Melayu, Jawa, Pecok, Sunda, Banjar, Minangkabau, Batak, Madura, Tionghoa, Mandarin, Arab, Tamil, Belanda, Portugis
IPM: 79.60 (tinggi)
Zona waktu: WIB (UTC+7)
Lagu daerah: Kicir-Kicir
Rumah tradisional: Rumah Bapang/Kebaya
Senjata tradisional: Golok
Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta (DKI Jakarta) adalah ibu kota negara dan kota terbesar di Indonesia. Jakarta merupakan satu-satunya kota di Indonesia yang memiliki status setingkat provinsi. Jakarta terletak di pesisir bagian barat laut Pulau Jawa. Dahulu pernah dikenal dengan beberapa nama di antaranya Sunda Kelapa, Jayakarta, dan Batavia. Di dunia internasional Jakarta juga mempunyai julukan J-Town, atau lebih populer lagi The Big Durian karena dianggap kota yang sebanding New York City (Big Apple) di Indonesia.
Jakarta memiliki luas sekitar 661,52 km² (lautan: 6.977,5 km²), dengan penduduk berjumlah 10.374.235 jiwa (2017). Wilayah metropolitan Jakarta (Jabodetabek) yang berpenduduk sekitar 28 juta jiwa, merupakan metropolitan terbesar di Asia Tenggara atau urutan kedua di dunia.
Sebagai pusat bisnis, politik, dan kebudayaan, Jakarta merupakan tempat berdirinya kantor-kantor pusat BUMN, perusahaan swasta, dan perusahaan asing. Kota ini juga menjadi tempat kedudukan lembaga-lembaga pemerintahan dan kantor sekretariat ASEAN. Jakarta dilayani oleh dua bandar udara, yakni Bandara Soekarno–Hatta dan Bandara Halim Perdanakusuma, serta tiga pelabuhan laut di Tanjung Priok, Sunda Kelapa, dan Ancol.
Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
Los Angeles (i/lɒs ˈændʒələs/ loss-an-jə-ləs; bahasa Spanyol: [los ˈaŋxeles], ditulis Los Ángeles; pengucapan Britania /lɒs ˈændʒəliːz/ loss-an-jə-leez) dengan jumlah penduduk sebanyak 3.792.621 jiwa sesuai Sensus Amerika Serikat 2010, adalah kota terpadat di negara bagian California, dan kota terpadat kedua di Amerika Serikat, setelah New York City. Luasnya mencapai 468,67 mil persegi (1213,8 km2), dan terletak di California Selatan. Terkenal dengan inisial L.A.-nya, kota ini merupakan titik utama wilayah statistik metropolitan Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana dan region Wilayah Los Angeles Raya, yang dihuni 12.828.837 dan hampir 18 juta jiwa pada tahun 2010, menjadikannya salah satu wilayah metropolitan terpadat di dunia dan yang terbesar kedua di Amerika Serikat. Los Angeles juga merupakan ibu kota County Los Angeles, salah satu county terpadat dan paling beragam etnisnya di Amerika Serikat, sementara seluruh wilayah Los Angeles sendiri diakui sebagai kota besar yang paling beragam di negara ini. Penduduk kota Los Angeles disebut “Angelenos”.
Los Angeles didirikan tanggal 4 September 1781 oleh gubernur Spanyol Felipe de Neve. Kota ini menjadi bagian dari Meksiko pada tahun 1821 setelah Perang Kemerdekaan Meksiko. Tahun 1848, pada akhir Perang Meksiko-Amerika Serikat, Los Angeles dan seluruh California dibeli sebagai bagian dari Traktat Guadalupe Hidalgo, sehingga menjadi bagian dari Amerika Serikat. Los Angeles disatukan menjadi munisipalitas pada tanggal 4 April 1850, lima bulan sebelum California mendapat status negara bagian.
Dijuluki City of Angels, Los Angeles adalah pusat dunia bisnis, perdagangan internasional, hiburan, budaya, media, mode, ilmu pengetahuan, olahraga, teknologi, dan pendidikan terdepan, serta merupakan kota terkaya ketiga di dunia dan kota paling kuat dan berpengaruh kelima di dunia. Kota ini adalah tempat berdirinya berbagai institusi yang mencakup berbagai bidang profesional dan budaya dan merupakan salah satu mesin ekonomi terpenting di Amerika Serikat. Wilayah statistik gabungan (CSA) Los Angeles memiliki produk metropolitan bruto (PMB) senilai $831 miliar (tahun 2008), menjadikannya pusat ekonomi terbesar ketiga di dunia, setelah wilayah metropolitan Tokyo Raya dan New York. Sebagai basis Hollywood, kota ini dijuluki “Ibu Kota Hiburan Dunia”, yang memimpin pembuatan produksi televisi, permainan video, dan musik rekaman kelas dunia. Bisnis hiburan di kota ini mendorong banyak selebriti menetap di Los Angeles dan pinggiran kotanya. Selain itu, Los Angeles pernah menyelenggarakan Olimpiade Musim Panas tahun 1932 dan 1984.
Kawasan pesisir Los Angeles pertama dihuni oleh suku Pribumi Amerika Tongva (atau Gabrieleños) dan Chumash ribuan tahun yang lalu. Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, seorang penjelajah kelahiran Portugal, mengklaim wilayah California Selatan sebagai bagian dari Kekaisaran Spanyol pada tahun 1542. Gaspar de Portolà dan misionaris Fransiskan Juan Crespí, berhasil mencapai daerah yang saat ini merupakan Los Angeles pada tanggal 2 Agustus 1769.
Pada tahun 1771, biarawan Fransiskan Junípero Serra memimpin pembangunan Mission San Gabriel Arcangel, misi pertama di daerah ini. Pada tanggal 4 September 1781, empat puluh empat pendatang yang dijuluki “Los Pobladores” mendirikan sebuah pueblo bernama “La Reyna de los Angeles”, yang diberi nama untuk Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles del Río de Porciúncula (Our Lady the Queen of the Angels of the Porciúncula River). Dua per tiga pendatang adalah mestizo atau mulatto dengan keturunan Afrika, Amerindian, dan Eropa. Permukiman tersebut tetap menjadi kota ranca kecil selama beberapa dasawarsa, tetapi pada tahun 1820, populasinya bertambah hingga 650 jiwa. Hari ini, pueblo tersebut diabadikan di distrik bersejarah Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza dan Olvera Street, kawasan tertua di Los Angeles.
Spanyol Baru merdeka dari Kekaisaran Spanyol pada tahun 1821, dan pueblo ini masih menjadi bagian dari Meksiko. Selama masa kekuasaan Meksiko, Gubernur Pío Pico menjadikan Los Angeles ibu kota regional Alta California. Kekuasaan Meksiko berakhir pada Perang Meksiko-Amerika Serikat: Amerika Serikat merebut kota ini dari Californios setelah serangkaian pertempuran yang berujung pada penandatanganan Traktat Cahuenga pada tanggal 13 Januari 1847.
Rel kereta api datang seiring rampungnya jalur Southern Pacific menuju Los Angeles pada tahun 1876. Minyak ditemukan tahun 1892, dan pada 1923, penemuan tersebut membantu California menjadi produsen minyak terbesar di Amerika Serikat dengan pangsa sekitar seperempat produksi minyak dunia.
Pada tahun 1900, populasinya tumbuh hingga lebih dari 102.000 jiwa, sehingga membebani persediaan air kota. Rampungnya pembangunan Los Angeles Aqueduct tahun 1913, di bawah arahan William Mulholland, menjamin pertumbuhan kota secara terus menerus.
Pada tahun 1910, tidak cuma Los Angeles menganeksasi Hollywood, tetapi di kota ini sudah ada 10 perusahaan film yang beroperasi. Pada tahun 1921, lebih dari 80 persen industri film dunia terkonsentrasi di L.A. ] Uang yang dihasilkan industri ini melindungi kota dari guncangan ekonomi yang menyebar di seluruh Amerika Serikat selama Depresi Besar. Pada tahun 1930, populasinya melewati angka satu juta jiwa. Pada tahun 1932, kota ini mengadakan Olimpiade Musim Panas.
Setelah akhir Perang Dunia II, Los Angeles tumbuh dengan sangat cepat, menyebar hingga San Fernando Valley. Pada tahun 1969, Los Angeles menjadi salah satu tempat kelahiran Internet, karena transmisi ARPANET pertama dikirimkan dari University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) ke SRI di Menlo Park.
Pada tahun 1984, kota ini menyelenggarkaan Olimpiade Musim Panas untuk kedua kalinya. Meski diboikot oleh 14 negara Komunis, Olimpiade Musim Panas 1984 lebih sukses secara finansial ketimbang Olimpiade sebelumnya, sekaligus Olimpiade kedua yang menghasilkan keuntungan setelah Olimpiade Musim Panas 1932 yang juga diadakan di Los Angeles.
Ketegangan rasial mencuat pada tanggal 29 April 1992 setelah beberapa polisi yang tertangkap kamera sedang memukul Rodney King dibebaskan oleh hakim di Simi Valley, berujung pada kerusuhan berskala besar. Pada tahun 1994, gempa bumi Northridge berkekuatan 6,7 mengguncang kota dan mengakibatkan kerusakan senilai $12,5 miliar serta kematian sebanyak 72 orang. Abad ini ditutup dengan skandal Rampart, salah satu kasus kelakuan buruk polisi yang paling banyak didokumentasikan sepanjang sejarah Amerika Serikat.
Pada tahun 2002, para pemberi suara menggagalkan upaya San Fernando Valley dan Hollywood untuk memisahkan diri dari Los Angeles.
Los Angeles berbentuk ireguler dan mencakup wilayah seluas 502,7 mil persegi (1302 km2), yang terdiri dari 468,7 mil persegi (1214 km2) daratan dan 34,0 mil persegi (88 km2) perairan. Kota ini membujur sepanjang 44 mile (71 km) dan melintang sepanjang 29 mile (47 km). Los Angeles memiliki batas kota sepanjang 342 mile (550 km).
Los Angeles datar dan berbukit. Titik tertinggi di kota ini adalah Mount Lukens pada ketinggian 5074 ft (1547 m), terletak di ujung timur laut Lembah San Fernando. Ujung timur Pegunungan Santa Monica membentang dari Downtown hingga Samudra Pasifik dan memisahkan Cekungan Los Angeles dari Lembah San Fernando. Daerah berbukit lainnya di Los Angeles adalah kawasan Mt. Washington di sebelah utara Downtown, bagian timur Boyle Heights, distrik Crenshaw di sekitar Baldwin Hills, dan distrik San Pedro.
Sungai Los Angeles, yang mengalir musiman saja, adalah saluran drainase utama di kota ini. Sungai ini diluruskan dan dan dibentangkan dengan beton sepanjang 51 mil oleh Army Corps of Engineers untuk dimanfaatkan sebagai saluran pengendali banjir. Sungai ini berawal di distrik Canoga Park, kemudian mengalir ke timur dari Lembah San Fernando di sepanjang tepian utara Pegunungan Santa Monica, dan berbelok ke selatan melintasi pusat kota, mengalir ke muaranya di Port of Long Beach di Samudra Pasifik. Ballona Creek yang lebih kecil mengalir ke Santa Monica Bay di Playa del Rey.
Wilayah Los Angeles kaya akan spesies tanaman asli karena keragaman habitatnya, termasuk pantai, rawa, dan pegunungan. Lingkungan botani yang paling cocok untuk kota ini adalah semak sage pesisir, yang menutupi sisi perbukitan yang dipenuhi chaparral mudah terbakar. Tanaman aslinya meliputi poppy California, poppy matilija, toyon, Coast Live Oak, dan Giant Wildrye. Banyak di antara spesies asli ini, seperti bunga matahari Los Angeles, menjadi langka dan terancam punah. Meski bukan tanaman asli daerah ini, pohon resmi kota Los Angeles adalah Pohon Koral (Erythrina caffra) dan bunga resmi kota Los Angeles adalah Burung Surga (Strelitzia reginae). Palem Kipas Meksiko, Palem Kipas California, dan Palem Pulau Canary dapat dilihat di seluruh kawasan Los Angeles, meski pohon yang terakhir disebutkan tadi bukan asli California Selatan.
Los Angeles rawan gempa karena lokasinya di Cincin Api Pasifik. Ketidakstabilan geologinya telah menghasilkan banyak patahan, yang memunculkan 10.000 gempa bumi setiap tahunnya. Salah satu patahan besar di daerah ini adalah Patahan San Andreas. Terletak di perbatasan Lempeng Pasifik dengan Lempeng Amerika Utara, patahan ini diprediksi menjadi sumber gempa bumi besar selanjutnya di California. Gempa bumi besar yang pernah mengguncang wilayah Los Angeles adalah gempa bumi Northridge 1994, gempa bumi Whittier Narrows 1987, gempa bumi San Fernando 1971 dekat Sylmar, dan gempa bumi Long Beach 1993. Meski begitu, semua kecuali beberapa gempa memiliki intensitas rendah dan tidak dapat dirasakan manusia. Cekungan dan wilayah metropolitan Los Angeles juga terancam mengalami gempa bumi dorongan kosong. Sebagian wilayah kota juga rawan terkena tsunami; daerah pelabuhan pernah dirusak oleh gelombang akibat gempa bumi Valdivia tahun 1960.
Kota ini dibagi menjadi lebih dari 80 distrik dan permukiman, banyak di antaranya merupakan tempat gabungan atau permukiman yang dianeksasi oleh pemerintah kota. Los Angeles Raya mencakup sejumlah enklave dan permukiman sekitarnya. Secara umum, kota ini dibagi menjadi wilayah-wilayah berikut: Downtown Los Angeles, East Los Angeles dan Northeast Los Angeles, South Los Angeles, Harbor Area, Greater Hollywood, Wilshire, Westside, dan San Fernando dan Crescenta Valley.
Sejumlah permukiman terkenal di Los Angeles meliputi West Adams, Watts, Leimert Park, Baldwin Hills, Venice, Downtown Financial District, Silver Lake, Hollywood, Koreatown, Westwood dan daerah yang lebih elit seperti Bel Air, Benedict Canyon, Hollywood Hills, Los Feliz, Hancock Park, Pacific Palisades, Century City, dan Brentwood.
Markah tanah utama di Los Angeles meliputi Walt Disney Concert Hall, Kodak Theatre, Griffith Observatory, Getty Center, Getty Villa, Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Grauman’s Chinese Theatre, Hollywood Sign, Bradbury Building, Hollywood Boulevard, Capitol Records Building, Los Angeles City Hall, Hollywood Bowl, Theme Building, Watts Towers, Staples Center, Dodger Stadium, dan La Placita Olvera/Olvera Street.
Los Angeles sering dijuluki “Ibu Kota Kreatif Dunia” karena kenyataan bahwa satu dari enam penduduknya adalah pekerja industri kreatif. Menurut USC Stevens Institute for Innovation, “lebih banyak seniman, penulis, pembuat film, aktor, penari dan musisi yang tinggal dan bekerja di Los Angeles daripada kota lain dalam sejarah peradaban manusia.”
Los Angeles adalah rumah bagi Hollywood, yang dikenal secara global sebagai pusat industri perfilman. Sebagai bukti dominasinya dalam perfilman, kota ini menjadi tempat penyelenggaraan acara tahunan Academy Awards, acara penghargaan tertua dan berpengaruh di dunia. Los Angeles adalah rumah bagi USC School of Cinematic Arts, sekolah film tertua di Amerika Serikat.
Seni panggung memainkan peran utama dalam identitas budaya Los Angeles. Menurut USC Stevens Institute for Innovation, “ada lebih dari 1.100 produksi teatrikal setiap tahunnya dan 21 pementasan setiap minggunya.” Los Angeles Music Center merupakan “satu dari tiga pusat seni panggung terbesar di negara ini,” dengan lebih dari 1,3 juta pengunjung setiap tahun. Walt Disney Concert Hall, bagian utama dari Music Center, adalah rumah bagi Los Angeles Philharmonic. Organisasi ternama seperti Center Theatre Group, Los Angeles Master Chorale, dan Los Angeles Opera juga menjadi perusahaan tetap di Music Center. Bakat masyarakat terus dikembangkan di institusi-institusi utama seperti Colburn School dan USC Thornton School of Music.
Museum dan galeri
Ada 841 museum dan galeri seni di Los Angeles County. Faktanya, Los Angeles memiliki lebih banyak museum per kapita daripada kota-kota lain di dunia. Sejumlah museum ternama di sana mencakup Los Angeles County Museum of Art (museum seni terbesar di Amerika Serikat Barat), Getty Center (bagian dari J. Paul Getty Trust, institusi seni terkaya di dunia), dan Museum of Contemporary Art. Sejumlah galeri seni berdiri di Gallery Row, dan puluhan ribu orang mengunjungi Downtown Art Walk yang diadakan setiap bulan di sana.
Harian berbahasa Inggris utama di Los Angeles adalah Los Angeles Times. La Opinión adalah harian berbahasa Spanyol terbesar di kota ini, The Korea Times merupakan harian berbahasa Korea terbesar, dan Los Angeles Sentinel merupakan harian Afrika-Amerika terbesar di kota ini, dengan jumlah pembaca berkulit Hitam terbesar di Amerika Serikat Barat. Investor’s Business Daily didistribusikan dari kantor korporatnya di L.A. yang terletak di Playa del Rey. Ada pula beberapa surat kabar regional yang lebih kecil, mingguan alternatif dan majalah, termasuk Daily News (berfokus pada pemberitaan di San Fernando Valley), LA Weekly, Los Angeles CityBeat, L.A. Record (berfokus pada musik di Wilayah Los Angeles Raya), majalah Los Angeles, Los Angeles Business Journal, Los Angeles Daily Journal (surat kabar industri hukum), The Hollywood Reporter dan Variety (surat kabar industri hiburan), dan Los Angeles Downtown News. Selain surat kabar besar, beberapa surat kabar periodik lokal melayani masyarakat imigran dalam bahasa asli mereka, termasuk Armenia, Inggris, Korea, Persia, Rusia, Cina, Jepang, Ibrani, dan Arab. Banyak kota terdekat Los Angeles memiliki hariannya sendiri yang pemberitaannya juga mencakup beberapa permukiman di Los Angeles. Contoh harian tersebut adalah The Daily Breeze (melayani South Bay), dan The Long Beach Press-Telegram.
Kota ini memiliki banyak saluran televisi besar dan tiga stasiun PBS. World TV mengudara di dua saluran dan wilayah ini memiliki beberapa jaringan televisi berbahasa Spanyol. KTBN 40 adalah stasiun utama Trinity Broadcasting Network, yang berbasis di luar Santa Ana. Berbagai stasiun televisi independen juga beroperasi di wilayah ini.
Ekonomi Los Angeles digerakkan oleh perdagangan internasional, hiburan (televisi, film, permainan video, musik rekaman), dirgantara, teknologi, minyak, mode, perlengkapan, dan pariwisata. Los Angeles juga merupakan pusat manufaktur terbesar di Amerika Serikat Barat. Pelabuhan Los Angeles dan Long Beach bersama-sama membentuk pelabuhan tersibuk kelima di dunia dan merupakan pelabuhan terpenting di Belahan Bumi Barat dan penting bagi perdagangan di Cincin Pasifik. Industri utama lainnya mencakup produksi media, keuangan, telekomunikasi, hukum, kesehatan, dan transportasi. Wilayah statistik metropolitan (WSM) Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana memiliki produk metropolitan bruto (PMB) senilai $735,7 miliar (tahun 2010), menjadikannya pusat ekonomi terbesar ketiga di dunia, setelah Wilayah Tokyo Raya dan Wilayah Statistik Gabungan (WSG) New York-Newark-Bridgeport. Jika dianggap negara, WSG Los Angeles adalah ekonomi terbesar ke-15 di dunia menurut PDB nominal. Los Angeles telah dikelompokkan sebagai sebuah “kota dunia Alpha” menurut studi tahun 2010 oleh kelompok riset di Lougborough University di Inggris.
Kota ini adalah tempat berdirinya tujuh perusahaan Fortune 500, yaitu kontraktor dirgantara Northrop Grumman, perusahaan energi Occidental Petroleum, penyedia layanan kesehatan Health Net, distributor logam Reliance Steel & Aluminum, firma teknik AECOM, grup real estat CBRE Group, dan perusahaan pembangun Tutor Perini.
Perusahaan lain yang berkantor pusat di Los Angeles meliputi California Pizza Kitchen, Capital Group, Capstone Turbine, The Cheesecake Factory, Cathay Bank, City National Bank, The Coffee Bean & Tea Leaf, DeviantArt, Far East National Bank, Farmers Insurance Group, Fox Entertainment Group, Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher, Guess?, Hanmi Bank, Herbalife, J2 Global Communications, The Jim Henson Company, KB Home, Korn/Ferry, Latham & Watkins, Mercury Insurance Group, Oaktree Capital Management, O’Melveny & Myers; Pabst Blue Ribbon, Paul, Hastings, Janofsky & Walker, Premier America, Premiere Radio Networks, Rentech, Roll International, Sunkist, The TCW Group, Tokyopop, Triton Media Group, United Online, dan VCA Antech.
Wilayah metropolitannya adalah rumah bagi kantor pusat berbagai perusahaan yang pindah ke luar Kota Los Angeles untuk menghindari pajak tinggi dan tingkat kejahatan yang tinggi, namun juga berusaha mempertahankan keuntungan dari lokasinya yang dekat Los Angeles. Misalnya, Los Angeles membebankan pajak penghasilan bruto berdasarkan persentasi penghasilan bisnis, sementara banyak kota sekitarnya cuma membebankan tarif tetap yang rendah.
