Category Archives: Computer

Command Prompt – How to use the simple, basic commands

by Codrut Neagu published on 05/11/2016. digitalcitizen . life

Geeks and experts all love the Command Prompt because of the advanced tasks and commands you can run in it. But that doesn’t mean that it’s only useful for experts – after all, every expert was a novice in the beginning. And Command Prompt is not built only on advanced commands, but also on simple commands designed to perform basic operations. In this article we will show you how to execute commands like changing the working folder, viewing the contents of a directory, creating and renaming folders, copying, deleting files and folders, and launching any application from the Command Prompt. We will also see how to get help when using this tool.

NOTE: The information shared in this tutorial applies to Windows 10, Windows 8.1 and Windows 7. Note that, for simplicity, we will use screenshots taken only in Windows 10.

How to navigate between folders


The first command from the list is CD (Change Directory). This command enables you to change the current folder or, in other words, to navigate to another folder from your computer.

For instance, the command CD\ takes you to the top of the directory tree. To see how it works, after you open the Command Prompt, type cd\ and press Enter on your keyboard. You will see that the CD\ command takes you to the top of the directory tree (in this case to the “C:” drive).

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NOTE: Command Prompt is not case sensitive, meaning that commands can be typed with capital letters, lowercase or any combination of them. The commands CD, cd or Cd will all work in the same way.

Going back to the “CD\” command, now you are working on the root of the “C:” drive. If you need to go to a specific folder from this drive run the command “CD Folder”. The subfolders must be separated by a backslash character: “\”. For instance, when you need to access the System32 folder located in “C:\Windows”, type “cd windows\system32\” as shown below, and then press Enter on your keyboard.

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When you need to go to one folder up, use the “cd..” command. Let’s assume that you want to go back to the Windows folder. Type “cd..” and press Enter on your keyboard. You will notice that your current directory has changed to ”C:\Windows”.

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How to access a certain drive


To access another drive, type that drive’s letter, followed by “:”. For instance, if you wanted to change the drive from “C:” to “D:”, you should type “d:” and then press Enter on your keyboard.

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To change the drive and the directory at the same time, use the cd command, followed by the “/d” switch. The “/d” parameter is used to change the current drive to a specific folder from another disk volume. For instance, if you are now on the ”D:” drive and you want to go back to the Windows folder from the“C:” drive, you should type “cd /d C:\Windows” and press Enter on your keyboard, like in the following screenshot.

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NOTE: By typing the drive letter you automatically move to your most recent location in that drive. For instance, if you are on “D:” drive and type “cd c:\windows” nothing seems to happen. But if you type “c:”, then the working folder will change to “c:\windows” (assuming that it was the last folder you worked with on your “C:” drive).

How to view the contents of a folder
You can view the contents of a folder by using a simple command called DIR. To test it, we’ve created a folder named Digital_Citizen on the D: drive, with several files and subfolders.

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The last time, our working folder was “C:\Windows”. We will navigate to the folder mentioned above by using the command “cd /d D:\Digital_Citizen”. To view the contents of the folder we will type DIR and press Enter on the keyboard. A list of the files and folders contained by it is displayed, together with some details about them (the size and the date and time when they were last modified).

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How to create a new folder from the Command Prompt


You can make a new directory using the MKDIR (Make Directory) or the MD command. The syntax of these commands is “MKDIR Folder” or “MD Folder”.

Let’s say we need to create a new folder called Digital_Citizen_Life that will be placed in the “D:\Digital_Citizen” folder. We will type “mkdir Digital_Citizen_Life” and then we will press Enter, as shown below.

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To test if it worked, we will use again the dir command. The newly created folder appears in the list.

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NOTE: Don’t forget that all these commands depend on the current location in the Command Prompt. For instance, if you are on the “C:” drive and type “MKDIR test”, a new folder will be created in the root of the “C:” drive.

Another way to create a folder, that doesn’t involve being in the desired folder, is to type the complete path of the new folder. For example, if you are working on the “D:” drive and you want to create a new folder in “C:”, called other_stuff, type “mkdir c:\other_stuff” and then press Enter.

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When you need to create a folder with subfolders at the same time you can use the ”MKDIR Folder\Subfolder” command . For instance, if we type “mkdir Digital_Citizen_Tests\Beta\Test1” three folders will be created: Digital_Citizen_Tests, Beta and Test1, in a tree-like structure.

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How to rename files and folders


To rename files and folders you need to use the REN (Rename) command.

To rename folders, type “ren Folder NewFolderName”. For example, if we wanted to rename the Digital_Citizen_Tests folder to Digital_Citizen_Final_Tests, we should run “ren Digital_Citizen_Tests Digital_Citizen_Final_Tests” and then press Enter.

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To rename a file, use the same command, like this: “ren filename.extension newname.extension”. For instance, to rename the Digital_Citizen_Picture.jpg file to Picture1.jpg we have to run the command “ren Digital_Citizen_Picture.jpg Picture1.jpg” command.

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Copy files and folders


The Copy command allows you to copy files from one location to another. To use this command you have to type

“copy location\filename.extension newlocation\newname.extension”.

For example, let’s use this command to copy the Picture1.jpg file from the Digital_Citizen folder located on the “D:” drive to the

“D:\Digital_Citizen\Digital_Citizen_Tests\ folder.

To make things more interesting we want the file to be named Testing_Picture1.gif. We will write the command

“copy D:\Digital_Citizen\picture1.jpg

:\Digital_Citizen\Digital_Citizen_Tests\testing_picture1.gif”

followed by Enter. You will receive a confirmation of the operation, as you can see below.

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If you are copying within the same directory you don’t have to put the path in command. As an example, we will copy Digital_Citizen_Notes.txt from “D:\Digital_Citizen” in the same folder, only with a different extension: let’s say Digital_Citizen_Notes.doc. To do that, we have to run the command “copy Digital_Citizen_Notes.txt Digital_Citizen_Notes.doc”.

