Category Archives: Mount Bromo, Jawa Timur

Legenda dan Ritual Suku Tengger Gunung Bromo

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Indonesia adalah Negara kepulauan yang kaya akan budaya dan keindahan panorama alamnya. Jajaran pulau, deretan pantai, rimbunya hutan dengan gunung – gunung yang menjulang tinggi menjadikan Indonesia sebagai Negara destinasi wisata pilihan di Asia Tenggara. Kali ini saya akan mengajak anda mengenal Suku Tengger dan keindahan alam Gunung Bromo yang terletak dikawasan Taman Nasional Bromo Tengger Semeru (TNBTS).

Suku Tengger adalah suku pegunungan yang berada dilereng Gunung Bromo dan Semeru Pegunungan ini berada diwilayah Kabupaten Pasuruan, Probolinggo, Malang dan Lumajang Jawa Timur. Keberadaan suku Tengger sering dikaitkan dengan Kerajaan Majapahit yang pernah berkuasa pada priode tahun 1293 Masehi hingga abad ke 6.

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Legenda Suku Tengger. Tengger berasal dari nama dua orang suami istri yang menetap disuatu tempat antara gunung Bromo dan Semeru. Rara Anteng adalah anak seorang bangsawan yang cantik, (Nyai Dadap Putih) dan Joko Seger adalah anak yang dilahirkan oleh ayah Pendeta. Wajahya ganteng dan badanya sehat (seger). Keduanya kemudian menikah dan membuka kampung baru. Kampung itu diberi nama “Tengger” yang di ambil dari awalan Rara Anteng untuk awalan “Teng”, dan “Ger” dari Joko Seger.

Masa perkawinanya beranjak dewasa tetapi keduanya belum dikaruniai anak, dengan berharap mereka akhirnya bersemedi dan memohon kepada Dewa agar dikaruniai keturunan, setelah bersemedi mereka mendapatkan wangsit dari Dewata, mereka akan dikarunia anak tetapi dengan satu syarat. kelak jika anak bungsu sudah dewasa, Joko Seger dan Rara Anteng harus merelakan anak bungsunya untuk dikorbankan kepada Bharata Dharma dikawah Gunung Bromo.

Singkat cerita akhirnya pasangan Joko Seger dan Rara Anteng dikaruniai anak yang banyak, yang berjumlah 25. Dari ke 25 anak itu, anak bungsu yang bernama Dewa Kusuma dikorbankan kepada Bharata Dharma dikawah Gunung Bromo sebagai tanda pengabdian dan untuk memenuhi janjinya. Sebelum dikorbankan Dewa Kusuma berpesan agar setiap tahun pada tanggal dan bulan dirinya dikorbankan, saudara dan anak cucu mereka diharapkan mengirimkan korban dan sesaji. Pesan itu dilaksanakan turun menurun hingga hari ini, ini lah asal muasal peringatan hari Kasodo yang kita kenal.

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Masyarakat Tengger beranggapan 25 anak Rara Anteng dan Joko Seger itu merupakan nenek moyang mereka, nama 25 orang itu masih hidup dalam pikiran dan hati masyarakat Tengger dan dikaitkan dengan tempat – tempat keramat dimana mereka menyampaikan sesaji dan penyembahan kepada roh-roh yang diyakini bisa memberikan keselamatan hidup. Nama ke25 tempat keramat itu adalah :