University of Southern California (USC) merupakan penyedia pekerjaan sektor swasta terbesar di kota ini dan menyumbang $4 miliar setiap tahunnya kepada ekonomi setempat.
Menurut 2010 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, sepuluh penyedia pekerjaan teratas di kota ini pada tahun 2009 adalah, secara menurun, Pemerintah Kota Los Angeles, Pemerintah Los Angeles County, University of California, Los Angeles, University of Southern California, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Kaiser Permanente, Fox Entertainment Group, Farmers Insurance Group, TeamOne, dan Northrop Grumman.
Perguruan tinggi dan universitas
Ada tiga universitas umum yang terletak di kota ini: California State University, Los Angeles (CSULA), California State University, Northridge (CSUN) dan University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). Perguruan tinggi swasta di kota ini meliputi American Film Institute Conservatory, Alliant International University, Syracuse University (Los Angeles Campus), American InterContinental University, American Jewish University, The American Musical and Dramatic Academy – kampus Los Angeles, kampus Los Angeles Antioch University, Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science, Fashion Institute of Design & Merchandising’s Los Angeles campus (FIDM), Los Angeles Film School, Loyola Marymount University (LMU juga merupakan universitas induk Loyola Law School yang terletak di Los Angeles), Marymount College, Mount St. Mary’s College, National University of California, Occidental College (“Oxy”), Otis College of Art and Design (Otis), Southern California Institute of Architecture (SCI-Arc), Southwestern Law School, dan University of Southern California (USC).
Sistem perguruan tinggi komunitas mencakup sembilan kampus yang dipimpin dewan kepercayaan Los Angeles Community College District: East Los Angeles College (ELAC), Los Angeles City College (LACC), Los Angeles Harbor College, Los Angeles Mission College, Los Angeles Pierce College, Los Angeles Valley College (LAVC), Los Angeles Southwest College, Los Angeles Trade-Technical College, dan West Los Angeles College.
Sekolah dan perpustakaan
Los Angeles Unified School District melayani hampir seluruh kota Los Angeles, serta beberapa permukiman sekitarnya, dengan jumlah siswa mencapai 800.000 jiwa. Setelah Proposition 13 was disetujui tahun 1978, distrik sekolah kota mengalami masalah pendanaan. LAUSD semakin dikenal karena memiliki banyak kampus yang kurang pendanaan, terlalu padat dan dikelola dengan buruk, meski 162 sekolah magnetnya sudah membantu bersaing dengan sekolah swasta setempat. Beberapa wilayah kecil Los Angeles masuk dalam Las Virgenes Unified School District. Los Angeles County Office of Education mengoperasikan Los Angeles County High School for the Arts. Sistem Los Angeles Public Library mengoperasikan 72 perpustakaan umum di kota ini. Enklave wilayah lepas dilayani oleh County of Los Angeles Public Library, banyak di antaranya terletak dekat dengan penduduk City of Los Angeles.
Kota ini dan seluruh wilayah metropolitan Los Angeles dilayani oleh jaringan jalan bebas dan jalan bebas hambatan yang luas. Texas Transportation Institute, yang menerbitkan Urban Mobility Report setiap tahunnya, menempatkan kemacetan lalu lintas jalanan Los Angeles pada peringkat pertama di Amerika Serikat pada tahun 2005 berdasarkan kemacetan tahunan per penglaju. Penglaju rata-rata di Los Angeles menghabiskan 72 jam dalam kemacetan per tahun menurut studi ini. Los Angeles diikuti oleh San Francisco/Oakland, Washington, D.C., dan Atlanta (masing-masing 60 jam kemacetan). Meski macet di kota, waktu tempuh rata-rata bagi penglaju di Los Angeles lebih pendek daripada kota-kota besar lainnya, seperti New York City, Philadelphia dan Chicago. Waktu tempuh rata-rata bagi penglaju kerja di Los Angeles pada tahun 2006 adalah 29,2 menit, sama seperti San Francisco dan Washington, D.C.
Jalan-jalan bebas hambatan besar yang menghubungkan LA dengan seluruh Amerika Serikat mencakup Interstate 5, yang membentang ke selatan melewati San Diego ke Tijuana di Meksiko dan ke utara melewati Sacramento, Portland, dan Seattle ke perbatasan Kanada; Interstate 10, Interstate Highway paling selatan yang membentang timur-barat dan pantai-ke-pantai di Amerika Serikat, yang membentang hingga Jacksonville, Florida; dan U.S. Route 101, yang mengarah ke California Central Coast, San Francisco, Redwood Empire, dan pesisir Oregon dan Washington.
Sistem angkutan cepat
Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority dan badan lain mengoperasikan sistem jalur bus yang besar, serta kereta bawah tanah dan kereta ringan di seluruh Los Angeles County, dengan jumlah penumpang bulanan (diukur secara pribadi) mencapai 38,8 juta orang pada September 2011. Sebagian besar (30,5 juta) berasal dari sistem bus kota, yang merupakan sistem bus tersibuk kedua di Amerika Serikat. Rata-rata gabungan kereta bawah tanah dan kereta ringan ditempati sisanya, 8,2 juta penumpang per bulan. Pada tahun 2005, 10,2% penglaju Los Angeles memakai transportasi umum.
Sistem kereta bawah tanah kota adalah yang tersibuk kesembilan di Amerika Serikat dan sistem kereta ringannya merupakan yang tersibuk kedua di negara ini. Sistem kereta kota meliputi jalur kereta bawah tanah Red dan Purple, serta jalur kereta ringan Gold, Blue, dan Green. Fase pertama Expo Line dijadwalkan dibuka tanggal 28 April 2012. Metro Orange Line adalah sebuah jalur angkutan cepat bus dengan perhentian dan frekuensi yang sama seperti kereta ringan. Kota ini juga merupakan pusat sistem kereta komuter Metrolink, yang menghubungkan Los Angeles dengan seluruh county sekitarnya dan banyak pinggiran kota.
Di samping layanan kereta Metrolink dan Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Los Angeles dilayani oleh kereta penumpang antarkota Amtrak. Stasiun kereta utama di kota ini adalah Union Station yang terletak di sebelah utara Downtown.
Bandar udara utama di Los Angeles adalah Bandar Udara Internasional Los Angeles (IATA: LAX, ICAO: KLAX). Bandar udara komersial tersibuk keenam di dunia dan ketiga di Amerika Serikat ini menangani lebih dari 61 juta penumpang dan 2 juta ton kargo pada tahun 2006. LAX adalah hub bagi United Airlines.
Bandar udara komersial besar di sekitarnya meliputi:
(IATA: ONT, ICAO: KONT) Bandar Udara Internasional LA/Ontario, dimiliki pemerintah kota Los Angeles; melayani Inland Empire.
(IATA: BUR, ICAO: KBUR) Bandar Udara Bob Hope, sebelumnya bernama Bandar Udara Burbank; melayani Lembah San Fernando dan San Gabriel
(IATA: LGB, ICAO: KLGB) Bandar Udara Long Beach, melayani Long Beach/Harbor
(IATA: SNA, ICAO: KSNA) Bandar Udara John Wayne di Orange County.
Sa;ah satu bandara penerbangan umum tersibuk di dunia juga terletak di Los Angeles, yaitu Bandar Udara Van Nuys (IATA: VNY, ICAO: KVNY).
Port of Los Angeles terletak di San Pedro Bay di permukiman San Pedro, sekitar 20 mile (32 km) di selatan Downtown. Juga disebut Los Angeles Harbor dan WORLDPORT LA, komplek pelabuhan ini menduduki wilayah daratan dan perairan seluas 7500 acre (30 km2) di tepian pesisir sepanjang 43 mile (69 km). Pelabuhan ini bergabung dengan Port of Long Beach.
Port of Los Angeles dan Port of Long Beach bersama membentuk Los Angeles/Long Beach Harbor. Kedua pelabuhan tersebut membentuk pelabuhan kontainer tersibuk kelima di dunia, dengan volume perdagangan senilai lebih dari 14,22 juta TEU pada tahun 2008. Port of Los Angeles sendiri adalah pelabuhan kontainer tersibuk di Amerika Serikat dan puast kapal pesiar terbesar di Pesisir Barat Amerika Serikat – The Port of Los Angeles’ World Cruise Center melayani sekitar 800.000 penumpang pada tahun 2009.
Ada pula pelabuhan-pelabuhan non-industri yang lebih kecil di sepanjang pesisir Los Angeles. Penjaga pantai berpengalaman dari Los Angeles City hanya ada di pantai-pantai yang dimiliki pemerintah kota.
Pelabuhan ini memiliki empat jembatan, yaitu Vincent Thomas Bridge, Henry Ford Bridge, Gerald Desmond Bridge, dan Commodore Schuyler F. Heim Bridge.
Layanan feri penumpang dari San Pedro ke kota Avalon di Santa Catalina Island disediakan oleh Catalina Express.
Los Angeles adalah rumah bagi orang-orang dari 140 negara yang mempertuturkan 224 bahasa yang berbeda. Enklave etnis seperti Chinatown, Historic Filipinotown, Koreatown, Little Armenia, Little Ethiopia, Tehrangeles, Little Tokyo, dan Thai Town memberi contoh karakter Los Angeles yang poliglot.
Los Angeles memiliki 25 kota kembar, diurutkan secara kronologis menurut tahun bergabung:
suarasurabaya[dot]net – Setelah sebelumnya Tri Rismaharini menggalang suara melalui unggahan videonya Instagram, hari ini surabaya dinobatkan sebagai Kota Terpopuler, dalam ajang The Guangzhou International Award 2018.
Sebelumnya di hadapan 400 juri dan 14 finalis The Guangzhou International Award 2018, Risma menyampaikan paparan presentasinya, bagaimana perkembangan Surabaya yang terus berinovasi menuju kota Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
Dalam unggahan melalui akun Instagramnya, Risma mengumumkan kebahagiaannya atas kemenangan yang diraih Kota Surabaya, Jumat (7/12/2018).
Sembari mengunggah video prosesi penerimaan penghargaan, Risma juga mengungkapkan rasa syukur dan terima kasihnya pada masyarakat Indonesia, khususnya Surabaya.
“Alhamdulillah Kota Surabaya resmi memenangkan penghargaan kota terpopuler secara online dalam ajang The Guangzhou International Award 2018. Terimakasih dukungan yang luar biasa dari warga Surabaya khususnya dan Masyarakat Indonesia. = : Oky YKA,” tulisnya.
Sontak unggahan video beserta caption kemenangan Surabaya tersebut dibanjiri komentar dari warganet. Salah satunya yakni akun Instagram londocausa, dia menulis “Puji Tuhan Surabaya Menang!! Selamat buat Ibuku @trirismaharini dan makin maju, berinovasi terus Surabaya,” serunya di kolom komentar.
Komentar lain juga datang dari akun Instagram mariaandtheboys yang menulis, “Selamat Bu Risma beserta warga Surabaya terimakasih sudah mengharumkan nama Indonesia.”
Akun Instagram bernama e.k.a_99 juga menambahkan, “Selamat. Gak sia-dia nge-vote :).”
Serbuan rasa syukur juga hadir di kolom komentar Facebook e100 Suara Surabaya. Dalam unggahan yang menginformasikan kemenangan Surabaya, akun Facebook dengan nama Aryya Bima mengatakan, “Gak sia-sia aq cari sinyal buat ikut Vote… Wkwkk.. Selamat selamat, Hebat Bu Risma.. Hebat warga Surabaya.. Hebaat..”
Sampai saat ini ungkapan syukur dan bangga masih bermunculan baik di kolom komentar unggahan Walikota Surabaya maupun di Facebook e100 Suara Surabaya. (dim/ipg)
Surabaya Jadi Kota Terbaik Yokatta Wonderful Indonesia Tourism Award
Minggu 22 Juli 2018, 09:03 WIB. detiknews.
Setelah Lee Kuan Yew World City Prize di Singapura, kini Surabaya meraih penghargaan Yokatta Wonderful Indonesia Tourism Awards 2018. Bahkan, Kota Pahlawan sukses menjadi best of the best di antara semua daerah di Indonesia.
Penghargaan ini diberikan langsung Menteri Pariwisata (Menpar) RI Arief Yahya kepada Wali Kota Surabaya Tri Rismaharini di Balairung Soesilo Soedarman, Gedung Sapta Pesona Jakarta, Jumat (20/7/2018) malam.
Yokatta Wonderful Indonesia Tourism Awards 2018 merupakan penghargaan kepada kabupaten/kota di Indonesia yang memiliki komitmen, performansi, inovasi, kreasi dan leadership dalam membangun pariwisata daerah.
Kota Pahlawan menyingkirkan pesaingnya. Antara lain Kota Denpasar, Bali di posisi kedua dan Bandung, Jabar di posisi ketiga.
Wali Kota Surabaya Tri Rismaharini mengaku perjuangan belum usai. Pihaknya akan terus memperbaiki dan mempercantik Surabaya ke depannya.
“Perjuangan kita bersama belum selesai. Mari kita terus bersama-sama membangun Kota Surabaya,” kata Wali Kota Risma, Minggu (22/7/2018).
Sementara Menpar Arief Yahya mengaku penghargaan ini sebagai modal sebuah daerah jika ingin menjadi pemain dunia menggunakan standar global.
“Selamat kepada para pemenang, terutama Surabaya yang size dan pertumbuhan tertinggi di atas 40 persen performancy-nya,” kata Arief Yahya usai menyerahkan penghargaan.
Menurut Arief, penghargaan ini memiliki unsur 3C, yakni calibration (kalibrasi), confidence (kepercayaan diri) dan credibility (kredibilitas).
“Yang lebih penting dari 3A adalah CEO commitment atau komitmen kepala daerah. Karena kalau CEO-nya tidak komitmen hal itu tidak akan tercapai. Pariwisata itu paling mudah dan Paling murah, sayang sekali jika rekan-rekan tidak memanfaatkanya,” ujarnya.
Arief menambahkan, kampanye branding Wonderful Indonesia telah meningkatkan performance Indonesia. “Hal ini terlihat dari popolaritas Wonderful Indonesia melonjak dari status tidak tercatat menjadi ranking 47 dunia, sedangkan Truly Asia (Malaysia) dan Amazing (Thailand) masing-masing berada di posisi 83 dan 97 dunia,” ujarnya.
Terdapat 4 indikator yang mempengaruhi penilaian penghargaan ini. Meliputi kinerja usaha pariwisata, Indeks Pariwisata Indonesia, Indonesia’s Attractiveness Award, dan Penghargaan Internasional dan Nasional.
“Jadi, penilaiannya sangat komplek dan komplit,” ungkap Ketua Dewan Juri Yokatta Wonderful Indonesia Tourism Award 2018 Didien Junaedi. /(fat/fat)
Surabaya Dapat Penghargaan Lee Kuan Yew Award, Risma akan Terbang ke Singapura
Editor: Sugiyarto. tribunnews. Rabu, 4 Juli 2018 22:21 WIB
Kota Surabaya akan menerima Lee Kuan Yew Award di Singapura, untuk kategori Special Mention.
Risma Terima Lee Kuan Yew Award
Penghargaan itu akan diterima Senin (9/7/2018) mendatang oleh Wali Kota Tri Rismaharini. Selama tiga hari, yakni mulai 7 Juli 2018, Risma akan berada di sana untuk terlibat dalam World Cities Summit (WCS) 2018.
WCS 2018 merupakan acara yang diselenggarakan oleh Pemerintah Singapura yang mempertemukan para wali kota dan pemimpin kota.
Di sana, mereka akan mendiskusikan tantangan perkotaan dan berbagai pengalaman.
Penghargaan yang diberikan dua tahun sekali ini dianugerahkan oleh Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA) di Singapura dan Centre for Liveable Cities (CLC).
Surabaya mendapatkan penghargaan dengan kategori Special Mention karena berhasil melestarikan kebudayaan dan menerapkan strategi yang berani, dalam menjaga dan membangun area perkampungan.
Selain Surabaya, kategori Special Mention juga diraih tiga kota lain yaitu Hamburg di Jerman, Kazan di Rusia dan Tokyo di Jepang.
“Itu artinya Kota Surabaya sudah sejajar dengan kota-kota lain dunia,” kata Kabag Humas Pemkot Surabaya M. Fikser, Rabu (4/7).
Sebelumnya, Surabaya sudah dua kali mengikuti ajang penghargaan Lee Kuan Yew di tahun 2014 dan 2016. Namun belum berhasil, baru tahun ini usaha Kota Surabaya berbuah hasil.
Perjuangan Kota Surabaya meraih penghargaan ini tentu tidak mudah.
Risma mengatakan, selama proses penjurian sempat sulit meyakinkan para juri dari Jerman dan Cina itu, Kota Surabaya berbeda dari kota modern lainnya di dunia.
Modern dalam arti sebenarnya yaitu transportasi massal yang masih modern dan vertical hosting.
Namun, Risma mengaku tidak menyerah dan menjelaskan perbedaan Kota Surabaya dengan kota modern lainnya dari sisi budaya dan regulasi.
“Setelah saya jelaskan dan ajak melihat kampung Jambangan, Gundih dan kampung produktif daerah Kebraon, di situ lah mereka baru tertarik,” kata Risma mengajak para juri melihat bagaimana perkampungan mengatasi masalah perekonomian dan remaja.
Untuk itu, Wali Kota Risma berharap prestasi harus dipertahankan, dia juga berkomitmen untuk terus berusaha menjadikan Surabaya sebagai Kota Metropolitan yang tidak melupakan sejarah.
Risma Jadi Pembicara
Selain menerima penghargaan Lee Kuan Yew, Tri Rismaharini juga berkesempatan menjadi pembicara pada dua forum sekaligus.
Pertama, Risma akan menjadi pembicara pada ASEAN Mayors Forum 2018. Dia akan menyampaikan pengalaman Surabaya saat menjadi tuan rumah ASEAN Mayor Forum tahun 2011.
Kedua, dia akan mengisi forum dan berbagai bagaimana upaya pemerintah beradaptasi terhadap teknologi-teknologi baru, mengatasi bisnis-bisnis model baru, menghadapi tantangan-tantangan di depan, serta menjadi pihak yang selalu peka terhadap inovasi-inovasi.
27 Tempat Wisata di Surabaya Terbaru Paling Indah & Menarik
Tempat Wisata di Surabaya – Surabaya adalah Kota yang menjadi metropolitan terbesar di provinsi Jawa Timur. Surabaya juga menjadi ibu kota dan kota terbesar setelah Jakarta. Akan tetapi jangan panik dan mari piknik karena kota ini juga memiliki banyak tempat wisata hits Surabaya lho.
Berikut daftar tempat wisata terbaru di Surabaya yang dapat anda kunjungi.
1. Panorama jembatan Suramadu
Jembatan Suramadu suatu jembatan penghubung antara pulau Jawa dan Madura. Jembatan di atas laut selat Madura.
Panjang Jembatan ini sekitar 5,5 km,dengan memecahkan rekor Jembatan terpanjang di Indonesia. Jembatan ini sekarang di jadikan icon wisata Kota Surabaya karena keindahannya sebagai tempat wisata malam di Surabaya.
2. Wisata Air Ciputra Waterpark
Tempat bermain anak dengan mengedepankan wahana-wahana menarik yang bertemakan Dongeng Petualangan Sinbad. Sehingga lebih menarik minat anak-anak untuk mengunjunginya.
Ciputra Waterpark memiliki luar sekitar 5 hektar sehingga menjadi Wisata Air terluas di Surabaya. Ciputra waterpark didisain untuk bermain.
Kedalamannya dangkal,sehingga cocok sekali untuk berlibur Keluarga yang ingin memanjakan anak-anaknya. Kedalaman air yang hanya 1 meter untuk yang paling dalam di buat agar mengurangi risiko tenggelam.
Harga tiket di tempat rekreasi di Surabaya ini sebesar 70,000 Rupiah pada hari biasa,sedangkan pada akhir pekan sebesar 90,000 rupiah. Sedangkan untuk lansia berumur di atas 60 tahun hanya menunjukkan KTP saja untuk masuk objek wisata ini gratis.
3. Kebun Binatang Surabaya
Kebun Binatang Surabaya merupakan tempat berlibur yang mengedepankan edukasi,sehingga sangat terkenal. Beralamat di Jl.Setail kota surabaya.
Kebun Binatang Surabaya pernah menjadi kebun Binatang terlengkap di Asia Tenggara. Luas tempat liburan di Surabaya ini mencapai luas sekitar 37 hektar.
Hanya dengan membeli tiket sebesar 15,000 Rupiah anda bisa menikmati panorama hewan di Kebun Binatang ini.
4. Museum House of Sampoerna
Museum ini adalah bangunan bersejarah sekaligus di jadikan museum tua yang menarik. Bangunan bergaya kuno masa penjajahan belanda yang masih kokoh dan terawat ini harus anda kunjungi.
Tiang-tiang penyangga museum House of Sampoerna yang berbentuk rokok semakin membuat bangunan ini menjadi eksotis. Serta membuatnya di lindungi oleh Negara.
Di tempat wisata bersejarah di Surabaya ini terdapat macam-macam koleksi alat pembuat Rokok,jenis-jenis pematik,foto keluarga,beberapa alat musik dan lain-lain. Kita dapat membeli cinderamata dan melihat proses pembuatan rokok yang menarik di House of Sampoerna lantai 2.