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To copy a folder and its content from a location to another, use the XCOPY command followed by the “/s /i” operators. Let’s assume that we need to copy a folder from “D:\Digital_Citizen” to “C:\Backup_Digital_Citizen”. To do that, we’ll have to run the command “xcopy /s /i d:\Digital_Citizen c:\Backup_Digital_Citizen”. The “/s” parameter will ensure that all the directories and subdirectories will be copied, except the ones that are empty. The ‘/i’ parameter will create a new directory if the destination folder doesn’t exist and will copy all the files.

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Delete files and folders


The DEL (Delete) is used to delete files from the folders you’ve created. To delete all the files from a folder you have to run the command “del folder”. For instance, from the directory Digital_Citizen found on the “D:” drive, we will delete all the files from the Digital_Citizen_Tests folder, by typing the command “del Digital_Citizen_Tests”. You need to confirm the delete process by typing the letter “y” and then press Enter.

NOTE: To also delete hidden files from the folder, you must add the “/h” parameter. Also note that the DEL command doesn’t work for deleting folders – for that, you’ll have to use the RD command of which we’ll talk in a bit.

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If you need to delete a single file, use the DEL command followed by that file’s name. For instance, to delete the file Digital_Citizen_Notes.txt from “D:\Digital_Citizen”, we should run the command “del Digital_Citizen_Notes.txt”.

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Here is a list of useful DEL combinations that are worth mentioning:

  • DEL *.DOC – delete all files with the DOC extension (you can use any file extension necessary, DOC is just an example);
  • DEL Test*.* – delete all files beginning with Test;
  • DEL *.* – delete ALL files from the current folder.

The DEL command cannot be used to delete folders, therefore we will use another command to remove any empty folder: RD (Remove Directory). We’ve previously deleted all the files from the Digital_Citizen_Tests folder. It’s time to delete it by typing ”RD Digital_Citizen_Tests”.

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Launch an application from the Command Prompt


To run a program from the Command Prompt, you need only to navigate to the folder that contains the executable and type the program’s name. For example, if you want to launch Paint using Command Prompt, go to “C:\Windows\System32” and you will find the executable called mspaint.exe. Let’s see how this operation is done, if you were in “D:\Digital_Citizen”. First off all, change the working directory to the application’s folder by typing “cd /d c:\windows\System32\”. Then write mspaint.exe or simply mspaint and press Enter. Both commands can be seen in the screenshot below.

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How to get help in Command Prompt


To access help in Command Prompt you have to type the help command and then press Enter. A list with all available commands will be displayed, as you can see below.

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If a certain command interests you, type help followed by the name of that command. Another way to do the same thing is to type the command’s name followed by the “/?” parameter. To test it, use “help cd” or “cd/?” to display information about the cd command. In the picture below you can see the result.

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Conclusion


The Command Prompt remains a very powerful tool for any computer user who is willing to get his hands dirty and learn new things. We hope this article was useful in helping you learn the basics about running commands in the Command Prompt. If you have any questions about it, don’t hesitate to leave us a comment below.

Command Prompt – View system information and manage running processes

by Codrut Neagu published on 05/26/2016. digitalcitizen . life

The easiest way to view information about your computer is to use Windows built-in graphical tools like the Task Manager or System Information . However, just like us, some people prefer to use the Command Prompt for, well, anything. That’s why, in this article, we thought it would be useful to show you how to view the complete system information directly from the Command Prompt , as well as how to manage your running processes, all with the use of just a few advanced commands:

NOTE: The information shared in this tutorial applies to Windows 10, Windows 8.1 and Windows 7. For simplicity, we will use screenshots taken in Windows 10.

1. How to view your system information


Command Prompt allows you to view system information by using a simple command called systeminfo . Open Command Prompt , type systeminfo and press Enter . Do you s ee what’s happening? Just like in screenshot below, a complete list of information about your operating system and computer hardware and software components is displayed.

You will see details such as the version of the operating system installed on your computer, the status of your RAM memory or the processor you have. There’s also some network information, like the IP and the MACaddresses of your network cards.

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2. Display the list of currently running processes


To view the list of currently running processes, you have to use the tasklist command. Type tasklist and press Enter . Command Prompt should display a list similar to the one below, where you see details about the names of running processes, their PID (Process identifier) and the memory they use.

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3. Stop a process using taskkill


To kill or stop a running process, you have to use the taskkill command. Let’s assume that you want to stop the Snipping Tool application t hat is running on your computer. Its process is called SnippingTool.exe . In order to kill it, you should use Command Prompt to run the command “taskkill /im snippingtool.exe” . The /im parameter is used to identify and stop a process by typing its name.

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There are times when you need to open a program twice or even several times. Every new window of a specific program (for example, Internet Explorer ) creates a separate process called instance that has attached a unique PID (Process identifier).

To stop a single instance of a process, you need to specify its PID(Process identifier). Let’s assume that there are two instances of Internet Explorer open on your computer . The process’ name is iexplore.exe , but you want to close only one of its two running instances.

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If you want to kill the process that has a PID of 6984, you will type taskkill /PID 6984 and then press Enter .

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Another interesting parameter that you can use for the command taskkill is /t . This parameter allows you to terminate a specified process and any child processes which were started by it.

Take the same example: the Internet Explorer process. Let’s assume that you have three processes and you want to kill all of them using the parameter /t . You should type the command “taskkill /t /im iexplore.exe” and then press Enter . Check the screenshot below to see the confirmation of the command you just typed.

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Note that if you misuse the commands listed in this article, you can risk losing the data opened in the running processes. It is important to be careful and have a backup available for your data. Therefore proceed carefully and don’t say we did not warn you. 🙂

Also, keep in mind that, in order to kill any running process, you need to have administrative permissions and run the Command Prompt as administrator. Check out the 7 ways to run programs as administrator in Windows to see how to run Command Prompt as administrator.

Conclusion


We hope you’ve liked this guide which continues our series of advanced commands that can be run in the Command Prompt . Now you know how to display the system information and you know how to stop processes, all by using just some text commands in the Command Prompt . Don’t you feel geeky right now? 🙂 Don’t forget that, if you have any questions about the commands shared in this article, you can always leave a comment below.