  1. Tumenggung Kliwang. Dihubungkan dengan (Gunung Renggit)
  2. Sinta Wiji, dihubungkan dengan (Gunung Mindangan)
  3. Ki Rawit Klinting. Dihubungkan dengan (Lemah Kuning)
  4. Ki Rawit dihubungkan dengan (Sumber Air Semantik)
  5. Jiting Jenah dihubungkan dengan (Gunung Jinahan)
  6. Penganten Ical dihubungkan dengan (Gunung Pranten)
  7. Prabu Sewah dihubungkan dengan (Gunung Lingga)
  8. Cokro Pranoto dihubungkan dengan (Gunung Gandera)
  9. Tumenggung Klinter dihubungkan dengan (Gunung Pananjakan)
  10. Tunggul Wulung dihubungkan dengan (Cemoro Lawang)
  11. Raden Bagus Waris dihubungkan dengan (Gunung Batu Walang)
  12. Kaki Dukun dihubungkan dengan (Gunung. Watu Wangkuk)
  13. Ki Pranoto dihubugkang dengan (Gunun Poten)
  14. Kaki Perniti dihubungkan dengan (Gunung Bajangan)
  15. Tunggul Ametung dihubungkan dengan (Gunung Batok)
  16. Raden Masigit dihubungkan dengan (Gunung Masigit)
  17. Puspo Ki gentong dihubungkan dengan (Gunung Widodaren)
  18. Kaki Teku / Ni Teku dihubungkan sama dengan Ki Pranoto (Gunung Poten)
  19. Ki Dadung Awuk dihubungkan dengan (Gunung Wonongkaro)
  20. Ki Kedamiling dihubungkan dengan (Gunung Pusung Lingkir)
  21. Ki Sindri Jaya dihubungkan dengan ( Gunung Kedung Babat)
  22. Raden Sapu Jagat dihubungkang dengan (Gunung Pudak Lembu)
  23. Ki Jenggot dihubungkan dengan (Gunung Rujak)
  24. Demang Diningrat dihubungkan dengan (Gunung Semeru)
  25. Dewa Kusuma dihubungkan dengan (Gunung Bromo)

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Jika merujuk tulisan H.E. Josper dalam buku Tengger on Tenggereezen 1927 ada perbedaan panggilan. (ki = adalah sunan). missal ki dadung awuk = sunan dadung awuk

Sementara itu ada pendapat yang berbeda tentang asal muasal nama Tengger. Nama Tengger ini berasal dari suami istri yang menetap di lereng Gunung Bromo bernama “Kaki Umah” dan “Nini Umah” Keduanya adalah keturunan dari kerajaan Majapahit. Pendapat ini didasari penemuan batu petilasan disalah satu desa yang merupakan tenger (tanda) dari kata tenger inilah penduduk atau masyarakt itu dinamakan Tengger.

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Jika anda browsing di internet akan ada banyak tulisan yang mengaikatnya (asal muasal suku Tengger) dengan Kerajaan besar Majapahit. Dalam tulisan itu ada yang menyebutkan jika Rara Anteng yang menjadi legenda suku Tengger adalah putri dari Raja Brawijaya, Raja Majapahit dan ada juga yang menyebutkan jika Suku Tengger adalah suku yang dibagun oleh prajurit-prajurit kerajaan Majapahit yang saat itu terdesak oleh Kerajaan Islam Demak yang kemudian mendirikan perkampungan baru dilereng Gunung Bromo dan Semeru.

Dari legenda yang sudah ada, saya mencoba menghimpun sebuah kesimpulan baru bahwa, suku Tengger adalah bagian dari suku Jawa Kuno yang menempati wilayah pegunungan Tengger yang sudah ada sejak abad ke 7 Masehi pada periode kerajaan Kanuruhan (Kanjurahan) yang dipimpin oleh Raja Gajayana (Malang) yang kemudian terus berkembang dipriode kerajaan berikutnya (Kerajaan Kediri) dan mencapai perkembanganya di era Kerajaan Majapahit. Kesimpulan saya ini hanya pandangan pribadi. Oleh sebab itu masih dibutuhkan study literature yang lebih luas dan mendalam.