5. Wisata Hutan Mangrove Wonorejo yang masih Alami
Hutan Mangrove salah satu tempat wisata paling populer di Surabaya. Tempat wisata alam Surabaya ini masih asri dan alami karena jauh dari polusi perkotaan.
Sangat cocok untuk relaksasi mata dan udara. Hutan Mangrove Wonorejo berada di dekat Bandara Juanda Kota Surabaya.
Mengelilingi dan melihat keindahan alam dengan berjalan menyusuri jembatan yang terbuat dari bambu di atas air laut dapat anda lakukan. Anda juga bisa melihat keindahan Hutan Mangrove ini dengan menaiki perahu di sekitar hutan mangrove ini.
Monumen Kapal Selam ini adalah sebuah monumen yang menggunakan kapal selam sungguhan. Kapal ini ialah kapal selam yang di gunakan Indonesia untuk mlakukan pembebasan Irian Barat dari penjajahan Belanda.
Tempat piknik di Surabaya ini berlokasi di pusat kota Surabaya,tepatnya di Jalan Pemuda. Tempat ini sangat menarik di kunjungi karena jarang sekali kita melihat kapal selam sesungguhnya tampak luar dan dalam.
7. Monumen Nasional Tugu Pahlawan
Tempat hunting di Surabaya ini adalah Monumen yang paling bersejarah sekaligus terkenal di Surabaya karena sejarahnya yang sangat terkenal. Tugu ini memiliki ketinggian kurang lebih 40 meter yang di bangun dengan bentuk menyerupai Paku terbalik,sehingga membuat tugu ini indah.
Kita dapat melihat foto-foto dokumentasi di bawah tanah tugu pahlawan. Luas lahan yang mencapai 1 hektar digunakan untuk memperingati hari pahlawan, menghormati prajurit yang gugur di surabaya melawan penjajah.
8. Taman Bungkul yang eksotis
Taman Bungkul,taman yang indah,sangat cocok untuk Kumpul-Kumpul, pemandangan yang indah,tempat yang bersih sangat nyaman untuk di kunjungi.
Berlokasi di Jalan Darmo kota Surabaya mempunyai Fasilitas bermain untuk anak-anak,jogging track,tempat bermain Skateboard,amfiteater,Kolam air mancur,suasana Hijau. Penunjang lainya yaitu fasilitas internet,sehingga berkunjung ke sini sangat di manjakan oleh fasilitas-fasilitas yang menarik.
Tempat wisata keluarga di Surabaya ini juga sering di adakan event-event hiburan dan sanggar budaya. Di Taman Bungkul juga banyak penjual yang menjajakan makanan Khas Surabaya,cocok untuk anda yang suka Berwisata Kuliner.
9. Rumah Batik
Tempat ini memiliki koleksi batik yang sangat banyak lebih dari 2000 lembar kain batik dengan motif dan corak yang berbeda. Batik-batik tersebut berasal dari penjuru Nusantara.
Tempat wisata edukasi di Surabaya ini Bisa di sebut Museum batik karena pernah mendapatkan rekor batik dengan logo Surabaya Terbesar. Rumah batik ini beralamat di Jalan Tambak Dukuh kota Surabaya.
10. Panorama Alam dan Wisata Pantai Kenjeran
Pantai yang terletak di Surabaya ini merupakan tempat wisata pantai di Surabaya yang Favorit untuk berlibur Keluarga. Yang ingin menikmati panorama pantai.
Selain berelaksasi dengan panorama pantai pengunjung bisa menikmati liburan dengan memancing dengan menaiki perahu dan membeli ikan hasil para nelayan.
Lebih syahdu lagi apabila pengunjung membawa alas untuk duduk-duduk di bibir pantai atau di bawah pohon. Banyak permainan anak di tempat ini sehingga cocok untuk berlibur bersama keluarga di pantai ini.
11. Tempat wisata patung Budha berwajah Empat
Patung ini menawarkan keindahan artistik,sejarah,dan sauasana. Sangat di sayangkan jika berlibur ke tempat ini tanpa Kamera karena tempat ini sangat cocok untuk mengambil gambar. Sehingga banyak yang menjadikan tempat ini sebagai tempat berfoto di Surabaya yang hits.
Patung Budha ini telah masuk dalam catatan (MURI) Museum Rekor Indonesia karena merupakan patung paling tinggi di Indonesia. Letak patung ini di sudut tempat wisata pantai Kenjeran.
12. Jembatan Merah yang bersejarah
Tempat yang menjadi syarat akan sejarah sekaligus saksi bisu perlawanan rakyat Surabaya dalam memerangi penjajahan yang di lakukan Belanda. Jembatan Merah telah ikut serta dalam peristiwa luar biasa pada tanggal 10 November.
Terletak di perbatasan jembatan di kelola menjadi tempat wisata oleh 2 Kota yaitu Suabaya dan Malang. Tempat ini di akui bersejarah karena merupakan saksi bisu tewasnya Jendral tinggi belanda yaitu Mallaby, yang tewas karena perlawanan rakyat.
13. Patung Citra Raya Surabaya
Singapura di Surabaya. Karena tidak hanya singapura saja yang memiliki patung dengan bentuk menyerupaii ikon singa laut saja, surabaya juga punya loh.
Tempat wisata malam surabaya ini menawarkan fasilitas sekitar 27 Hole di lapangan golf. Tidak hanya itu disini juga ada banyak klub keluarga.
Yaitu Universitas Ciputra, masjid, pasar, Surabaya International School, pusat komersial, Waterpark, dan Gymnasium. Tempat hiburan malam di Surabaya ini sangat cocok untuk berlibur keluarga dan foto-foto.
14. Patung WR.SOEPRATMAN
WR.Soepratman Pencipta lagu Indonesia Raya yang sekarang dirinya diabadikan dengan bentuk patung di Surabaya.
15. Kelenteng Hong Tiek Hian yang artistik
Tempat yang eksotis dan penuh sejarah yang wajib anda kunjungi karena keindahan bangunan yang Bertemakan kultur Negeri Cina jaman dulu.
Konon tempat wisata realigi di Surabaya ini di buat oleh pasukan tartar. Pada saat Khu Nilai Khan berkuasa di wilayah Asia Tenggara.
Lebih pastinya belum bisa di ketahui, akan tetapi kontur dan keindahan bangunan ini sangat sayang bila anda lewati.
16. Monumen Bambu Runcing Surabaya
Monumen ini dibuat untuk menghormati peran Bambu runcing,karena bambu runcing adalah simbol perlawanan Indonesia terhadap penjajah di masa lampau.
17. Wisata Bunga di Pasar Bunga Bratang
Pecinta flora jangan khawatir karena Surabaya juga menyuguhkan pasar bunga yang sangat menarik untuk di kunjungi. Susunan pasar bunga ini tertata dengan baik dan bersih.
Pengunjung tidak akan kecewa berkunjung disini, karena pengunjung bisa memborong bunga-bunga tanaman hias dan pot-pot keramik dengan biaya yang terjangkau.
18. Masjid Nasional Al-Akbar Surabaya
Pengunjung bisa berwisata sekaligus wisata Religi di masjid Nasional ini,karena masjid ini menjadi kebanggaan warga Surabaya.
Memiliki besar sedikit lebih kecil dari masjid Istiqlal yang membuat masjid ini menjadi masjid terbesar kedua di Indonesia. Berlokasi di Jl. Masjid Al-Akbar Timur No.1, pangesangan Surabaya.
19. Gereja Perawan Maria tak Berdosa
Gereja ini harus anda kunjungi apabila berlibur ke Surabaya. Karena nama gereja yang unik dan memiliki nilai seni yang tinggi.
Gaya bangunan dengan arsitektur gaya abad pertengahan daerah Eropa merupakan nilai seni tersendiri.
Di tempat ini mempunyai banyak peninggalan sejarah yang indah dan bersejarah. Gereja ini cocok untuk berlibur keluarga dengan tema edukasi.
20. Taman Absari Surabaya
Berlokasi di depan Gedung Grahadi Surabaya. Taman ini berisikan patung Suryo dan Joko Dolog di dalamnya.
Terdapat jogging track yang sangat fovorit untuk jalan-jalan di tempat ini, sehingga banyak remaja menggunakan taman ini untuk kumpul-kumpul.
Di tempat ini juga terdapat arena skateboard yang diramaikan anak-anak pecinta skateboard. Banyak juga warga surabaya yang menghabiskan malam di tempat ini untuk nongkrong dan jeng-jeng.
21. Taman DR.Soetomo(Taman Persahabatan)
Taman ini adalah simbol pertemanan, sangat di sayangkan bila anda berlibur ke surabaya melewatkan tempat yang satu ini. Apalagi berlibur bersama sahabat karib anda.
22. Taman Mayangkara
Taman ini di bangun oleh pemerintah Surabaya untuk menghormati pahlawan Batalyon 503 Mayangkara yang di pimpin oleh Mayor Djarot Soebyantoro.
Tempat ini berlokasi di depan RSI Surabaya. Taman ini bersimbol patung Mayor Djarot soebyantoro dan kuda putih Mayangkara dinaikinya. Sehingga masyarakat Surabaya menyebutnya Monumen Mayangkara.
Di sekeliling taman di tumbuhi dengan bunga-bunga yang indah yang berwarna-warni. Dan dengan dilengkapinya kursi taman serta arena jalan kaki yang nyaman untuk jalan-jalan bersama keluarga.
23. Taman Wisata Pelangi Surabaya
Tempat wisata yang menarik ini harus di kunjungi terutama pada malam hari,karena akan terlihat indah pada malam hari. Taman ini berlokasi di depan kantor Bulog Surabaya.
24. Taman Mundu di Surabaya
Taman ini tepat di depan gedung Gelora 10 Nopember Tambaksari,dibangun dengan disain Bernuansa Alami Modern.
Tempat ini sangat cocok untuk merelaksasi tubuh dan untuk berinteraksi dengan orang lain.
25. Taman Buah Undaan Surabaya
Tempat di bangun dengan tema dan desain yang unik karena banyak hiasan buah buahan dengan ukuran besar.
Replika buah-buahan ini dibuat guna menarik wisatawan untuk singgah di taman yang unik ini. Taman ini menyuguhkan pemandangan yang cantik dan udara segar.
26. Taman Prestasi Surabaya
Berlokasi di pusat kota Surabaya,taman ini cocok untuk wadah edukasi anak. Dengan wahana di taman prestasi ini anak bisa bermain sambil belajar.
Taman ini selalu ramai di kunjungi keluarga-keluarga yang ingin bermain sambil belajar. Taman ini cukup luas,dengan luas sekitar 6.000 meter persegi.
27. Museum Mpu Tantular
Museum Mpu Tantular didirikan oleh suatu lembaga budaya yang bernama Stedelijk Historisch Museum soerabaian.
Pendirinya sendiri adalah orang berkebangsaan Jerman totok, akan tetapi sudah mempunyai kewarganegaraan Indonesia.
Di museum mpu tantular terdapat 1500 koleksi. Koleksi bersejarah masa prasejarah,budaya hindu,budha,dan islam.
Koleksi peninggalan zaman penjajahan belanda maupun jepang. Tempat wisata bersejarah di Surabaya ini sangat cocok untuk proses edukasi belajar sejarah.
Peta Wisata Surabaya
Demikian destinasi tempat wisata di surabaya yang tentu mengasikan, maka dari itu jangan ragu berlibur di Surabaya. Dan jangan lupa ajak teman-teman, kerabat, dan keluarga berlibur ke Surabaya.
Guangzhouis a famous culture city and a splendid tourism city with a history of more than 2,200 years and a homeland of overseas Chinese as well.
It enjoys the name of “Flower City” as the superb geographic and climatic conditions in the South contributed to the natural beauty here. As a city of heroes, Guangzhou has a reputation of great eminence in the modern history of China. The historical sites of Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall, Huanghuagang 72 Martyr Cemetery, Guangzhou Luxun Memorial Hall, Peasant Movement Institute, Sanyuanli Anti-British Invasion, and the Former Site of Huangpu Military Academy are the witnesses of the modern history of China, and, together with Baiyun Mountain, Yuexiu Park, Liuhuahu Park, Lu Lake and South-China, constitute colorful landscape groups.
Meanwhile, Guangzhou was the starting point of the “Maritime Silk Road” and is an important port city for the opening and reform of China, making great contribution to the economic and cultural exchange and friendly contacts between China and the rest of the world and demonstrating everlasting prosperity.
Guangzhou’s famous landmarks
CantonTower is located at an intersection of Guangzhou New City Central Axes and Pearl River, directly facing Haixinsha Island where the opening and closing ceremonies of the Sixteenth Asian Games were held and the 21st century new city CBD of Guangzhou-Zhujiang New Town.
With its unique shape and design, Canton Tower has become a magnificent landmark on the New City Central Axes, adding beauty and charm to the Pearl River. There is one smaller rotating ellipse at the top twisting up counterclockwise with the other larger rotating ellipse at the bottom, which creates a “slim waist” in the middle and makes it look like a lady looking behind.
Canton Tower is not only a comprehensive sightseeing building with rich cultural connotation but also a world-famous tourist spot integrated with the multi-functions of Sightseeing, F&B, Adventure, 4D Cinema, Wedding, MICE, Science and Technology, Education, and Shopping prosperity.
Yuexiu Park (Five Rams Sculpture & the Zhenhai Tower)
Guangzhou’s Five Rams Sculpture is located atop Yuexiu Hill. It was built in 1960 from more than 130 pieces of granite and is one of the city’s emblems.
The sculpture represents the five rams who gave Guangzhou its nickname “City of Rams” and were formerly honored at its Temple of the Five Immortals. These immortals were said to have ridden rams into the city soon after its founding, teaching its residents how to grow rice and ending the specter of famine forever. Locals consider the rams symbols of good luck.
Zhenhai Tower/Chen Hoi Lau
Also atop Yuexiu Hill is the Five-storied Pagoda now known as Chen Hoi Lau. The present structure is 28 meters (92 ft) high and 16 meters (52 ft) wide. It has housed the Guangzhou Museum since it was opened to the public in 1928.
A guard tower was first erected at the site in 1380, one of the first to be constructed in Lingnan. Chinese legend holds that Zhu Liangzu (朱亮祖), Marquis of Yongjia and a member of the Ming dynasty, saw yellow and purple air rising over Yuexiu and was told that it was the sign of a new emperor. He then erected the tower as part of the city walls to alter the mountain’s feng shui and prevent the prophecy from coming to pass. It has been destroyed and rebuilt five times, the various towers appearing in Chinese poetry and art.
Yuexiu Stadium/Yut Sau Shan Stadium
Yuexiu Stadium was refreshed from the old Yut Sau Shan Park Playground at the foot of the hill in 1950 at the behest of Mayor Ye Jianying. It covers an area of 43,000 square meters (462,848 sq ft). It was one of the Asian Games venues in 2010.
The stadium is not only a sports activity site, but also a large-scale concert hall. Since its opening in October 1950, it has held 200 meetings and more than 280 performances. It can hold 35,000 people.
Pavilion of Regaining
The Pavilion of Regaining is a square pavilion erected in 1948 on the spot of an earlier 1928 memorial to the Xinhai Revolution against the Qing Empire. The first pavilion was destroyed amid fighting with the Japanese during World War II.
Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall
The Sun Yat-sen or Zhongshan Memorial Hall is an octagon-shaped building in Guangzhou, capital of China’s Guangdong Province. The hall was designed by Lu Yanzhi and was built with funds raised by local and overseas Chinese people in memory of Sun Yat-sen. Construction work commenced in 1929 and completed in 1931. The hall is a large octagonal structure with a span of 71 meters without pillars, housing a large stage and seats 3,240 people.
The memorial hall stands on the site of Guangzhou’s Presidential Palace during the Constitutional Protection Movement, when the Nationalists operated a rival “Chinese” government to the Zhili Clique’s Beijing regime. The palace was damaged during Ye Ju’s 16 June 1922 attack on Sun Yat-sen, during which—though he had already fled—his wife narrowly escaped shelling and rifle fire before meeting him on the gunboat Yongfeng, where they were joined by Chiang Kai-shek. The hall itself has been severely damaged and repaired several times until 1998, when it was comprehensively upgraded to its present-day condition. A statue of Sun Yat-sen was erected in front of the main entrance.
Guangzhou Museum (also known as the Zhenhai Tower)
Locating at the Yuexiu Park, Guangzhou, Zhenhai Tower is a comprehensive history museum with dense Canton characteristics. The tower is one of historic sites in Guangzhou as it is established in 1929. Now, it is used for collection and exhibition of historical data and cultural relics of the city. The museum consists of two parts: the Zhenhai Tower that houses the historical relics and the Art Gallery that exhibits many exquisite local art works.
The memorial hall stands on the site of Guangzhou’s Presidential Palace during the Constitutional Protection Movement, when the Nationalists operated a rival “Chinese” government to the Zhili Clique’s Beijing regime. The palace was damaged during Ye Ju’s 16 June 1922 attack on Sun Yat-sen, during which—though he had already fled—his wife narrowly escaped shelling and rifle fire before meeting him on the gunboat Yongfeng, where they were joined by Chiang Kai-shek. The hall itself has been severely damaged and repaired several times until 1998, when it was comprehensively upgraded to its present-day condition. A statue of Sun Yat-sen was erected in front of the main entrance.
Ersha Island is an island in the middle of the Pearl River. Encircled by the Pearl River, the island enjoys picturesque landscape different from the downtown. After the establishment of China, it has been the training base for provincial athletes and an ideal place for exquisite resident houses 80% of which are said to be owned by foreigners. Covered by modern apartments, and art places like Xinghai Concert Hall and Guangdong Museum of Art, the island is given a sense of art.
Flower City Square
The square in the new central shaft line of Guangzhou has been officially named as “Huacheng Square”. It is regarded as “Guangzhou’s parlor” and is the largest square for civilian purpose in Guangzhou.
The Square is surrounded by 39 buildings, including the Guangzhou No.2 Children’s Palace, the Guangzhou Opera House, Guangzhou Library, Guangdong Museum and the West Tower (Guangzhou International Financial Center (GZIFC)), etc.
In the Square, there are a man-made lake & landscape district as well as large-scaled fountains, lamplight piazza, system for formation of cold fog and temperature drop, over 600 trees and 5 flower islands. Underneath Huacheng Square is a 150,000 square-meter high-end underground shopping mall, the “Mall of the World”.
Shameen Island is a sandbank island in the Liwan District of Guangzhou city, Guangdong province, China. The island’s name literally means “sandy surface” in Chinese. The territory was divided into two concessions given to France and the United Kingdom by the Qing government in the 19th century. The island is a gazetted historical area that serves as a tranquil reminder of the colonial European period, with quiet pedestrian avenues flanked by trees and lined by historical buildings in various states of upkeep.
The island is the location of several hotels, a youth hostel, restaurants and tourist shops selling curios and souvenirs. Shameen Island was an important port for Guangzhou’s foreign trade from the Song to the Qing Dynasty. From the 18th to the mid 19th century, the foreigners lived and did business in a row of houses known as the Thirteen Factories, on the banks of the Pearl River to the east the present Shameen, which was then an anchorage for thousands of boat people. Shameen became a strategic point for city defense during the period of the First and Second Opium Wars. In 1859,the territory was divided in two concessions given to France and the United Kingdom (of which 3/5 belonged to the British and 2/5 to the French).
It was connected to the mainland by two bridges, which were closed at 10pm as a security measure. The British arch bridge, also called the “Bridge of England” and built in 1861, to the north was guarded by Sikh police officers, and the French bridge to the east was guarded by Vietnamese (Cochinchina) recruits with the Troupes coloniales.Trading companies from Britain, the United States, France, Holland, Italy,Germany, Portugal, and Japan built stone mansions along the waterfront. The construction on the island was characterized by climate-adapted but Western-plan detached houses with hipped roofs and large verandahs.The island was the scene of fighting during the “June 23 incident” in 1925.After 1949, the mansions of Shameeni became government offices or apartment houses and the churches were turned into factories.
Lychee Bay or Litchi Bay, a set of creeks and lakes that flow southwest to Pearl River, is a tourist attraction in Guangzhou (Canton), Guangdong. Liwan District, where Lychee Bay is located, was named after it. There are many historical relics and historical architectures in Lychee Bay, such as Wenta and Xiguan House. Various cultural activities are held on Lychee Bay, such as the competition of Cantonese opera.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York (NY), is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles (784 km2), New York City is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world’s most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described uniquely as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world, and exerts a significant impact upon commerce, entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, fashion, and sports. The city’s fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world’s largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of which is a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. The city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product (GMP) of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world.
New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan; the post was named New Amsterdam in 1626. The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the country’s largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a world symbol of the United States and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, and environmental sustainability, and as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity.
Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world’s ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world’s “heart” and its “Crossroads”, is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world’s busiest pedestrian intersections, and a major center of the world’s entertainment industry. The names of many of the city’s landmarks, skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattan’s real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, it has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, and the city is home to the world’s two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ.
In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York, who would become King James II of England. James’s older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had recently seized from the Dutch.
During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet (300 m) in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of regolith, leaving the bedrock that serves as the geologic foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet contributed to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island.
In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the western portion of Long Island, including the area that would become Brooklyn and Queens; Manhattan; the Bronx; and the Lower Hudson Valley.