 

How To Repair Missing Or Corrupt Windows Files From The Command Prompt

by Codrut Neagu published on 02/19/2015. digitalcitizen . life

When you have problems with your computer, Windows system files may become corrupted or go missing. This might be caused by all kinds of issues like sudden power drops, hardware malfunctions, a hard disk approaching its “death” and so on. If Windows reports that it cannot start because some of its files are corrupted or missing, you should use the System File Checker (SFC) tool in the Command Prompt. You should do the same when Windows starts to Blue Screen on you with weird corruption related errors. SFC scans all the Windows system files on your computer, identifies those that are corrupt or missing and tries to fix the problems it find. Here’s how to use it:

NOTE: This tutorial applies to both Windows 7 and Windows 8.1.

How To Fix Problems With Missing Or Corrupted Files When Windows Won’t Boot


If Windows doesn’t load because of missing or corrupt system files, follow this tutorial to start the Command Prompt: How To Start The Command Prompt When Windows Doesn’t Boot?.

In the Command Prompt window, use the sfc command with two additional parameters:

  • /offbootdir – used to specify the partition that contains the system files that are required for booting Windows. In most cases, this partition is going to be “C:\”.
  • /offwindir – used to specify the location of the Windows directory. In most cases, this folder is “C:\Windows”.

You will need to type something like: 

sfc /scannow /offbootdir=c:\  /offwindir=c:\windows and press Enter.

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The “translation” for this command is the following: scan the Windows folder located on the boot partition “C:\”and fix missing or corrupt system files.

Arm yourself with some patience because running this command will take quite a bit of time. When the process finishes, you are informed that the verification is 100% complete. If problems were found, you are also informed. The problematic files that cannot be fixed are always mentioned in a log file named CBS.log. This file is found in the Windows folder, at this location: “C:\Windows\Logs\CBS\CBS.log”.

If everything is fine with your system files, you will receive a message saying that: “Windows Resource Protection did not find any integrity violations”.

How To Fix Problems With Missing Or Corrupted Files When Windows Boots


You may also find yourself in a scenario where Windows loads successfully but it crashes randomly with a Blue Screen of Death (BSOD) mentioning corruption errors. If that is the case for you, start the Command Prompt as an administrator, using any of the methods described in this tutorial: 7 Ways to Launch the Command Prompt in Windows 7 & Windows 8.

Type the command: sfc /scannow and press Enter. The /scannow parameter forces the SFC tool to scan the integrity of all system files and repair problematic files when possible.

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Again, arm yourself with some patience. The tool takes a long time to run. At least a couple of minutes. When it’s done, you are informed that the verification is 100% complete. If problems were found, you are also informed.

In our case, SFC found corrupt files and it was unable to fix some of them.

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The problematic files that cannot be fixed are always mentioned in a log file named CBS.log. This file is found in the Windows folder, at this location: “C:\Windows\Logs\CBS\CBS.log”.

How To Analyze The CBS.Log File


Go to “C:\Windows\Logs\CBS” and open the CBS.log. This file is quite large and it takes a while to open it in Notepad. If possible, open it with a different application like Notepad++ or Microsoft Word, so that it is opened faster and you have an easier time working with it.

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Scroll towards the end of the file and search for entries that start with the text: “Cannot repair member file”. There you will find the missing or corrupted system file(s) that cannot be repaired.

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Search for information online about the file(s) mentioned in this log file and from there on you might get an idea on how to fix your problems.

Conclusion


Hopefully you will never need to use the SFC command to repair Windows systems files. However, if you do have issues, don’t hesitate to consider using it. This tutorial should come in handy when you have to deal with system files being corrupted or missing.

If you are looking for other useful troubleshooting tutorials, read the articles recommended below.

 

How to use the Command Prompt to fix issues with your PC’s boot records

by Codrut Neagu published on 02/02/2017. digitalcitizen . life

You can use system recovery tools to fix most of your computer problems. However, there are times when you’ll need to address such issues in a manual way, like, for example, when your Windows computer won’t boot. In these cases, you can use a tool named Bootrec.exe. It can help you troubleshoot and repair things like the Master Boot Record (MBR), the boot sector or the Boot Configuration Data (BCD) store. Here’s how it works, in all modern versions of Windows:

NOTE: This guide covers Windows 10, Windows 7 and Windows 8.1.

Bootrec.exe – The ultimate repair tool for boot problems in Windows


No matter whether you use Windows 7 or Windows 10, if your operating system has trouble booting and Startup Repair can’t fix the problem, it’s worth trying the Bootrec.exe tool. With this tool you can repair the Master Boot Record (MBR), write a new boot sector, rebuild the Boot Configuration Data (BCD) and add missing Windows installations to the boot configuration data.

If you need to know what all these mean, here’s an explanation for each of them:

  • Master Boot Record (MBR) – the first sector of your system drive. Its purpose is to tell the computer’s BIOS where to look for the operating system, so that it can start it.
  • Boot Sector – the region of the disk that contains the code to be loaded into the RAM memory, that is necessary to load the operating system. A boot sector must have a specific disk signature to be seen by BIOS as a boot sector. If this signature is corrupted, or has been changed, the BIOS will not be able to find the boot sector and won’t be able to load the necessary instructions for finding and starting the operating system. In Windows 7 and newever versions of Windows, the boot sector loads the Windows Boot Manager, accesses the Boot Configuration Data and uses this information to load the operating system
  • Boot Configuration Data (BCD) – The BCD is a database of boot-time configuration data that is used by the Windows Boot Manager. The Boot Configuration Data is stored in a data file that has the same format as the Windows Registry.

How to start the Command Prompt when Windows won’t load successfully


In order to be able to use Bootrec.exe, you’ll have to use Command Prompt. However, because you already have startup issues, it’s obvious that you won’t be able to simply run it from Windows.