Masyarakat Jawa pada jaman kerajaan Hindu-Budha sangat percaya akan kekuatan yang bersifat adikodrati. Mereka mempercayai kekuatan seorang raja yang dapat memberikan berkah dan keselamatan. Semakin sakti seorang raja (pemimpin) semakin luas daerah kekuasaanya, semakin aman wilayahnya, semakin subur lahan pertanianya dan semakin jauh dari musibah dan bencana. Karna itulah pada umumnya masyarakat Jawa bermukim tersentral dan tidak jauh dari pusat Kerajaan (Keraton) dengan harapan bisa mendapatkan efek kekuatan sang raja berupa berkah dan keselamatan. Keyakinan terhadap raja seperti ini masih bisa dilihat di Keraton Yogyakarta. Kerajaan Kanjuruhan adalah kerajaan pertama di-Wilayah Malang sebelum kerajaan Singosari. Kerajaan ini tidak jauh dengan Pegunungan Tengger (suku tengger). Kondisi ini membuka kemungkinan tentang hubungan kepercayaan (berkah dann keselamatan) pemukiman suku Tengger dengan kerajaan yang berkuasa saat itu, Kanjuruhan.

Pada kisaran abad ke 7 hanya orang-orang suci, (pandita) yang tinggal dikawasan lereng gunung Tengger. Pandita ini menghabiskan waktu untuk bersemedi di Gunung Bromo atau Gunung Brahma dalam kosmologi Hindu-Budha. Kemudian petapa ini melahirkan seorang anak tampan yang diberi nama Joko Seger (lihat halaman 1). Riwayat suku Tengger (Joko seger dan Rara Anteng) ini selalu dibacakan saat prosesi Upacara Adat Kasodo hingga saat ini.

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Suku Tengger terus berkembang di masa Kerajaan Kediri yang berkuasa sejak abad ke 10 hingga tahun 1222 Masehi. Banyak orang suci yang berdatangan untuk bersemedi dan beribadah dipegunungan Tengger dan kemudian menetap disana. Penemuan Arkeologi berupa prasasti Tengger yang berangka tahun 851 Saka (929 Masehi) bisa menjadi bukti keberadaan kehidupan orang suci (pandita) dipegunungan Tengger (sebelum Majapahit) sekaligus menjadi bukti kemajuan peradaban dan budaya Tengger dalam hal ukiran (pahatan) batu dan tulisan (prasasti).

Isi prasasti Tengger menyebutkan bahwa sebuah Desa bernama Walandit, terletak di pegunungan Tengger, adalah tempat suci karena dihuni oleh hulun. Isi prasasti diatas diperkuat oleh prasasti berikutya yang ditemukan didaerah Penanjakan (desa Wonokitri) berangkakan tahun 1327 Saka (1405 Masehi. Era Majapahit). Prasasti ini menyatakan bahwa desa Walandit dihuni oleh hulun Hyang (abdi Tuhan) dan tanah di sekitarnya itu disebut hila-hila (suci). (Hefner, Robert. 1985. Masyarakat Tengger Dalam Sejarah Nasional Indonesia. Boston: University Boston).

Pada masa runtuhnya Kerajaan Majapahit yang kemudian digantikan oleh Kerajaan Islam pertama (Demak) tahun 1527 Masehi. Banyak simpatisan Majapahit yang berkumpul didaerah-daerah menghimpun kekuatan dan melakukan perlawanan. Pada tahun 1545 terjadi pertempuran sengit didaerah Malang antara simpatisan Majapahit dengan Pasukan Islam (Demak). (Pigeaud, 1985, Kerajan-kerajaan Islam di Jawa, Grafitipers) Sejarah ini membuka kemungkinan jika simpatisan Majapahit itu keteteran saat melawan pasukan kerajaan Islam Demak dan akhirya berbondong-bondong berlindung dipegunungan Tengger karna letak Malang dengan Pegunungan Tengger tidak terlalu jauh. Mereka kemudian hidup dan menetap disana. Sebagian simpatisan Majapahit lainya berpindah tempat ke Blambangan (Banyuwangi) yang merupakan Kerajaan Hindu terakhir di pulau Jawa sebelum ditaklukan oleh kerajaan Mataram Islam dan sebagian lainya menyebrang ke pulau Bali.