The first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême (New Angoulême). A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio (Saint Anthony’s River). The Padrón Real of 1527, the first scientific map to show the East Coast of North America continuously, was informed by Gomes’ expedition and labeled the northeastern United States as Tierra de Esteban Gómez in his honor.
Peter Minuit is credited with the purchase of the island of Manhattan in 1626.
In 1609, the English explorer Henry Hudson rediscovered the New York Harbor while searching for the Northwest Passage to the Orient for the Dutch East India Company. He proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River (now the Hudson River), named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange. Hudson’s first mate described the harbor as “a very good Harbour for all windes” and the river as “a mile broad” and “full of fish.” Hudson sailed roughly 150 miles (240 km) north, past the site of the present-day New York State capital city of Albany, in the belief that it might be an oceanic tributary before the river became too shallow to continue. He made a ten-day exploration of the area and claimed the region for the Dutch East India Company. In 1614, the area between Cape Cod and Delaware Bay was claimed by the Netherlands and called Nieuw-Nederland (New Netherland).
The first non-Native American inhabitant of what would eventually become New York City was Juan Rodriguez (transliterated to Dutch as Jan Rodrigues), a merchant from Santo Domingo. Born in Santo Domingo of Portuguese and African descent, he arrived in Manhattan during the winter of 1613–1614, trapping for pelts and trading with the local population as a representative of the Dutch. Broadway, from 159th Street to 218th Street in Upper Manhattan, is named Juan Rodriguez Way in his honor.
New Amsterdam, centered in the eventual Lower Manhattan, in 1664, the year England took control and renamed it “New York”.
A permanent European presence in New Netherland began in 1624 – making New York the 12th oldest continuously occupied European-established settlement in the continental United States – with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement on Governors Island. In 1625, construction was started on a citadel and Fort Amsterdam, later called Nieuw Amsterdam (New Amsterdam), on present-day Manhattan Island. The colony of New Amsterdam was centered at the site which would eventually become Lower Manhattan. In 1626, the Dutch colonial Director-General Peter Minuit, acting as charged by the Dutch West India Company, purchased the island of Manhattan from the Canarsie, a small Lenape band, for 60 guilders (about $1,000 in 2006). A disproved legend claims that Manhattan was purchased for $24 worth of glass beads.
Following the purchase, New Amsterdam grew slowly. To attract settlers, the Dutch instituted the patroon system in 1628, whereby wealthy Dutchmen (patroons, or patrons) who brought 50 colonists to New Netherland would be awarded swathes of land, along with local political autonomy and rights to participate in the lucrative fur trade. This program had little success.
Since 1621, the Dutch West India Company had operated as a monopoly in New Netherland, on authority granted by the Dutch States General. In 1639–1640, in an effort to bolster economic growth, the Dutch West India Company relinquished its monopoly over the fur trade, leading to growth in the production and trade of food, timber, tobacco, and slaves (particularly with the Dutch West Indies).
In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant began his tenure as the last Director-General of New Netherland. During his tenure, the population of New Netherland grew from 2,000 to 8,000. Stuyvesant has been credited with improving law and order in the colony; however, he also earned a reputation as a despotic leader. He instituted regulations on liquor sales, attempted to assert control over the Dutch Reformed Church, and blocked other religious groups (including Quakers, Jews, and Lutherans) from establishing houses of worship. The Dutch West India Company would eventually attempt to ease tensions between Stuyvesant and residents of New Amsterdam.
Fort George and the city of New York c. 1731
In 1664, unable to summon any significant resistance, Stuyvesant surrendered New Amsterdam to English troops, led by Colonel Richard Nicolls, without bloodshed. The terms of the surrender permitted Dutch residents to remain in the colony and allowed for religious freedom. The English promptly renamed the fledgling city “New York” after the Duke of York (the future King James II of England). The transfer was confirmed in 1667 by the Treaty of Breda, which concluded the Second Anglo-Dutch War.
On August 24, 1673, during the Third Anglo-Dutch War, Dutch captain Anthony Colve seized the colony of New York from England at the behest of Cornelis Evertsen the Youngest and rechristened it “New Orange” after William III, the Prince of Orange. The Dutch would soon return the island to England under the Treaty of Westminster of November 1674.
Several intertribal wars among the Native Americans and some epidemics brought on by contact with the Europeans caused sizeable population losses for the Lenape between the years 1660 and 1670. By 1700, the Lenape population had diminished to 200. New York experienced several yellow fever epidemics in the 18th century, losing ten percent of its population to the disease in 1702 alone.
New York grew in importance as a trading port while under British rule in the early 1700s. It also became a center of slavery, with 42% of households holding slaves by 1730, the highest percentage outside Charleston, South Carolina. Most slaveholders held a few or several domestic slaves, but others hired them out to work at labor. Slavery became integrally tied to New York’s economy through the labor of slaves throughout the port, and the banks and shipping tied to the American South. Discovery of the African Burying Ground in the 1990s, during construction of a new federal courthouse near Foley Square, revealed that tens of thousands of Africans had been buried in the area in the colonial years.
The 1735 trial and acquittal in Manhattan of John Peter Zenger, who had been accused of seditious libel after criticizing colonial governor William Cosby, helped to establish the freedom of the press in North America. In 1754, Columbia University was founded under charter by King George II as King’s College in Lower Manhattan.
The Battle of Long Island, the largest battle of the American Revolution, took place in Brooklyn in 1776.
The Stamp Act Congress met in New York in October 1765, as the Sons of Liberty, organized in the city, skirmished over the next ten years with British troops stationed there. The Battle of Long Island, the largest battle of the American Revolutionary War, was fought in August 1776 within the modern-day borough of Brooklyn. After the battle, in which the Americans were defeated, the British made the city their military and political base of operations in North America. The city was a haven for Loyalist refugees and escaped slaves who joined the British lines for freedom newly promised by the Crown for all fighters. As many as 10,000 escaped slaves crowded into the city during the British occupation. When the British forces evacuated at the close of the war in 1783, they transported 3,000 freedmen for resettlement in Nova Scotia. They resettled other freedmen in England and the Caribbean.
The only attempt at a peaceful solution to the war took place at the Conference House on Staten Island between American delegates, including Benjamin Franklin, and British general Lord Howe on September 11, 1776. Shortly after the British occupation began, the Great Fire of New York occurred, a large conflagration on the West Side of Lower Manhattan, which destroyed about a quarter of the buildings in the city, including Trinity Church.
In 1785, the assembly of the Congress of the Confederation made New York City the national capital shortly after the war. New York was the last capital of the U.S. under the Articles of Confederation and the first capital under the Constitution of the United States. In 1789, the first President of the United States, George Washington, was inaugurated; the first United States Congress and the Supreme Court of the United States each assembled for the first time, and the United States Bill of Rights was drafted, all at Federal Hall on Wall Street. By 1790, New York had surpassed Philadelphia as the largest city in the United States.
Broadway follows the Native American Wickquasgeck Trail through Manhattan.
Under New York State’s gradual abolition act of 1799, children of slave mothers were to be eventually liberated but to be held in indentured servitude until their mid-to-late twenties. Together with slaves freed by their masters after the Revolutionary War and escaped slaves, a significant free-black population gradually developed in Manhattan. Under such influential United States founders as Alexander Hamilton and John Jay, the New York Manumission Society worked for abolition and established the African Free School to educate black children. It was not until 1827 that slavery was completely abolished in the state, and free blacks struggled afterward with discrimination. New York interracial abolitionist activism continued; among its leaders were graduates of the African Free School. The city’s black population reached more than 16,000 in 1840.
In the 19th century, the city was transformed by development relating to its status as a trading center, as well as by European immigration. The city adopted the Commissioners’ Plan of 1811, which expanded the city street grid to encompass all of Manhattan. The 1825 completion of the Erie Canal through central New York connected the Atlantic port to the agricultural markets and commodities of the North American interior via the Hudson River and the Great Lakes. Local politics became dominated by Tammany Hall, a political machine supported by Irish and German immigrants.
Several prominent American literary figures lived in New York during the 1830s and 1840s, including William Cullen Bryant, Washington Irving, Herman Melville, Rufus Wilmot Griswold, John Keese, Nathaniel Parker Willis, and Edgar Allan Poe. Public-minded members of the contemporaneous business elite lobbied for the establishment of Central Park, which in 1857 became the first landscaped park in an American city.
Manhattan’s Little Italy, Lower East Side, circa 1900.
The Great Irish Famine brought a large influx of Irish immigrants, of whom over 200,000 were living in New York by 1860, upwards of a quarter of the city’s population. There was also extensive immigration from the German provinces, where revolutions had disrupted societies, and Germans comprised another 25% of New York’s population by 1860.
Democratic Party candidates were consistently elected to local office, increasing the city’s ties to the South and its dominant party. In 1861, Mayor Fernando Wood called upon the aldermen to declare independence from Albany and the United States after the South seceded, but his proposal was not acted on. Anger at new military conscription laws during the American Civil War (1861–1865), which spared wealthier men who could afford to pay a $300 (equivalent to $5,963 in 2017) commutation fee to hire a substitute, led to the Draft Riots of 1863, whose most visible participants were ethnic Irish working class. The situation deteriorated into attacks on New York’s elite, followed by attacks on black New Yorkers and their property after fierce competition for a decade between Irish immigrants and black people for work. Rioters burned the Colored Orphan Asylum to the ground, with more than 200 children escaping harm due to efforts of the New York City Police Department, which was mainly made up of Irish immigrants. According to historian James M. McPherson (2001), at least 120 people were killed. In all, eleven black men were lynched over five days, and the riots forced hundreds of blacks to flee the city for Williamsburg, Brooklyn, and New Jersey; the black population in Manhattan fell below 10,000 by 1865, which it had last been in 1820. The white working class had established dominance. Violence by longshoremen against black men was especially fierce in the docks area. It was one of the worst incidents of civil unrest in American history.
A construction worker on top of the Empire State Building as it was being built in 1930. The Chrysler Building is behind him.
In 1898, the modern City of New York was formed with the consolidation of Brooklyn (until then a separate city), the County of New York (which then included parts of the Bronx), the County of Richmond, and the western portion of the County of Queens. The opening of the subway in 1904, first built as separate private systems, helped bind the new city together. Throughout the first half of the 20th century, the city became a world center for industry, commerce, and communication.
In 1904, the steamship General Slocum caught fire in the East River, killing 1,021 people on board. In 1911, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, the city’s worst industrial disaster, took the lives of 146 garment workers and spurred the growth of the International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union and major improvements in factory safety standards.
UN Secretary General Dag Hammarskjöld in front of the United Nations Headquarters building, completed in 1952
New York’s non-white population was 36,620 in 1890. New York City was a prime destination in the early twentieth century for African Americans during the Great Migration from the American South, and by 1916, New York City had become home to the largest urban African diaspora in North America. The Harlem Renaissance of literary and cultural life flourished during the era of Prohibition. The larger economic boom generated construction of skyscrapers competing in height and creating an identifiable skyline.
New York became the most populous urbanized area in the world in the early 1920s, overtaking London. The metropolitan area surpassed the 10 million mark in the early 1930s, becoming the first megacity in human history. The difficult years of the Great Depression saw the election of reformer Fiorello La Guardia as mayor and the fall of Tammany Hall after eighty years of political dominance.
Returning World War II veterans created a post-war economic boom and the development of large housing tracts in eastern Queens and Nassau County as well as similar suburban areas in New Jersey. New York emerged from the war unscathed as the leading city of the world, with Wall Street leading America’s place as the world’s dominant economic power. The United Nations Headquarters was completed in 1952, solidifying New York’s global geopolitical influence, and the rise of abstract expressionism in the city precipitated New York’s displacement of Paris as the center of the art world.
The Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village, a designated U.S. National Historic Landmark and National Monument, as the site of the June 1969 Stonewall riots.
The Stonewall riots were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the gay community against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan. They are widely considered to constitute the single most important event leading to the gay liberation movement and the modern fight for LGBT rights in the United States.
In the 1970s, job losses due to industrial restructuring caused New York City to suffer from economic problems and rising crime rates. While a resurgence in the financial industry greatly improved the city’s economic health in the 1980s, New York’s crime rate continued to increase through that decade and into the beginning of the 1990s. By the mid 1990s, crime rates started to drop dramatically due to revised police strategies, improving economic opportunities, gentrification, and new residents, both American transplants and new immigrants from Asia and Latin America. Important new sectors, such as Silicon Alley, emerged in the city’s economy. New York’s population reached all-time highs in the 2000 Census and then again in the 2010 Census.
United Airlines Flight 175 hits the South Tower of the original World Trade Center on September 11, 2001.
The city and surrounding area suffered the bulk of the economic damage and largest loss of human life in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 attacks when 10 of the 19 terrorists associated with Al-Qaeda piloted American Airlines Flight 11 into the North Tower of the World Trade Center and United Airlines Flight 175 into the South Tower of the World Trade Center, and later destroyed them, killing 2,192 civilians, 343 firefighters, and 71 law enforcement officers who were in the towers and in the surrounding area. The North Tower was subsequently the tallest building ever to be destroyed and still is. The rebuilding of the area, has created a new One World Trade Center, and a 9/11 memorial and museum along with other new buildings and infrastructure. The World Trade Center PATH station, which had opened on July 19, 1909 as the Hudson Terminal, was also destroyed in the attack. A temporary station was built and opened on November 23, 2003. An 800,000-square-foot (74,000 m2) permanent rail station designed by Santiago Calatrava, the World Trade Center Transportation Hub, the city’s third-largest hub, was completed in 2016. The new One World Trade Center is the tallest skyscraper in the Western Hemisphere and the sixth-tallest building in the world by pinnacle height, with its spire reaching a symbolic 1,776 feet (541.3 m) in reference to the year of U.S. independence.
The Occupy Wall Street protests in Zuccotti Park in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan began on September 17, 2011, receiving global attention and popularizing the Occupy movement against social and economic inequality worldwide.
The core of the New York City Metropolitan Area, with Manhattan Island at its center
New York City is situated in the Northeastern United States, in southeastern New York State, approximately halfway between Washington, D.C. and Boston. The location at the mouth of the Hudson River, which feeds into a naturally sheltered harbor and then into the Atlantic Ocean, has helped the city grow in significance as a trading port. Most of New York City is built on the three islands of Long Island, Manhattan, and Staten Island.
The Hudson River flows through the Hudson Valley into New York Bay. Between New York City and Troy, New York, the river is an estuary. The Hudson River separates the city from the U.S. state of New Jersey. The East River—a tidal strait—flows from Long Island Sound and separates the Bronx and Manhattan from Long Island. The Harlem River, another tidal strait between the East and Hudson Rivers, separates most of Manhattan from the Bronx. The Bronx River, which flows through the Bronx and Westchester County, is the only entirely fresh water river in the city.
The city’s land has been altered substantially by human intervention, with considerable land reclamation along the waterfronts since Dutch colonial times; reclamation is most prominent in Lower Manhattan, with developments such as Battery Park City in the 1970s and 1980s. Some of the natural relief in topography has been evened out, especially in Manhattan.
The city’s total area is 468.484 square miles (1,213.37 km2), including 302.643 sq mi (783.84 km2) of land and 165.841 sq mi (429.53 km2) of this is water. The highest point in the city is Todt Hill on Staten Island, which, at 409.8 feet (124.9 m) above sea level, is the highest point on the Eastern Seaboard south of Maine. The summit of the ridge is mostly covered in woodlands as part of the Staten Island Greenbelt.
Ten-mile (16km) Manhattan skyline panorama from 120th Street to the Battery, taken in February 2018 from across the Hudson River in Weehawken, New Jersey. 1. Riverside Church Time 2. Warner Center 3. 220 Central Park South 4. Central Park Tower 5. One57 6. 432 Park Avenue 7. 53W53 8. Chrysler Building 9. Bank of America Tower 11. Conde Nast Building 12. The New York Times Building 13. Empire State Building 13. Manhattan West 14a: 55 Hudson Yards, 14b: 35 Hudson Yards, 14c: 10 Hudson Yards, 14d: 15 Hudson Yards 15. 56 Leonard Street 16. 8 Spruce Street 17. Woolworth Building 18. 70 Pine Street 19. 30 Park Place 20. Trump Building 21. Three World Trade Center 22. Four World Trade Center 23. One World Trade Center
Downtown Brooklyn at the western end of Long Island. The Manhattan Bridge (far left) and the Brooklyn Bridge (near left) are seen across the East River from Lower Manhattan at in June 2013.
Long Island City, Queens, facing the East River at blue hour in May 2015. At left is the Queensboro Bridge, connecting Queens to Manhattan.
The Grand Concourse in The Bronx, foreground with Manhattan in the background in February 2018
The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, one of the world’s longest suspension bridges, connecting Brooklyn, foreground, to Staten Island, in the background, across The Narrows.
Modernist architecture juxtaposed with classical architecture is seen often in New York City.
The Chrysler Building, above, built in 1930, is an example of the Art Deco style, with ornamental hub caps and a spire. The Empire State Building is a solitary icon of New York. It was the world’s tallest building 1931–70 and is defined by its setbacks, Art Deco details and the spire.
Landmark 19th-century rowhouses, including brownstones, on tree-lined Kent Street in the Greenpoint Historic District, Brooklyn.
New York has architecturally noteworthy buildings in a wide range of styles and from distinct time periods, from the saltbox style Pieter Claesen Wyckoff House in Brooklyn, the oldest section of which dates to 1656, to the modern One World Trade Center, the skyscraper at Ground Zero in Lower Manhattan and the most expensive office tower in the world by construction cost.
Manhattan’s skyline, with its many skyscrapers, is universally recognized, and the city has been home to several of the tallest buildings in the world. As of 2011, New York City had 5,937 high-rise buildings, of which 550 completed structures were at least 330 feet (100 m) high, both second in the world after Hong Kong, with over 50 completed skyscrapers taller than 656 feet (200 m). These include the Woolworth Building, an early example of Gothic Revival architecture in skyscraper design, built with massively scaled Gothic detailing; completed in 1913, for 17 years it was the world’s tallest building.
The 1916 Zoning Resolution required setbacks in new buildings and restricted towers to a percentage of the lot size, to allow sunlight to reach the streets below. The Art Deco style of the Chrysler Building (1930) and Empire State Building (1931), with their tapered tops and steel spires, reflected the zoning requirements. The buildings have distinctive ornamentation, such as the eagles at the corners of the 61st floor on the Chrysler Building, and are considered some of the finest examples of the Art Deco style. A highly influential example of the international style in the United States is the Seagram Building (1957), distinctive for its façade using visible bronze-toned I-beams to evoke the building’s structure. The Condé Nast Building (2000) is a prominent example of green design in American skyscrapers and has received an award from the American Institute of Architects and AIA New York State for its design.
The character of New York’s large residential districts is often defined by the elegant brownstone rowhouses and townhouses and shabby tenements that were built during a period of rapid expansion from 1870 to 1930. In contrast, New York City also has neighborhoods that are less densely populated and feature free-standing dwellings. In neighborhoods such as Riverdale (in the Bronx), Ditmas Park (in Brooklyn), and Douglaston (in Queens), large single-family homes are common in various architectural styles such as Tudor Revival and Victorian.
Stone and brick became the city’s building materials of choice after the construction of wood-frame houses was limited in the aftermath of the Great Fire of 1835. A distinctive feature of many of the city’s buildings is the wooden roof-mounted water tower. In the 1800s, the city required their installation on buildings higher than six stories to prevent the need for excessively high water pressures at lower elevations, which could break municipal water pipes. Garden apartments became popular during the 1920s in outlying areas, such as Jackson Heights.
According to the United States Geological Survey, an updated analysis of seismic hazard in July 2014 revealed a “slightly lower hazard for tall buildings” in New York City than previously assessed. Scientists estimated this lessened risk based upon a lower likelihood than previously thought of slow shaking near the city, which would be more likely to cause damage to taller structures from an earthquake in the vicinity of the city.
New York City is often referred to collectively as the five boroughs, and in turn, there are hundreds of distinct neighborhoods throughout the boroughs, many with a definable history and character to call their own. If the boroughs were each independent cities, four of the boroughs (Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, and the Bronx) would be among the ten most populous cities in the United States (Staten island would be ranked 37th) ; these same boroughs are coterminous with the four most densely populated counties in the United States (New York [Manhattan], Kings [Brooklyn], Bronx, and Queens).
Manhattan (New York County) is the geographically smallest and most densely populated borough, is home to Central Park and most of the city’s skyscrapers, and may be locally known simply as The City. Manhattan’s (New York County’s) population density of 72,033 people per square mile (27,812/km²) in 2015 makes it the highest of any county in the United States and higher than the density of any individual American city. Manhattan is the cultural, administrative, and financial center of New York City and contains the headquarters of many major multinational corporations, the United Nations Headquarters, Wall Street, and a number of important universities. Manhattan is often described as the financial and cultural center of the world.
Most of the borough is situated on Manhattan Island, at the mouth of the Hudson River. Several small islands also compose part of the borough of Manhattan, including Randall’s Island, Wards Island, and Roosevelt Island in the East River, and Governors Island and Liberty Island to the south in New York Harbor. Manhattan Island is loosely divided into Lower, Midtown, and Uptown regions. Uptown Manhattan is divided by Central Park into the Upper East Side and the Upper West Side, and above the park is Harlem. The borough also includes a small neighborhood on the United States mainland, called Marble Hill, which is contiguous with The Bronx. New York City’s remaining four boroughs are collectively referred to as the outer boroughs.