You need to use a repair disc or a recovery drive that was created on a working Windows computer. Here are some guides that will help you create such discs/drives:

  • What is a system repair disc and how to create one in Windows – this guide applies to all modern versions of Windows. Windows 7 users can only use this method if they want to have a chance at repairing the computer. The repair disc can be a CD or DVD with all the necessary files for troubleshooting your system
  • How to create a recovery drive in Windows 10 – learn how to create a bootable USB memory stick with recovery tools for Windows 10.
  • How to create a recovery drive on a USB memory stick in Windows 8 & 8.1 – this guide is useful for Windows 8 users only.

Once you have recovery drive/disc created, boot from it. In order to do that, plug it in and start your Windows computer or device. Immediately after it starts, press the boot device selection key on your keyboard. It’s usually the F12, F11 or the Escape key, but it could be another as well, depending on the manufacturer of your device’s mainboard. Doing that will make your computer display a boot priority selection menu. Use the arrow keys on the keyboard to select the recovery drive. Then, press Enter and, when asked to press any key to boot from that drive, do so.

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If you are using Windows 10 or Windows 8.1, once your PC boots from the USB drive, you will be asked to choose the keyboard layout that you want to use. When this happens, click or tap on the layout that matches your keyboard. To navigate between all the available keyboard layouts, press “See more keyboard layouts”.

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The list of available keyboard languages is quite long and you may have to scroll a lot until you find the layout that you want to use. On the next screen, you should click or tap on Troubleshoot (Reset your PC or see advanced options).

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On the Advanced options screen, click or tap on Command Prompt.

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If you are using Windows 7, first, select the keyboard input method that you want to use and click Next.

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Then, it scans for available Windows installations and lists those that are found. Select the Windows 7 installation that you want to repair and click Next.

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Then, when the list of available System Recovery Options are shared, click Command Prompt.

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Once you’ve launched the Command Prompt, type the command bootrec.exe and hit Enter to see the options that are available for this tool. As you can see in the screenshot below, there are four parameters available: /FixMbr, /FixBoot, /ScanOs and /RebuildBcd.

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Let’s see how each of them can help you solve your computer’s boot problems. Keep in mind though, that even if the Bootrec.exe tool can handle most boot problems, it does not guarantee success in every possible situation.

How to repair the Master Boot Record (MBR)


The first parameter of the Bootrec.exe tool is /FixMbr. It allows the repair of a corrupted or damaged Master Boot Record (MBR). Usually, you will use this parameter when you are faced with one of these error messages: “Operating System not found”, “Error loading operating system”, “Missing operating system” or “Invalid partition table”. To start the repair process of the MBR, run the command: bootrec.exe /fixmbr.

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How to write a new boot sector


The /FixBoot parameter writes a new boot sector to the system partition. The tool will use a boot sector that is compatible with your Windows version. Using this parameter is useful in the following situations:

  • The boot sector has been replaced with a non-standard Windows boot sector;
  • The boot sector is damaged;
  • An earlier Windows operating system has been installed after your version of Windows was installed.

To start writing a new boot sector, use this command: bootrec.exe /fixboot.

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How to rebuild the Boot Configuration Data (BCD)


The Boot Configuration Data (BCD) contains a detailed list of what is supposed to load at startup. Microsoft indicates that a boot error can also be caused by missing or damaged files in the BCD. The /rebuildbcdparameter can be very useful when you must fix some errors by completely rebuilding the BCD. To completely rebuild the Boot Configuration Data, run this command: bootrec.exe /rebuildbcd.

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How to add missing Windows installations to the Boot Configuration Data


If your computer has multiple operating systems installed but not all of them are available, use the /ScanOSoption. Using this parameter on Bootrec.exe will launch a scan on all disks for any Windows installations that are not currently included in the Boot Configuration Data (BCD). In the screenshot below, you can see how this scan process might look.

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If the bootrec.exe /scanos command returns results, you will be able to continue the repair process. In the end, you will get the lost Windows installation back into the secure BCD table, thus making it bootable again.

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First of all, you have to clean the Master Boot Record (MBR) by using bootrec /fixmbr. Next, type bootsect.exe /nt60 all /force and press Enter. The /nt60 parameter applies the master boot code that is compatible with BOOTMGR. The /all argument updates the master boot code on all partitions. The /force parameter forcibly dismounts the volume(s) during the boot code update so that the Bootsect.exe tool does not gain exclusive volume access.

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Running all these commands will create a new MBR and tell it to use the correct Windows boot loader in order to load that specific installation from your drive.

Conclusion


As you can from this guide, Bootrec.exe is a very powerful tool for troubleshooting and fixing problems with your Windows computer’s boot records. If you know other ways to fix issues with your boot records, don’t hesitate to share them in a comment.

 

 

 

Command Prompt – The Most Powerful & Least Used Windows Tool

by Codrut Neagu published on 12/06/2010. digitalcitizen . life

At the beginning of 2010, we started a series on system recovery tools for Windows 7. Little did we know that the series would expand tremendously and, in the end, we would cover quite extensively a very old and misunderstood tool: the Command Prompt. While working with it, we were fortunate to truly learn its power and usefulness. Therefore, we would like to end our series of articles with a recap about all the great things the Command Prompt can do.

The Basics about the Command Prompt


If you have not used the Command Prompt much, it is best to start with the basics. In our article about How to Customize the Command Prompt you will learn where to find this tool and how to start it and customize it. You might not think of your Command Prompt as something cute and colourful, right? Think again. Go through this tutorial and experiment with all the configuration options. The Command Prompt can be cute and pink too, right along with the newer, sexier Windows 7 tools such as Desktop Gadgets.

Before you run any command, it is best to learn how to run the Command Prompt in Administrator ‘mode’. Many of its powers require administrator privileges in order to work.

In Command Prompt – How to Use Basic Commands  we have covered the most basic and yet useful commands. You will learn how to navigate through partitions, files and folder structures and how to work with them. Also, you will learn how to launch other applications or how to get help while working in the Command Prompt.