Suku Tengger dengan Majapahit memiliki hubungan yang erat, jauh sebelum terjadinya perpindahan besar-besaran simpatisan Majapahit ke pegunungan Tengger pada kisaran tahun 1527 – 1550 Masehi. Ini bisa dibuktikan dari peninggalan Kerajaan Majapahit berupa “prasen” tempat air suci yang terbuat dari kuningan bergambar patung dari Dewa dan zodiak agama Hindu. Sebagian besar “prasen” yang digunakan di Tengger berangka tahun Saka antara 1243 dan 1352 (Masa Majapahit). Peninggalan tempat air dari kuningan berukiran ini membuktikan dua hal. Pertama hubungan suku Tengger dengan Majapahit, kedua puncak kemajuan kebudayaan suku Tengger dari segi peninggalan.

Prasen ini masih digunakan hingga saat ini oleh para pandita (dukun) Suku Tengger. Kedekatan Suku Tengger dengan Majapahit diperkuat naskah yang berasal dari Keraton Yogyakarta yang berangka tahun 1814 M (Nancy), konon daerah Tengger termasuk wilayah yang dihadiahkan kepada Gajah Mada karena jasa-jasanya kepada keraton Majapahit.

Semakin banyak cerita tentang legenda Suku Tengger semakin memberikan banyak pegetahuan kepada kita. Dari beberapa legenda suku Tengger yang ada, anda bebas memilih cerita legenda mana yang ingin anda percayai. Legenda tetaplah legenda, akan selalu menjadi bingkai cerita suatu tempat, daerah atau suku secara turun menurun yang memberikan warna budaya di Indonesia.

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Kehidupan masyarakat Tengger dikenal masyarakat yang teratur, dan serasi . jarang terjadi perselisihan, permusuhan antar sesama. ini dikarenakan masyarakat Tengger memiliki tujuh pedoman kehidupan yang dipegang teguh. Tujuh pedoman ini biasanya di bacakan pada hari raya Kasodo. Ketujuh pedoman itu antara lain :

  1. Hong pukulan maniro sak sampune dumerek ing sasi kasodo maningo ing tamah (Yang Maha Kuasa pelindung seluruh mahluk mengetahui amal perbuatan manusia, memberikan berkahnya pada bulan kasodo)
  2. Milango ing sarining potro kanggo milar panjenengan ing manah (hendaknya mansuia berbuat amal kebajikan, merubah perbuatan buruk menjadi baik, memperhatikan gerak hati yang bersih)
  3. Kang adoh pinerekaken , kang parek tinariko nang aron-aron (orang yang jauh dari kebaikan supaya diingatkan untuk berbuat baik dan diajak mendekatkan kepada Tuhan)
  4. Angrasuko ajang kang pinuju ing sang hyang sukmo (kerjakanlah perbuatan yang baik supaya selamat jiwa dan raga dan mendapatkan ridho Tuhan)
    Jiwo raga sinusupan babahan werno songo (hendaklah jiwa raga terjaga segala sesuatu yg memasuki lobang 9 pada manusia).
  5. Ngelingono jiwo premono hanimboho banyu karabayuan (hendaklah manusia mempunyai hati yang bersih dan berbuat kasih sayang terhadap semua mahluk)
  6. Deniru neediyo nyondro nitis spisan kerto rahayu palinggihane titi yang lurah, lurah kyabi dukun sagunge anak putu andoyo puluh. (bila petunjuk2 tesebut dilaksanakan dengan sabaik-baiknya dengan jiwa mantap oleh seluruh lapisan masyarakat, maka manusia setelah mati akan mendapatkan ketentraman dan kebahagian jiwa yang disebut sebagai mati sempurna)

