Category Archives: Country

Uni Emirat Arab

Source: Wikipedia

Panoramic view of Dubai Marina in UAE at sunset

Uni Emirat Arab (disingkat UEA) (bahasa Inggris: United Arab Emirates) adalah sebuah negara federasi dari tujuh emirat yang kaya akan minyak bumi. Tujuh emirat ini adalah: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah dan Umm al-Qaiwain,UEA adalah tempat bagi bangunan tertinggi di dunia (Burj Khalifa).

Sejarah

Negara-negara bagian (lebih dikenal sebagai emirat) di sepanjang pesisir pantai Teluk Persia memberikan hak pertahanan dan urusan luar kepada Kerajaan Britania Raya pada abad kesembilan belas. Pada tahun 1971, enam dari negara-negara bagian ini – Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Fujairah, Sharjah, Dubai, dan Umm al-Qaiwain – bergabung untuk mendirikan Uni Emirat Arab. Pada tahun 1972, Ras al-Khaimah menyertai mereka.

Asal

Permukiman manusia yang paling awal dikenal di UEA tanggal dari periode Neolitik, 5500 SM. Pada tahap awal, ada bukti interaksi dengan dunia luar, terutama dengan peradaban di utara di Persia. Kontak ini bertahan dan menjadi luas, mungkin didorong oleh perdagangan di tembaga dari Pegunungan Hajar, yang dimulai sekitar 3000 SM. Perdagangan mulai berkembang pesat karena difasilitasi oleh domestikasi dari unta pada akhir milenium kedua SM.

Dengan lalu lintas darat AD kafilah abad pertama antara Suriah dan kota-kota di Irak selatan dimulai. Juga, ada perjalanan yg berlayar di laut ke pelabuhan penting Omana (mungkin saat ini Umm al-Qaiwain) dan kemudian ke India. Rute ini adalah sebuah alternatif untuk rute Laut Merah yang digunakan oleh Roma. Mutiara yang telah dieksploitasi di daerah selama ribuan tahun namun saat ini perdagangan mencapai ketinggian baru. Pelayaran juga merupakan andalan dan juga diselenggarakan Pameran besar di Dibba, yang mendatangkan pengunjung sampai ke Cina.

Geografi

Uni Emirat Arab terletak di barat daya Asia dan dikelilingi Teluk Oman dan Teluk Persia di antara Oman dan Arab Saudi. Ia adalah sebuah negara yang mempunyai dataran yang kering kerontang dan mempunyai padang pasir yang luas dengan gunung-gunung disebelah timur. Kedudukan strategisnya menjadikannya tempat persinggahan ekspor dan impor minyak dunia.

Perjanjian perbatasan di antara Uni Emirat Arab dan Arab Saudi pada tahun 1974 dan 1977 tidak pernah disebarkan kepada umum. Oleh itu perbatasan yang tepat untuk kedua negara hanya diketahui oleh pemerintahan masing-masing.

Politik

Majelis Tertinggi memuat pemerintah-pemerintah dari tujuh negara bagian. Jabatan Presiden dan Wakil Presiden dilantik oleh Majelis Tertinggi setiap lima tahun. Majelis Tertinggi juga melantik barisan kabinet sementara Majelis Federasi Kebangsaan yang mempunyai anggota sebanyak 40 orang dari ketujuh negara bagian meneliti dan membincangkan undang-undang yang dicadangkan. Terdapat satu sistem mahkamah persekutuan; semua negara bagian kecuali Dubai dan Ras al-Khaimah telah menyertai sistem persekutuan ini; semua negeri mempunyai undang-undang sekuler dan Islam untuk kasus-kasus sipil, kejahatan, dan mahkamah tinggi.

Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan merupakan Presiden kesatuan ini sejak pendirian negara ini sampai hari kematiannya pada 2 November 2004. Anak lelakinya, Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahayan dilantik menjadi presiden keesokkan harinya.

Pembagian Administratif

Emirat Arab memiliki 7 negara bagian:

  • Abu Dhabi
  • Ajman
  • Dubai
  • Fujairah
  • Ras al-Khaimah
  • Sharjah
  • Umm al-Qaiwain
Ekonomi

Kekayaan Uni Emirat Arab berdasarkan pengeluaran minyak dan gas yaitu 33% dari GDP negara itu. Emirat Arab adalah negara penghasil minyak ketiga terbesar di kawasan teluk setelah Arab Saudi dan Iran. Sejak 1973, Uni Emirat Arab telah mengalami perubahan dari negara kecil yang terletak di gurun menjadi negara modern dengan taraf kehidupan yang tinggi.

Demografi

Uni Emirat Arab berpenduduk sebanyak 9,3 juta jiwa dan yang warganegara asli UEA sangat sediki jauh melebihi pendatang dengan angka mencapai 85%, yang kebanyakan datang dari Asia Selatan. Kebanyakan masyarakat pribumi datang dari keturunan Persia. Tingkat pertumbuhan penduduknya rendah dibandingkan negara-negara tetangganya. Sekitar 80% penduduknya bisa membaca dan menulis. Mayoritas penduduknya adalah muslim yang taat.

Demografi di UEA sangat beragam. Tahun 2010, penduduk UEA diperkirakan mencapai 8,264,070, tetapi hanya 13% saja yang benar-benar berkebangsaan UEA atau Emirat, sedangkan mayoritasnya merupakan penduduk ekspatriate atau pendatang dari negara lain. Tingkat migrasi UEA ada di angka 21.71, merupakan Tertinggi di dunia. Dibawah hukum pemerintahan pusat UEA no. 17, seorang ekspatriate dapat mengajukan diri untuk menjadi warganegara UEA setelah tinggal menetap selama 20 tahun, dengan catatan tidak pernah terlibat dalam tindak kriminal dan harus fasih dalam bahasa Arab. Bagaimanapun juga, untuk menjadi warganegara disana tidak didapatkan dengan mudah, sehingga banyak orang yang tinggal di UEA hidup tanpa punya status warganegara (dijuluki Bidun).[butuh rujukan] Tahun 2016, jumlah orang emirat sekitar 12%.

Palm Jumeirah

Disana terdapat 1.4 juta jiwa warga Emirat. Berdasarkan etnik, warga UEA sangatlah beragam. Berdasarkan laporan CIA, 19% merupakan orang Emirati, 23% merupakan warga Arab lainnya, sepertinya (Orang Mesir, Orang Yordania) and Iran, 50% lainnya berasal dari Asia Selatan, dan 8% lagi merupakan warga ekspansi negara lain termasuk Orang Barat dan Asia Timur (perkiraan tahun 1982).

Tahun 2009, warga Emirati dicatat mencapai 16.5% dari total jumlah penduduk; Dari Asia Selatan (Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and India) merupakan kelompok terbanyak, mencapai 58.4%; Orang Asia lainnya yakni (Orang Filipina, Iran) sekitat 16.7% sedangkan ekspariate dari negara barat mencapai 8.4%.

Orang India dan Pakistan berjumlah 37% dari penduduk di tiga Emirat – Dubai, Sharjah, dan Ajman. Dalam catatan statistik tahun 2014 melalui catatan atau data dari Euromonitor International merilis lima daftar negara asal terbanyak di Tiga Emirat, yakni: India (25%), Pakistan (12%), Emirat (9%), Bangladesh (7%), dan Filipina (5%).

Warga Eropa sangat bertumbuh disana khususnya di kota-kota multietnik seperti Dubai. Ekspariate dunia barat khusunya Eropa, Australia, Amerika Utara dan Amerika Latin mencapai 500,000 jiwa dari populasi UEA. Lebih dari 100,000 berkebangsaan Inggris tinggal di negara ini. Tempat persinggahan para penduduk ekspansi dari yang bukan berasal dari negara Arab.

Sekitar 88% dari penduduk Uni Emirat Arab adalah urban. Rata-rata usia bertahan hidup adalah 76.7 tahun (2012), merupakan yang tertinggi dari semua negara di Arab. Dengan seks rasio Laki-laki/perempuan yakni 2.2 dari total populasi dan seks rasio untuk usia 15–65 adalah 2.75 age group, ketidakseimbangan seks rasio penduduk merupakan ketidakseimbangan gender terbesar kedua di dunia setelah Qatar.

Agama

Islam adalah yang terbesaf dan menjadi agama resmi negara UEA. Pemerintah memberikan wewenang kepada polisi untuk menjaga toleransi dalam beragama dan jarang terlibat dalam aktivitas keagamaan non-Muslim. Hal yang sama juga diterapkan oleh warga non muslim dengan tidak mencampuri urusan keagamaan Islam dalam berbagai hal.

Pemerintah memberlakukan larangan menyebarkan agama-agama lain melalui berbagai bentuk media karena dianggap sebagai bentuk dakwah. Ada sekitar 31 gereja di seluruh negeri, satu kuil Hindu di wilayah Bur Dubai, satu Sikh Gurudwara di Jebel Ali dan juga sebuah kuil Buddha di Al Garhoud.

Berdasarkan sensus Kementerian Perekonomian pada tahun 2005, 76% dari total populasi adalah Muslim, 9% Kristen, dan 15% lainnya (terutama Hindu). Angka-angka sensus tidak memperhitungkan banyak pengunjung dan pekerja “sementara” juga menghitung Baha’is dan Druze sebagai Muslim. Di antara warga Muslim Emirat, 85% adalah Sunni, sementara Syiah 15%, sebagian besar terkonsentrasi di emirat Sharjah dan Dubai. Imigran Oman kebanyakan adalah Ibadi, sementara pengaruh Sufi juga ada.

Kota Terbesar

Kota terbesar di negara ini adalah Dubai.

Bahasa

Bahasa Arab adalah bahasa nasional Uni Emirat Arab. Dialek Teluk bahasa Arab dituturkan secara asli oleh orang-orang Emirat . Karena daerah itu diduduki oleh Inggris hingga 1971, bahasa Inggris adalah bahasa utama di UAE. Dengan demikian, pengetahuan tentang bahasa adalah persyaratan ketika melamar untuk sebagian besar pekerjaan lokal. Bahasa dunia lainnya diwakili oleh populasi ekspatriat yang diambil dari campuran beragam kebangsaan.

Budaya

Uni Emirat Arab mempunyai hubungan yang cukup kuat dengan masyarakat Arab lain di seluruh dunia. Pemerintah berdedikasi untuk mempertahankan unsur-unsur tradisional dalam kesenian dan kebudayaan termasuk melalui Yayasan Kebudayaan Abu Dhabi. Perubahan dalam kehidupan sosial juga mengalami perubahan dan olahraga-olahraga baru mulai terkenal di samping balap unta.

Dubai City

Ratchanok INTANON

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ratchanok Intanon (Thai: รัชนก อินทนนท์, RTGS: Ratchanok Inthanon, pronounced [rát.t͡ɕʰā.nók ʔīn.tʰā.nōn]; born 5 February 1995) is a Thai badminton player who became the first Thai to become No.1 in women’s singles. She is known for her relaxed hitting motion and light footwork which has been described as ‘balletic’ by commentators such as Gillian Clark. She became world champion in women’s singles in 2013.

Career Summary

2009–2012

Ratchanok won her first individual International title in 2009, while she was only 14, by winning the Vietnam International Challenge. She made history by becoming the youngest-ever champion at the BWF World Junior Championships at 14 when she triumphed in Malaysia. She also reached SEA Games 2009 Badminton WS final but lost to her compatriot Salakjit Ponsana.

In 2010, at the age of 15, she successfully defended her title at the World Junior Championships in Mexico. She won two back-to-back Grand Prix tournaments by winning Vietnam Open Grand Prix and Indonesia Open Grand Prix Gold. In 2010 Guangzhou Asian Games, she won a silver medal as a member of the women’s team. In the final, she lost to Wang Xin, at that time world number 1, 22-20 17-21 14-21.

In 2011, she became the most successful player ever in individual events at the BWF World Junior Championships, winning the women’s singles title for the third straight time in Taiwan. She won Syed Modi International and was also a member of the women’s team that defeated Indonesia in the final at the 2011 Southeast Asian Games. At the BWF World Championships, she was the only player to take a game off of the eventual champion, Wang Yihan.

In 2012, Ratchanok, at 16 years of age, was awarded the Best Female Athlete Award in Thailand after winning the world junior title for three successive years. Ratchanok’s biggest goal is to win the Olympic gold medal. However, at 2012 London Olympics quarter-final match with Wang Xin, despite leading 21–17 and 16-9 in the second game, she failed to close the match and eventually lost 21–17, 18–21, 14–21. She reached the finals of the SCG Thailand Open 2012 but lost to Saina Nehwal 19–21 21–15 21–10 in the finals. She entered the finals of a Super Series tournament for the first time in 2012 China Open Super Series Premier but lost to Li Xuerui 12-21, 9-21. She qualified for the Super Series Finals and lost in the semi-finals. She finished the year as world number 9.