Brooklyn (Kings County), on the western tip of Long Island, is the city’s most populous borough. Brooklyn is known for its cultural, social, and ethnic diversity, an independent art scene, distinct neighborhoods, and a distinctive architectural heritage. Downtown Brooklyn is the largest central core neighborhood in the outer boroughs. The borough has a long beachfront shoreline including Coney Island, established in the 1870s as one of the earliest amusement grounds in the country. Marine Park and Prospect Park are the two largest parks in Brooklyn. Since 2010, Brooklyn has evolved into a thriving hub of entrepreneurship and high technology startup firms, and of postmodern art and design.
Queens (Queens County), on Long Island north and east of Brooklyn, is geographically the largest borough, the most ethnically diverse county in the United States, and the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world. Historically a collection of small towns and villages founded by the Dutch, the borough has since developed both commercial and residential prominence. Downtown Flushing has become one of the busiest central core neighborhoods in the outer boroughs. Queens is the site of Citi Field, the baseball stadium of the New York Mets, and hosts the annual U.S. Open tennis tournament at Flushing Meadows-Corona Park. Additionally, two of the three busiest airports serving the New York metropolitan area, John F. Kennedy International Airport and LaGuardia Airport, are located in Queens. (The third is Newark Liberty International Airport in Newark, New Jersey.)
Staten Island (Richmond County) is the most suburban in character of the five boroughs. Staten Island is connected to Brooklyn by the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, and to Manhattan by way of the free Staten Island Ferry, a daily commuter ferry which provides unobstructed views of the Statue of Liberty, Ellis Island, and Lower Manhattan. In central Staten Island, the Staten Island Greenbelt spans approximately 2,500 acres (10 km2), including 28 miles (45 km) of walking trails and one of the last undisturbed forests in the city. Designated in 1984 to protect the island’s natural lands, the Greenbelt comprises seven city parks.
The Bronx (Bronx County) is New York City’s northernmost borough and the only New York City borough with a majority of it a part of the mainland United States. It is the location of Yankee Stadium, the baseball park of the New York Yankees, and home to the largest cooperatively owned housing complex in the United States, Co-op City. It is also home to the Bronx Zoo, the world’s largest metropolitan zoo, which spans 265 acres (1.07 km2) and houses over 6,000 animals. The Bronx is also the birthplace of rap and hip hop culture. Pelham Bay Park is the largest park in New York City, at 2,772 acres (1,122 ha).
Avenue C in Manhattan after flooding caused by Hurricane Sandy on October 29, 2012.
Under the Köppen climate classification, using the 0 °C (32 °F) isotherm, New York City features a humid subtropical climate (Cfa), and is thus the northernmost major city on the North American continent with this categorization. The suburbs to the immediate north and west lie in the transitional zone between humid subtropical and humid continental climates (Dfa). Annually, the city averages 234 days with at least some sunshine. The city lies in the USDA 7b plant hardiness zone.
Winters are cold and damp, and prevailing wind patterns that blow offshore temper the moderating effects of the Atlantic Ocean; yet the Atlantic and the partial shielding from colder air by the Appalachians keep the city warmer in the winter than inland North American cities at similar or lesser latitudes such as Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and Indianapolis. The daily mean temperature in January, the area’s coldest month, is 32.6 °F (0.3 °C); temperatures usually drop to 10 °F (−12 °C) several times per winter, and reach 60 °F (16 °C) several days in the coldest winter month. Spring and autumn are unpredictable and can range from chilly to warm, although they are usually mild with low humidity. Summers are typically warm to hot and humid, with a daily mean temperature of 76.5 °F (24.7 °C) in July. Nighttime conditions are often exacerbated by the urban heat island phenomenon, while daytime temperatures exceed 90 °F (32 °C) on average of 17 days each summer and in some years exceed 100 °F (38 °C). Extreme temperatures have ranged from −15 °F (−26 °C), recorded on February 9, 1934, up to 106 °F (41 °C) on July 9, 1936. The average water temperature of the nearby Atlantic Ocean ranges from 39.7 °F (4.3 °C) in February to 74.1 °F (23.4 °C) in August.
The city receives 49.9 inches (1,270 mm) of precipitation annually, which is relatively evenly spread throughout the year. Average winter snowfall between 1981 and 2010 has been 25.8 inches (66 cm); this varies considerably between years. Hurricanes and tropical storms are rare in the New York area. Hurricane Sandy brought a destructive storm surge to New York City on the evening of October 29, 2012, flooding numerous streets, tunnels, and subway lines in Lower Manhattan and other areas of the city and cutting off electricity in many parts of the city and its suburbs. The storm and its profound impacts have prompted the discussion of constructing seawalls and other coastal barriers around the shorelines of the city and the metropolitan area to minimize the risk of destructive consequences from another such event in the future.
Flushing Meadows–Corona Park was used in the 1964 New York World’s Fair, with the Unisphere as its centerpiece.
The City of New York has a complex park system, with various lands operated by the National Park Service, the New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation, and the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation.
In its 2013 ParkScore ranking, The Trust for Public Land reported that the park system in New York City was the second best park system among the 50 most populous US cities, behind the park system of Minneapolis. ParkScore ranks urban park systems by a formula that analyzes median park size, park acres as percent of city area, the percent of city residents within a half-mile of a park, spending of park services per resident, and the number of playgrounds per 10,000 residents.
The Statue of Liberty on Liberty Island in New York Harbor is a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom, democracy, and opportunity.
Gateway National Recreation Area contains over 26,000 acres (10,521.83 ha) in total, most of it surrounded by New York City, including the Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge. In Brooklyn and Queens, the park contains over 9,000 acres (36 km2) of salt marsh, wetlands, islands, and water, including most of Jamaica Bay. Also in Queens, the park includes a significant portion of the western Rockaway Peninsula, most notably Jacob Riis Park and Fort Tilden. In Staten Island, Gateway National Recreation Area includes Fort Wadsworth, with historic pre-Civil War era Battery Weed and Fort Tompkins, and Great Kills Park, with beaches, trails, and a marina.
The Statue of Liberty National Monument and Ellis Island Immigration Museum are managed by the National Park Service and are in both the states of New York and New Jersey. They are joined in the harbor by Governors Island National Monument, in New York. Historic sites under federal management on Manhattan Island include Castle Clinton National Monument; Federal Hall National Memorial; Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace National Historic Site; General Grant National Memorial (“Grant’s Tomb”); African Burial Ground National Monument; and Hamilton Grange National Memorial. Hundreds of private properties are listed on the National Register of Historic Places or as a National Historic Landmark such as, for example, the Stonewall Inn, part of the Stonewall National Monument in Greenwich Village, as the catalyst of the modern gay rights movement.
There are seven state parks within the confines of New York City, including Clay Pit Ponds State Park Preserve, a natural area that includes extensive riding trails, and Riverbank State Park, a 28-acre (110,000 m2) facility that rises 69 feet (21 m) over the Hudson River.
Reindeer at the Bronx Zoo, the world’s largest metropolitan zoo.
New York City has over 28,000 acres (110 km2) of municipal parkland and 14 miles (23 km) of public beaches. The largest municipal park in the city is Pelham Bay Park in the Bronx, with 2,772 acres (1,122 ha).
Central Park, an 843-acre (3.41 km2) park in middle-upper Manhattan, is the most visited urban park in the United States and one of the most filmed locations in the world, with 40 million visitors in 2013. The park contains a wide range of attractions; there are several lakes and ponds, two ice-skating rinks, the Central Park Zoo, the Central Park Conservatory Garden, and the 106-acre (0.43 km2) Jackie Onassis Reservoir. Indoor attractions include Belvedere Castle with its nature center, the Swedish Cottage Marionette Theater, and the historic Carousel. On October 23, 2012, hedge fund manager John A. Paulson announced a $100 million gift to the Central Park Conservancy, the largest ever monetary donation to New York City’s park system.
Washington Square Park is a prominent landmark in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan. The Washington Square Arch at the northern gateway to the park is an iconic symbol of both New York University and Greenwich Village.
Prospect Park in Brooklyn has a 90-acre (360,000 m2) meadow, a lake, and extensive woodlands. Within the park is the historic Battle Pass, prominent in the Battle of Long Island.
Flushing Meadows–Corona Park in Queens, with its 897 acres (363 ha) making it the city’s fourth largest park, was the setting for the 1939 World’s Fair and the 1964 World’s Fair and is host to the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center and the annual United States Open Tennis Championships tournament.
Over a fifth of the Bronx’s area, 7,000 acres (28 km2), is given over to open space and parks, including Pelham Bay Park, Van Cortlandt Park, the Bronx Zoo, and the New York Botanical Gardens.
In Staten Island, the Conference House Park contains the historic Conference House, site of the only attempt of a peaceful resolution to the American Revolution which was conducted in September 1775, attended by Benjamin Franklin representing the Americans and Lord Howe representing the British Crown. The historic Burial Ridge, the largest Native American burial ground within New York City, is within the park.
Central Park, as seen from Rockefeller Center, is the most visited city park in the United States.
New York City is home to Fort Hamilton, the U.S. military’s only active duty installation within the city. The Brooklyn facility was established in 1825 on the site of a small battery utilized during the American Revolution, and it is one of America’s longest serving military forts. Today Fort Hamilton serves as the headquarters of the North Atlantic Division of the United States Army Corps of Engineers and for the New York City Recruiting Battalion. It also houses the 1179th Transportation Brigade, the 722nd Aeromedical Staging Squadron, and a military entrance processing station. Other formerly active military reservations still utilized for National Guard and military training or reserve operations in the city include Fort Wadsworth in Staten Island and Fort Totten in Queens.
New York City is the most populous city in the United States, with an estimated record high of 8,622,698 residents as of 2017, incorporating more immigration into the city than outmigration since the 2010 United States Census. More than twice as many people live in New York City as in the second-most populous U.S. city (Los Angeles), and within a smaller area. New York City gained more residents between April 2010 and July 2014 (316,000) than any other U.S. city. New York City’s population is about 43% of New York State’s population and about 36% of the population of the New York metropolitan area.
New York City had an estimated population density of 28,491 people per square mile (11,000/km²) in 2017, with Manhattan alone at 72,918/sq mi (28,154/km²).
In 2017, the city had an estimated population density of 28,491 people per square mile (11,000/km²), rendering it the most densely populated of all municipalities housing over 100,000 residents in the United States, with several small cities (of fewer than 100,000) in adjacent Hudson County, New Jersey having greater density, as per the 2010 Census. Geographically co-extensive with New York County, the borough of Manhattan’s 2017 population density of 72,918 inhabitants per square mile (28,154/km2) makes it the highest of any county in the United States and higher than the density of any individual American city.
Race and ethnicity
The city’s population in 2010 was 44% white (33.3% non-Hispanic white), 25.5% black (23% non-Hispanic black), 0.7% Native American, and 12.7% Asian. Hispanics of any race represented 28.6% of the population, while Asians constituted the fastest-growing segment of the city’s population between 2000 and 2010; the non-Hispanic white population declined 3 percent, the smallest recorded decline in decades; and for the first time since the Civil War, the number of blacks declined over a decade.
From top: the Manhattan Chinatown; Lower Manhattan’s Little Italy; Upper Manhattan’s Spanish Harlem; Little India, Queens; Brooklyn’s Little Russia; Midtown Manhattan’s Koreatown.
Throughout its history, the city has been a major port of entry for immigrants into the United States; more than 12 million European immigrants were received at Ellis Island between 1892 and 1924. The term “melting pot” was first coined to describe densely populated immigrant neighborhoods on the Lower East Side. By 1900, Germans constituted the largest immigrant group, followed by the Irish, Jews, and Italians. In 1940, whites represented 92% of the city’s population.
Approximately 37% of the city’s population is foreign born and more than half of all children are born to mothers who are immigrants. In New York, no single country or region of origin dominates. The ten largest sources of foreign-born individuals in the city as of 2011 were the Dominican Republic, China, Mexico, Guyana, Jamaica, Ecuador, Haiti, India, Russia, and Trinidad and Tobago, while the Bangladeshi-born immigrant population has become one of the fastest growing in the city, counting over 74,000 by 2011.
Asian Americans in New York City, according to the 2010 Census, number more than one million, greater than the combined totals of San Francisco and Los Angeles. New York contains the highest total Asian population of any U.S. city proper. The New York City borough of Queens is home to the state’s largest Asian American population and the largest Andean (Colombian, Ecuadorian, Peruvian, and Bolivian) populations in the United States, and is also the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world. The Chinese population constitutes the fastest-growing nationality in New York State; multiple satellites of the original Manhattan Chinatown, in Brooklyn, and around Flushing, Queens, are thriving as traditionally urban enclaves – while also expanding rapidly eastward into suburban Nassau County on Long Island, as the New York metropolitan region and New York State have become the top destinations for new Chinese immigrants, respectively, and large-scale Chinese immigration continues into New York City and surrounding areas, with the largest metropolitan Chinese diaspora outside Asia, including an estimated 812,410 individuals in 2015. In 2012, 6.3% of New York City was of Chinese ethnicity, with nearly three-fourths living in either Queens or Brooklyn, geographically on Long Island. A community numbering 20,000 Korean-Chinese (Chaoxianzu or Joseonjok) is centered in Flushing, Queens, while New York City is also home to the largest Tibetan population outside China, India, and Nepal, also centered in Queens. Koreans made up 1.2% of the city’s population, and Japanese 0.3%. Filipinos were the largest Southeast Asian ethnic group at 0.8%, followed by Vietnamese, who made up 0.2% of New York City’s population in 2010. Indians are the largest South Asian group, comprising 2.4% of the city’s population, with Bangladeshis and Pakistanis at 0.7% and 0.5%, respectively. Queens is the preferred borough of settlement for Asian Indians, Koreans, Filipinos, and Malaysians and other Southeast Asians; while Brooklyn is receiving large numbers of both West Indian and Asian Indian immigrants.
Map of racial distribution in New York, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic or Other (yellow)
New York City has the largest European and non-Hispanic white population of any American city. At 2.7 million in 2012, New York’s non-Hispanic white population is larger than the non-Hispanic white populations of Los Angeles (1.1 million), Chicago (865,000), and Houston (550,000) combined. The non-Hispanic white population was 6.6 million in 1940. The non-Hispanic white population has begun to increase since 2010. The European diaspora residing in the city is very diverse. According to 2012 Census estimates, there were roughly 560,000 Italian Americans, 385,000 Irish Americans, 253,000 German Americans, 223,000 Russian Americans, 201,000 Polish Americans, and 137,000 English Americans. Additionally, Greek and French Americans numbered 65,000 each, with those of Hungarian descent estimated at 60,000 people. Ukrainian and Scottish Americans numbered 55,000 and 35,000, respectively. People identifying ancestry from Spain numbered 30,838 total in 2010. People of Norwegian and Swedish descent both stood at about 20,000 each, while people of Czech, Lithuanian, Portuguese, Scotch-Irish, and Welsh descent all numbered between 12,000–14,000 people. Arab Americans number over 160,000 in New York City, with the highest concentration in Brooklyn. Central Asians, primarily Uzbek Americans, are a rapidly growing segment of the city’s non-Hispanic white population, enumerating over 30,000, and including over half of all Central Asian immigrants to the United States, most settling in Queens or Brooklyn. Albanian Americans are most highly concentrated in the Bronx.
The wider New York City metropolitan statistical area, with over 20 million people, about 50% greater than the second-place Los Angeles metropolitan area in the United States, is also ethnically diverse, with the largest foreign-born population of any metropolitan region in the world. The New York region continues to be by far the leading metropolitan gateway for legal immigrants admitted into the United States, substantially exceeding the combined totals of Los Angeles and Miami. It is home to the largest Jewish and Israeli communities outside Israel, with the Jewish population in the region numbering over 1.5 million in 2012 and including many diverse Jewish sects predominantly from around the Middle East and Eastern Europe. The metropolitan area is also home to 20% of the nation’s Indian Americans and at least 20 Little India enclaves, and 15% of all Korean Americans and four Koreatowns; the largest Asian Indian population in the Western Hemisphere; the largest Russian American, Italian American, and African American populations; the largest Dominican American, Puerto Rican American, and South American and second-largest overall Hispanic population in the United States, numbering 4.8 million; and includes multiple established Chinatowns within New York City alone.
Ecuador, Colombia, Guyana, Peru, and Brazil were the top source countries from South America for legal immigrants to the New York City region in 2013; the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Haiti, and Trinidad and Tobago in the Caribbean; Egypt, Ghana, and Nigeria from Africa; and El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala in Central America. Amidst a resurgence of Puerto Rican migration to New York City, this population had increased to approximately 1.3 million in the metropolitan area as of 2013.
Sexual orientation and gender identity
International Transgender Day of Visibility introduced by Manila-born Geena Rocero in New York City, top. The scene at the 2015 LGBT Pride March, below. New York City is home to the largest LGBTQ community in the United States and one of the world’s largest.
The New York metropolitan area is home to a prominent self-identifying gay and bisexual community estimated at nearly 570,000 individuals, the largest in the United States and one of the world’s largest. Same-sex marriages in New York were legalized on June 24, 2011 and were authorized to take place beginning 30 days thereafter. Charles Kaiser, author of The Gay Metropolis: The Landmark History of Gay Life in America, wrote that in the era after World War II, “New York City became the literal gay metropolis for hundreds of thousands of immigrants from within and without the United States: the place they chose to learn how to live openly, honestly and without shame.” The annual New York City Pride March (or gay pride parade) traverses southward down Fifth Avenue and ends at Greenwich Village in Lower Manhattan; the parade rivals the Sao Paulo Gay Pride Parade as the largest pride parade in the world, attracting tens of thousands of participants and millions of sidewalk spectators each June.
Wayne R. Dynes, author of the Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, wrote that drag queens were the only “transgender folks around” during the June 1969 Stonewall riots. “None of them in fact made a major contribution to the movement.” Others say the transgender community in New York City played a significant role in fighting for LGBT equality during the period of the Stonewall riots and thereafter. New York City is home to the largest transgender population in the United States, estimated at 25,000 in 2016. However, until the Stonewall riots, this community had felt marginalized and neglected by the gay community.
Christianity (59%) — made up of Roman Catholicism (33%), Protestantism (23%), and other Christians (3%) — is the most prevalent religion in New York, as of 2014. It is followed by Judaism, with approximately 1.1 million adherents, over half of whom live in Brooklyn. The Jewish population makes up 18.4% of the city. Islam ranks third in New York City, with official estimates ranging between 600,000 and 1,000,000 observers, including 10% of the city’s public school children. These three largest groups are followed by Hinduism, Buddhism, and a variety of other religions, as well as atheism. In 2014, 24% of New Yorkers self-identified with no organized religious affiliation.
Wealth and income disparity
New York City has a high degree of income disparity as indicated by its Gini Coefficient of 0.5 for the city overall and 0.6 for Manhattan. In the first quarter of 2014, the average weekly wage in New York County (Manhattan) was $2,749, representing the highest total among large counties in the United States. As of 2017, New York City was home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world at 103, including former Mayor Michael Bloomberg. New York also had the highest density of millionaires per capita among major U.S. cities in 2014, at 4.6% of residents. New York City is one of the relatively few American cities levying an income tax (currently about 3%) on its residents.
City economic overview
New York is a global hub of business and commerce. The city is a major center for banking and finance, retailing, world trade, transportation, tourism, real estate, new media, traditional media, advertising, legal services, accountancy, insurance, theater, fashion, and the arts in the United States; while Silicon Alley, metonymous for New York’s broad-spectrum high technology sphere, continues to expand. The Port of New York and New Jersey is also a major economic engine, handling record cargo volume in 2017, over 6.7 million TEUs. New York City’s unemployment rate fell to its record low of 4.0% in September 2018.
Many Fortune 500 corporations are headquartered in New York City, as are a large number of multinational corporations. One out of ten private sector jobs in the city is with a foreign company. New York City has been ranked first among cities across the globe in attracting capital, business, and tourists. This ability to attract foreign investment helped New York City top the FDi Magazine American Cities of the Future ranking for 2013.
Real estate is a major force in the city’s economy, as the total value of all New York City property was assessed at US$1.072 trillion for the 2017 fiscal year, an increase of 10.6% from the previous year with 89% of the increase coming from market effects. The Time Warner Center is the property with the highest-listed market value in the city, at US$1.1 billion in 2006. New York City is home to some of the nation’s—and the world’s—most valuable real estate. 450 Park Avenue was sold on July 2, 2007 for US$510 million, about $1,589 per square foot ($17,104/m²), breaking the barely month-old record for an American office building of $1,476 per square foot ($15,887/m²) set in the June 2007 sale of 660 Madison Avenue. According to Forbes, in 2014, Manhattan was home to six of the top ten ZIP Codes in the United States by median housing price. Fifth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan commands the highest retail rents in the world, at US$3,000 per square foot ($32,000/m2) in 2017.
As of 2013, the global advertising agencies of Omnicom Group and Interpublic Group, both based in Manhattan, had combined annual revenues of approximately US$21 billion, reflecting New York City’s role as the top global center for the advertising industry, which is metonymously referred to as “Madison Avenue”. The city’s fashion industry provides approximately 180,000 employees with $11 billion in annual wages.
Other important sectors include medical research and technology, non-profit institutions, and universities. Manufacturing accounts for a significant but declining share of employment, although the city’s garment industry is showing a resurgence in Brooklyn. Food processing is a US$5 billion industry that employs more than 19,000 residents.