Selain ketujuh pedoman hidup, suku Tengger mempunyai tujuh tuntunan kasih sayang atau yang dikenal dengan “Tuntunan Welas Asih Pepitu”. Isi ketujuh tuntunan kasih sayang itu adalah :

  1. Tansah welas asih dumanteng jiwo raga pribadi . (setiap orang selalu ingat menjaga dirinya memilhara panca inderanya dari perbuatan yang tercela)
  2. Tansah welas asih dating hyang maha agung. (supaya setiap orang selalu berbakti dan mengagunkan Tuhan Yang Maha Kuasa)
  3. Tansah welas asih dumateng ibu pertiwi. (setiap orang harus menjaga dan berbakti kepada bumi tumpah darahnya)
  4. Tansah welas asih dumateng bapo biyung (setiap orang harus berbakti kepada orang tuanya)
  5. Tansah welas asih dating sesamining janmo manuso ing saklumahing bumi sak kurebing langit. (supaya setiap orang harus slalu kasih sayang terhadap sesama manusia dipermukaan bumi ini)
    Tansah welas asih dumateng seto kewan (setiap orang harus slalu sayang terhadap mahluk bintang)
  6. Tansah welas asih dating tuwuh tandur powijo karang kirno kanan kiri, (setiap orang harus selalu memelihara dengan baik semua tanaman, pohon-pohonan dan sebagainya)

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Nilai – nilai positif pedoman suku Tengger ini bisa kita adopsi kedalam kehidupan kita sehari – hari agar tercipta hubungan kehidupan social yang harmonis antar sesama.

Pandita atau Dukun Tengger memiliki peran yang penting bagi masyarakat Tengger karena seluruh upacara keagaamaan adat dan pencarian waktu baik atau hari baik tidak dapat dilepaskan oleh peranan dukun. Siapun bisa menjadi dukun asal orang tersebut lulus ujian menjadi dukun yang diadakan tiap tahun saat perayaan Kasodo.

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Untuk melakukan tugasnya sebagai dukun, dukun dibantu oleh pembantunya yang terdiri dari:”wong sepuh”, jabatan wong sepuh ditetapkan oleh petinggi berdasarkan kecakapanya dalam melaksanakan tugas,. Wong sepuh inilah yang membantu menyediakan persyaratan sajian dan menjadi saksi.

“Dandan”. yakni seorang wanita pembantu dukun yang bertugas memeriksa syarat sesaji dan selamatan yang akan dilaksanakan “Legen” adalah. Pembantu dukun yang merupakan pesuruh untuk mempersiapkan alat-alat upacara dan pembakaran dupa.

Dalam masyarakat Tengger terdapat beberapa upacara adat yang dilakukan secara besar, rutin dan bersama-sama, misalnya upacara tahunan Kasodo dan Karo Selain itu ada juga upacara adat yang bersifat individu. Missalnya, Upacara tujuh bulanan (sayut), Upacara indung anak, Upacara Tugel Gombak (laki-laki) dan Tugel Kuncung (perempuan), Upacara Wala gara atau Temu Manten dll. Acara adat besar yang akan saya tulis adalah upacara Karo dan Kasodo.

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Upacara Karo adalah hari raya adat suku Tengger yang dirayakan bersama-sama secara besara-besaran pada pertengahan bulan karo setiap tahun. Upacara ini dilaksanakan selama tujuh hari, selama itu mereka saling kunjung mengunjungi untuk memperat tali silaturahim (persaudaraan) yang istilahya disebut sambung batin.

Asal muasal diadakanya perayaan Karo menurut cerita masyarakat Tengger adalah untuk memperingati meningalnya dua orang abdi yang setia dalam melaksanakan tugasnya. Yaitu seorang bernama “Setio” abdi dari Aji Saka dan seorang lagi bernama “Satuhu” abdi dari Kanjeng Nabi Muhamad. Siapa Aji Saka? bisa baca tulisan dalam bentuk legenda (C.C.Berg, penulisan sejarah jawa, bahtwera, Jakarta 1972).