2013

2013 was one of Ratchanok’s golden years. She reached the finals of the 2013 All England Open Badminton Championships, losing to Tine Rasmussen 14–21, 21–16, 10–21. Despite her loss, she is still the youngest singles finalist ever at the All England tournament. She won her first Superseries tournament by beating Juliane Schenk 22-20, 21-14 in the Yonex Sunrise India Open 2013 to become the youngest-ever Superseries winner, with the age of 18 years, 2 months and 22 days (She held this record for 6 months until Akane Yamaguchi won the 2013 Japan Open at the age of 16). She again reached the finals of the SCG Thailand Open 2013. This time she won the title, beating Busanan Ongbumrungpan 20-22, 21-19, 21-13 to become the first Thai ever to win the women’s singles title at the Thailand Open since it was first held in 1984.

After the Thailand Open, she decided to withdraw from both the Indonesia Open SSP and Singapore Open SS to recover from her foot injury and prepare for the BWF World Championships. In August, Ratchanok won the BWF World Championships, beating world number 1 and Olympic gold medallist Li Xuerui 22-20 18-21 21-14 in the final. She is the first-ever Thai player to be the World Champion. At the age of 18, she is also the youngest singles World Champion ever. She became the World Champion while still being eligible to play in the 2013 BWF Junior World Championships in Bangkok. After World Championships, she injured her back which forced her to withdraw from another two super series events, Japan Open and China Master. Ratchanok didn’t qualify for Super Series Final in Malaysia and finished 2013 as the World number 3. She was awarded “2013 Best Females Athletes Award” from Thailand Sports Authority.

2014

Ratchanok reached the final of the Korea Open for the first time but lost to Wang Yihan 13-21, 19-21. Her head-to-head statistics with Wang Yihan has been increased to 0-8. She was awarded “Best Asian Sporting Icon” by Fox Sports Asia, based on voting from internet fans from its website. She reached the semi-finals of the All England 2014 to meet with Li Xuerui for the first time after beating her in World Championships of 2013. However, this time she lost to Li Xuerui in 2 sets. After the All England tournament, Ratchanok failed to pass the first round in both the 2014 Asian Championship and Japan Open. She reached the finals of the Indonesia Open but again lost to Li Xuerui 13-21, 13-21. After the Indonesia Open, Ratchanok did not reach any finals for the rest of the year. She failed to defend her World Champion title by losing in the second round. She qualified for Super Series Final in Dubai but failed to pass the round-robin. She finished the 2014 year as World number 6.

2015

At the age of 20, Ratchanok made a comeback by reaching the final of the India Open for the second time but lost to her opponent, Saina Nehwal, 16-21, 14-21.[13] However, in the quarter-finals of the All England Championships while playing Sun Yu, while 13-19 down in the decider, Ratchanok was forced to retire from cramp. Many people were skeptical about her fitness levels. A month later, she created history as the first Thai singles player to be crowned Asia Championship champion by defeating Li Xuerui in the final match 20-22, 23-21, 21-12 in China.14] It was the first time that Ratchanok had beaten Li Xuerui since the final of the 2013 World Championships. In June, she won her first Super Series Premier title by beating Yui Hashimoto of Japan in straight games, 21-11, 21-10, at the Indonesia Open. However, at the BWF World Championships, she had to retire from court 8-5 up in the decider against Lindaweni Fanetri in the last 16 stage from cramp yet again. She won a gold medal with Thailand Women’s team at the 2015 Southeast Asian Games in Singapore. After the Indonesia Open, she didn’t reach the final of any tournaments but earned enough points to qualify for the Dubai Super Series Final tournament. She lost to Wang Yihan in the semi-final, which brought their head-to-head statistics to 0-12. She finished the 2015 season at world number 7.

2016

Ratchanok won Princess Sirivannavari Thailand Masters 2016, a second Grand Prix Gold tournament in Thailand, by beating Sun Yu of China in the Final 21-19, 18-21, 21-17. She again won Indian Open Super Series for the second time by beating Li Xue Rui in the Final 21-17, 21-18. In Malaysia Super Series Premier the week after, Ratchanok finally won the maiden match over Wang Yihan by beating her in Semi-Final 21-11, 21-19. Their head-to-head statistics improved from 0-12 to be 1-12. In the final, she beat Tai Tzu-ying 21-14, 21-15 to earn the Malaysia Open title for the first time. It was Ratchanok’s first time to win two consecutive Superseries tournaments. Ratchanok then became the first singles player to win 3 Superseries in 3 consecutive weeks by winning the Singapore Super Series, defeating Sun Yu in the final. By winning 3 Superseries in a row, Ratchanok also rose to the No.1 spot in the world rankings, becoming the first Thai to achieve this feat. Intanon qualified for the 2016 Summer Olympics and is the Thai flag bearer. At the Olympics she failed to pass the Round of 16, losing out to the Japanese rising star, Akane Yamaguchi, in a close two game match 19-21, 16-21. Ratchanok then withdrew from the Thailand Open, and she lost in the quarter-finals and the second round of the Japan Open and Korea Open respectively. Following that, she withdrew from the Denmark Open as well as the French Open due to a knee injury that she picked up at the Rio Olympics. After that, she played a couple of shots in China before retiring, and then she withdrew from the Hong Kong Open due to the same injury, knowing that she would have secured enough points to qualify for the Super Series Finals. Ratchanok had the goal of making it into the semi-finals of the Superseries Finals but lost 21-19 21-12 to Sung Ji Hyun, 21-13 21-14 to Tai Tzu Ying, and 21-19 11-10, retiring injured against He Bingjiao. She finished 2016 at a world ranking of 5.

2017

Ratchanok withdrew from her home event, the Thailand Masters, due to a knee injury. Following that, she played in her first tournament of 2017 in March, the Yonex All England Open. She made her way to the quarter-finals, where she had to face off against world no. 2, Carolina Marin. Intanon won 22-20, 13-21, 21-18. She was 11-18 down in the rubber set but won 10 straight points to close out the match. In the semis, she faced Akane Yamaguchi, who leads the head to heads 6-5. Intanon won 22-20, 21-16 in 48 minutes of play to secure herself a spot in the Final against Tai Tzu Ying. Tai beat Intanon 16-21, 20-22 to win. Ratchanok later in the year took the SCG Thailand Open beating compatriot Busanan Ongbumrungphan in the final, 21-18, 12-21, 21-16. She also won the Skycity New Zealand Open beating Saena Kawakami in the final 21-14, 16-21, 21-15. She participated in the Denmark Open Premier Series where she beat Sung Ji Hyun and Tai Tzu Ying. Ratchanok met Akane Yamaguchi in the final, and beat her in a thrilling 3 game match with 21-19 in the rubber set, to win the title.[20] She said that she dedicated the title to Thailand’s king, Bhumibol Adulyadej, who died the year before.

2018

At the beginning of the year, Ratchanok participated in and won the Malaysia Masters Super 500 tournament, beating Akane Yamaguchi in the semi-finals, and Tai Tzu Ying in the finals, with 24-22 in the third set. She then proceeded to reach the semi-finals of both the Indonesia Masters Super 500 and the India Open Super 500, losing out to Saina Nehwal and Pusarla V. Sindhu respectively. At the Asian Games, Ratchanok made it to the quarter-final stage before losing out to Saina Nehwal. She then proceeded to make it to the finals of the Yonex Sunrise Hong Kong Open, losing to Nozomi Okuhara 19-21 22-24. She qualified for the HSBC World Tour Finals, where she lost in the semi-finals to Pusarla V. Sindhu. She finished the year at world no. 8.

2019

Ratchanok participated in the Malaysia Masters Super 500, hoping to defend her title. She won her matches in straight sets, including beating Tai Tzu Ying, to set up a final against Carolina Marin. Ratchanok beat Marin 21-9 22-20 to successfully defend her title. At the German Open Super 300, Ratchanok beat Nozomi Okuhara in the Semi-Finals, but lost to Akane Yamaguchi in 3 games, losing 23-25 in the deciding game. After that in form, Ratchanok went to England for All England Open but lost in the first round to player she never lost before Chen Xiaoxin of China in 3 rubber games. This was her second consecutive 1st round exit at All England open.

Ratchanok Intanon then won her 3rd Indian Open title in 2019 Indian Open by beating He Bingjiao of China in two straight games 21-15,21-14. This was Ratchanok’s first-ever victory over the left-handed Chinese He Bingjiao in their 5 encounters.

Records currently held

  • Youngest ever singles champion of BWF World Championships (2013, age of 18 years 6 months and 6 days)
  • Youngest ever champion of the BWF World Junior Championships (2009, age of 14)
  • First ever 3-time champion in a single discipline of the BWF World Junior Championships (2009, 2010, 2011)
  • Youngest ever singles finalist of the All England Open Badminton Championships (2013, age of 18)
  • First ever singles player to win 3 Superseries titles in 3 consecutive weeks
  • First ever Thai badminton player ranked World #1

Honors and Awards

Ratchanok Intanon won many awards and honors in recognition of her achievements, below are some of the international prestigious awards she had won so far.

Achievements

BWF World Championships

Women’s singles

Asian Championships

Women’s singles

Southeast Asian Games

Women’s singles

BWF World Junior Championships

Girls’ singles

Asian Junior Championships

Girls’ doubles

BWF World Tour (3 titles, 4 runners-up)

The BWF World Tour, announced on 19 March 2017 and implemented in 2018,[30] is a series of elite badminton tournaments, sanctioned by Badminton World Federation (BWF). The BWF World Tour are divided into six levels, namely World Tour Finals, Super 1000, Super 750, Super 500, Super 300 (part of the HSBC World Tour), and the BWF Tour Super 100.[31]

Women’s singles

BWF Superseries (6 titles, 6 runners-up)

The BWF Superseries, launched on 14 December 2006 and implemented in 2007, is a series of elite badminton tournaments, sanctioned by Badminton World Federation (BWF). BWF Superseries has two levels: Superseries and Superseries Premier. A season of Superseries features twelve tournaments around the world, which introduced since 2011, with successful players invited to the Superseries Finals held at the year end.

Women’s singles

BWF Grand Prix (7 titles, 3 runners-up)

The BWF Grand Prix has two levels, the BWF Grand Prix and Grand Prix Gold. It is a series of badminton tournaments sanctioned by the Badminton World Federation (BWF) since 2007.

Women’s singles

BWF International Challenge/Series (2 titles, 4 runners-up)

Women’s singles

Women’s doubles

Mixed doubles

Personal Life

Ratchanok is the daughter of Winutchai Intanon and Kumpan Suvarsara. She also has a brother. Ratchanok was born in Yasothon Province in the northeast of Thailand, but moved at the age of three months with her parents, who worked at the Banthongyord sweets factory in Bang Khae District of Bangkok. She is of Chinese descent. As a child, Ratchanok would run around the factory floor. Factory owner Kamala Thongkorn, worried that she would be burned by boiling water and hot sugar, allowed Ratchanok to play at the factory’s badminton courts. She started playing when she was six years old, and won her first championship at the age of seven.

Ratchanok used her prize money and endorsement fees aid her parents and brother. Her father opened a food shop with her help. “I wanted to be a national player like my older friends and play for the country, because that was the only way I could help my parents to improve our status and leave poverty”, she said.

Ratchanok trains at the Banthongyord Badminton School. Her coach is Patapol Ngernsrisuk, former Olympian and son of Kamala Thongkorn.

Career Overview

Performance Timeline

Record against selected opponents

Record against Super Series finalists, World Championships semifinalists and Olympic quarterfinalists (as of 20 December 2018):

Summer Olympics

BWF World Championships

BWF World Junior Championships

Sudirman Cup

Axiata Cup

Royal Decorations

BWF Gallery

Nitchaon Jindapol

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Nitchaon Jindapol (Thai: ณิชชาอร จินดาพล; born 31 March 1991) is a Thai professional badminton singles player. She was member of the national women’s team which finished as runner-up at the 2010 Asian Games. She graduated at the Sripatum University in Bachelor of Business Administration.

Achievements

Southeast Asian Games

Women’s singles

BWF World Tour

The BWF World Tour, announced on 19 March 2017 and implemented in 2018, is a series of elite badminton tournaments, sanctioned by Badminton World Federation (BWF). The BWF World Tour are divided into six levels, namely World Tour Finals, Super 1000, Super 750, Super 500, Super 300 (part of the HSBC World Tour), and the BWF Tour Super 100.

Women’s singles

BWF Grand Prix

The BWF Grand Prix has two level such as Grand Prix and Grand Prix Gold. It is a series of badminton tournaments, sanctioned by Badminton World Federation (BWF) since 2007.

Women’s singles

BWF International Challenge/Series

Women’s singles

Career Overview

Performance Timeline

Key

Record against selected opponents

Nitchaon Jindapol BWF Player’s Profile 2019

Nitchaon Jindapol Gallery

List of Country Top-Level Domains

Nowadays, 243 national top-level domains are assigned, with 195 of them reserved for independent countries and 48 are owned by dependent territories. The worldwide known country code domain names (ccTLDs) are .us, .uk, .de, .eu. They are commonly used, on a par with the generic top-level domains (gTLDs) .com, .org, .net.

Some smaller nations are opening their domain names for commercial registration. And everyone can buy them, not only country’s citizens or local companies. We frequently find on the web such domain names like .co (Colombia), which widely used for companies, .tv (Tuvalu) for online TV, .fm (Micronesia) for FM radio, .pr (Puerto Rico) for public relations websites.