Getting into Command Prompt’s Advanced Powers


Now that you’ve got your basics right, it’s time to fine-tune your ninja computing skills and learn some of the advanced commands you can run inside the Command Prompt:

  • Command Prompt – Advanced Disk Management Commands – To complete the list of file and folder management commands listed in the basic guide, we’ve got more advanced stuff about how you can manage your partitions directly from the Command Prompt. You will learn how to create, modify or delete partitions with a few simple commands.
  • Command Prompt – Advanced Commands for System Information & Managing Active Tasks – Do you want to know all currently running processes? Do you have an unresponsive application which you want to kill? Do you want complete system information by typing only one short command? This tutorial has the answers for you.
  • Command Prompt – Advanced Networking Commands – If you want to be the ultimate geek, you need to learn a bit about networking and how to run some networking tasks in the Command Prompt. This tutorial covers useful commands which help you retrieve information about your network connections and MAC address; and test and display information about active connections.

Repair Your Computer from the Command Prompt


The ultimate power users (such as geeks :)) are able to utilize the Command Prompt also for repairing broken computers and Windows operating systems. For them we’ve got the following tutorials:

Conclusion


Our series on the Command Prompt tool is far from being complete. We did not manage to cover all the commands you can run. What we tried to do was to simply give you a taste of what this powerful tool can do for you and hopefully raise your interest in learning more about it. Do let us know if we’ve succeeded. Also, if you’ve got some other cool tips and commands to share, don’t hesitate to leave a comment. We might decide to continue the series.

 

Command Prompt – 6 Disk Management Commands you should know

by Codrut Neagu published on 06/21/2016. digitalcitizen . life

One of the easiest and most straightforward ways to manage your disks is to use the Disk Management tool from Windows. But hey, Disk Management is a visual tool and some of us like command based interfaces a whole lot more. That’s why we thought it would be a great idea to see how several disk management actions can be done from the Command Prompt , using DiskPart and other command-line tools . In this article you will learn how to create, format, delete, defragment and check your partitions for errors, directly from the Command Prompt . Let’s get started:

Important aspects to consider before moving forward


In order to perform any action presented in this article, you need to have administrative permissions and run the Command Prompt as administrator. Check ou t 7 Ways To Run Programs As Administrator In Windows to see how to run Command Prom pt as administrator.

It’s also very important for you to acknowledge the fact that, if you misuse the commands listed in this article, you risk losing your data. Be careful and make a backup of your data before going ahead. If anything bad should happen, don’t say we didn’t warn you! 🙂

1. How to create a partition from Command Prompt


First of all, open the Command Prompt. Then, type diskpart to access the Windows tool called Diskpart .

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After you’ve launched diskpart it’s time to establish which hard drive or solid state drive will be used to create a new partition. You will select the drive by using the select command. To view the available disks on your system, use the command list disk.

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To select the disk you want to work with, type select disk followed by the number of the hard disk you want to use.

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To create a new partition, you need to use the create partition command followed by the partition type and size. Note that the list command used previously also displays the available free space on each hard disk. Your partition must be of a size equal or less to the amount of available free space.

For instance, in order to make a new primary partition with the size of 1000 MB, you should type “create partition primary size=1000” . Use the same command and change the size according to your needs and the available free space on your hard disk.

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2. How to assign a letter to a partition from Command Prompt


You can and will probably want to also assign a letter to the newly created volume. Assigning a letter to a partition makes it visible in File Explorer , so that you can easily access it. To assign a letter to a partition directly from Command Prompt , use the assign command.

For instance, if you wanted to assign the R letter to the partition you just created, you should type “assign letter = R” .

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Please remember that before assigning a drive letter, you need to start Diskpart and select the disk for which you want to assign the letter.

3. How to format a partition from Command Prompt


Although you now have a new partition created on your computer or device and it also has a letter assigned so it’s easy to access it, you are still unable to use it until you also format that partition. To do that too, use the command “format fs=ntfs quick” . Use help format to find out more information about this command.

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This command should be used after you start Diskpart and select the disk that you want to format.

When you are done working with diskpart , type the exit command to close the program.

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4 . How to delete a partition from Command Prompt


When you need to delete a drive from your computer, the procedure is quite simple. First, open the diskpart application. Then, select the partition that you want to delete and type the delete partition command. You can see an example of how the delete operation works, below. It is a matter of selecting the disk where the partition is found, then selecting the volume to be deleted and running the delete command.

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5 . How to check a disk for errors from the Command Prompt


To check a disk for errors you have to use the chkdsk command. Type chkdsk followed by the drive’s letter. We recommend that you always use this command in combination with the /f parameter. This enables the tool to automatically fix any errors it finds.

As an example, we will scan the R : drive for errors by typing chkdsk /f r: and pressing Enter . The scan process will start.

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After the scan is finished you see a report similar to the one from the picture below.

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This summarizes how much disk space the partition has, how many files are in use by the system, how much free space is available on the disk, how many bad sectors were identified and so on.

6 . How to defragment a disk from the Command Prompt


The Command Prompt also gives you a way of defragmenting a partition. All you have to do is type the command defrag followed by the drive’s letter. If you wanted to defragment the R: partition, for example, you would use “defrag r:”. If everything worked well, you should get a report like the one below, after the volume you selected has been defragmented.

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The report includes information prior to the optimization process and after it was completed, like the volume size, free space, total fragmented space and the largest free space size.

Conclusion


Despite the fact that you might think it’s hard to manage your partitions through the Command Prompt , we hope that we managed to prove that it’s not that difficult. The procedures involved are not complicated at all and, once you know the correct commands, using the Command Prompt can be a lot faster than using other tools like Disk Management . If you have any questions, feel free to leave a comment below.

 

 

10 Useful Windows Commands You Should Know

by Chris Hoffman on August 1st, 2017

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There are some things you can only do from the command line—even in Windows. Some of these tools don’t have graphical equivalents, while others are just plain faster to use than their graphical interfaces.