Chocolate is New York City’s leading specialty-food export, with up to US$234 million worth of exports each year. Entrepreneurs were forming a “Chocolate District” in Brooklyn as of 2014, while Godiva, one of the world’s largest chocolatiers, continues to be headquartered in Manhattan.
The New York Stock Exchange on Wall Street, the world’s largest stock exchange per total market capitalization of its listed companies.
New York City’s most important economic sector lies in its role as the headquarters for the U.S. financial industry, metonymously known as Wall Street. The city’s securities industry, enumerating 163,400 jobs in August 2013, continues to form the largest segment of the city’s financial sector and an important economic engine, accounting in 2012 for 5 percent of the city’s private sector jobs, 8.5 percent (US$3.8 billion) of its tax revenue, and 22 percent of the city’s total wages, including an average salary of US$360,700. Many large financial companies are headquartered in New York City, and the city is also home to a burgeoning number of financial startup companies.
Lower Manhattan is home to the New York Stock Exchange, on Wall Street, and the NASDAQ, at 165 Broadway, representing the world’s largest and second largest stock exchanges, respectively, when measured both by overall average daily trading volume and by total market capitalization of their listed companies in 2013. Investment banking fees on Wall Street totaled approximately $40 billion in 2012, while in 2013, senior New York City bank officers who manage risk and compliance functions earned as much as $324,000 annually. In fiscal year 2013–14, Wall Street’s securities industry generated 19% of New York State’s tax revenue. New York City remains the largest global center for trading in public equity and debt capital markets, driven in part by the size and financial development of the U.S. economy. In July 2013, NYSE Euronext, the operator of the New York Stock Exchange, took over the administration of the London interbank offered rate from the British Bankers Association. New York also leads in hedge fund management; private equity; and the monetary volume of mergers and acquisitions. Several investment banks and investment managers headquartered in Manhattan are important participants in other global financial centers. New York is also the principal commercial banking center of the United States.
Many of the world’s largest media conglomerates are also based in the city. Manhattan contained over 500 million square feet (46.5 million m2) of office space in 2015, making it the largest office market in the United States, while Midtown Manhattan, with nearly 400 million square feet (37.2 million m2) in 2015, is the largest central business district in the world.
Silicon Alley, once centered around the Flatiron District, is now metonymous for New York’s high tech sector, which has since expanded beyond the area.
Silicon Alley, centered in Manhattan, has evolved into a metonym for the sphere encompassing the New York City metropolitan region’s high technology industries involving the Internet, new media, telecommunications, digital media, software development, biotechnology, game design, financial technology (“FinTech”), and other fields within information technology that are supported by its entrepreneurship ecosystem and venture capital investments. In 2015, Silicon Alley generated over US$7.3 billion in venture capital investment across a broad spectrum of high technology enterprises, most based in Manhattan, with others in Brooklyn, Queens, and elsewhere in the region. High technology startup companies and employment are growing in New York City and the region, bolstered by the city’s position in North America as the leading Internet hub and telecommunications center, including its vicinity to several transatlantic fiber optic trunk lines, New York’s intellectual capital, and its extensive outdoor wireless connectivity. Verizon Communications, headquartered at 140 West Street in Lower Manhattan, was at the final stages in 2014 of completing a US$3 billion fiberoptic telecommunications upgrade throughout New York City. As of 2014, New York City hosted 300,000 employees in the tech sector.
The biotechnology sector is also growing in New York City, based upon the city’s strength in academic scientific research and public and commercial financial support. On December 19, 2011, then Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg announced his choice of Cornell University and Technion-Israel Institute of Technology to build a US$2 billion graduate school of applied sciences called Cornell Tech on Roosevelt Island with the goal of transforming New York City into the world’s premier technology capital. By mid-2014, Accelerator, a biotech investment firm, had raised more than US$30 million from investors, including Eli Lilly and Company, Pfizer, and Johnson & Johnson, for initial funding to create biotechnology startups at the Alexandria Center for Life Science, which encompasses more than 700,000 square feet (65,000 m2) on East 29th Street and promotes collaboration among scientists and entrepreneurs at the center and with nearby academic, medical, and research institutions. The New York City Economic Development Corporation’s Early Stage Life Sciences Funding Initiative and venture capital partners, including Celgene, General Electric Ventures, and Eli Lilly, committed a minimum of US$100 million to help launch 15 to 20 ventures in life sciences and biotechnology.
Times Square is the hub of the Broadway theater district and a media center. It also has one of the highest annual attendance rates of any tourist attraction in the world, estimated at 50 million.
The I Love New York logo, designed by Milton Glaser in 1977
Tourism is a vital industry for New York City, which has witnessed a growing combined volume of international and domestic tourists, receiving an eighth consecutive annual record of approximately 62.8 million visitors in 2017. Tourism had generated an all-time high US$61.3 billion in overall economic impact for New York City in 2014, pending 2015 statistics. Approximately 12 million visitors to New York City were from outside the United States, with the highest numbers from the United Kingdom, Canada, Brazil, and China.
I Love New York (stylized I ❤ NY) is both a logo and a song that are the basis of an advertising campaign and have been used since 1977 to promote tourism in New York City, and later to promote New York State as well. The trademarked logo, owned by New York State Empire State Development, appears in souvenir shops and brochures throughout the city and state, some licensed, many not. The song is the state song of New York.
Major tourist destinations include Times Square; Broadway theater productions; the Empire State Building; the Statue of Liberty; Ellis Island; the United Nations Headquarters; museums such as the Metropolitan Museum of Art; greenspaces such as Central Park and Washington Square Park; Rockefeller Center; the Manhattan Chinatown; luxury shopping along Fifth and Madison Avenues; and events such as the Halloween Parade in Greenwich Village; the Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade; the lighting of the Rockefeller Center Christmas Tree; the St. Patrick’s Day parade; seasonal activities such as ice skating in Central Park in the wintertime; the Tribeca Film Festival; and free performances in Central Park at Summerstage. Major attractions in the boroughs outside Manhattan include Flushing Meadows-Corona Park and the Unisphere in Queens; the Bronx Zoo; Coney Island, Brooklyn; and the New York Botanical Garden in the Bronx. The New York Wheel, a 630-foot ferris wheel, was under construction at the northern shore of Staten Island in 2015, overlooking the Statue of Liberty, New York Harbor, and the Lower Manhattan skyline.
Manhattan was on track to have an estimated 90,000 hotel rooms at the end of 2014, a 10% increase from 2013. In October 2014, the Anbang Insurance Group, based in China, purchased the Waldorf Astoria New York for US$1.95 billion, making it the world’s most expensive hotel ever sold.
Media and entertainment
Rockefeller Center is home to NBC Studios.
New York is a prominent location for the American entertainment industry, with many films, television series, books, and other media being set there. As of 2012, New York City was the second largest center for filmmaking and television production in the United States, producing about 200 feature films annually, employing 130,000 individuals; the filmed entertainment industry has been growing in New York, contributing nearly US$9 billion to the New York City economy alone as of 2015, and by volume, New York is the world leader in independent film production – one-third of all American independent films are produced in New York City. The Association of Independent Commercial Producers is also based in New York. In the first five months of 2014 alone, location filming for television pilots in New York City exceeded the record production levels for all of 2013, with New York surpassing Los Angeles as the top North American city for the same distinction during the 2013/2014 cycle.
New York City is additionally a center for the advertising, music, newspaper, digital media, and publishing industries and is also the largest media market in North America. Some of the city’s media conglomerates and institutions include Time Warner, the Thomson Reuters Corporation, the Associated Press, Bloomberg L.P., the News Corporation, The New York Times Company, NBCUniversal, the Hearst Corporation, AOL, and Viacom. Seven of the world’s top eight global advertising agency networks have their headquarters in New York. Two of the top three record labels’ headquarters are in New York: Sony Music Entertainment and Warner Music Group. Universal Music Group also has offices in New York. New media enterprises are contributing an increasingly important component to the city’s central role in the media sphere.
More than 200 newspapers and 350 consumer magazines have an office in the city, and the publishing industry employs about 25,000 people. Two of the three national daily newspapers in the United States are New York papers: The Wall Street Journal and The New York Times, which has won the most Pulitzer Prizes for journalism. Major tabloid newspapers in the city include: The New York Daily News, which was founded in 1919 by Joseph Medill Patterson and The New York Post, founded in 1801 by Alexander Hamilton. The city also has a comprehensive ethnic press, with 270 newspapers and magazines published in more than 40 languages. El Diario La Prensa is New York’s largest Spanish-language daily and the oldest in the nation. The New York Amsterdam News, published in Harlem, is a prominent African American newspaper. The Village Voice, historically the largest alternative newspaper in the United States, announced in 2017 that it would cease publication of its print edition and convert to a fully digital venture.
The television and radio industry developed in New York and is a significant employer in the city’s economy. The three major American broadcast networks are all headquartered in New York: ABC, CBS, and NBC. Many cable networks are based in the city as well, including MTV, Fox News, HBO, Showtime, Bravo, Food Network, AMC, and Comedy Central. The City of New York operates a public broadcast service, NYC Media, that has produced several original Emmy Award-winning shows covering music and culture in city neighborhoods and city government. WBAI, with news and information programming, is one of the few socialist radio stations operating in the United States.
New York is also a major center for non-commercial educational media. The oldest public-access television channel in the United States is the Manhattan Neighborhood Network, founded in 1971. WNET is the city’s major public television station and a primary source of national Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) television programming. WNYC, a public radio station owned by the city until 1997, has the largest public radio audience in the United States.
Education and scholarly activity
Primary and secondary education
The New York City Public Schools system, managed by the New York City Department of Education, is the largest public school system in the United States, serving about 1.1 million students in more than 1,700 separate primary and secondary schools. The city’s public school system includes nine specialized high schools to serve academically and artistically gifted students. The city government pays the Pelham Public Schools to educate a very small, detached section of the Bronx.
Butler Library at Columbia University, described as one of the most beautiful college libraries in the United States.
The Washington Square Arch, an unofficial icon of both New York University (NYU) and its Greenwich Village neighborhood.
The New York City Charter School Center assists the setup of new charter schools. There are approximately 900 additional privately run secular and religious schools in the city.
Higher education and research
Over 600,000 students are enrolled in New York City’s over 120 higher education institutions, the highest number of any city in the United States and higher than other major global cities like London and Tokyo, including over half million in the City University of New York (CUNY) system alone in 2014. In 2005, three out of five Manhattan residents were college graduates, and one out of four had a postgraduate degree, forming one of the highest concentrations of highly educated people in any American city. New York City is home to such notable private universities as Barnard College, Columbia University, Cooper Union, Fordham University, Mercy College, New York University, New York Institute of Technology, Pace University, Rockefeller University, and Yeshiva University; several of these universities are ranked among the top universities in the world. The public CUNY system is one of the largest universities in the nation, comprising 24 institutions across all five boroughs: senior colleges, community colleges, and other graduate/professional schools. The public State University of New York (SUNY) system serves New York City, as well as the rest of the state. The city also has other smaller private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions, such as St. John’s University, The Juilliard School, Manhattan College, The College of Mount Saint Vincent, Fashion Institute of Technology, Parsons School of Design, The New School, Pratt Institute, The School of Visual Arts, The King’s College, and Wagner College.
Much of the scientific research in the city is done in medicine and the life sciences. New York City has the most postgraduate life sciences degrees awarded annually in the United States, with 127 Nobel laureates having roots in local institutions as of 2005; while in 2012, 43,523 licensed physicians were practicing in New York City. Major biomedical research institutions include Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center, Rockefeller University, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, and Weill Cornell Medical College, being joined by the Cornell University/Technion-Israel Institute of Technology venture on Roosevelt Island. The graduates of SUNY Maritime College in the Bronx earned the highest average annual salary of any university graduates in the United States, US$144,000 as of 2017.
New York-Presbyterian Hospital, white complex at center, the largest hospital and largest private employer in New York City and one of the world’s busiest.
The New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation (HHC) operates the public hospitals and clinics in New York City. A public benefit corporation with $6.7 billion in annual revenues, HHC is the largest municipal healthcare system in the United States serving 1.4 million patients, including more than 475,000 uninsured city residents. HHC was created in 1969 by the New York State Legislature as a public benefit corporation (Chapter 1016 of the Laws 1969). HHC operates 11 acute care hospitals, five nursing homes, six diagnostic and treatment centers, and more than 70 community-based primary care sites, serving primarily the poor and working class. HHC’s MetroPlus Health Plan is one of the New York area’s largest providers of government-sponsored health insurance and is the plan of choice for nearly half million New Yorkers.
HHC’s facilities annually provide millions of New Yorkers services interpreted in more than 190 languages. The most well-known hospital in the HHC system is Bellevue Hospital, the oldest public hospital in the United States. Bellevue is the designated hospital for treatment of the President of the United States and other world leaders if they become sick or injured while in New York City. The president of HHC is Ramanathan Raju, MD, a surgeon and former CEO of the Cook County health system in Illinois. In August 2017, Mayor Bill de Blasio signed legislation outlawing pharmacies from selling cigarettes once their existing licenses to do so expired, beginning in 2018.
Police and law enforcement
The New York City Police Department (NYPD) represents the largest police force in the United States.
The New York City Police Department (NYPD) has been the largest police force in the United States by a significant margin, with over 35,000 sworn officers. Members of the NYPD are frequently referred to by politicians, the media, and their own police cars by the nickname, New York’s Finest.
Crime has continued an overall downward trend in New York City since the 1990s. In 2012, the NYPD came under scrutiny for its use of a stop-and-frisk program, which has undergone several policy revisions since then. In 2014, New York City had the third lowest murder rate among the largest U.S. cities, having become significantly safer after a spike in crime in the 1970s through 1990s. Violent crime in New York City decreased more than 75% from 1993 to 2005, and continued decreasing during periods when the nation as a whole saw increases. By 2002, New York City’s crime rate was similar to that of Provo, Utah, and was ranked 197th in crime among the 216 U.S. cities with populations greater than 100,000. In 2005, the homicide rate was at its lowest level since 1966, and in 2007, the city recorded fewer than 500 homicides for the first time ever since crime statistics were first published in 1963. In 2015, 50.5% of New York City misdemeanor assault suspects were black, 33.3% Hispanic, 11.1% white, 4.8% Asian/Pacific Islander and 0.3% Native American. New York City experienced 352 homicides in 2015, its second lowest number on record. In 2016 the murder rate fell to 3.9 per 100,000 residents, significantly below the US average of 5.3, and was projected to drop significantly in 2017.
Sociologists and criminologists have not reached consensus on the explanation for the dramatic decrease in the city’s crime rate. Some attribute the phenomenon to new tactics used by the NYPD, including its use of CompStat and the broken windows theory. Others cite the end of the crack epidemic and demographic changes, including from immigration. Another theory is that widespread exposure to lead pollution from automobile exhaust, which can lower intelligence and increase aggression levels, incited the initial crime wave in the mid-20th century, most acutely affecting heavily trafficked cities like New York. A strong correlation was found demonstrating that violent crime rates in New York and other big cities began to fall after lead was removed from American gasoline in the 1970s. Another theory cited to explain New York City’s falling homicide rate is the inverse correlation between the number of murders and the increasingly wetter climate in the city.
Organized crime has long been associated with New York City, beginning with the Forty Thieves and the Roach Guards in the Five Points in the 1820s. The 20th century saw a rise in the Mafia, dominated by the Five Families, as well as in gangs, including the Black Spades. The Mafia and gang presence has declined in the city in the 21st century.
The New York City Fire Department (FDNY) is the largest municipal fire department in the United States.
The New York City Fire Department (FDNY), provides fire protection, technical rescue, primary response to biological, chemical, and radioactive hazards, and emergency medical services for the five boroughs of New York City. The New York City Fire Department is the largest municipal fire department in the United States and the second largest in the world after the Tokyo Fire Department. The FDNY employs approximately 11,080 uniformed firefighters and over 3,300 uniformed EMTs and paramedics. The FDNY’s motto is New York’s Bravest.
The New York City Fire Department faces multifaceted firefighting challenges in many ways unique to New York. In addition to responding to building types that range from wood-frame single family homes to high-rise structures, there are many secluded bridges and tunnels, as well as large parks and wooded areas that can give rise to brush fires. New York is also home to one of the largest subway systems in the world, consisting of hundreds of miles of tunnel with electrified track.
The FDNY headquarters is located at 9 MetroTech Center in Downtown Brooklyn, and the FDNY Fire Academy is located on Randalls Island. There are three Bureau of Fire Communications alarm offices which receive and dispatch alarms to appropriate units. One office, at 11 Metrotech Center in Brooklyn, houses Manhattan/Citywide, Brooklyn, and Staten Island Fire Communications. The Bronx and Queens offices are in separate buildings.
Public library system
The Stephen A. Schwarzman Headquarters Building of the New York Public Library, at 5th Avenue and 42nd Street.
The New York Public Library, which has the largest collection of any public library system in the United States, serves Manhattan, the Bronx, and Staten Island. Queens is served by the Queens Borough Public Library, the nation’s second largest public library system, while the Brooklyn Public Library serves Brooklyn.
Culture and contemporary life
New York City has been described as the cultural capital of the world by the diplomatic consulates of Iceland and Latvia and by New York’s Baruch College. A book containing a series of essays titled New York, Culture Capital of the World, 1940–1965 has also been published as showcased by the National Library of Australia. In describing New York, author Tom Wolfe said, “Culture just seems to be in the air, like part of the weather.”
Numerous major American cultural movements began in the city, such as the Harlem Renaissance, which established the African-American literary canon in the United States. The city was a center of jazz in the 1940s, abstract expressionism in the 1950s, and the birthplace of hip hop in the 1970s. The city’s punk and hardcore scenes were influential in the 1970s and 1980s. New York has long had a flourishing scene for Jewish American literature.
The city is the birthplace of many cultural movements, including the Harlem Renaissance in literature and visual art; abstract expressionism (also known as the New York School) in painting; and hip hop, punk, salsa, freestyle, Tin Pan Alley, certain forms of jazz, and (along with Philadelphia) disco in music. New York City has been considered the dance capital of the world. The city is also frequently the setting for novels, movies (see List of films set in New York City), and television programs. New York Fashion Week is one of the world’s preeminent fashion events and is afforded extensive coverage by the media. New York has also frequently been ranked the top fashion capital of the world on the annual list compiled by the Global Language Monitor.
New York City has more than 2,000 arts and cultural organizations and more than 500 art galleries of all sizes. The city government funds the arts with a larger annual budget than the National Endowment for the Arts. Wealthy business magnates in the 19th century built a network of major cultural institutions, such as the famed Carnegie Hall and the Metropolitan Museum of Art, that would become internationally established. The advent of electric lighting led to elaborate theater productions, and in the 1880s, New York City theaters on Broadway and along 42nd Street began featuring a new stage form that became known as the Broadway musical. Strongly influenced by the city’s immigrants, productions such as those of Harrigan and Hart, George M. Cohan, and others used song in narratives that often reflected themes of hope and ambition. New York City itself is the subject or background of many plays and musicals.
Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts
Broadway theatre is one of the premier forms of English-language theatre in the world, named after Broadway, the major thoroughfare that crosses Times Square, also sometimes referred to as “The Great White Way”. Forty-one venues in Midtown Manhattan’s Theatre District, each with at least 500 seats, are classified as Broadway theatres. According to The Broadway League, Broadway shows sold approximately US$1.27 billion worth of tickets in the 2013–2014 season, an 11.4% increase from US$1.139 billion in the 2012–2013 season. Attendance in 2013–2014 stood at 12.21 million, representing a 5.5% increase from the 2012–2013 season’s 11.57 million. Performance artists displaying diverse skills are ubiquitous on the streets of Manhattan.
Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, anchoring Lincoln Square on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, is home to numerous influential arts organizations, including the Metropolitan Opera, New York City Opera, New York Philharmonic, and New York City Ballet, as well as the Vivian Beaumont Theater, the Juilliard School, Jazz at Lincoln Center, and Alice Tully Hall. The Lee Strasberg Theatre and Film Institute is in Union Square, and Tisch School of the Arts is based at New York University, while Central Park SummerStage presents free music concerts in Central Park.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, part of Museum Mile, is one of the largest museums in the world.
New York City is home to hundreds of cultural institutions and historic sites, many of which are internationally known. Museum Mile is the name for a section of Fifth Avenue running from 82nd to 105th streets on the Upper East Side of Manhattan, in an area sometimes called Upper Carnegie Hill. The Mile, which contains one of the densest displays of culture in the world, is actually three blocks longer than one mile (1.6 km). Ten museums occupy the length of this section of Fifth Avenue. The tenth museum, the Museum for African Art, joined the ensemble in 2009, although its museum at 110th Street, the first new museum constructed on the Mile since the Guggenheim in 1959, opened in late 2012. In addition to other programming, the museums collaborate for the annual Museum Mile Festival, held each year in June, to promote the museums and increase visitation. Many of the world’s most lucrative art auctions are held in New York City.
Smorgasburg opened in 2011 as an open-air food market and is part of the Brooklyn Flea.