DomainCountry / Territory
A 
.acAscension Island (UK)
.adAndorra
.aeUnited Arab Emirates
.afAfghanistan
.agAntigua and Barbuda
.aiAnguilla (UK)
.alAlbania
.amArmenia
.aoAngola
.arArgentina
.asAmerican Samoa (USA)
.atAustria
.auAustralia
.awAruba (Netherlands)
.axAland Islands (Finland)
.azAzerbaijan
B 
.baBosnia and Herzegovina
.bbBarbados
.bdBangladesh
.beBelgium
.bfBurkina Faso
.bgBulgaria
.bhBahrain
.biBurundi
.bjBenin
.bmBermuda (UK)
.bnBrunei
.boBolivia
.brBrazil
.bsBahamas
.btBhutan
.bvBouvet Island (Norway)
.bwBotswana
.byBelarus
.bzBelize
C 
.caCanada
.ccCocos (Keeling) Islands (Australia)
.cdDemocratic Republic of the Congo
.cfCentral African Republic
.cgRepublic of the Congo
.chSwitzerland
.ciCote d’Ivoire
.ckCook Islands (New Zealand)
.clChile
.cmCameroon
.cnChina
.coColombia
.crCosta Rica
.cuCuba
.cvCabo Verde
.cwCuracao (Netherlands)
.cxChristmas Island (Australia)
.cyCyprus
.czCzechia
D 
.deGermany
.djDjibouti
.dkDenmark
.dmDominica
.doDominican Republic
.dzAlgeria
E 
.ecEcuador
.eeEstonia
.egEgypt
.erEritrea
.esSpain
.etEthiopia
.euEuropean Union 
 (politico-economic union of 28 states)
F 
.fiFinland
.fjFiji
.fkFalkland Islands (UK)
.fmFederated States of Micronesia
.foFaroe Islands (Denmark)
.frFrance
G 
.gaGabon
.gbUnited Kingdom
.gdGrenada
.geGeorgia
.gfFrench Guiana (France)
.ggGuernsey (UK)
.ghGhana
.giGibraltar (UK)
.glGreenland (Denmark)
.gmGambia
.gnGuinea
.gpGuadeloupe (France)
.gqEquatorial Guinea
.grGreece
.gsSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (UK)
.gtGuatemala
.guGuam (USA)
.gwGuinea-Bissau
.gyGuyana
H 
.hkHong Kong (China)
.hmHeard Island and McDonald Islands (Australia)
.hnHonduras
.hrCroatia
.htHaiti
.huHungary
I 
.idIndonesia
.ieIreland
.ilIsrael
.imIsle of Man (UK)
.inIndia
.ioBritish Indian Ocean Territory (UK)
.iqIraq
.irIran
.isIceland
.itItaly
J 
.jeJersey (UK)
.jmJamaica
.joJordan
.jpJapan
K 
.keKenya
.kgKyrgyzstan
.khCambodia
.kiKiribati
.kmComoros
.knSaint Kitts and Nevis
.kpNorth Korea
.krSouth Korea
.kwKuwait
.kyCayman Islands (UK)
.kzKazakhstan
L 
.laLaos
.lbLebanon
.lcSaint Lucia
.liLiechtenstein
.lkSri Lanka
.lrLiberia
.lsLesotho
.ltLithuania
.luLuxembourg
.lvLatvia
.lyLibya
M 
.maMorocco
.mcMonaco
.mdMoldova
.meMontenegro
.mgMadagascar
.mhMarshall Islands
.mkNorth Macedonia (formerly Macedonia)
.mlMali
.mmMyanmar (formerly Burma)
.mnMongolia
.moMacau (China)
.mpNorthern Mariana Islands (USA)
.mqMartinique (France)
.mrMauritania
.msMontserrat (UK)
.mtMalta
.muMauritius
.mvMaldives
.mwMalawi
.mxMexico
.myMalaysia
.mzMozambique
N 
.naNamibia
.ncNew Caledonia (France)
.neNiger
.nfNorfolk Island (Australia)
.ngNigeria
.niNicaragua
.nlNetherlands
.noNorway
.npNepal
.nrNauru
.nuNiue (New Zealand)
.nzNew Zealand
O 
.omOman
P 
.paPanama
.pePeru
.pfFrench Polynesia (France)
.pgPapua New Guinea
.phPhilippines
.pkPakistan
.plPoland
.pmSaint Pierre and Miquelon (France)
.pnPitcairn Islands (UK)
.prPuerto Rico (USA)
.psPalestine
.ptPortugal
.pwPalau
.pyParaguay
Q 
.qaQatar
R 
.reReunion (France)
.roRomania
.rsSerbia
.ruRussia
.rwRwanda
S 
.saSaudi Arabia
.sbSolomon Islands
.scSeychelles
.sdSudan
.seSweden
.sgSingapore
.shSaint Helena (UK)
.siSlovenia
.sjSvalbard and Jan Mayen (Norway)
.skSlovakia
.slSierra Leone
.smSan Marino
.snSenegal
.soSomalia
.srSuriname
.stSao Tome and Principe
.suSoviet Union (former), 
 top-level domain is still in use
.svEl Salvador
.sxSint Maarten (Netherlands)
.sySyria
.szEswatini (formerly Swaziland)
T 
.tcTurks and Caicos Islands (UK)
.tdChad
.tfFrench Southern Territories (France)
.tgTogo
.thThailand
.tjTajikistan
.tkTokelau (New Zealand)
.tlTimor-Leste
.tmTurkmenistan
.tnTunisia
.toTonga
.trTurkey
.ttTrinidad and Tobago
.tvTuvalu
.twTaiwan
.tzTanzania
U 
.uaUkraine
.ugUganda
.ukUnited Kingdom
.usUnited States of America
.uyUruguay
.uzUzbekistan
V 
.vaVatican City (Holy See)
.vcSaint Vincent and the Grenadines
.veVenezuela
.vgBritish Virgin Islands (UK)
.viUS Virgin Islands (USA)
.vnVietnam
.vuVanuatu
W 
.wfWallis and Futuna (France)
.wsSamoa
Y 
.yeYemen
.ytMayotte (France)
Z 
.zaSouth Africa
.zmZambia
.zwZimbabwe

Source: countries-ofthe-world

Country Calling Codes

Do you know how to call internationally?

First of all, you need to dial your country’s International Direct Dialling (IDD) prefix to exit from your location to international phone circuit, and then dial the destination country calling code, after that the city code and a local phone number.

For example, for calling from American Samoa (USA) to Andorra:

011 –> 376 –> City Code –> Phone Number

In some countries, the exit prefix looks like 0xx, where x marks the international carrier selection code, comprising one or more digits.

For domestic telephone calls within the country of your location, you need to dial the National Direct Dialling (NDD) prefix (if such exists), and only after that the city calling code and a local phone number.

List of all country calling codes, international and national dialing prefixes

Calling CodeCountry or TerritoryExit Prefix (IDD)National Prefix (NDD)
 A  
93Afghanistan00
358 18Aland Islands (Finland)00
355Albania00
213Algeria00
1 684American Samoa (USA)111
376Andorra0
244Angola00
1 264Anguilla (UK)111
1 268Antigua and Barbuda111
54Argentina00
374Armenia00
297Aruba (Netherlands)0
247Ascension Island (UK)0
61Australia110
672Australian External Territories00
43Austria00
994Azerbaijan00
 B  
1 242Bahamas111
973Bahrain0
880Bangladesh00
1 246Barbados111
375Belarus8108
32Belgium00
501Belize0
229Benin0
1 441Bermuda (UK)111
975Bhutan0
591Bolivia00
599 7Bonaire (Netherlands)00
387Bosnia and Herzegovina00
267Botswana0
55Brazil00
246British Indian Ocean Territory (UK)0
1 284British Virgin Islands (UK)111
673Brunei0
359Bulgaria00
226Burkina Faso0
257Burundi0
 C  
855Cambodia001, 0070
237Cameroon0
1Canada111
238Cape Verde0
599Caribbean Netherlands (Netherlands)0
1 345Cayman Islands (UK)111
236Central African Republic11
235Chad0
64Chatham Islands (New Zealand)03
56Chile1xx01xx
86China00
61 8 9164Christmas Island (Australia)00
61 8 9162Cocos Islands (Australia)110
57Colombia009, 007, 00509, 07, 05
269Comoros0
242Congo, Republic of the0
243Congo, Democratic Republic of the0
682Cook Islands (New Zealand)0
506Costa Rica0
225Cote d’Ivoire0
385Croatia00
53Cuba1190
599 9Curacao (Netherlands)0
357Cyprus0
420Czechia0
 D  
45Denmark0
253Djibouti0
1 767Dominica111
1 809Dominican Republic111
1 829   
1 849   
 E  
593Ecuador00
20Egypt00
503El Salvador0
240Equatorial Guinea0
291Eritrea00
372Estonia0
268Eswatini (formerly Swaziland)0
251Ethiopia00
 F  
500Falkland Islands (UK)0
298Faroe Islands (Denmark)0
679Fiji0
358Finland00, 99x, 99xx, 99xxx0
33France00
594French Guiana (France)0
689French Polynesia (France)0
 G  
241Gabon0
220Gambia0
995Georgia00
49Germany00
233Ghana00
350Gibraltar (UK)0
30Greece00
299Greenland (Denmark)0
1 473Grenada111
590Guadeloupe (France)0
1 671Guam (USA)111
502Guatemala0
44Guernsey (UK)00
224Guinea0
245Guinea-Bissau0
592Guyana1
 H  
509Haiti0
504Honduras0
852Hong Kong (China)1
36Hungary06
 I  
354Iceland0
91India00
62Indonesia001, 007, 008, 0090
98Iran00
964Iraq00
353Ireland00
44Isle of Man (UK)00
972Israel00, 012 – 0190
39Italy0
 J  
1 876Jamaica111
81Japan100
44Jersey (UK)00
962Jordan00
 K  
7Kazakhstan8108
254Kenya00
686Kiribati0
965Kuwait0
996Kyrgyzstan00
 L  
856Laos00
371Latvia0
961Lebanon00
266Lesotho0
231Liberia0
218Libya00
423Liechtenstein0
370Lithuania00
352Luxembourg0
 M  
853Macau (China)0
261Madagascar0
265Malawi0
60Malaysia00
960Maldives0
223Mali00
356Malta0
692Marshall Islands111
596Martinique (France)0
222Mauritania0
230Mauritius0
262Mayotte (France)0
52Mexico01
691Micronesia111
373Moldova00
377Monaco0
976Mongolia10, 01, 02
382Montenegro00
1 664Montserrat (UK)111
212Morocco00
258Mozambique0
95Myanmar (formerly Burma)0
 N  
264Namibia00
674Nauru0
977Nepal0
31Netherlands00
687New Caledonia (France)0
64New Zealand00
505Nicaragua0
227Niger0
234Nigeria90
683Niue (New Zealand)0
672 3Norfolk Island (Australia)0
1 670Northern Mariana Islands (USA)111
850North Korea00
389North Macedonia (formerly Macedonia)00
47Norway0
 O  
968Oman0
 P  
92Pakistan00
680Palau11
970Palestine00
507Panama0
675Papua New Guinea0
595Paraguay00
51Peru00
63Philippines00
64Pitcairn Islands (UK)00
48Poland00
351Portugal0
1 787Puerto Rico (USA)111
1 939   
 Q  
974Qatar0
 R  
262Reunion (France)0
40Romania00
7Russia8108
250Rwanda0
 S  
599 4Saba (Netherlands)00
590Saint Barthelemy (France)0
290Saint Helena (UK)0
1 869Saint Kitts and Nevis111
1 758Saint Lucia111
590Saint Martin (France)00
508Saint Pierre and Miquelon (France)00
1 784Saint Vincent and The Grenadines111
685Samoa0
378San Marino00
239Sao Tome and Principe0
966Saudi Arabia00
221Senegal0
381Serbia00
248Seychelles00
232Sierra Leone00
65Singapore001, 008
599 3Sint Eustatius (Netherlands)0
1 721Sint Maarten (Netherlands)11
421Slovakia00
386Slovenia00
677Solomon Islands0
252Somalia0
27South Africa00
500South Georgia Islands (UK)11
82South Korea001, 002, 005, 006, 008, 003xx, 007xx0, 082
211South Sudan0
34Spain0
94Sri Lanka00
249Sudan00
597Suriname00
47 79Svalbard (Norway)0
46Sweden00
41Switzerland00
963Syria00
 T  
886Taiwan002, 005, 006, 007, 0090
992Tajikistan8108
255Tanzania00
66Thailand10
670Timor-Leste0
228Togo0
690Tokelau (New Zealand)0
676Tonga0
1 868Trinidad and Tobago111
290 8Tristan da Cunha (UK)0
216Tunisia0
90Turkey00
993Turkmenistan8108
1 649Turks and Caicos Islands (UK)111
688Tuvalu0
 U  
256Uganda00
380Ukraine00
971United Arab Emirates00
44United Kingdom00
1United States of America111
598Uruguay00
1 340US Virgin Islands (USA)111
998Uzbekistan8108
 V  
678Vanuatu0
379Vatican City (Holy See)0
58Venezuela00
84Vietnam00
 W  
808Wake Island (USA)0
681Wallis and Futuna (France)0
 Y  
967Yemen00
 Z  
260Zambia00
263Zimbabwe00

Los Angeles

Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

Los Angeles (i/lɒs ˈændʒələs/ loss-an-jə-ləs; bahasa Spanyol: [los ˈaŋxeles], ditulis Los Ángeles; pengucapan Britania /lɒs ˈændʒəliːz/ loss-an-jə-leez) dengan jumlah penduduk sebanyak 3.792.621 jiwa sesuai Sensus Amerika Serikat 2010, adalah kota terpadat di negara bagian California, dan kota terpadat kedua di Amerika Serikat, setelah New York City. Luasnya mencapai 468,67 mil persegi (1213,8 km2), dan terletak di California Selatan. Terkenal dengan inisial L.A.-nya, kota ini merupakan titik utama wilayah statistik metropolitan Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana dan region Wilayah Los Angeles Raya, yang dihuni 12.828.837 dan hampir 18 juta jiwa pada tahun 2010, menjadikannya salah satu wilayah metropolitan terpadat di dunia[6] dan yang terbesar kedua di Amerika Serikat. Los Angeles juga merupakan ibu kota County Los Angeles, salah satu county terpadat dan paling beragam etnisnya[8] di Amerika Serikat, sementara seluruh wilayah Los Angeles sendiri diakui sebagai kota besar yang paling beragam di negara ini. Penduduk kota Los Angeles disebut “Angelenos”.