If you’re into using PowerShell over Command Prompt, you should note that all the commands we’re covering in this article work just the same in either tool. And obviously, we can’t possibly cover all the useful commands that these tools offer. Instead, we’ll be focusing on commands that should be useful even if you’re not a command-line person.

ipconfig: Quickly Find Your IP Address


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You can find your IP address from the Control Panel, but it takes a few clicks to get there. The ipconfig command is a fast way of determining your computer’s IP address and other information, such as the address of its default gateway—useful if you want to know the IP address of your router’s web interface.

To use the command, just type ipconfig at the Command Prompt. You’ll see a list of all the network connections your computer is using. Look under “Wireless LAN adapter” if you’re connected to Wi-Fi or “Ethernet adapter” if you’re connected to a wired network. For even more details, you can use the ipconfig /all command.

ipconfig /flushdns: Flush Your DNS Resolver Cache


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If you change your DNS server, the effects won’t necessarily take place immediately. Windows uses a cache that remembers DNS responses it’s received, saving time when you access the same addresses again in the future. To ensure Windows is getting addresses from the new DNS servers instead of using old, cached entries, run the ipconfig /flushdns command after changing your DNS server.

ping and tracert: Troubleshoot Network Connection Issues


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If you’re experiencing issues connecting to a website or other network connection issues, Windows and other operating systems have some standard tools you can use to identify problems.

First, there’s the ping command. Type ping howtogeek.com (or whatever Internet server you want to test) and Windows will send packets to that address. You can use either a name or the actual IP address. The server at that IP address (in our case, the How-To Geek server) will respond and let you know it’s received them. You’ll be able to see if any packets didn’t make it to the destination—perhaps you’re experiencing packet loss—and how long it took to get the response—perhaps the network is saturated and packets are taking a while to reach their destinations.

The tracert command traces the route it takes for a packet to reach a destination and shows you information about each hop along that route. For example, if you run tracert howtogeek.com, you’ll see information about each node the packet interacts with on its way to reach our server. If you’re having issues connecting to a website, tracert can show you where the problem is occurring.

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For more information about using these commands—and other great tools for figuring out why your network or Internet connection is giving you problems—check out our introduction to troubleshooting Internet connection problems.

shutdown: Create Shutdown Shortcuts for Windows


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The shutdown command lets you shut down or restart Windows. Admittedly, it was more useful in Windows 8 (where the shut down button was harder to access), but still handy no matter what version of Windows you use. You can use the command to create your own shortcuts and place them on your Start menu, desktop, or even taskbar.

In Windows 8 and 10, you can even use a special switch to restart your computer into the advanced startup options menu. To use the command at the Command Prompt or when creating a shortcut, just type one of the following:

  • shutdown /s /t 0: Performs a regular shut down.
  • shutdown /r /t 0: Restart the computer.
  • shutdown /r /o: Restarts the computer into advanced options.

sfc /scannow: Scan System Files for Problems


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Windows includes a system file checker tool that scans all the Windows system files and looks for problems. If system files are missing or corrupted, the system file checker will repair them. This may fix problems with some Windows systems.

To use this tool, open a Command Prompt window as Administrator and run the sfc /scannow command.

telnet: Connect to Telnet Servers


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The telnet client isn’t installed by default. Instead, it’s one of the optional Windows features that you can install through the Control Panel. Once installed, you can use the telnet command to connect to telnet servers without installing any third-party software.

You should avoid using telnet if you can help it, but if you’re connected directly to a device and it requires that you use telnet to set something up—well, that’s what you have to do.

cipher: Permanently Delete and Overwrite a Directory


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The cipher command is mostly used for managing encryption, but it also has an option that will write garbage data to a drive, clearing its free space and ensuring no deleted file can be recovered. Deleted files normally stick around on disk unless you’re using a solid state drive. The cipher command effectively allows you to “wipe” a drive without installing any third-party tools.

To use the command, specify the drive you want to wipe like so:

cipher /w:C:\

Notice that there is no space between the switch ( /w: ) and the drive ( C:\ )

netstat -an: List Network Connections and Ports


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The netstat command is particularly useful, displaying all sorts of network statistics when used with its various options. One of the most interesting variants of netstat is netstat -an , which will display a list of all open network connections on their computer, along with the port they’re using and the foreign IP address they’re connected to.

nslookup: Find the IP Address Associated With a Domain


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When you type a domain name (say, into a browser address bar), your computer looks up the IP address associated with that domain name. You can use the nslookupcommand to find that information out for yourself. For example, you could type nslookup howtogeek.com at the Command Prompt to quickly find out our server’s assigned IP address.

You can also perform a reverse lookup by typing an IP address to find out the associated domain name.


This is not a comprehensive list of all the commands you might find useful, but we hope it’s given you some idea of the many powerful tools lurking under the surface. Have your own favorites we didn’t mention? Join in the discussion and let us know!


 

 

Cara Memperbaiki Harddisk Komputer

January 09, 2018 / Admin Saktipedia

Cara memperbaiki harddisk Komputer

Level 1

Kerusakan yang terjadi pada level ini biasanya disebabkan Bad sector. Untuk menanganinya, ada beberapa cara dan variasi percobaan, disesuaikan dengan merk harddisk dan banyaknya bad sector.

  • Untuk penangan awal bisa gunakan perintah FORMAT C:/C (sesuaikan dengan drive yang akan diformat). /C digunakan untuk mebersihkan cluster yang rusak.
  • Langkah kedua jika belum berhasil, bisa gunakan program Disk Manager dari masing- masing pabrik pembuat Harddisk.
  • Jika belum berhasil juga, anda bisa gunakan software HDDREG, silahkan download di internet programnya.
  • Jika belum berhasil, coba cara Low Level Format atau Zero File.
  • Jika masih belum bisa, anda bisa lakukan pemotongan sector harddisk yang rusak, dengan cara membaginya dan tidak menggunakan sector yang rusak.

Level 2

Kerusakan yang terjadi pada level 2 adalah Kehilangan Partisi Harddisk dan Data. Ini bisa disebabkan oleh virus atau kesalahan menggunakan program utility. Ada yang perlu diperhatikan dalam mengembalikan Partisi harddisk yang hilang, yaitu kapasitas harddisk dan Jenis File Systemnya. Partisi dengan File System FAT lebih mudah dikembalikan dibanding NTFS atau File System Linux.

