Administrative Division

Palembang consists of eighteen kecamatan (districts), each headed by a Camat. They are further divided again into 07 kelurahan (subdistricts/administrative villages):

Palembang’s Districts (Kecamatan)

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1 Ilir Timur III and Jakabaring is established in 2017.

Demography


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Religion in Palembang (2017)

Ethnicity and language

Palembang is a ethnically diverse city. The indigenous population in the region of Palembang is Palembangnese people, a subgroup of Malay people with heavy influence of Javanese culture. Many of them live in tradional settlements along Musi River bank although recently there are influx of Palembangnese to live on the other part of the city or live outside the city. Several people from other ethnicities from other parts of South Sumatra and outside South Sumatra also lived in Palembang. There are also significant amount of communities of Arab and Chinese Indonesian who lived in the city. Arab Indonesian communities mainly lives in several kampongs such as Kampong Al Munawwar in 13 Ulu, Kampong Assegaf in 16 Ulu, Kampong Al Habsyi in Kuto Batu, Kampong Jamalullail in 19 Ilir and Kampong Alawiyyin in Sungai Bayas, 10 Ilir. Chinese Indonesian communities however mainly lives in several commercial districts in Palembang although there are several traditional Chinese kampongs such as Kampong Kapitan in 7 Ulu.

The local language of Palembang, Musi (Bahasa Palembang), is considered as a dialect of Malay with significant Javanese loanwords. There are also Palembang residents originating from other parts of South Sumatra. They have their own regional languages, such as Komering, Lahat, Rawas and Semendo.

Religion

Palembang’s primary religion is Islam, but many of the inhabitants also practice Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism and Confucianism.

As of the 2017 data from Badan Pusat Statistik Palembang, the population of Palembang was 92.22% Muslim, 3.91% Buddhist, 2.23% Protestant, 1.49% Roman Catholic, 0.13% Hindu, and 0.02% Confucianist. The majority of Palembang people are practising Shafi`i school of Sunni Islam.

Transportation


COLLECTIE_TROPENMUSEUM_Gezicht_op_de_Moesi_rivier_bij_Palembang_TMnr_10010493

Kajang boats were widely used for transportation in Musi River during colonial times.

Before the operational of Ampera Bridge, there were more people in Palembang using water transportation. Large water vehicles such as river steamboat was used to transport people to and from inland. Some people also used smaller boat such as Kajang boat, a traditional boat with simple roof to carry people and goods. Nowadays, people in Palembang prefers road transportation over water one and private transportation over public one. Traffic jam often occured in some main streets, especially during rush hour. Rail and air transportation is also available in Palembang.

Road Transport

Transmusi

Since introduced in 2010, bus rapid transit becomes the main transportation in Palembang under the name Transmusi. Unlike usual bus rapid transits, Transmusi has no special lanes because the road in Palembang are too narrow to build it, so Transmusi often trapped in traffic jams. Transmusi has operated 8 routes (corridors) inside the city and 3 routes to and from the city.

  • Corridor 1 : Bus stop below the Ilir part of Ampera Bridge – Alang Alang Lebar Bus Station (KM 12)
  • Corridor 2 : Perumnas Bus Station – PIM (Palembang Indah Mall)
  • Corridor 3 : Plaju – PS Mall (Palembang Square Mall)
  • Corridor 4 : Jakabaring – Karya Jaya Bus Station (Kertapati)
  • Corridor 5 : Alang Alang Lebar Bus Station (KM 12) – Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II International Airport
  • Corridor 6 : Pusri – Palembang Square (PS)
  • Corridor 7 : Kenten – Dempo
  • Corridor 8 : Alang Alang Lebar Bus Station (KM 12) – Terminal Karya Jaya (Kertapati)
  • Pangkalan Balai Corridor : Alang Alang Lebar Bus Station (KM 12) – Pangkalan Balai
  • Indralaya Corridor : Terminal Karya Jaya – Indralaya
  • Unsri Corridor : Unsri Bukit – Unsri Indralaya

Public bus and angkot services

Palembang operates several bus and angkot routes. First angkots in Palembang were using Willys Jeep and was called “Mobil Ketek” because of its engine sound. Public bus was introduced in 1990s and served some routes from Seberang Ilir neighborhoods such as Km.12, Perumnas, Pusri, and Bukit Besar to Seberang Ulu neighborhoods which are Kertapati, Plaju, and Jakabaring. Because of aging vehicles and complaints in security and driver habits, Palembang public bus is planned to be removed gradually until 2018.