Los Angeles didirikan tanggal 4 September 1781 oleh gubernur Spanyol Felipe de Neve.  Kota ini menjadi bagian dari Meksiko pada tahun 1821 setelah Perang Kemerdekaan Meksiko.  Tahun 1848, pada akhir Perang Meksiko-Amerika Serikat, Los Angeles dan seluruh California dibeli sebagai bagian dari Traktat Guadalupe Hidalgo, sehingga menjadi bagian dari Amerika Serikat.  Los Angeles disatukan menjadi munisipalitas pada tanggal 4 April 1850, lima bulan sebelum California mendapat status negara bagian. 

Dijuluki City of Angels, Los Angeles adalah pusat dunia bisnis, perdagangan internasional, hiburan, budaya, media, mode, ilmu pengetahuan, olahraga, teknologi, dan pendidikan terdepan, serta merupakan kota terkaya ketiga di dunia dan kota paling kuat dan berpengaruh kelima di dunia. Kota ini adalah tempat berdirinya berbagai institusi yang mencakup berbagai bidang profesional dan budaya dan merupakan salah satu mesin ekonomi terpenting di Amerika Serikat. Wilayah statistik gabungan (CSA) Los Angeles memiliki produk metropolitan bruto (PMB) senilai $831 miliar (tahun 2008), menjadikannya pusat ekonomi terbesar ketiga di dunia, setelah wilayah metropolitan Tokyo Raya dan New York.  Sebagai basis Hollywood, kota ini dijuluki “Ibu Kota Hiburan Dunia”, yang memimpin pembuatan produksi televisi, permainan video, dan musik rekaman kelas dunia. Bisnis hiburan di kota ini mendorong banyak selebriti menetap di Los Angeles dan pinggiran kotanya. Selain itu, Los Angeles pernah menyelenggarakan Olimpiade Musim Panas tahun 1932 dan 1984.

Sejarah

Kawasan pesisir Los Angeles pertama dihuni oleh suku Pribumi Amerika Tongva (atau Gabrieleños) dan Chumash ribuan tahun yang lalu. Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, seorang penjelajah kelahiran Portugal, mengklaim wilayah California Selatan sebagai bagian dari Kekaisaran Spanyol pada tahun 1542.  Gaspar de Portolà dan misionaris Fransiskan Juan Crespí, berhasil mencapai daerah yang saat ini merupakan Los Angeles pada tanggal 2 Agustus 1769. 

Pada tahun 1771, biarawan Fransiskan Junípero Serra memimpin pembangunan Mission San Gabriel Arcangel, misi pertama di daerah ini. Pada tanggal 4 September 1781, empat puluh empat pendatang yang dijuluki “Los Pobladores” mendirikan sebuah pueblo bernama “La Reyna de los Angeles”, yang diberi nama untuk Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles del Río de Porciúncula (Our Lady the Queen of the Angels of the Porciúncula River). Dua per tiga pendatang adalah mestizo atau mulatto dengan keturunan Afrika, Amerindian, dan Eropa. Permukiman tersebut tetap menjadi kota ranca kecil selama beberapa dasawarsa, tetapi pada tahun 1820, populasinya bertambah hingga 650 jiwa. Hari ini, pueblo tersebut diabadikan di distrik bersejarah Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza dan Olvera Street, kawasan tertua di Los Angeles.

Spanyol Baru merdeka dari Kekaisaran Spanyol pada tahun 1821, dan pueblo ini masih menjadi bagian dari Meksiko. Selama masa kekuasaan Meksiko, Gubernur Pío Pico menjadikan Los Angeles ibu kota regional Alta California. Kekuasaan Meksiko berakhir pada Perang Meksiko-Amerika Serikat: Amerika Serikat merebut kota ini dari Californios setelah serangkaian pertempuran yang berujung pada penandatanganan Traktat Cahuenga pada tanggal 13 Januari 1847. 

Plaza kota lama, 1869

Rel kereta api datang seiring rampungnya jalur Southern Pacific menuju Los Angeles pada tahun 1876. Minyak ditemukan tahun 1892, dan pada 1923, penemuan tersebut membantu California menjadi produsen minyak terbesar di Amerika Serikat dengan pangsa sekitar seperempat produksi minyak dunia.

Los Angeles City Hall, tahun 1931, dibangun pada tahun 1928 dan merupakan struktur tertinggi di kota ini sampai tahun 1964 ketika batas ketinggian ditiadakan.

Pada tahun 1900, populasinya tumbuh hingga lebih dari 102.000 jiwa, sehingga membebani persediaan air kota.  Rampungnya pembangunan Los Angeles Aqueduct tahun 1913, di bawah arahan William Mulholland, menjamin pertumbuhan kota secara terus menerus. 

Pada tahun 1910, tidak cuma Los Angeles menganeksasi Hollywood, tetapi di kota ini sudah ada 10 perusahaan film yang beroperasi. Pada tahun 1921, lebih dari 80 persen industri film dunia terkonsentrasi di L.A. ] Uang yang dihasilkan industri ini melindungi kota dari guncangan ekonomi yang menyebar di seluruh Amerika Serikat selama Depresi Besar.  Pada tahun 1930, populasinya melewati angka satu juta jiwa. Pada tahun 1932, kota ini mengadakan Olimpiade Musim Panas.

Setelah akhir Perang Dunia II, Los Angeles tumbuh dengan sangat cepat, menyebar hingga San Fernando Valley.  Pada tahun 1969, Los Angeles menjadi salah satu tempat kelahiran Internet, karena transmisi ARPANET pertama dikirimkan dari University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) ke SRI di Menlo Park. 

Los Angeles Coliseum menjadi tempat penyelenggaraan Olimpiade Musim Panas 1932 dan 1984.

Pada tahun 1984, kota ini menyelenggarkaan Olimpiade Musim Panas untuk kedua kalinya. Meski diboikot oleh 14 negara Komunis, Olimpiade Musim Panas 1984 lebih sukses secara finansial ketimbang Olimpiade sebelumnya,[36] sekaligus Olimpiade kedua yang menghasilkan keuntungan setelah Olimpiade Musim Panas 1932 yang juga diadakan di Los Angeles. 

Ketegangan rasial mencuat pada tanggal 29 April 1992 setelah beberapa polisi yang tertangkap kamera sedang memukul Rodney King dibebaskan oleh hakim di Simi Valley, berujung pada kerusuhan berskala besar.  Pada tahun 1994, gempa bumi Northridge berkekuatan 6,7 mengguncang kota dan mengakibatkan kerusakan senilai $12,5 miliar serta kematian sebanyak 72 orang. Abad ini ditutup dengan skandal Rampart, salah satu kasus kelakuan buruk polisi yang paling banyak didokumentasikan sepanjang sejarah Amerika Serikat. 

Pada tahun 2002, para pemberi suara menggagalkan upaya San Fernando Valley dan Hollywood untuk memisahkan diri dari Los Angeles. 

Geografi

Topografi

Los Angeles berbentuk ireguler dan mencakup wilayah seluas 502,7 mil persegi (1302 km2), yang terdiri dari 468,7 mil persegi (1214 km2) daratan dan 34,0 mil persegi (88 km2) perairan. Kota ini membujur sepanjang 44 mile (71 km) dan melintang sepanjang 29 mile (47 km). Los Angeles memiliki batas kota sepanjang 342 mile (550 km).

Cekungan Los Angeles

Los Angeles datar dan berbukit. Titik tertinggi di kota ini adalah Mount Lukens pada ketinggian 5074 ft (1547 m), terletak di ujung timur laut Lembah San Fernando. Ujung timur Pegunungan Santa Monica membentang dari Downtown hingga Samudra Pasifik dan memisahkan Cekungan Los Angeles dari Lembah San Fernando. Daerah berbukit lainnya di Los Angeles adalah kawasan Mt. Washington di sebelah utara Downtown, bagian timur Boyle Heights, distrik Crenshaw di sekitar Baldwin Hills, dan distrik San Pedro.

Mallard di Sungai Los Angeles

Sungai Los Angeles, yang mengalir musiman saja, adalah saluran drainase utama di kota ini. Sungai ini diluruskan dan dan dibentangkan dengan beton sepanjang 51 mil oleh Army Corps of Engineers untuk dimanfaatkan sebagai saluran pengendali banjir. Sungai ini berawal di distrik Canoga Park, kemudian mengalir ke timur dari Lembah San Fernando di sepanjang tepian utara Pegunungan Santa Monica, dan berbelok ke selatan melintasi pusat kota, mengalir ke muaranya di Port of Long Beach di Samudra Pasifik. Ballona Creek yang lebih kecil mengalir ke Santa Monica Bay di Playa del Rey.

MacArthur Park

Wilayah Los Angeles kaya akan spesies tanaman asli karena keragaman habitatnya, termasuk pantai, rawa, dan pegunungan. Lingkungan botani yang paling cocok untuk kota ini adalah semak sage pesisir, yang menutupi sisi perbukitan yang dipenuhi chaparral mudah terbakar. Tanaman aslinya meliputi poppy California, poppy matilija, toyon, Coast Live Oak, dan Giant Wildrye. Banyak di antara spesies asli ini, seperti bunga matahari Los Angeles, menjadi langka dan terancam punah. Meski bukan tanaman asli daerah ini, pohon resmi kota Los Angeles adalah Pohon Koral (Erythrina caffra) dan bunga resmi kota Los Angeles adalah Burung Surga (Strelitzia reginae). Palem Kipas Meksiko, Palem Kipas California, dan Palem Pulau Canary dapat dilihat di seluruh kawasan Los Angeles, meski pohon yang terakhir disebutkan tadi bukan asli California Selatan.

Geologi

Los Angeles rawan gempa karena lokasinya di Cincin Api Pasifik. Ketidakstabilan geologinya telah menghasilkan banyak patahan, yang memunculkan 10.000 gempa bumi setiap tahunnya. Salah satu patahan besar di daerah ini adalah Patahan San Andreas. Terletak di perbatasan Lempeng Pasifik dengan Lempeng Amerika Utara, patahan ini diprediksi menjadi sumber gempa bumi besar selanjutnya di California. Gempa bumi besar yang pernah mengguncang wilayah Los Angeles adalah gempa bumi Northridge 1994, gempa bumi Whittier Narrows 1987, gempa bumi San Fernando 1971 dekat Sylmar, dan gempa bumi Long Beach 1993. Meski begitu, semua kecuali beberapa gempa memiliki intensitas rendah dan tidak dapat dirasakan manusia. Cekungan dan wilayah metropolitan Los Angeles juga terancam mengalami gempa bumi dorongan kosong. Sebagian wilayah kota juga rawan terkena tsunami; daerah pelabuhan pernah dirusak oleh gelombang akibat gempa bumi Valdivia tahun 1960.

Iklim

Lanskap kota

Panorama Los Angeles dilihat dari Mulholland Drive. Kiri ke kanan: Santa Ana Mountains, Downtown, Hollywood (latar depan), Wilshire Boulevard, Port of Los Angeles, Palos Verdes Peninsula, Santa Catalina Island, dan Los Angeles International Airport.

Kota ini dibagi menjadi lebih dari 80 distrik dan permukiman, banyak di antaranya merupakan tempat gabungan atau permukiman yang dianeksasi oleh pemerintah kota. Los Angeles Raya mencakup sejumlah enklave dan permukiman sekitarnya. Secara umum, kota ini dibagi menjadi wilayah-wilayah berikut: Downtown Los Angeles, East Los Angeles dan Northeast Los Angeles, South Los Angeles, Harbor Area, Greater Hollywood, Wilshire, Westside, dan San Fernando dan Crescenta Valley.

Sejumlah permukiman terkenal di Los Angeles meliputi West Adams, Watts, Leimert Park, Baldwin Hills, Venice, Downtown Financial District, Silver Lake, Hollywood, Koreatown, Westwood dan daerah yang lebih elit seperti Bel Air, Benedict Canyon, Hollywood Hills, Los Feliz, Hancock Park, Pacific Palisades, Century City, dan Brentwood.