  • Cek terlebih dahulu partisi harddisk dengan menggunakan FDISK atau Disk Manager
  • Untuk mengembalikannya bisa gunakan software seperti Acronis Disk Director, Handy Recovery, Stellar Phoniex dll.

Level 3

Kerusakan yang menyebabkan harddisk terdeteksi di BIOS tetapi tidak bisa digunakan, selalu muncul pesan error pada saat komputer melakukan POST. Biasanya ini disebabkan FIRMWARE dari harddisk tersebut yang bermasalah. Untuk gejala ini banyak terjadi pada harddisk merk Maxtor dengan seri nama-nama Dewa. Untuk memperbaikinya anda bisa download program Firmware dari website merk harddisk tersebut.

Level 4

Kerusakan yang menyebabkan Harddisk benar tidak terdeteksi oleh BIOS dan tidak bisa digunakan lagi. Ini level yang tersulit menurut saya. Karena untuk perbaikannya, kita butuh sedikit utak atik perangkat elektronika dan komponen dalamnya. Menganggulangi harddisk yang tidak terdeteksi oleh BIOS banyak cara.

  • Mengecek arus listrik yang mengalir ke harddisk
  • Mengganti IC pada mainboard Harddisk
  • Buka Penutup Cover harddisk dan cek posisi Head harddisk
  • Cara yang extreme harddisk yang rusak bisa dikanibal dengan harddisk yang lain yang keruskan berbeda, bisa dengan cara mengganti maiboardnya atau mengambil IC nya

Semoga ini bisa jadi referensi tambahan buat kalian yang ingin mencoba memperbaiki harddisk.

BINAC [Binary Automatic Computer]

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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This article is about the early electronic computer. For the town in Kosovo, see Binac.
BINAC (Binary Automatic Computer) was an early electronic computer designed for Northrop Aircraft Company by the Eckert–Mauchly Computer Corporation (EMCC) in 1949. Eckert and Mauchly, though they had started the design of EDVAC at the University of Pennsylvania, chose to leave and start EMCC, the first computer company. BINAC was their first product, the first stored-program computer in the United States; the BINAC is also sometimes wrongly claimed to be the world’s first commercial digital computer  even though it was very limited in scope, never fully functional and always economically unviable.

Architecture


The BINAC was an advanced bit-serial binary computer with two independent CPUs, each with its own 512-word acoustic mercury delay line memory. The CPUs continuously compared results to check for errors caused by hardware failures. It used approximately 700 vacuum tubes. The 512-word acoustic mercury delay line memories were divided into 16 channels each holding 32 words of 31 bits, with an additional 11-bit space between words to allow for circuit delays in switching. The clock rate was 4.25 MHz (1 MHz according to one source) which yielded a word time of about 10 microseconds. The addition time was 800 microseconds and the multiplication time was 1200 microseconds. New programs or data had to be entered manually in octal using an eight-key keypad. BINAC was significant for being able to perform high-speed arithmetic on binary numbers, with no provisions to store characters or decimal digits.

Customer Acceptance


The BINAC ran a test program (consisting of 23 instructions) in March 1949, although it was not fully functional at the time. Here are early test programs that BINAC ran:

  • February 7, 1949 – Ran a five-line program to fill the memory from register A.
  • February 10, 1949 – Ran a five-line program to check memory.
  • February 16, 1949 – Ran a six-line program to fill memory.
  • March 7, 1949 – Ran 217 iterations of a 23-line program to compute squares. It was still running correctly when it stopped.
  • April 4, 1949 – Ran a fifty-line program to fill memory and check all instructions. It ran for 2.5 hours before encountering an error. Shortly after that it ran for 31.5 hours without error.

Northrop accepted delivery of BINAC in September 1949. Northrop employees said that BINAC never worked properly after it was delivered, although it had worked at the Eckert-Mauchly workshop. It was able to run some small problems but did not work well enough to be used as a production machine. Northrop attributed the failures to it not being properly packed for shipping when Northrop picked it up; EMCC said that the problems were due to errors in re-assembly of the machine after shipping. (Northrop, citing security considerations, refused to allow EMCC technicians near the machine after shipping, instead hiring a newly graduated engineering student to re-assemble it. EMCC said that the fact that it worked at all after this was testimony to the engineering quality of the machine.)

First Computer User Manual


Previous computers were the darlings of university departments of engineering. The users knew the machines well. The BINAC was going to go to an end user, and so a usermanual was needed. Automobile “users” were quite accustomed in those days to doing significant servicing of their vehicles, and “user manuals” existed to help them. The BINAC manual writers took inspiration from those manuals when writing the user manual for the BINAC.

Definition – What does Binary Automatic Computer (BINAC) mean?

The Binary Automatic Computer (BINAC) was one of the first electronic computers. Developed in 1949 by Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation for Northrop Aircraft Company, it has the distinction of being the first commercial digital computer in the world as well as the first stored-program computer in the United States.

Techopedia explains Binary Automatic Computer (BINAC)

The Binary Automatic Computer (BINAC) was the only product from the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation, as it later became a division of Remington Rand Corp. The computer consisted of two independent central processing units, each having its own 512-word acoustic mercury delay line memory, which was further divided into 16 channels. The channels in turn could hold 32 words of 31 bits. It also made use of approximately 700 vacuum tubes. The associated clock rate was around 4.25 MHz. New data or applications could only be entered into the computer manually, and only in octal with the help of an eight-key keypad. In other words, the input/output for the computer was entirely octal and instructions provided to the computer were absolute machine language. Apart from reset commands and flip-flop commands, the machine literally had no input/output instructions.

The Binary Automatic Computer had no provisions to store decimal digits or characters, but was able to perform high-speed arithmetic on binary numerals. Although the Binary Automatic Computer was an advanced bit-serial binary computer, it was never intended to be used as a general-purpose computer.

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The History of Computer Peripherals

by Mary Bellis
Updated March 17, 2017

Periferal

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Computer peripherals are any of a number of devices that work with a computer. Here are some of the most well known components.