Palembang also operates several air-conditioned public bus to neighboring towns such as Kayuagung, Indralaya, Pangkalan Balai, Prabumulih, and Tanjung Api-Api.

Taxicab

Palembang also has a large number of taxis. The number has been rising since the National Games 2004 and SEA Games 2011, which both were held in Palembang.

Becak and ojek

There are many becak (pedicabs) and ojek (motorcycle taxi) operated in Palembang. Becak are often found in more older settlements along Musi River than ojek which are mostly found in more recent settlements far from the river.

App-based taxi and ojek

App-based taxi and ojek are flourished in the city with Go-Jek and Grab as their leading providers. Because of heated competition with conventional taxi, angkot, and ojek which sometimes ended with violences, app-based taxi and ojek are often barred from taking passengers in some places especially airport.

Rail Transport  

Palembang-Indralaya Rail Bus provides rail transportation from Kertapati Station in Palembang to Sriwijaya University in Indralaya and vice versa.

Railway tracks were introduced by the Dutch in late 1800s. Railway tracks connect Palembang to provinces in southern Sumatra such as Bandar Lampung in Lampung Province, Rejang Lebong Regency in Bengkulu Province, and some main towns in South Sumatra such as Lubuklinggau, Prabumulih, Indralaya, Muara Enim, Lahat, Tebing Tinggi, Baturaja, and Martapura. The largest railway station in Palembang is Kertapati Station. There are plans to connect Palembang to other cities in Sumatra, ultimately connected existing railways in northern, western and southern Sumatra, forming Trans Sumatra Railway.

Water Transport

River Transport

Palembang has several types of river transportation. The most traditional one is a motorboat called “perahu ketek”, a wooden boat which using small engine and moves quite slow. Perahu ketek is often used especially by people who live on riverside to cross the river from one bank to another. Another type of river transportation is called “speedboat”, a wooden motorboat which using more larger engine and designed to withstand the speed of the boat itself, far more faster than perahu ketek. Speedboats often used by the people outside Palembang, especially who lives in Musi River delta, to go to and from Palembang. Palembang also operates some larger riverboat for tourism activities.

Port

Currently Palembang also has two main ferry ports, Tanjung Api-api Port, located on sea-shore, 68 kilometres (42 miles) outside the city, and Boom Baru Port inside the city. These ports operate ferries to Bangka, Belitung and Batam Island. There is a plan to build deep sea port in Tanjung Api-Api.

Air Transport 

The only public airport in Palembang is Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II International Airport. This airport provides domestic routes which connects Palembang with many cities in Indonesia especially Jakarta and also serves international routes to Singapore and Kuala Lumpur. This airport also connects Palembang to other towns in South Sumatra such as Lubuklinggau and Pagaralam.

Rapid Transit

Palembang currently constructs Palembang Light Rail Transit to ease the traffic congestion in the city.This rail transit is expected to be operational in 2018 and become the first rail rapid transit in Indonesia. There will be 13 stations for the LRT system, namely as follows:

  • Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II Airport station
  • Asrama Haji station
  • Telkom station
  • RSUD station
  • POLDA station
  • Demang Lebar Daun station
  • Palembang Icon station
  • Dishub Kominfo station
  • Pasar Cinde station
  • Jembatan Ampera station
  • Gubernur Bastari station
  • Stadion Jakabaring station
  • OPI station

Economy