Hollywood, sebuah distrik terkenal di Los Angeles, sering disalahartikan sebagai sebuah kota independen (sebagaimana West Hollywood).

Markah tanah

Markah tanah utama di Los Angeles meliputi Walt Disney Concert Hall, Kodak Theatre, Griffith Observatory, Getty Center, Getty Villa, Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Grauman’s Chinese Theatre, Hollywood Sign, Bradbury Building, Hollywood Boulevard, Capitol Records Building, Los Angeles City Hall, Hollywood Bowl, Theme Building, Watts Towers, Staples Center, Dodger Stadium, dan La Placita Olvera/Olvera Street.

L.A. Live
Grauman’s Chinese Theatre
Griffith Observatory
Capitol Records Building

Budaya

Los Angeles sering dijuluki “Ibu Kota Kreatif Dunia” karena kenyataan bahwa satu dari enam penduduknya adalah pekerja industri kreatif. Menurut USC Stevens Institute for Innovation, “lebih banyak seniman, penulis, pembuat film, aktor, penari dan musisi yang tinggal dan bekerja di Los Angeles daripada kota lain dalam sejarah peradaban manusia.”

Hollywood Sign

Los Angeles adalah rumah bagi Hollywood, yang dikenal secara global sebagai pusat industri perfilman. Sebagai bukti dominasinya dalam perfilman, kota ini menjadi tempat penyelenggaraan acara tahunan Academy Awards, acara penghargaan tertua dan berpengaruh di dunia. Los Angeles adalah rumah bagi USC School of Cinematic Arts, sekolah film tertua di Amerika Serikat.

Seni panggung memainkan peran utama dalam identitas budaya Los Angeles. Menurut USC Stevens Institute for Innovation, “ada lebih dari 1.100 produksi teatrikal setiap tahunnya dan 21 pementasan setiap minggunya.” Los Angeles Music Center merupakan “satu dari tiga pusat seni panggung terbesar di negara ini,” dengan lebih dari 1,3 juta pengunjung setiap tahun.[60] Walt Disney Concert Hall, bagian utama dari Music Center, adalah rumah bagi Los Angeles Philharmonic. Organisasi ternama seperti Center Theatre Group, Los Angeles Master Chorale, dan Los Angeles Opera juga menjadi perusahaan tetap di Music Center. Bakat masyarakat terus dikembangkan di institusi-institusi utama seperti Colburn School dan USC Thornton School of Music.

Museum dan galeri

Ada 841 museum dan galeri seni di Los Angeles County. Faktanya, Los Angeles memiliki lebih banyak museum per kapita daripada kota-kota lain di dunia.  Sejumlah museum ternama di sana mencakup Los Angeles County Museum of Art (museum seni terbesar di Amerika Serikat Barat), Getty Center (bagian dari J. Paul Getty Trust, institusi seni terkaya di dunia), dan Museum of Contemporary Art. Sejumlah galeri seni berdiri di Gallery Row, dan puluhan ribu orang mengunjungi Downtown Art Walk yang diadakan setiap bulan di sana. 

Media

Harian berbahasa Inggris utama di Los Angeles adalah Los Angeles Times. La Opinión adalah harian berbahasa Spanyol terbesar di kota ini, The Korea Times merupakan harian berbahasa Korea terbesar, dan Los Angeles Sentinel merupakan harian Afrika-Amerika terbesar di kota ini, dengan jumlah pembaca berkulit Hitam terbesar di Amerika Serikat Barat. Investor’s Business Daily didistribusikan dari kantor korporatnya di L.A. yang terletak di Playa del Rey. Ada pula beberapa surat kabar regional yang lebih kecil, mingguan alternatif dan majalah, termasuk Daily News (berfokus pada pemberitaan di San Fernando Valley), LA Weekly, Los Angeles CityBeat, L.A. Record (berfokus pada musik di Wilayah Los Angeles Raya), majalah Los Angeles, Los Angeles Business Journal, Los Angeles Daily Journal (surat kabar industri hukum), The Hollywood Reporter dan Variety (surat kabar industri hiburan), dan Los Angeles Downtown News. Selain surat kabar besar, beberapa surat kabar periodik lokal melayani masyarakat imigran dalam bahasa asli mereka, termasuk Armenia, Inggris, Korea, Persia, Rusia, Cina, Jepang, Ibrani, dan Arab. Banyak kota terdekat Los Angeles memiliki hariannya sendiri yang pemberitaannya juga mencakup beberapa permukiman di Los Angeles. Contoh harian tersebut adalah The Daily Breeze (melayani South Bay), dan The Long Beach Press-Telegram.

Fox Plaza di Century City, kantor pusat 20th Century Fox, merupakan distrik keuangan besar untuk West Los Angeles

Kota ini memiliki banyak saluran televisi besar dan tiga stasiun PBS. World TV mengudara di dua saluran dan wilayah ini memiliki beberapa jaringan televisi berbahasa Spanyol. KTBN 40 adalah stasiun utama Trinity Broadcasting Network, yang berbasis di luar Santa Ana. Berbagai stasiun televisi independen juga beroperasi di wilayah ini.

Kantor pusat Los Angeles Times

Ekonomi

Perusahaan-perusahaan seperti US Bancorp, Ernst & Young, Aon, Manulife Financial, City National Bank, Wells Fargo, Bank of America, Deloitte, KPMG, dan Union Bank of California memiliki kantor di Downtown Financial District

Ekonomi Los Angeles digerakkan oleh perdagangan internasional, hiburan (televisi, film, permainan video, musik rekaman), dirgantara, teknologi, minyak, mode, perlengkapan, dan pariwisata. Los Angeles juga merupakan pusat manufaktur terbesar di Amerika Serikat Barat. Pelabuhan Los Angeles dan Long Beach bersama-sama membentuk pelabuhan tersibuk kelima di dunia dan merupakan pelabuhan terpenting di Belahan Bumi Barat dan penting bagi perdagangan di Cincin Pasifik. Industri utama lainnya mencakup produksi media, keuangan, telekomunikasi, hukum, kesehatan, dan transportasi. Wilayah statistik metropolitan (WSM) Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana memiliki produk metropolitan bruto (PMB) senilai $735,7 miliar (tahun 2010), menjadikannya pusat ekonomi terbesar ketiga di dunia, setelah Wilayah Tokyo Raya dan Wilayah Statistik Gabungan (WSG) New York-Newark-Bridgeport. Jika dianggap negara, WSG Los Angeles adalah ekonomi terbesar ke-15 di dunia menurut PDB nominal.[68] Los Angeles telah dikelompokkan sebagai sebuah “kota dunia Alpha” menurut studi tahun 2010 oleh kelompok riset di Lougborough University di Inggris. 

Distrik Keuangan (“Financial District”) di pusat kota Los Angeles

Kota ini adalah tempat berdirinya tujuh perusahaan Fortune 500, yaitu kontraktor dirgantara Northrop Grumman, perusahaan energi Occidental Petroleum, penyedia layanan kesehatan Health Net, distributor logam Reliance Steel & Aluminum, firma teknik AECOM, grup real estat CBRE Group, dan perusahaan pembangun Tutor Perini.

Perusahaan lain yang berkantor pusat di Los Angeles meliputi California Pizza Kitchen, Capital Group, Capstone Turbine, The Cheesecake Factory, Cathay Bank, City National Bank, The Coffee Bean & Tea Leaf, DeviantArt, Far East National Bank, Farmers Insurance Group, Fox Entertainment Group, Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher, Guess?, Hanmi Bank, Herbalife, J2 Global Communications, The Jim Henson Company, KB Home, Korn/Ferry, Latham & Watkins, Mercury Insurance Group, Oaktree Capital Management, O’Melveny & Myers; Pabst Blue Ribbon, Paul, Hastings, Janofsky & Walker, Premier America, Premiere Radio Networks, Rentech, Roll International, Sunkist, The TCW Group, Tokyopop, Triton Media Group, United Online, dan VCA Antech.

Wilayah metropolitannya adalah rumah bagi kantor pusat berbagai perusahaan yang pindah ke luar Kota Los Angeles untuk menghindari pajak tinggi dan tingkat kejahatan yang tinggi, namun juga berusaha mempertahankan keuntungan dari lokasinya yang dekat Los Angeles. Misalnya, Los Angeles membebankan pajak penghasilan bruto berdasarkan persentasi penghasilan bisnis, sementara banyak kota sekitarnya cuma membebankan tarif tetap yang rendah.

University of Southern California (USC) merupakan penyedia pekerjaan sektor swasta terbesar di kota ini dan menyumbang $4 miliar setiap tahunnya kepada ekonomi setempat.

Walt Disney Concert Hall

Menurut 2010 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, sepuluh penyedia pekerjaan teratas di kota ini pada tahun 2009 adalah, secara menurun, Pemerintah Kota Los Angeles, Pemerintah Los Angeles County, University of California, Los Angeles, University of Southern California, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Kaiser Permanente, Fox Entertainment Group, Farmers Insurance Group, TeamOne, dan Northrop Grumman.

Pendidikan

Perguruan tinggi dan universitas

Ada tiga universitas umum yang terletak di kota ini: California State University, Los Angeles (CSULA), California State University, Northridge (CSUN) dan University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). Perguruan tinggi swasta di kota ini meliputi American Film Institute Conservatory, Alliant International University, Syracuse University (Los Angeles Campus), American InterContinental University, American Jewish University, The American Musical and Dramatic Academy – kampus Los Angeles, kampus Los Angeles Antioch University, Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science, Fashion Institute of Design & Merchandising’s Los Angeles campus (FIDM), Los Angeles Film School, Loyola Marymount University (LMU juga merupakan universitas induk Loyola Law School yang terletak di Los Angeles), Marymount College, Mount St. Mary’s College, National University of California, Occidental College (“Oxy”), Otis College of Art and Design (Otis), Southern California Institute of Architecture (SCI-Arc), Southwestern Law School, dan University of Southern California (USC).

Cabang kedua California State Normal School di Downtown Los Angeles dibuka tahun 1882.

Sistem perguruan tinggi komunitas mencakup sembilan kampus yang dipimpin dewan kepercayaan Los Angeles Community College District: East Los Angeles College (ELAC), Los Angeles City College (LACC), Los Angeles Harbor College, Los Angeles Mission College, Los Angeles Pierce College, Los Angeles Valley College (LAVC), Los Angeles Southwest College, Los Angeles Trade-Technical College, dan West Los Angeles College.

Sekolah dan perpustakaan

Los Angeles Unified School District melayani hampir seluruh kota Los Angeles, serta beberapa permukiman sekitarnya, dengan jumlah siswa mencapai 800.000 jiwa. Setelah Proposition 13 was disetujui tahun 1978, distrik sekolah kota mengalami masalah pendanaan. LAUSD semakin dikenal karena memiliki banyak kampus yang kurang pendanaan, terlalu padat dan dikelola dengan buruk, meski 162 sekolah magnetnya sudah membantu bersaing dengan sekolah swasta setempat. Beberapa wilayah kecil Los Angeles masuk dalam Las Virgenes Unified School District. Los Angeles County Office of Education mengoperasikan Los Angeles County High School for the Arts. Sistem Los Angeles Public Library mengoperasikan 72 perpustakaan umum di kota ini. Enklave wilayah lepas dilayani oleh County of Los Angeles Public Library, banyak di antaranya terletak dekat dengan penduduk City of Los Angeles.

The Los Angeles Central Library in Downtown

Transportasi

Jalan bebas

Kota ini dan seluruh wilayah metropolitan Los Angeles dilayani oleh jaringan jalan bebas dan jalan bebas hambatan yang luas. Texas Transportation Institute, yang menerbitkan Urban Mobility Report setiap tahunnya, menempatkan kemacetan lalu lintas jalanan Los Angeles pada peringkat pertama di Amerika Serikat pada tahun 2005 berdasarkan kemacetan tahunan per penglaju. Penglaju rata-rata di Los Angeles menghabiskan 72 jam dalam kemacetan per tahun menurut studi ini. Los Angeles diikuti oleh San Francisco/Oakland, Washington, D.C., dan Atlanta (masing-masing 60 jam kemacetan). Meski macet di kota, waktu tempuh rata-rata bagi penglaju di Los Angeles lebih pendek daripada kota-kota besar lainnya, seperti New York City, Philadelphia dan Chicago. Waktu tempuh rata-rata bagi penglaju kerja di Los Angeles pada tahun 2006 adalah 29,2 menit, sama seperti San Francisco dan Washington, D.C.

Jalan-jalan bebas hambatan besar yang menghubungkan LA dengan seluruh Amerika Serikat mencakup Interstate 5, yang membentang ke selatan melewati San Diego ke Tijuana di Meksiko dan ke utara melewati Sacramento, Portland, dan Seattle ke perbatasan Kanada; Interstate 10, Interstate Highway paling selatan yang membentang timur-barat dan pantai-ke-pantai di Amerika Serikat, yang membentang hingga Jacksonville, Florida; dan U.S. Route 101, yang mengarah ke California Central Coast, San Francisco, Redwood Empire, dan pesisir Oregon dan Washington.