New York City’s food culture includes an array of international cuisines influenced by the city’s immigrant history. Central and Eastern European immigrants, especially Jewish immigrants from those regions, brought bagels, cheesecake, hot dogs, knishes, and delicatessens (or delis) to the city. Italian immigrants brought New York-style pizza and Italian cuisine into the city, while Jewish immigrants and Irish immigrants brought pastrami and corned beef, respectively. Chinese and other Asian restaurants, sandwich joints, trattorias, diners, and coffeehouses are ubiquitous throughout the city. Some 4,000 mobile food vendors licensed by the city, many immigrant-owned, have made Middle Eastern foods such as falafel and kebabs examples of modern New York street food. The city is home to “nearly one thousand of the finest and most diverse haute cuisine restaurants in the world”, according to Michelin. The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene assigns letter grades to the city’s 24,000 restaurants based upon their inspection results.
From top: the annual Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade, the world’s largest parade; the annual Halloween Parade in Greenwich Village; the annual Philippine Independence Day Parade; and the ticker-tape parade for the Apollo 11 astronauts
New York City is well known for its street parades, which celebrate a broad array of themes, including holidays, nationalities, human rights, and major league sports team championship victories. The majority of parades are held in Manhattan. The primary orientation of the annual street parades is typically from north to south, marching along major avenues. The annual Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade is the world’s largest parade, beginning alongside Central Park and processing southward to the flagship Macy’s Herald Square store; the parade is viewed on telecasts worldwide and draws millions of spectators in person. Other notable parades including the annual St. Patrick’s Day Parade in March, the LGBT Pride March in June, the Greenwich Village Halloween Parade in October, and numerous parades commemorating the independence days of many nations. Ticker-tape parades celebrating championships won by sports teams as well as other heroic accomplishments march northward along the Canyon of Heroes on Broadway from Bowling Green to City Hall Park in Lower Manhattan.
Accent and dialect
The New York area is home to a distinctive regional speech pattern called the New York dialect, alternatively known as Brooklynese or New Yorkese. It has generally been considered one of the most recognizable accents within American English.
The traditional New York area accent is characterized as non-rhotic, so that the sound does not appear at the end of a syllable or immediately before a consonant; therefore the pronunciation of the city name as “New Yawk.” There is no [ɹ] in words like park [pɑək] or [pɒək] (with vowel backed and diphthongized due to the low-back chain shift), butter [bʌɾə], or here [hiə]. In another feature called the low back chain shift, the [ɔ] vowel sound of words like talk, law, cross, chocolate, and coffee and the often homophonous [ɔr] in core and more are tensed and usually raised more than in General American English. In the most old-fashioned and extreme versions of the New York dialect, the vowel sounds of words like “girl” and of words like “oil” became a diphthong [ɜɪ]. This is often misperceived by speakers of other accents as a reversal of the er and oy sounds, so that girl is pronounced “goil” and oil is pronounced “erl”; this leads to the caricature of New Yorkers saying things like “Joizey” (Jersey), “Toidy-Toid Street” (33rd St.) and “terlet” (toilet). The character Archie Bunker from the 1970s sitcom All in the Family (played by Carroll O’Connor) was an example of having used this pattern of speech.
The classic version of the New York City dialect is generally centered on middle and working-class New Yorkers. The influx of non-European immigrants in recent decades has led to changes in this distinctive dialect, and the traditional form of this speech pattern is no longer as prevalent among general New Yorkers as it has been in the past.
The New York Marathon is the largest marathon in the world.
The US Open Tennis Championships are held every August and September in Flushing Meadows-Corona Park, Queens.
Citi Field, also in Flushing Meadows-Corona Park, has been home to the New York Mets since 2009.
New York City is home to the headquarters of the National Football League, Major League Baseball, the National Basketball Association, the National Hockey League, and Major League Soccer. The New York metropolitan area hosts the most sports teams in these five professional leagues. Participation in professional sports in the city predates all professional leagues, and the city has been continuously hosting professional sports since the birth of the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1882. The city has played host to over forty major professional teams in the five sports and their respective competing leagues, both current and historic. Four of the ten most expensive stadiums ever built worldwide (MetLife Stadium, the new Yankee Stadium, Madison Square Garden, and Citi Field) are located in the New York metropolitan area. Madison Square Garden, its predecessor, the original Yankee Stadium and Ebbets Field, are sporting venues located in New York City, the latter two having been commemorated on U.S. postage stamps.
New York has been described as the “Capital of Baseball”. There have been 35 Major League Baseball World Series and 73 pennants won by New York teams. It is one of only five metro areas (Los Angeles, Chicago, Baltimore–Washington, and the San Francisco Bay Area being the others) to have two baseball teams. Additionally, there have been 14 World Series in which two New York City teams played each other, known as a Subway Series and occurring most recently in 2000. No other metropolitan area has had this happen more than once (Chicago in 1906, St. Louis in 1944, and the San Francisco Bay Area in 1989). The city’s two current Major League Baseball teams are the New York Mets, who play at Citi Field in Queens, and the New York Yankees, who play at Yankee Stadium in the Bronx. These teams compete in six games of interleague play every regular season that has also come to be called the Subway Series. The Yankees have won a record 27 championships, while the Mets have won the World Series twice. The city also was once home to the Brooklyn Dodgers (now the Los Angeles Dodgers), who won the World Series once, and the New York Giants (now the San Francisco Giants), who won the World Series five times. Both teams moved to California in 1958. There are also two Minor League Baseball teams in the city, the Brooklyn Cyclones and Staten Island Yankees.
The city is represented in the National Football League by the New York Giants and the New York Jets, although both teams play their home games at MetLife Stadium in nearby East Rutherford, New Jersey, which hosted Super Bowl XLVIII in 2014.
The metropolitan area is home to three National Hockey League teams. The New York Rangers, the traditional representative of the city itself and one of the league’s Original Six, play at Madison Square Garden in Manhattan. The New York Islanders, traditionally representing Nassau and Suffolk Counties of Long Island, currently play at Barclays Center in Brooklyn and are planning a return to Nassau County by way of a new arena just outside the border with Queens at Belmont Park. The New Jersey Devils play at Prudential Center in nearby Newark, New Jersey and traditionally represent the counties of neighboring New Jersey which are coextensive with the boundaries of the New York metropolitan area and media market.
The city’s National Basketball Association teams are the Brooklyn Nets and the New York Knicks, while the New York Liberty is the city’s Women’s National Basketball Association team. The first national college-level basketball championship, the National Invitation Tournament, was held in New York in 1938 and remains in the city. The city is well known for its links to basketball, which is played in nearly every park in the city by local youth, many of whom have gone on to play for major college programs and in the NBA.
In soccer, New York City is represented by New York City FC of Major League Soccer, who play their home games at Yankee Stadium and the New York Red Bulls, who play their home games at Red Bull Arena in nearby Harrison, New Jersey. Historically, the city is known for the New York Cosmos, the highly successful former professional soccer team which was the American home of Pelé. A new version of the New York Cosmos was formed in 2010, and began play in the second division North American Soccer League in 2013. The Cosmos play their home games at James M. Shuart Stadium on the campus of Hofstra University, just outside the New York City limits in Hempstead, New York.
The annual United States Open Tennis Championships is one of the world’s four Grand Slam tennis tournaments and is held at the National Tennis Center in Flushing Meadows-Corona Park, Queens. The New York City Marathon, which courses through all five boroughs, is the world’s largest running marathon, with 51,394 finishers in 2016 and 98,247 applicants for the 2017 race. The Millrose Games is an annual track and field meet whose featured event is the Wanamaker Mile. Boxing is also a prominent part of the city’s sporting scene, with events like the Amateur Boxing Golden Gloves being held at Madison Square Garden each year. The city is also considered the host of the Belmont Stakes, the last, longest and oldest of horse racing’s Triple Crown races, held just over the city’s border at Belmont Park on the first or second Sunday of June. The city also hosted the 1932 U.S. Open golf tournament and the 1930 and 1939 PGA Championships, and has been host city for both events several times, most notably for nearby Winged Foot Golf Club. The Gaelic games are played in Riverdale, Bronx at Gaelic Park, home to the New York GAA, the only North American team to compete at the senior inter-county level.
New York City is home to the two busiest rail stations in the US, including Grand Central Terminal.
New York City’s comprehensive transportation system is both complex and extensive.
The New York City Subway is the world’s largest rapid transit system by length of routes and by number of stations.
Mass transit in New York City, most of which runs 24 hours a day, accounts for one in every three users of mass transit in the United States, and two-thirds of the nation’s rail riders live in the New York City Metropolitan Area.
The New York City Subway is the world’s largest rapid transit system by length of routes and by number of stations.
The iconic New York City Subway system is the largest rapid transit system in the world when measured by stations in operation, with 472, and by length of routes. Nearly all of New York’s subway system is open 24 hours a day, in contrast to the overnight shutdown common to systems in most cities, including Hong Kong, London, Paris, Seoul, and Tokyo. The New York City Subway is also the busiest metropolitan rail transit system in the Western Hemisphere, with 1.76 billion passenger rides in 2015, while Grand Central Terminal, also referred to as “Grand Central Station”, is the world’s largest railway station by number of train platforms.
Public transport is essential in New York City. 54.6% of New Yorkers commuted to work in 2005 using mass transit. This is in contrast to the rest of the United States, where 91% of commuters travel in automobiles to their workplace. According to the New York City Comptroller, workers in the New York City area spend an average of 6 hours and 18 minutes getting to work each week, the longest commute time in the nation among large cities. New York is the only US city in which a majority (52%) of households do not have a car; only 22% of Manhattanites own a car. Due to their high usage of mass transit, New Yorkers spend less of their household income on transportation than the national average, saving $19 billion annually on transportation compared to other urban Americans.
New York City’s commuter rail network is the largest in North America. The rail network, connecting New York City to its suburbs, consists of the Long Island Rail Road, Metro-North Railroad, and New Jersey Transit. The combined systems converge at Grand Central Terminal and Pennsylvania Station and contain more than 250 stations and 20 rail lines. In Queens, the elevated AirTrain people mover system connects JFK International Airport to the New York City Subway and the Long Island Rail Road; a separate AirTrain system is planned alongside the Grand Central Parkway to connect LaGuardia Airport to these transit systems. For intercity rail, New York City is served by Amtrak, whose busiest station by a significant margin is Pennsylvania Station on the West Side of Manhattan, from which Amtrak provides connections to Boston, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C. along the Northeast Corridor, and long-distance train service to other North American cities.
The Staten Island Railway rapid transit system solely serves Staten Island, operating 24 hours a day. The Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH train) links Midtown and Lower Manhattan to northeastern New Jersey, primarily Hoboken, Jersey City, and Newark. Like the New York City Subway, the PATH operates 24 hours a day; meaning three of the six rapid transit systems in the world which operate on 24-hour schedules are wholly or partly in New York (the others are a portion of the Chicago ‘L’, the PATCO Speedline serving Philadelphia, and the Copenhagen Metro).
Multibillion-dollar heavy rail transit projects under construction in New York City include the Second Avenue Subway, the East Side Access project, and the 7 Subway Extension.
The Port Authority Bus Terminal, the world’s busiest bus station, at 8th Avenue and 42nd Street.
New York City’s public bus fleet is the largest in North America, and the Port Authority Bus Terminal, the main intercity bus terminal of the city, serves 7,000 buses and 200,000 commuters daily, making it the busiest bus station in the world.
John F. Kennedy Airport in Queens, the busiest international air passenger gateway to the United States.
New York’s airspace is the busiest in the United States and one of the world’s busiest air transportation corridors. The three busiest airports in the New York metropolitan area include John F. Kennedy International Airport, Newark Liberty International Airport, and LaGuardia Airport; 130.5 million travelers used these three airports in 2016, and the city’s airspace is the busiest in the nation. JFK and Newark Liberty were the busiest and fourth busiest U.S. gateways for international air passengers, respectively, in 2012; as of 2011, JFK was the busiest airport for international passengers in North America. Plans have advanced to expand passenger volume at a fourth airport, Stewart International Airport near Newburgh, New York, by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Plans were announced in July 2015 to entirely rebuild LaGuardia Airport in a multibillion-dollar project to replace its aging facilities. Other commercial airports in or serving the New York metropolitan area include Long Island MacArthur Airport, Trenton–Mercer Airport and Westchester County Airport. The primary general aviation airport serving the area is Teterboro Airport.
The Staten Island Ferry shuttles commuters between Manhattan and Staten Island.
The Staten Island Ferry is the world’s busiest ferry route, carrying over 23 million passengers from July 2015 through June 2016 on the 5.2-mile (8.4 km) route between Staten Island and Lower Manhattan and running 24 hours a day. Other ferry systems shuttle commuters between Manhattan and other locales within the city and the metropolitan area.
NYC Ferry, a NYCEDC initiative with routes planned to travel to all five boroughs, was launched in 2017, with second graders choosing the names of the ferries. Meanwhile, Seastreak ferry announced construction of a 600-passenger high-speed luxury ferry in September 2016, to shuttle riders between the Jersey Shore and Manhattan, anticipated to start service in 2017; this would be the largest vessel in its class.
Taxis, transport startups, and trams
Yellow medallion taxicabs are widely recognized icons of the city
Other features of the city’s transportation infrastructure encompass more than 12,000 yellow taxicabs; various competing startup transportation network companies; and an aerial tramway that transports commuters between Roosevelt Island and Manhattan Island. Ride-sharing services have become significant competition for cab drivers in New York.
Streets and highways
8th Avenue, looking northward (“uptown”). Most streets and avenues in Manhattan’s grid plan incorporate a one-way traffic configuration.
Despite New York’s heavy reliance on its vast public transit system, streets are a defining feature of the city. Manhattan’s street grid plan greatly influenced the city’s physical development. Several of the city’s streets and avenues, like Broadway, Wall Street, Madison Avenue, and Seventh Avenue are also used as metonyms for national industries there: the theater, finance, advertising, and fashion organizations, respectively.
New York City also has an extensive web of expressways and parkways, which link the city’s boroughs to each other and to northern New Jersey, Westchester County, Long Island, and southwestern Connecticut through various bridges and tunnels. Because these highways serve millions of outer borough and suburban residents who commute into Manhattan, it is quite common for motorists to be stranded for hours in traffic jams that are a daily occurrence, particularly during rush hour.
New York City is also known for its rules regarding turning at red lights. Unlike the rest of the United States, New York State prohibits right or left turns on red in cities with a population greater than one million, to reduce traffic collisions and increase pedestrian safety. In New York City, therefore, all turns at red lights are illegal unless a sign permitting such maneuvers is present.
The George Washington Bridge, connecting Upper Manhattan (background) from Fort Lee, New Jersey across the Hudson River, is the world’s busiest motor vehicle bridge.
New York City is located on one of the world’s largest natural harbors, and the boroughs of Manhattan and Staten Island are (primarily) coterminous with islands of the same names, while Queens and Brooklyn are located at the west end of the larger Long Island, and The Bronx is located at the southern tip of New York State’s mainland. This situation of boroughs separated by water led to the development of an extensive infrastructure of well-known bridges and tunnels.
The George Washington Bridge is the world’s busiest motor vehicle bridge, connecting Manhattan to Bergen County, New Jersey. The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge is the longest suspension bridge in the Americas and one of the world’s longest. The Brooklyn Bridge is an icon of the city itself. The towers of the Brooklyn Bridge are built of limestone, granite, and Rosendale cement, and their architectural style is neo-Gothic, with characteristic pointed arches above the passageways through the stone towers. This bridge was also the longest suspension bridge in the world from its opening until 1903, and is the first steel-wire suspension bridge. The Queensboro Bridge is an important piece of cantilever architecture. The Manhattan Bridge, opened in 1909, is considered to be the forerunner of modern suspension bridges, and its design served as the model for many of the long-span suspension bridges around the world; the Manhattan Bridge, Throgs Neck Bridge, Triborough Bridge, and Verrazano-Narrows Bridge are all examples of Structural Expressionism.
Manhattan Island is linked to New York City’s outer boroughs and New Jersey by several tunnels as well. The Lincoln Tunnel, which carries 120,000 vehicles a day under the Hudson River between New Jersey and Midtown Manhattan, is the busiest vehicular tunnel in the world. The tunnel was built instead of a bridge to allow unfettered passage of large passenger and cargo ships that sailed through New York Harbor and up the Hudson River to Manhattan’s piers. The Holland Tunnel, connecting Lower Manhattan to Jersey City, New Jersey, was the world’s first mechanically ventilated vehicular tunnel when it opened in 1927. The Queens-Midtown Tunnel, built to relieve congestion on the bridges connecting Manhattan with Queens and Brooklyn, was the largest non-federal project in its time when it was completed in 1940. President Franklin D. Roosevelt was the first person to drive through it. The Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel (officially known as the Hugh L. Carey Tunnel) runs underneath Battery Park and connects the Financial District at the southern tip of Manhattan to Red Hook in Brooklyn.
As of July 2010, the city had 3,715 hybrid taxis in service, the largest number of any city in North America.
Environmental impact reduction
New York City has focused on reducing its environmental impact and carbon footprint. Mass transit use in New York City is the highest in the United States. Also, by 2010, the city had 3,715 hybrid taxis and other clean diesel vehicles, representing around 28% of New York’s taxi fleet in service, the most of any city in North America.
New York’s high rate of public transit use, over 200,000 daily cyclists as of 2014, and many pedestrian commuters make it the most energy-efficient major city in the United States. Walk and bicycle modes of travel account for 21% of all modes for trips in the city; nationally the rate for metro regions is about 8%. In both its 2011 and 2015 rankings, Walk Score named New York City the most walkable large city in the United States, and in 2018, Stacker ranked New York the most walkable U.S. city. Citibank sponsored the introduction of 10,000 public bicycles for the city’s bike-share project in the summer of 2013. Research conducted by Quinnipiac University showed that a majority of New Yorkers support the initiative. New York City’s numerical “in-season cycling indicator” of bicycling in the city hit an all-time high in 2013.
The city government was a petitioner in the landmark Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency Supreme Court case forcing the EPA to regulate greenhouse gases as pollutants. The city is a leader in the construction of energy-efficient green office buildings, including the Hearst Tower among others. Mayor Bill de Blasio has committed to an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions between 2014 and 2050 to reduce the city’s contributions to climate change, beginning with a comprehensive “Green Buildings” plan.
Water purity and availability
New York City is supplied with drinking water by the protected Catskill Mountains watershed. As a result of the watershed’s integrity and undisturbed natural water filtration system, New York is one of only four major cities in the United States the majority of whose drinking water is pure enough not to require purification by water treatment plants. The city’s municipal water system is the largest in the United States, moving over one billion gallons of water per day. The Croton Watershed north of the city is undergoing construction of a US$3.2 billion water purification plant to augment New York City’s water supply by an estimated 290 million gallons daily, representing a greater than 20% addition to the city’s current availability of water. The ongoing expansion of New York City Water Tunnel No. 3, an integral part of the New York City water supply system, is the largest capital construction project in the city’s history, with segments serving Manhattan and The Bronx completed, and with segments serving Brooklyn and Queens planned for construction in 2020. In 2018, New York City announced a US$1 billion investment to protect the integrity of its water system and to maintain the purity of its unfiltered water supply.
Newtown Creek, a 3.5-mile (6-kilometer) a long estuary that forms part of the border between the boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens, has been designated a Superfund site for environmental clean-up and remediation of the waterway’s recreational and economic resources for many communities. One of the most heavily used bodies of water in the Port of New York and New Jersey, it had been one of the most contaminated industrial sites in the country, containing years of discarded toxins, an estimated 30 million US gallons (110,000 m3) of spilled oil, including the Greenpoint oil spill, raw sewage from New York City’s sewer system, and other accumulation.
Government and politics
New York City Hall is the oldest City Hall in the United States that still houses its original governmental functions.
New York City has been a metropolitan municipality with a mayor–council form of government since its consolidation in 1898. In New York City, the city government is responsible for public education, correctional institutions, public safety, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply, and welfare services.
The Mayor and council members are elected to four-year terms. The City Council is a unicameral body consisting of 51 council members whose districts are defined by geographic population boundaries. Each term for the mayor and council members lasts four years and has a three consecutive-term limit, which is reset after a four-year break. The New York City Administrative Code, the New York City Rules, and the City Record are the code of local laws, compilation of regulations, and official journal, respectively.
The New York County Courthouse houses the New York Supreme Court and other offices.
Each borough is coextensive with a judicial district of the state Unified Court System, of which the Criminal Court and the Civil Court are the local courts, while the New York Supreme Court conducts major trials and appeals. Manhattan hosts the First Department of the Supreme Court, Appellate Division while Brooklyn hosts the Second Department. There are also several extrajudicial administrative courts, which are executive agencies and not part of the state Unified Court System.
Uniquely among major American cities, New York is divided between, and is host to the main branches of, two different US district courts: the District Court for the Southern District of New York, whose main courthouse is on Foley Square near City Hall in Manhattan and whose jurisdiction includes Manhattan and the Bronx; and the District Court for the Eastern District of New York, whose main courthouse is in Brooklyn and whose jurisdiction includes Brooklyn, Queens, and Staten Island. The US Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit and US Court of International Trade are also based in New York, also on Foley Square in Manhattan.
Bill de Blasio, the current and 109th Mayor of New York City
The present mayor is Bill de Blasio, the first Democrat since 1993.He was elected in 2013 with over 73% of the vote, and assumed office on January 1, 2014.
The Democratic Party holds the majority of public offices. As of April 2016, 69% of registered voters in the city are Democrats and 10% are Republicans. New York City has not been carried by a Republican in a statewide or presidential election since President Calvin Coolidge won the five boroughs in 1924. In 2012, Democrat Barack Obama became the first presidential candidate of any party to receive more than 80% of the overall vote in New York City, sweeping all five boroughs. Party platforms center on affordable housing, education, and economic development, and labor politics are of importance in the city.