COMPACT DISK/CD

A compact disk or CD is a popular form of digital storage media used for ​computer files, pictures and music. The plastic platter is read and written to using a laser in a CD drive. It comes in several varieties including CD-ROM, CD-R and CD-RW.

James Russell invented the compact disk in 1965Russell was granted a total of 22 patents for various elements of his compact disk system. However, the compact disk did not become popular until it was mass manufactured by Philips in 1980.

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THE FLOPPY DISK

In 1971, IBM introduced the first “memory disk” or the “floppy disk,” as it is known today. The first floppy was an 8-inch flexible plastic disk coated with magnetic iron oxide. Computer data was written to and read from the disk’s surface.

The nickname “floppy” came from the disk’s flexibility. The floppy disk was considered a revolutionary device throughout the history of computers for its portability, which provided a new and easy means of transporting data from computer to computer.

The “floppy” was invented by IBM engineers led by Alan Shugart. The original disks were designed for loading microcodes into the controller of the Merlin (IBM 3330) disk pack file (a 100 MB storage device).

 So, in effect, the first floppies were used to fill another type of data storage device.

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THE COMPUTER KEYBOARD

The invention of the modern computer keyboard began with the invention of the typewriterChristopher Latham Sholes patented the typewriter that we commonly use today in 1868. The Remington Company mass marketed the first typewriters starting in 1877.

A few key technological developments allowed for the transition of the typewriter into the computer keyboard. The teletype machine, introduced in the 1930s, combined the technology of the typewriter (used as an input and a printing device) with the telegraph. Elsewhere, punched card systems were combined with typewriters to create what was called keypunches. Keypunches were the basis of early adding machines and IBM was selling over one million dollars worth of adding machines in 1931.

Early computer keyboards were first adapted from the punch card and teletype technologies. In 1946, the Eniac ( Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) used a Punched Card Reader as its input and output device. In 1948, the Binac Computer  (Binary Automatic Computer) used an electromechanically controlled typewriter to both input data directly onto magnetic tape (for feeding the computer data) and to print results. The emerging electric typewriter further improved the technological marriage between the typewriter and the computer.

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THE COMPUTER MOUSE

Technology visionary Douglas Engelbart changed the way computers worked, turning them from specialized machinery that only a trained scientist could use to a user-friendly tool that almost anyone can work with. He invented or contributed to several interactive, user-friendly devices such as the computer mouse, windows, computer video teleconferencing, hypermedia, groupware, email, the Internet and more.

Engelbart conceived of the rudimentary mouse when he started thinking about how to improve interactive computing during a conference on computer graphics. In the early days of computing, users typed codes and commands to make things happen on monitors. Engelbart came up with the idea of linking the computer’s cursor to a device with two wheels—one horizontal and one vertical. Moving the device on a horizontal surface would allow the user to position the cursor on the screen.

Engelbart’s collaborator on the mouse project, Bill English, built a prototype—a hand-held device carved out of wood, with a button on the top. In 1967, Engelbart’s company SRI filed for the patent on the mouse, although the paperwork identified it as “x,y position indicator for a display system.” The patent was awarded in 1970.

Like so much in computer technology, the mouse has evolved significantly. In 1972 English developed the “track ball mouse” that allowed users to control the cursor by rotating a ball from a fixed position. One interesting enhancement is that many devices are now wireless, a fact that makes this Engelbart’s early prototype almost quaint: “We turned it around so the tail came out the top. We started with it going the other direction, but the cord got tangled when you moved your arm. 

The inventor, who grew up on the outskirts of Portland, Oregon, hoped his achievements would add to the collective intelligence of the world. “It would be wonderful,” he once said, “if I can inspire others, who are struggling to realize their dreams, to say ‘if this country kid could do it, let me keep slogging away’.” 

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PRINTERS

In 1953, the first high-speed printer was developed by Remington-Rand for use on the Univac computer. In 1938, Chester Carlson invented a dry printing process called electrophotography that’s now commonly called a Xerox, the foundation technology for laser printers to come.

The original laser printer called EARS was developed at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center beginning in 1969 and completed in November 1971. Xerox Engineer, Gary Starkweather adapted Xerox copier technology adding a laser beam to it to come up with the laser printer. According to Xerox, “The Xerox 9700 Electronic Printing System, the first xerographic laser printer product, was released in 1977. The 9700, a direct descendent from the original PARC “EARS” printer which pioneered in laser scanning optics, character generation electronics, and page-formatting software, was the first product on the market to be enabled by PARC research.”

According to IBM, “the very first IBM 3800 was installed in the central accounting office at F. W. Woolworth’s North American data center in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1976.” The IBM 3800 Printing System was the industry’s first high-speed, laser printer and operated at speeds of more than 100 impressions-per-minute. It was the first printer to combine laser technology and electrophotography, according to IBM.

In 1992, Hewlett-Packard released the popular LaserJet 4, the first 600 by 600 dots per inch resolution laser printer. In 1976, the inkjet printer was invented, but it took until 1988 for the inkjet to become a home consumer item with Hewlett-Parkard’s release of the DeskJet inkjet printer, which was priced at a whopping $1000. 

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COMPUTER MEMORY

Drum memory, an early form of computer memory that actually did use a drum as a working part with data loaded to the drum. The drum was a metal cylinder coated with recordable ferromagnetic material. The drum also had a row of read-write heads that wrote and then read the recorded data.

Magnetic core memory (ferrite-core memory) is another early form of computer memory. Magnetic ceramic rings called cores stored information using the polarity of a magnetic field.

Semiconductor memory is computer memory we are all familiar with. It’s basically a computer memory on an integrated circuit or chip. Referred to as random-access memory or RAM, it allowed data to be accessed randomly, not just in the sequence it was recorded.

Dynamic random access memory (DRAM) is the most common kind of random access memory (RAM) for personal computers.

The data the DRAM chip holds has to be periodically refreshed. In contrast, static random access memory or SRAM doesn’t need to be refreshed.

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