Sistem angkutan cepat

Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority dan badan lain mengoperasikan sistem jalur bus yang besar, serta kereta bawah tanah dan kereta ringan di seluruh Los Angeles County, dengan jumlah penumpang bulanan (diukur secara pribadi) mencapai 38,8 juta orang pada September 2011. Sebagian besar (30,5 juta) berasal dari sistem bus kota, yang merupakan sistem bus tersibuk kedua di Amerika Serikat. Rata-rata gabungan kereta bawah tanah dan kereta ringan ditempati sisanya, 8,2 juta penumpang per bulan. Pada tahun 2005, 10,2% penglaju Los Angeles memakai transportasi umum.

Peta Los Angeles Metro Rail yang memperlihatkan jalur yang sudah ada dan sedang dibangun.

Sistem kereta bawah tanah kota adalah yang tersibuk kesembilan di Amerika Serikat dan sistem kereta ringannya merupakan yang tersibuk kedua di negara ini. Sistem kereta kota meliputi jalur kereta bawah tanah Red dan Purple, serta jalur kereta ringan Gold, Blue, dan Green. Fase pertama Expo Line dijadwalkan dibuka tanggal 28 April 2012. Metro Orange Line adalah sebuah jalur angkutan cepat bus dengan perhentian dan frekuensi yang sama seperti kereta ringan. Kota ini juga merupakan pusat sistem kereta komuter Metrolink, yang menghubungkan Los Angeles dengan seluruh county sekitarnya dan banyak pinggiran kota.

Di samping layanan kereta Metrolink dan Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Los Angeles dilayani oleh kereta penumpang antarkota Amtrak. Stasiun kereta utama di kota ini adalah Union Station yang terletak di sebelah utara Downtown.

Bandar udara

Bandar udara utama di Los Angeles adalah Bandar Udara Internasional Los Angeles (IATA: LAX, ICAO: KLAX). Bandar udara komersial tersibuk keenam di dunia dan ketiga di Amerika Serikat ini menangani lebih dari 61 juta penumpang dan 2 juta ton kargo pada tahun 2006. LAX adalah hub bagi United Airlines.

Bandar udara komersial besar di sekitarnya meliputi:

  • (IATA: ONT, ICAO: KONT) Bandar Udara Internasional LA/Ontario, dimiliki pemerintah kota Los Angeles; melayani Inland Empire.
  • (IATA: BUR, ICAO: KBUR) Bandar Udara Bob Hope, sebelumnya bernama Bandar Udara Burbank; melayani Lembah San Fernando dan San Gabriel
  • (IATA: LGB, ICAO: KLGB) Bandar Udara Long Beach, melayani Long Beach/Harbor
  • (IATA: SNA, ICAO: KSNA) Bandar Udara John Wayne di Orange County.

Sa;ah satu bandara penerbangan umum tersibuk di dunia juga terletak di Los Angeles, yaitu Bandar Udara Van Nuys (IATA: VNY, ICAO: KVNY).

Theme Building di LAX

Pelabuhan

Port of Los Angeles terletak di San Pedro Bay di permukiman San Pedro, sekitar 20 mile (32 km) di selatan Downtown. Juga disebut Los Angeles Harbor dan WORLDPORT LA, komplek pelabuhan ini menduduki wilayah daratan dan perairan seluas 7500 acre (30 km2) di tepian pesisir sepanjang 43 mile (69 km). Pelabuhan ini bergabung dengan Port of Long Beach.

Pemandangan Vincent Thomas Bridge yang berujung di Terminal Island

Port of Los Angeles dan Port of Long Beach bersama membentuk Los Angeles/Long Beach Harbor. Kedua pelabuhan tersebut membentuk pelabuhan kontainer tersibuk kelima di dunia, dengan volume perdagangan senilai lebih dari 14,22 juta TEU pada tahun 2008. Port of Los Angeles sendiri adalah pelabuhan kontainer tersibuk di Amerika Serikat dan puast kapal pesiar terbesar di Pesisir Barat Amerika Serikat – The Port of Los Angeles’ World Cruise Center melayani sekitar 800.000 penumpang pada tahun 2009.

Ada pula pelabuhan-pelabuhan non-industri yang lebih kecil di sepanjang pesisir Los Angeles. Penjaga pantai berpengalaman dari Los Angeles City hanya ada di pantai-pantai yang dimiliki pemerintah kota.

Pelabuhan ini memiliki empat jembatan, yaitu Vincent Thomas Bridge, Henry Ford Bridge, Gerald Desmond Bridge, dan Commodore Schuyler F. Heim Bridge.

Layanan feri penumpang dari San Pedro ke kota Avalon di Santa Catalina Island disediakan oleh Catalina Express.

Demografi

Los Angeles adalah rumah bagi orang-orang dari 140 negara yang mempertuturkan 224 bahasa yang berbeda. Enklave etnis seperti Chinatown, Historic Filipinotown, Koreatown, Little Armenia, Little Ethiopia, Tehrangeles, Little Tokyo, dan Thai Town memberi contoh karakter Los Angeles yang poliglot.

Pemandangan pusat kota Los Angeles dari udara.

Kota kembar

Los Angeles memiliki 25 kota kembar, diurutkan secara kronologis menurut tahun bergabung:

Mission San Fernando Rey de España, circa 1910
Papan dekat City Hall yang mengarah ke kota-kota kembar Los Angeles

GuangZhou

Welcome to GuangZhou “Flower City”


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Guangzhou is a famous culture city and a splendid tourism city with a history of more than 2,200 years and a homeland of overseas Chinese as well.

It enjoys the name of “Flower City” as the superb geographic and climatic conditions in the South contributed to the natural beauty here. As a city of heroes, Guangzhou has a reputation of great eminence in the modern history of China. The historical sites of Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall, Huanghuagang 72 Martyr Cemetery, Guangzhou Luxun Memorial Hall, Peasant Movement Institute, Sanyuanli Anti-British Invasion, and the Former Site of Huangpu Military Academy are the witnesses of the modern history of China, and, together with Baiyun Mountain, Yuexiu Park, Liuhuahu Park, Lu Lake and South-China, constitute colorful landscape groups.

Meanwhile, Guangzhou was the starting point of the “Maritime Silk Road” and is an important port city for the opening and reform of China, making great contribution to the economic and cultural exchange and friendly contacts between China and the rest of the world and demonstrating everlasting prosperity.

Guangzhou’s famous landmarks


Canton Tower

Canton Tower is located at an intersection of Guangzhou New City Central Axes and Pearl River, directly facing Haixinsha Island where the opening and closing ceremonies of the Sixteenth Asian Games were held and the 21st century new city CBD of Guangzhou-Zhujiang New Town.

With its unique shape and design, Canton Tower has become a magnificent landmark on the New City Central Axes, adding beauty and charm to the Pearl River. There is one smaller rotating ellipse at the top twisting up counterclockwise with the other larger rotating ellipse at the bottom, which creates a “slim waist” in the middle and makes it look like a lady looking behind.

Canton Tower is not only a comprehensive sightseeing building with rich cultural connotation but also a world-famous tourist spot integrated with the multi-functions of Sightseeing, F&B, Adventure, 4D Cinema, Wedding, MICE, Science and Technology, Education, and Shopping prosperity.

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Yuexiu Park (Five Rams Sculpture & the Zhenhai Tower)

Guangzhou’s Five Rams Sculpture is located atop Yuexiu Hill. It was built in 1960 from more than 130 pieces of granite and is one of the city’s emblems.

The sculpture represents the five rams who gave Guangzhou its nickname “City of Rams” and were formerly honored at its Temple of the Five Immortals. These immortals were said to have ridden rams into the city soon after its founding, teaching its residents how to grow rice and ending the specter of famine forever. Locals consider the rams symbols of good luck.

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Zhenhai Tower/Chen Hoi Lau

Also atop Yuexiu Hill is the Five-storied Pagoda now known as Chen Hoi Lau. The present structure is 28 meters (92 ft) high and 16 meters (52 ft) wide. It has housed the Guangzhou Museum since it was opened to the public in 1928.

A guard tower was first erected at the site in 1380, one of the first to be constructed in Lingnan. Chinese legend holds that Zhu Liangzu (朱亮祖), Marquis of Yongjia and a member of the Ming dynasty, saw yellow and purple air rising over Yuexiu and was told that it was the sign of a new emperor. He then erected the tower as part of the city walls to alter the mountain’s feng shui and prevent the prophecy from coming to pass. It has been destroyed and rebuilt five times, the various towers appearing in Chinese poetry and art.

Guangzhou_Museum

Yuexiu Stadium/Yut Sau Shan Stadium

Yuexiu Stadium was refreshed from the old Yut Sau Shan Park Playground at the foot of the hill in 1950 at the behest of Mayor Ye Jianying. It covers an area of 43,000 square meters (462,848 sq ft). It was one of the Asian Games venues in 2010.

The stadium is not only a sports activity site, but also a large-scale concert hall. Since its opening in October 1950, it has held 200 meetings and more than 280 performances. It can hold 35,000 people.

Pavilion of Regaining

The Pavilion of Regaining is a square pavilion erected in 1948 on the spot of an earlier 1928 memorial to the Xinhai Revolution against the Qing Empire. The first pavilion was destroyed amid fighting with the Japanese during World War II.

Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall

The Sun Yat-sen or Zhongshan Memorial Hall is an octagon-shaped building in Guangzhou, capital of China’s Guangdong Province. The hall was designed by Lu Yanzhi and was built with funds raised by local and overseas Chinese people in memory of Sun Yat-sen. Construction work commenced in 1929 and completed in 1931. The hall is a large octagonal structure with a span of 71 meters without pillars, housing a large stage and seats 3,240 people.

The memorial hall stands on the site of Guangzhou’s Presidential Palace during the Constitutional Protection Movement, when the Nationalists operated a rival “Chinese” government to the Zhili Clique’s Beijing regime.[citation needed] The palace was damaged during Ye Ju’s 16 June 1922 attack on Sun Yat-sen, during which—though he had already fled—his wife narrowly escaped shelling and rifle fire before meeting him on the gunboat Yongfeng, where they were joined by Chiang Kai-shek. The hall itself has been severely damaged and repaired several times until 1998, when it was comprehensively upgraded to its present-day condition. A statue of Sun Yat-sen was erected in front of the main entrance.

Sun_Yat-sen_Memorial_Hall

Guangzhou Museum (also known as the Zhenhai Tower)

Locating at the Yuexiu Park, Guangzhou, Zhenhai Tower is a comprehensive history museum with dense Canton characteristics. The tower is one of historic sites in Guangzhou as it is established in 1929. Now, it is used for collection and exhibition of historical data and cultural relics of the city. The museum consists of two parts: the Zhenhai Tower that houses the historical relics and the Art Gallery that exhibits many exquisite local art works.

The memorial hall stands on the site of Guangzhou’s Presidential Palace during the Constitutional Protection Movement, when the Nationalists operated a rival “Chinese” government to the Zhili Clique’s Beijing regime.[citation needed] The palace was damaged during Ye Ju’s 16 June 1922 attack on Sun Yat-sen, during which—though he had already fled—his wife narrowly escaped shelling and rifle fire before meeting him on the gunboat Yongfeng, where they were joined by Chiang Kai-shek. The hall itself has been severely damaged and repaired several times until 1998, when it was comprehensively upgraded to its present-day condition. A statue of Sun Yat-sen was erected in front of the main entrance.

Guangzhou_Museum_Tower

Ersha Island

Ersha Island is an island in the middle of the Pearl River. Encircled by the Pearl River, the island enjoys picturesque landscape different from the downtown. After the establishment of China, it has been the training base for provincial athletes and an ideal place for exquisite resident houses 80% of which are said to be owned by foreigners. Covered by modern apartments, and art places like Xinghai Concert Hall and Guangdong Museum of Art, the island is given a sense of art.

Ersha_island

Flower City Square

The square in the new central shaft line of Guangzhou has been officially named as “Huacheng Square”. It is regarded as “Guangzhou’s parlor” and is the largest square for civilian purpose in Guangzhou.

The Square is surrounded by 39 buildings, including the Guangzhou No.2 Children’s Palace, the Guangzhou Opera House, Guangzhou Library, Guangdong Museum and the West Tower (Guangzhou International Financial Center (GZIFC)), etc.

In the Square, there are a man-made lake & landscape district as well as large-scaled fountains, lamplight piazza, system for formation of cold fog and temperature drop, over 600 trees and 5 flower islands. Underneath Huacheng Square is a 150,000 square-meter high-end underground shopping mall, the “Mall of the World”.

Flower_City

Shameen Island

Shameen Island is a sandbank island in the Liwan District of Guangzhou city, Guangdong province, China. The island’s name literally means “sandy surface” in Chinese. The territory was divided into two concessions given to France and the United Kingdom by the Qing government in the 19th century. The island is a gazetted historical area that serves as a tranquil reminder of the colonial European period, with quiet pedestrian avenues flanked by trees and lined by historical buildings in various states of upkeep.

The island is the location of several hotels, a youth hostel, restaurants and tourist shops selling curios and souvenirs. Shameen Island was an important port for Guangzhou’s foreign trade from the Song to the Qing Dynasty. From the 18th to the mid 19th century, the foreigners lived and did business in a row of houses known as the Thirteen Factories, on the banks of the Pearl River to the east the present Shameen, which was then an anchorage for thousands of boat people. Shameen became a strategic point for city defense during the period of the First and Second Opium Wars. In 1859,the territory was divided in two concessions given to France and the United Kingdom (of which 3/5 belonged to the British and 2/5 to the French).