New York is the most important source of political fundraising in the United States, as four of the top five ZIP Codes in the nation for political contributions are in Manhattan. The top ZIP Code, 10021 on the Upper East Side, generated the most money for the 2004 presidential campaigns of George W. Bush and John Kerry. The city has a strong imbalance of payments with the national and state governments. It receives 83 cents in services for every $1 it sends to the federal government in taxes (or annually sends $11.4 billion more than it receives back). City residents and businesses also spent an additional $4.1 billion in the 2009–2010 fiscal year to the state of New York than the city received in return.
50 Cent (Curtis Jackson) – businessman and rapper
6ix9ine (Daniel Hernandez) – rapper
Aaliyah (Aaliyah Haughton, 1979–2001) singer, actress, model
Zaid Abdul-Aziz (born 1946) – professional basketball player
Kareem Abdul-Jabbar (born 1947) – basketball player
George Abernethy (1807–1877) – first provisional Governor of Oregon
Cecile Abish (born 1930) – sculptor
Oday Aboushi (born 1991) – football player
Garnett Adrain (1815–1878) – member of the United States House of
Representatives from New Jersey
Cornelius Rea Agnew (1830–1888) – ophthalmologist
Eliza Agnew (1807–1883) – Presbyterian missionary
Christina Aguilera (born 1980) – singer
Danny Aiello (born 1933) – actor
Marv Albert (born 1941) – sports announcer
Alan Alda (born 1936) – actor
Ira Aldridge (1805–1867) – stage actor
William Alexander, Lord Stirling (1726–1783) – major general in the American
Woody Allen (born 1935) – film director, actor, screenwriter
Vincent Alo (1904–2001) – mobster
Rafer Alston – basketball player
Lee J. Ames – illustrator and writer; known for the Draw 50… learn-to-draw books
Trey Anastasio (born 1964) – rock musician and member of the band, Phish
Kenny Anderson – professional basketball player
Charles Anthon – classical scholar
Carmelo Anthony – basketball player
Marc Anthony – singer and actor
Judd Apatow – producer, director, comedian, actor and screenwriter
Fiona Apple – singer-songwriter
Diane Arbus (1923–1971) – photographer
Nate Archibald (born 1948) – professional basketball player
Kenneth J. Arrow – economist; recipient, 1972 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences
Beatrice Arthur (1922–2009) – actress
William H. Aspinwall – railroad promoter
John Jacob Astor III (1822–1890) – businessman and member of the Astor family
Vincent Astor (1891–1959) – businessman, philanthropist and member of the Astor family
William Backhouse Astor, Sr. (1792–1875) – businessman and member of the Astor family
Jake T. Austin – actor, model, author
Awkwafina (Nora Lum, born 1988) – rapper, actress
AZ – rapper and former member of the rap group The Firm
Edwin Burr Babbitt – actor
Johnny Bach (1924–2016) – professional basketball player and coach
Evan Baken – musician, drummer and record company executive
William Bliss Baker – landscape artist
Azealia Banks (born 1991) – rapper, singer-songwriter, actress
Joseph Barbera (1911–2006) – animator, producer, director, MGM and co-founder of Hanna-Barbera
Bryan Bautista – Dominican-American musician, singer, and contestant from NBC’s The Voice season 10
Earl Beecham – football player
Bo Belinsky (1936–2001) – Major League Baseball player
Tony Bennett – iconic jazz singer and musician
Moe Berg (1902–1972) – Major League Baseball player and spy
Milton Berle – comedian
Paul Berlenbach (1901–1985) – light heavyweight boxing champion, 1925–1926
Dellin Betances – Major League Baseball pitcher
Bipolar Explorer – dreampop band
Joan Blondell – actress
Humphrey Bogart (1899–1957) – actor
William T. Bonniwell, Jr. – Wisconsin and Minnesota politician
Joseph Borelli – politician and conservative commentator
Francis Bouillon – National Hockey League defenseman playing for the Nashville Predators
Kate Parker Scott Boyd (1836–1922) – artist, journalist, temperance worker
Barbara Boxer – U.S. Senator from California
James J. Braddock – boxer (aka “Cinderella Man”)
Hermann Braun (1918–1945) – actor
Abigail Breslin – actress and musician
Jimmy Breslin – columnist
Spencer Breslin—actor and musician
Eben Britton – football player
Matthew Broderick – actor
Action Bronson – rapper
Mel Brooks – film director, screenwriter and actor
Julia Brown – madam and prostitute
Larry Brown – basketball player and coach
Tarell Brown (born 1985) – football player
Andrew Bryson (1822–1892) – United States Navy rear admiral
William F. Buckley, Jr. – author and conservative commentator
Sidney Jonas Budnick, abstract artist
George Burns (1896–1996) – comedian
Steve Buscemi – actor
Barbara Bush (1925–2018) – wife of George H. W. Bush
Gene Byrnes – cartoonist
James Caan – actor
Antón Cabaleiro – visual artist born in Spain
Adolph Caesar (1933–1986) – actor
Leslie Cagan (born 1947) – activist and writer
James Cagney (1899–1986) – actor
Eddie Cahill (born 1978) – actor
Edward L. Cahn (1899–1963) – film director known for the Our Gang comedies
Sarth Calhoun – electronic musician
Joseph A. Califano – Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare
Maria Callas (1923–1977) – Greek-American opera singer
Richard Camacho – singer, musician, member of Latin music band CNCO, Dominican-origin
Christian Camargo – actor
Schuyler V. Cammann – anthropologist
Chris Canty – football player
Al Capone (1899–1947) – Prohibition gangster, boss of Chicago Outfit
Mae Capone (1897–1986) – wife of Al Capone
Francis Capra (born 1983) – actor
Nestor Carbonell (born 1967) – actor
Cardi B (born 1992) – rapper
Benjamin Cardozo – Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court
Hugh Carey – Governor of New York
Timothy Carey (1929–1994) – actor
George Carlin (1937–2008) – comedian
Alan Carney (1909–1973) – actor and comedian
Caleb Carr (born 1955) – novelist and military historian
Eric Carr – rock musician, songwriter
John Carradine (1906–1988) – actor
Julian Casablancas – lead singer of rock band The Strokes; musician
Colin Cassady (born 1986) – professional wrestler working for WWE
John Cassavetes – actor
DJ Cassidy (born 1981) – DJ, record producer and MC
Luis Castillo – football player
Vinnie Caruana – musician, singer
Phoebe Cates – actress
Jose Ceballos – trade unionist and political campaign manager
Bennett Cerf (1898–1971) – publisher, TV personality
Jeff Chandler – actor
Frank Chanfrau – actor
James S.C. Chao – Chinese-American entrepreneur and philanthropist
Harry Chapin (1942–1981) – singer-songwriter
Paddy Chayefsky – author
Maury Chaykin – actor
Julie Chen – television personality
Edmund A. Chester – executive at CBS
Jennie Jerome Churchill – mother of Winston Churchill
Peter Cincotti – singer-songwriter
Robert Clohessy – actor
Evan Cole – CEO of H.D. Buttercup
Margaret Colin – actress
Irv Constantine – football player
Hugh E. Conway – labor economist
Anderson Cooper – television journalist
George H. Cooper (1821–1891) – United States Navy rear admiral
Shaun Cooper – rock musician, bassist
William R. Cosentini – mechanical engineer and founder of Cosentini Associates
Ann Coulter – conservative commentator, writer
Freddie Crawford – basketball player
Peter Criss – rock musician, songwriter
Billy Crystal – comedian, actor, director
George Cukor – film director
Kieran Culkin – actor
Kit Culkin – actor
Macaulay Culkin – actor
Rory Culkin – actor
Jermaine Cunningham – football player
Mario Cuomo – Governor of New York
Quentin Curry – landscape painter
Valerie Curtin – actress and screenwriter
Tony Curtis – actor
Alexandra Daddario – actress
Matthew Daddario – actor
Charles Patrick Daly – judge
Al D’Amato – politician
Claire Danes – actress
Rodney Dangerfield – comedian
Lloyd Daniels – basketball player
Ron Dante – singer-songwriter and record producer
Tony Danza – actor
Bobby Darin – singer, entertainer, actor, songwriter
Candy Darling actress and Warhol Superstar
Larry David – actor, writer, comedian, producer
Marion Davies – actress
Al “Bummy” Davis – boxer
Sammy Davis, Jr. (1925–1990) – singer and entertainer
Dawin (full name Dawin Polanco) – hip hop-R&B singer, musician, and record producer
Rosario Dawson – actress
Clarence Day (1874–1935) – author and humorist
Dorothy Day – Catholic social activist
Bill de Blasio – Mayor of New York City
Robert De Niro – actor
Éamon de Valera – Taoiseach (prime minister) and President of Ireland
Paul Stanley – hard-rock guitarist, singer and songwriter
Barbara Stanwyck (1907–1990) – actress
Joe Start – Major League Baseball player
James Steen – football player
Howard Stern – radio and television host
John Stevens – delegate to Continental Congress for New Jersey
Andrew Stewart – player of gridiron football
Foley Stewart – musician
Jon Stewart – writer, producer, political satirist, actor, television personality, comedian, and former host of The Daily Show (1999–2015); born in New York City, raised in New Jersey
Julia Stiles – actress
Ben Stiller – actor known for Madagascar, Night at the Museum and Zoolander
Henry L. Stimson – politician and diplomat
Oliver Stone – film director
Susan Strasberg – actress
Robert Strassburg – composer, conductor, musicologist
James Strauch (1921–1998) – Olympic fencer
Barbra Streisand – singer and actress
Meryl Streep – actress
Jill Stuart – fashion designer
Big Sue – shopkeeper and underworld figure
Ed Sullivan (1901–1974) – television variety show host
Susan Sullivan – actress
Kevin Sussman – actor known for The Big Bang Theory
Vic Tayback (1930–1990) – actor
Alma Tell (1898–1937) – stage and screen actress
Olive Tell (1894–1951) – stage and screen actress
Maurice Tempelsman (born 1929) – businessman
Chloe Temtchine (born 1982/1983) – singer-songwriter
The Tenderloins (born 1976) – an American comedy troupe currently composed of
Joseph “Joe” Gatto, James “Murr” Murray, Brian “Q” Quinn, and Salvatore “Sal” Vulcano
Studs Terkel (1912–2008) – author and historian
Milton Terris (1915–2002) – public health physician and epidemiologist
Roy M. Terry – Chief of Chaplains of the U.S. Air Force
Vinny Testaverde – football player
Irving Thalberg – film producer
Leon Thomas III – actor
Soren Thompson (born 1981) – two-time Olympic and team World Champion épée fencer
Johnny Thunders – rock musician
Gene Tierney (1920–1991) – actress
Harry Tietlebaum (born 1889) – organized crime figure
Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848–1933) – artist
Matt Titus – professional matchmaker
James Toback (born 1944) – screenwriter and director
Isabella Tobias (born 1991) – ice dancer
Lola Todd (1904–1995) – silent film actress
Bill Todman – game show producer
Michael Tolkin (born 1950) – filmmaker and novelist
Marisa Tomei (born 1964) – actress
Joe Torre – baseball player and manager
Douglas Townsend (1921–2012) – composer and musicologist
Michelle Trachtenberg – actress
Mary Travers – singer with Peter, Paul, and Mary
Alex Treves (born 1929) – Italian-born American Olympic fencer
Barron Trump – socialite
Donald Trump – 45th President of the United States
Donald Trump Jr. – businessman
Eric Trump – businessman
Fred Trump – real estate developer and philanthropist
Ivanka Trump – businesswoman
Tiffany Trump – socialite
Barbara Tuchman (1912–1989) – historian; author
Richard Tucker (1913–1975) – opera tenor
Gene Tunney – 1926–28 heavyweight boxing champion
John V. Tunney – former U.S. Senator
John Turturro – actor and director
William Tweed (1823–1878) – politician
Liv Tyler – actress
Steven Tyler (born 1948) – singer, Aerosmith
Mike Tyson (born 1966) – boxer
Neil deGrasse Tyson – astronomer, science communicator
Leslie Uggams – singer; actress
The Ultimate Warrior (born Jim Hellwig and also known as Warrior) – professional wrestler
Louis Untermeyer (1885–1977) – poet, anthologist, critic, and editor
Hikaru Utada – singer, musician
Andrew Vachss – lawyer and author
Cornelius Vanderbilt – businessman
Robert Vaughn (1932–2016) – actor
George Vergara – NFL player
Jennifer von Mayrhauser – costume designer
Stanley M. Wagner (1932–2013) – rabbi and academic
Josh Waitzkin (born 1976) – chess player, martial arts competitor, and author
Christopher Walken – actor
Adam Walker – football player
Hezekiah Walker – bishop and gospel artist
Jimmy Walker (1881–1946) – Mayor of New York City
Kemba Walker – basketball player
Eli Wallach – actor
Donald A. Wallance – industrial designer
Fats Waller – jazz pianist
Abby Wambach – soccer player
Charles B. Wang (born 1944) – businessman, philanthropist
Vera Wang – fashion designer
Raees Warsi – poet, journalist, social and worker
Kerry Washington – actress
Damon Wayans – actor and producer
Dwayne Wayans – director, producer and writer
Keenen Ivory Wayans – actor, director, producer and writer
Kim Wayans – actress
Marlon Wayans – actor and producer
Nadia Wayans – actress
Shawn Wayans – actor and producer
Michael Weatherly – actor
Sigourney Weaver – actress
Brian Wecht (born 1975) – musician, producer for Ninja Sex Party and Starbomb, and member of Game Grumps
Steven Weinberg – Nobel Prize-winning physicist
Leslie West – rock musician
Mae West (1893–1980) – actress
Nathanael West – author
Edith Wharton – author
Joss Whedon – screenwriter, film and television producer, author and composer
Maggie Wheeler – actress
White Light Motorcade –music group
Billy Whitlock – blackface performer
Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney – sculptor and art patron
Edward W. Whitson – Wisconsin State Assemblyman
Kristen Wiig – actress, comedian and writer
Charles Wilkes – naval officer and explorer
Lenny Wilkens – basketball player and coach
Billy Dee Williams (born 1937) – actor
Vanessa L. Williams – singer and actress
Walter Winchell (1897–1972) – newspaper and radio gossip commentator
Harry Winitsky – political activist; founding member of the Communist Party USA Dean Winters – actor
Mike Witteck – football player
George Worth – born György Woittitz (1915–2006), Olympic medalist saber fencer
James Hood Wright – businessman
William H. H. Wroe – member of the Wisconsin State Assembly
Charles Wuorinen – composer
Izzy Yablok – football player
Tony Yayo – rapper
Burt Young – actor
Tony Young – actor
In 2006, the Sister City Program of the City of New York, Inc. was restructured and renamed New York City Global Partners. Through this program, New York City has expanded its international outreach to a network of cities worldwide, promoting the exchange of ideas and innovation between their citizenry and policymakers. New York’s historic sister cities are denoted below by the year they joined New York City’s partnership network.
Ngerulmud, the capital city of the Pacific island nation of Palau, is the world’s least populated national capital.
The Capitol Building in Ngerulmud, Palau.
By July 1, 2017, the global population reached approximately 7.550 billion. Exactly one year earlier, the global population stood at 7.466 billion, and by January 2018 it had surpassed the 7.6 billion mark. In 2016, the majority of the global population lived in Asia (59.69%), followed by Africa (16.36%), Europe (9.94%), North America (7.79%), South America (5.68%), Oceania (0.54%), and Antarctica (less than 0.1%). China remains the world’s most populous country, with an estimated population of 1.41 billion as of January 2018, while India ranks a close second with 1.35 billion. Both counties account for 19% and 18% of the global, respectively. However, the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs estimates that India will be the world’s most populous country by 2024 based on current trends in birth rate. Between 2010 and 2017 China experienced an annual population increase of 0.4%, while India experienced an annual increase of 1.1%. More than half (54%) of the global population resides in an urban environment. Urbanization of the rural environment and migration to urban areas mean that 66% of the global population will live in an urban environment by 2050. As some countries record high populations, others register less than 10,000 inhabitants. Vatican City remains the least populous country, with between 790-800 people. Tokelau and Niue both have less than 2,000 residents.
The World’s Least Populated Capital Cities
Palau is the capital of Ngerulmud and is the least populous capital city on the planet, with a population of just 400. The city became the national capital in 2006, succeeding Koror City, which is home to half of the country’s total population of 21,800. Since the 1950s the country’s population growth has been low, growing from 7,440 in 1950 to 21,800 in January 2018. The Vatican City ranks second, with a population of about 800 people, and is the world’s least populous country. The city-state is located entirely within the Italian city of Rome. Vatican City is associated with the Roman Catholic Church and is the home of the Catholic Pope.
The state of Nauru in Oceania has a population of 11,360. The capital city, Yaren, is inhabited by about 1,100 people, which represents 9.6% of the entire population. The island covers an area of 8.1 sqm. Yaren, which covers an area of 0.58 sqm on the southern part of the island, was established in 1968 surrounding an area that had clean drinking water. Nauru has no modern city, and Yaren was therefore recognized by the United Nations as the country’s de facto capital. Tuvalu, which is located in the Pacific Ocean, halfway between Australia and the U.S state of Hawaii, is a Polynesian nation with a population of about 11,200 people. The capital, Funafuti, is an atoll and home to 6,025 people, representing 56.6% of the entire population. The country’s parliament and administrative offices are located in Fongafale.
The microstate of San Marino is located in the Italian Peninsula and is enclosed by Italy. It covers an area of about 24 sqm and has a population of approximately 33,400. Serravalle is the largest city in the country, but the City of San Marino City is the capital. The City of San Marino is home to about 4,500 people, which is less than half of Serravalle’s population. It was founded by Christians in the early 4th century and remains a Christian city. The microstate of Liechtenstein in Central Europe is home to about 38,000 people. Its capital city, Vaduz, is home to about 5,250, and acts as the country’s political and administrative center. It is the most recognized city in the state, although Schaan has a larger population.
The capital city of Malta, Valletta, is home to 6,500 of the country’s 450,000 people. Founded on March 28, 1566, the city is popular for its cultural artifacts. St. George’s is the capital of Granada, and is home to about 7,500 people. Tourism has helped develop and market the city as a tourist destination, resulting in a rise in population. Granada is located in the Caribbean, is popular among tourists, and is known to be a leading export of nutmeg and mace crops.
Palikir is the capital of the Federated States of Micronesia, and is home to about 9,900 people. Micronesia has a population of 105,000 people, and maintains close relations with the United States. The capital city of Saint Kitts and Nevis, Basseterre, is the 10th least populous capital city, with a population of only 13,100.
The Least Populous Countries
Vatican City remains the least populous state, with a population of 800. Tokelau ranks second, with a population of about 1,300, and has a population growth rate of 1.3% annually. Montserrat, Falkland Islands, and Saint Helena, all register less than 6,000 people.
Caracas, Venezuela is the world’s most dangerous city with a murder rate of 130.35 per 100,000 inhabitants.
Caracas, Venezuela, tops the list with the highest murder rate on the planet.
When planning your next trip, you may want to avoid some of the cities we’re about to mention. In 2016, they ranked among the world’s most dangerous places on the basis of murder cases per capita.
The World’s Most Dangerous Cities
Caracas, Venezuela has held on to its spot as the world’s most dangerous city with a murder rate of 130.35. This staggering number is followed by Acapulco, Mexico with 113.24 per 100,000 inhabitants and San Pedro Sula, Honduras with 112.09 homicides per 100,000 inhabitants. Violence brought on by drug trafficking and organized gangs have been blamed for the relentless violence in these cities, although the factors are generally quite complicated. Unfortunately, none of these cities are strangers to the top three positions, except for maybe the resort town of Acapulco, which violence from other regions of the country has been spilling into in recent years.
The Most Dangerous Cities in the United States
Four cities in the United States are counted the among the world’s most dangerous. The cities are, in descending order of homicide rates, St. Louis, Missouri (60.37), Baltimore, Maryland (51.14), New Orleans, Louisiana (45.17) and Detroit, Michigan (44.6). In the United States, the relaxed laws surrounding gun ownership is often subject of much debate. In the United States, gun violence is responsible for tens of thousands of deaths nationwide annually.
One city that is a notable omission from the list is Chicago. Although the city of Chicago has had a reputation for crime in recent years, its homicide rate is 27.22 murders per 100,000 residents. It is important to note that although the city of Chicago experienced an overall decrease in violent crime in the early 2000s, as of the 2010s crime again seems to be on an incline.
Latin American Cities
Of the entries on this list, many cities can be found in a region of the world known as Latin America. Latin America generally refers to countries in Central and South America, where the predominant language is Spanish (or in the case of Brazil, Portuguese). The factors for the dominance of these countries are varied and complicated. Violence related to drug trafficking and income inequality, corrupt politicians and officials, and residue from a history of brutal colonialism have all been indicated as factors that encourage violence.
South African Cities
Of this list provided of the 50 most dangerous cities in the world by violent crime rate, three cities in South Africa make the list: Cape Town (60.77), Nelson Mandela Bay (39.19), and Durban (34.43). South Africa, which inhabits the southernmost point of the massive African continent, has often garnered publicity for its high crime rates, including murder rates. Factors such as high employment and systemic racism have all been blamed for the violent trends in South African cities.