Shameen_island

It was connected to the mainland by two bridges, which were closed at 10pm as a security measure. The British arch bridge, also called the “Bridge of England” and built in 1861, to the north was guarded by Sikh police officers, and the French bridge to the east was guarded by Vietnamese (Cochinchina) recruits with the Troupes coloniales.Trading companies from Britain, the United States, France, Holland, Italy,Germany, Portugal, and Japan built stone mansions along the waterfront. The construction on the island was characterized by climate-adapted but Western-plan detached houses with hipped roofs and large verandahs.The island was the scene of fighting during the “June 23 incident” in 1925.After 1949, the mansions of Shameeni became government offices or apartment houses and the churches were turned into factories.

Shameen_island_2

Litchi Bay

Lychee Bay or Litchi Bay, a set of creeks and lakes that flow southwest to Pearl River, is a tourist attraction in Guangzhou (Canton), Guangdong. Liwan District, where Lychee Bay is located, was named after it. There are many historical relics and historical architectures in Lychee Bay, such as Wenta and Xiguan House. Various cultural activities are held on Lychee Bay, such as the competition of Cantonese opera.

Litchi_Bay

GuangZhou Maps


GuangZhou Map 1

GuangZhou Map 2

guangzhou-tourist

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Read also:

Moon Jae-in

Biography of Moon Jae-in President of South Korea since 2017


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Moon_Jae-in_(2017-10-01)_cropped225px-Flag_of_South_Korea.svg

Moon Jae-in (Hangul: 문재인; Hanja: 文在寅; Korean pronunciation: [mundʑɛin] or [mun] [t͡ɕɛin]; born 24 January 1953) is a South Korean politician serving as the 19th and current President of South Korea since 2017He was elected after the impeachment of Park Geun-hye as the candidate of the Democratic Party

A former student activist, human rights lawyer and chief of staff to then-President Roh Moo-hyun, Moon served as Leader of Democratic Party (2015–2016) and a member of the 19th National Assembly (2012–2016). He was also a candidate for the former Democratic United Party in the 2012 presidential election in which he lost narrowly to Park Geun-hye. As President, Moon Jae-in met with North Korean chairman Kim Jong-un in the April 2018 inter-Korean summit, May 2018 inter-Korean summit, and September 2018 inter-Korean summit.

Opera Snapshot_2018-09-20_165820_en.wikipedia.org

Opera Snapshot_2018-09-20_165917_en.wikipedia.org

Contents

  1. Early Life, Education and Military Service
  2. Early Career
    1. Human rights attorney
    2. Roh Moo-hyun administration
  3. Political Career before the presidency (2012–2017)
    1. Entrance to politics
    2. 2012 general election
    3. 2012 presidential campaign
    4. Leader of the Democratic Party
  4. 2017 Presidential Election
    1. Primary and general election
    2. Campaign positions on domestic policy
      1. Economic policy
      2. Transparency
      3. Social issues
    3. Campaign positions on foreign policy
  5. Presidency
    1. Domestic Policy
      1. Chaebol (Korean Inc.) reform
      2. Education
      3. Animal rights/adoption of “First Dog”
      4. Energy
    2. Foreign Policy
      1. International relations
      2. North Korea
  6. Electoral History
  7. Personal Life
    1. Family
    2. Pets
    3. Religion
  8. External Links

1| Early Life, Education and Military Service[edit]


Born in GeojeSouth Korea, during the last year of the Korean War, Moon Jae-in was the second child and oldest son among five children of father Moon Yong-hyung and mother Kang Han-ok. His parents were refugees from South Hamgyeong Province, North Korea, who fled their native city of Hungnam during the Hungnam evacuation during Korean War.

His family eventually settled in Busan. Since his father did not want to become a government employee, as he had been in North Korea, his father started a business selling socks, which left his family in great debt. His mother became the breadwinner by selling clothes received from relief organisations and delivering briquettes. Moon’s family became attached to the Catholic Church when his mother went to the local cathedral to receive whole milk powder. Moon once said in an interview that he didn’t know how to ride a bike since his family was too desperately poor to afford a bike or monthly school tuition.

Moon entered Kyungnam High School at the top of his class. He was accepted to study law at Kyung Hee University with a full scholarship. There he met his future wife, Kim Jung-sook. After he organized a student protest against the Yushin Constitution, he was arrested, convicted, imprisoned, and expelled from the university. Later, he was conscripted into the military and assigned to the South Korean special forces, where he participated in “Operation Paul Bunyan” during the Axe murder incident in Panmunjom. 

After his discharge, the death of his father influenced him to decide to take the Bar Exam. He went into Daeheungsa, the Buddhist temple, to study for the exam and passed the first of two rounds in 1979. In 1980 he returned to school to complete his remaining year of studies. Later that year, he passed the second round and was admitted to the Judicial Research and Training Institute. He graduated second in his class but was not admitted to become a judge or government prosecutor due to his history of activism against the Yushin dictatorship under Park Chung-hee’s rule as a student. Moon chose to go into private practice instead.

2| Early Career


2.1| Human Rights Attorney

After becoming a lawyer, he partnered and worked with future President Roh Moo-hyun in the 1980s. Along with Roh, he took cases involving human rights and civil rights issues defending labor rights activists and students persecuted for opposing Korea’s then military dictatorship. They remained friends up until Roh’s suicide in 2009.

He was a founding member of the progressive South Korean newspaper, The Hankyoreh, in 1988. 

2.2| Roh Moo-hyun Administration

Yielding to Roh’s insistence, Moon became Roh’s campaign manager during his presidential bid. After Roh’s victory, Moon became Roh’s chief presidential secretary and close aide holding various roles in a presidential administration. Moon held roles as Senior Presidential Secretary for Civil Affairs, Senior Presidential Secretary for Civil Society, Senior Presidential Secretary for Civil Affairs, and Chief Presidential Secretary (equivalent to Chief-of-Staff) from 2003-2008.

Moon was also the chairperson of the Promotion of the 2nd North-South Korea Summit.

3| Political Career before the presidency (2012–2017)


3.1| Entrance to Politics

Despite his earlier indifference, he began to get involved in politics. He published a memoir called Moon Jae-in: The Destiny which became a bestseller. His popularity had been rising steady against the likely opponent in the presidential race, Park Geun-hye. For instance, in a February 2012 poll, Moon rivaled Park in popularity.

Moon managed to capitalize on the conservatives’ decline in popularity amid a series of corruption scandals. As one pundit said, “Moon had managed to portray himself as a moderate and rational leader who has the backing of the younger generation”.

3.2| 2012 General Election

In 2012, Moon entered a bid for a seat in the National Assembly in the 19th legislative election. Moon won a seat in the Sasang District of Busan on 11 April 2012 as a member of the Democratic United Party with 55% of the vote.

3.3| 2012 Presidential Campaign

On September 16, 2012, Moon received the presidential nomination for the Democratic United Party.

He ran for the 2012 presidential election as the Democratic United Party’s candidate in a three-way race against Park Geun-hye, the incumbent ruling party’s candidate and daughter of the late president Park Chung-hee, as well as independent software mogul Ahn Cheol-soo. Ahn dropped out of the race and endorsed Moon after polls showed a most likely definitive loss for both candidates were there to be a three-way race against Park. Moon went on to lose the election.

3.4| Leader of the Democratic Party 

Moon was elected as the leader of New Politics Alliance for Democracy (NPAD) on February 2, 2015. Prior to his election, Moon and NPAD party leader and 2012 presidential candidate rival Ahn Cheol-soo had many public disputes over the direction of the party.

Moon’s official role led Ahn Cheol-soo to quit and form the centrist People’s Party. Ahn’s departure and Moon’s new tenure as party leader led to renaming the liberal, NPAD Party as the new Democratic Party.

During his leadership, Moon scouted several politically prominent people, including police studies/criminology expert Pyo Chang-won, political critic Lee Chul-hee, and former president Park’s secretary Cho Ung-chun to prepare for upcoming 2016 legislative elections. After his recruitment, Moon resigned his position for another scouted advisor/former Park advisor Kim Chong-in. 

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Moon Jae-in and Leader of the then-Saenuri Party Kim Moo-sung (centre) at the Buddha’s Birthday ceremony in May 2015

4| 2017 presidential election


4.1| Primary and general election

Moon was considered the frontrunner to win Korea’s 2017 presidential election, which would be the 19th term of the country’s presidency, following the Impeachment of Park Geun-hye.

He won the Democratic Party’s nomination against fellow party members Ahn Hee-jung, Lee Jae-myung, and Choi Sung with 57% of the votes.

The general election originally had 15 announced candidates. Moon faced four other major party nominees during the election, including 2012 presidential rival and past party colleague Ahn Cheol-soo of the People’s Party and Hong Jun-pyo of the Liberty Korea Party. He was elected the 19th President of South Korea in Korea’s 19th presidential election by a large plurality over two other major opponents, conservative Hong Joon-pyo and centrist Ahn Cheol-soo.

On May 10, 2017, Moon ended his campaign by winning 41.1% votes (with 13,423,800 votes) to win the plurality of votes. As Moon was elected in a special election, he did not have the 60 days of transitional period of previous administrations, but was instead inaugurated the day after the election.

4.2| Campaign positions on domestic policy

4.2.1| Economic Policy

Moon’s campaign promise in 2017 included intentions to put a 10 trillion won ($8.9 billion) fiscal stimulus to support job creation, start-ups, and small to mid-sized companies. His announced goal is to create 810,000 public sector jobs through raising taxes on the wealthy.

Moon’s policy against corporate corruption, specifically in regards to Korean conglomerates known as “chaebols ” is to give “minority shareholders more power in electing board members” of the companies.

4.2.2| Transparency

Moon also promised transparency in his presidency, moving the presidential residence from the palatial and isolated Blue House to an existing government complex in downtown Seoul. 

4.2.3| Social Issues 

In a televised presidential debate, Moon said he opposes homosexuality, in response to conservative candidate Hong Jun-pyo’s remarks that gay soldiers were a source of weakness in the South Korean military. Moon’s remark prompted immediate criticism during the debate from Sim Sang-jung, the sole presidential candidate to support LGBT rights and a member of the leftist Justice Party. The conservative remark also prompted outrage from gay rights activists, considering Moon’s representation as the leading liberal candidate and former human rights lawyer. Some of Moon’s supporters dismissed the comments as a necessity to win, as South Koreans tend to be conservative in social issues. Moon later clarified his comments suggesting that he still believes there should be no discrimination based on sexual orientation while opposing legalizing same-sex marriage.

4.3| Campaign positions on foreign policy

Moon has favored a peaceful reunification between the two Koreas. He was both widely criticized and widely praised for his comments stating that his first visit if elected president would be to visit North Korea, a visit that would be not unlike Roh Moo-hyun’s visit to the country in 2007. Similarly, Moon’s foreign policy towards North Korea is considered to closely align with the Sunshine Policy embraced by former liberal presidents Kim Dae-jung and Roh Moo-hyun. 

His 2017 presidential campaign has supported re-opening of the Kaesong industrial park. 

Moon’s relatively liberal stance in foreign policy is reflected as he is quoted in a book: “I’m pro-U.S., but now South Korea should adopt diplomacy in which it can discuss a U.S. request and say no to the Americans.”  He opposes a re-balance of the security alliance with the United States, but has also stated that he would like South Korea “to be able to take the lead on matters on the Korean Peninsula.” At the same time, Moon has stated that he considers America as a “friend” for its role in helping South Korea avoid communism while helping its economic growth.

Inauguration_of_Moon_Jae-in_06

Inauguration of Moon Jae-in, May 10, 2017.

5| Presidency


Moon was sworn into office immediately after official votes were counted on May 10, replacing Acting President and Prime Minister Hwang Kyo-ahn. There was no transition period between the election and inauguration, unlike other presidential elections due to the nature of an election following a presidential impeachment. He will serve out the typical single five-year term with his presidential term concluding in 2022.

5.1| Domestic policy

5.1.1| Chaebol (Korean Inc.) reform

South Korea’s economic growth has been attributed in large part to Chaebols, or family-owned conglomerates. Prominent examples of conglomerates include Samsung and Hyundai. Following various corruption scandals (Samsung’s vice-chairman Lee Jae-yongserving a suspended jail sentence), concentrated power (collusion), connections with the government including most recently the 2016 Choi Soon-sil scandal which ultimately led to the special election Moon won, one of Moon’s biggest areas of focus during the campaign was reforms at chaebols including greater transparency in the companies’ corporate governance structure. Moon appointed “chaebol sniper” Kim Sang-jo, a well-known shareholder activist, to the role of fair-trade commissioner aimed at reforming chaebols.

5.1.2| Education

Moon’s predecessor and daughter of Park Chung-hee, Park Geun-hye, originally planned to mandate usage of state-issued history textbooks in 2018. Moon reversed these plans in May 2017 in one of his first major acts as president. Critics of Park’s original plan saw this as a way for Park to mitigate some representations of her father’s oppressive policies under a dictatorial rule, only highlighting the positive accomplishments of the past. Park had stated she wanted to replace the “left-leaning” books with those created from the government that would instill greater patriotism. Although the Park government had responded to backlash by switching its official position on requiring the textbooks and allowing schools to choose the state-issued, Moon’s action scrapped the program altogether. Schools will continue to choose privately published, government-approved textbooks written under educational guidelines instead.

5.1.3| Animal rights/adoption of “First Dog”

Moon had promised during his campaign to adopt a dog from an animal sanctuary. This was considered relevant to South Korean politics as the country allows for consumption of dog meat. His administration adopted Tory, a four-year-old black mongrel who was saved from a dog meat farm, from an animal rights group. The move was considered to send “a strong message against the [dog meat] trade”.

5.1.4| Energy

Moon’s administration has focused on increasing South Korea’s consumption of natural gas, away from nuclear and coal as sources of energy. These plans include delaying construction on nuclear reactors as well as re-opening dialogue around a natural gas pipeline that would come from Russia and pass through North Korea. At the event on June 19, 2017 marking the end of operations at South Korea’s oldest nuclear reactor, Kori Unit 1, Moon outlined his plan for the future of energy in Korea, saying “we will abandon the development policy centred on nuclear power plants and exit the era of nuclear energy.” This would be implemented by canceling plans for new nuclear power plants and not renewing licenses for operating plants. In addition, he shut down eight coal-fired power plants upon assuming office in May 2017, and pledged to shut down the remaining ten coal plants by the end of his term. In the long term, he envisioned renewable sources would eventually be able to meet Korea’s demand, but in the interim, proposed liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a stopgap measure while coal and nuclear were taken offline in the coming decades.

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Moon Jae-in’s Presidential Job Approval rating

800px-President_Donald_J._Trump_welcomes_President_Moon_Jae-in_of_the_Republic_of_Korea_to_the_White_House_(34809235764)

U.S. President Donald Trump welcomes President Moon on June 30, 2017, in the White House Rose Garden

5.2| Foreign Policy

5.2.1| International Relations

Moon visited the United States to meet with U.S. President Donald Trump in June 2017, discussing U.S.-Korea trade relations as well as North Korea’s missile programs. Moon revealed in a joint news conference that President Trump accepted an invitation to visit South Korea. 

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Moon with U.S. President Donald Trump at the height of the North Korea crisis in November 2017

5.2.2| North Korea 

Outlining his North Korea strategy in a speech in Berlin, Germany, on July 6, 2017, Moon characterized the process leading to unification as a long-term project, rather than laying out any detailed plans for a unified Korea. He emphasized alliance with the United States and specified the need to assure dismantlement of North Korea’s nuclear weapons program. At the same time he presented the question of unification in a regional context and signaled his hopes of working in cooperation with the international community. He supported sanctions against North Korea, while leaving open the possibility of their being rescinded, and indicated that it is crucial to establish a peace treaty with North Korea to end the Korean War officially in exchange for denuclearization. 

800px-Samjiyon_02112018

Moon watches a performance of the Samjiyon Band with North Korea’s nominal head of state Kim Yong-nam, 11 February 2018

Moon opposed the full deployment of THAAD (Terminal High Altitude Area Defense) systems during his presidential campaign and called for more peace talks engaging with North Korea.

As of late July, following North Korea’s latest missile launch and increasingly aggressive actions, Moon asked the U.S. permission to build up its domestic defense systems and temporarily set up a full THAAD system. 

Moon met with Kim Jong-un, Chairman of the Workers’ Party of Korea, on 27 April 2018. 

800px-2018_inter-Korean_summit_01

North Korean Leader Kim Jong-un and Moon shake hands inside the Peace House.

Kim and Moon met again on 26 May. The second meeting was also at the DMZ, this time on the North Korean side of the Panmunjom village. The meeting took two hours. The meeting had not been publicly announced beforehand. The meeting was largely centered around the cancelled summit with Donald Trump.

In September 2018, Moon Jae-in visited Pyongyang in the September 2018 inter-Korean summit. He and 150 delegates– including prominent figures in business, culture, and religion– flew to the Sunan Airport in Pyeongyang and met with Kim Jong-un. The two Korean leaders announced an agreement to decrease hostilities on the DMZ, further joint-economic projects, and open North Korean weapons facilities to international experts. The leaders also gave a speech to 150,000 North Korean citizens in the Rungrado 1st of May Stadium with themes of unification, lasting peace, and friendship. Moon fulfilled his dream by trekking Mount Paektu.

2018_inter-Korean_summit_square

Kim and Moon shake hands in greeting at the demarcation line.

6| Electoral History


Opera Snapshot_2018-09-20_164639_en.wikipedia.org

7| Personal Life


7.1| Family

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Kim Jung-sook with Ivanka Trump at the 2018 Winter Olympics, 24 February 2018

Moon married Kim Jung-sook, a vocalist from the same university he attended. He and Kim both individually revealed in separate Korean talk shows that they both met each other when Moon was a student activist protesting the Yushin Constitution. 

7.2| Pets

Moon has three pets: two dogs (Korean: 마루, translit. Maru, a Pungsan dog, and Korean: 토리, translit. Tory, a mixed-breed) and one cat (Korean: 찡찡, translit. Jjing-jjing). Jjing-jjing is the country’s first-ever “first cat”, and Tory was adopted from a shelter, in contrast with other “first dogs”, which had traditionally been purebred Jindo dogs. Moon stated at Tory’s adoption that “we need to pay more attention to abandoned animals and care for them as a society” and that he wanted to remove the stigma against Tory’s dark coat, which contributed to him being virtually unadoptable for two years after he was rescued in 2015.

7.3| Religion

Moon is a practicing Roman Catholic, the third leader after the late former President Kim Dae-jung (Roh Moo-hyun was a lapsed Catholic). His baptismal (or Christian) name is “Timothy”.[citation needed]

8| External Links


Opera Snapshot_2018-09-20_170240_en.wikipedia.org

Opera Snapshot_2018-09-20_170122_en.wikipedia.org

The Largest Countries In The World

World Facts


The worlds largest nations, measured in square kilometers of land area.

transsiberianrailroad-ss

The Trans-Siberian railway, which passes through Russia, is the longest railway line in the world.

From Cape Horn all the way to the Arctic Circle, the world’s largest countries provide a beautiful snapshot of the variety of geography, climate and wildlife on the planet. Collectively, the world’s largest countries contain rainforest and tundra, mountains and valleys, coastline and desert.

As this we explore the largest nations, we visit five different continents, some of the world’s most spectacular geography, and every type of climate imaginable.

Excitingly, it’s always changing, too: history has taught that geopolitical boundaries shift dramatically as centuries pass. In the next decades, who’s to say which countries will become the world’s largest?

When 11.5 percent of all the land in the entire world is claimed by just one country, it’s not surprising to learn that the tenth largest country (Algeria) could fit into the largest (Russia) seven times over. When all 10 of the world’s largest countries are taken together, they total 49% of the earth’s entire 149 million square kilometres of land.

10 – Algeria

10 – Algeria

The Algerian Sahara, the largest expanse of Saharan desert.

Algeria, at 2.38 million square kilometers, is the tenth-largest country in the world by area and the only African country in the top 10.

Situated in Northern Africa, Algeria has a Mediterranean coastline 998 km long. 90 percent of the country is desert, and much of its desert regions are highly elevated. The Tell Atlas mountain range runs along the country’s northern border, while the interior, much of it hundreds of meters above sea level, contains the Algerian portion of the Sahara desert. The massive Algerian Sahara extends all the way to the south of the country past its borders with Niger and Mali.

9 – Kazakhstan

9 – Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan is the world’s largest landlocked country.

Kazakhstan’s 2.72 million square kilometers stretch over vast plains and highlands. A cool and dry, but not quite desert-like, climate prevails for most of the year. Kazakhstanis experience a great range of temperatures throughout the year, though it doesn’t get as cold in Kazakhstan as it does in parts of its northern neighbor, Russia.

Formerly part of the USSR, the largest nation in the world for most of the 20th century, Kazakhstan’s current main claim to fame is its status as the largest landlocked country in the world—and the only landlocked country in the top 10.

8 – Argentina

8 – Argentina

Mount Fitz Roy in Patagonia, Argentina.

Argentina, the world’s 32nd most populous country, is the world’s eighth largest, and the largest Spanish-speaking nation in the world by area. Its 2.78 million square kilometers include some of the most varied geography and climate in the world.

Swampy, tropical conditions in the very north give way to freezing glacial regions in the south. Patagonia, one of the most spectacular and dangerous places on the planet, stretches from the southern Andes in the west to the Atlantic Ocean in the east. The southern tip of Argentina, known as Cape Horn, is one of the stormiest locations on the globe.

7 – India

7 – India

India is the second largest nation in terms of population, and seventh largest in terms of area

India’s boundaries have changed quite a few times over the past century, and even still, India claims that the northern region of Kashmir (an area disputed with Pakistan) belongs under Indian control completely. As it stands, without Kashmir, India’s territory stretches for 3.29 million square kilometers.

China, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal each share a border with India, and its geography ranges from the majestic Himalayan Mountains to the tropical shores of the southern peninsula. Geologically, India is found on it’s own subcontinent, and geological studies show that this whole nation and it’s close neighbours were at one time separated from Asia by a sea.

6 – Australia

6 – Australia

The Twelve Apostles, Victoria State, Australia

The approximately 4.4 million square kilometer difference between Australia and India represents the second-largest size difference between countries ranked consecutively in the top 10. Australia, at around 7.69 million square kilometers, is over twice the size of India.

It’s the largest country in Oceania by far. Technically it is so large that it doesn’t even qualify as an island, it is a continental landmass.

The vast majority of its population live in coastal cities like Sydney in the east and Perth in the west, and with good reason: the Australian Outback is one of the world’s driest and hottest regions. Along with extreme climate and geography, Australia is known for its spectacular—and often deadly—wildlife.

5 – Brazil

5 – Brazil

Copacabana beach, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

The largest country in South America at over 8.51 million square kilometers, Brazil plays home to much of the world’s largest rainforest, the Amazon. The Amazon is so dense and vast that explorers and scientists have found human civilizations that had never made contact with the outside world.

Brazil also has a lengthy Atlantic coastline on the eastern side, which stretches approximately 8,000 km. Most of its major cities, including Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo exist near the coastline.

4 – People’s Republic of China

4 – People_s Republic of China

The Great Wall of China stretches along a long stretch of the northern border of China.

China, the United States of America, and Canada each occupy just under seven percent of the globe’s surface. Of these three, China is the smallest—just barely—at approximately 9.6 million square kilometers. It shares a border with 14 different countries, including Afghanistan to the east, Russia to the north, and Vietnam to the south.

Its climate and its people vary dramatically. In the north, temperatures drop to subarctic levels, the center of the nation holds the Gobi, the world’s 4th largest desert, and in the south temperatures reach tropical levels regularly. With over 1.35 billion citizens, China is home to 56 recognized ethnic groups, has the world’s 18th largest Muslim population, the 19th largest Christian population, and with 1.9 doctors per 1000 people, China has more doctors than the entire population of Qatar.

3 – United States of America

3 – United States of America

Long meandering rivers of North Dakota cut through plains and canyons.

The United States, just bigger than China but slightly smaller than Canada, occupies 9.63 million square kilometers. Bordered by Mexico to the south, and Canada to the north, the United States is home to a diverse array of geography and wildlife.

Two North-South features split the nation into three distinct pieces. West of the Rocky Mountains, the Pacific states are known for year round temperate weather and long expanses of beach along the California coast. Sandwiched between the Rockies and the Mississippi River, the great plains stretch from Canada to Mexico, giving the United States one of the world’s most fertile growing areas. Lastly, the third of the nation east of the Mississippi is the industrial and economic hub of America, with major cities spread all along the Eastern seaboard.

2 – Canada

2 – Canada

The vast wilderness of Canada is popular for outdoor activity.

Canada’s 9.984 million square kilometers make it the largest country in the western hemisphere, and its 202,080 kilometer coastline means that it has a longer shoreline than any other nation. With a population density of 4 people per square kilometer, this means that each of Canada’s 35 million people could have 61 acres for themselves.

Positioned between the Arctic and the United States, Canada’s massive frozen tundra extends into the Arctic Circle. Split similar to the USA; in the western half of the country, the Rocky Mountains run north to south, and prairies provide huge grain and canola growing areas. Eastern Canada is the traditional heart of the nation, with Toronto, Montreal, and the national capital of Ottawa, all located in the East.

1 – Russia

1 – Russia

The landscape of Siberia, Russia.

Russia’s 17.1 million square kilometres easily make it the world’s largest by area. In fact, if Russia were to lop off 7 million square kilometers, it would still be the largest—and the lopped-off section would rank seventh overall!

Like China, Russia borders 14 different countries. Unlike China, none of Russia is tropical, though humid summers prevail in much of southern Russia. The Taiga, the world’s largest terrestrial biome, extends all the way from Eastern Canada throughout the vast majority of northern Russia. Massive oil reserves exist underneath Russia’s frozen forests and tundra; however, due to the expense and difficulty of extracting it, much of Russia’s oil wealth remains untapped.

Opera Snapshot_2018-02-20_051153_www.worldatlas.com

Source: WorldAtlas