Pada suatu hari Aji Saka berkungjung ke rumah Nabi Muhammad, teteapi pada saat ingin pulang keris pusaka yang dibawanya tertinggal. Oleh karena itu diperintahkanlah orang kepercayaanya yaitu Setio untuk mengambilnya dikediaman Nabi Muhammad.

Sebaliknya ketika Nabi Muhammad mengetahui keris pusaka milik Aji Saka tertinggal Beliau langsung mengutus seorang kepercayaanya Satuhu untuk mengembalikan keris puusaka itu kepada Aji Saka sendiri. Dan berpesan jangan memberikan keris itu kepada siapapun kecuali kepada pemiliknya Aji Saka.

Ditengah jalan kedua orang kepercayaan itu bertemu. Setelah saling tegur sapa keduanya menyampaikan maksut dari keperginaya. Setio menceritakan jika diutus oleh Aji Saka untuk mengambil keris pusaka yang tertinggal, begitu juga sebaliknya Satahu menyampaikan alasan kepergianya untuk menyerahkan keris pusaka Aji Saka yang tertinggal langsung kepada Aji Saka.

Akhirnya terjadi perselisihan antara Setio dan Satahu. Setio yang melihat keris pusaka kepunyaan Aji Saka berusaha merebut keris itu untuk dibawa pulang sesuai perintah Aji Saka. Dan sebaliknya, Satahu bersi keras untuk mempertahankan, memegang amanat dari Nabi Muhammad, bahwa keris pusaka itu harus diantar langsung kepada pemiliknya Aji Saka.

Keduanya terlibat perkelahian dan saling menunjukan kesaktianya. Tetapi diantara keduanya tidak ada yang kalah dan tidak ada yang menang. Keris pusaka yang diperebutkan itu dipakainya untuk saling menusuk, dan kedua utusanya itu pun akhirnya meninggal. Sang Aji Saka dan Nabi Muhammad lama menunggu kedatangan dua utusanya. Karena tidak kunjung datang masing-masing mencarinya.

Ditengah perjalanan masing-masing menemukan kedua orang utusanya tergeletak meninggal, mayat Setio tergeletak membuju kearah selatan dan mayat Satuhu membujur kea rah utara. Karena itu jika orang Tengger meninggal mayatnya dikubur membujur kearah utara. Meningalnya kedua orang utusan itu diadakan upacara salamatan dari asal mula selamatan inilah adanya upacara Karo.

Pelaksaana Karo diadakan dirumah petinggi bersama-sama dan rumah warga desa. Perayaan dirumah petinggi diadakan terlebih dahulu dan baiaya dipukul bersama seluruh warga desa. Untuk merakamaikanya seringkali diadakan hiburan , pertunjukan seperti ludruk.

Tujuan upacara Karo ialah memohon selamat untuk penghormatan kepada bapak dan ibu. Karena dengan perantara keduanyalah Tuhan telah menyebarkan bibit manusia, acara ini dipimpin oleh dukun.

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Hari Raya Kasodo adalah hari raya yang diadakan oleh masyarakat Tengger setiap tahun pada bulan (saddo) sepuluh pada pertengahan bulan. Upacara Kasodo ini sangat dinanti oleh masyarakat Tengger. Mereka percaya jika meraka tidak turut merayakan kehidupanya tidak akan tentram. Sebailknya jika mengikuti upacara Kasodo dan merayakanya kehidupan meraka akan selamat dan dimurahkan rejekinya dan diberi kesehatan. Karma itu jauh sebelum perayaan Kasodo masyarakat tengger telah mempersiapkan segala sesuatu yang diperlukanya.

Pusat kegiatan berada di lautan pasir gunung Bromo, di Pura Poten. Dan Desa Ngadisari sebagai pusat keramaian sebelum acara di lautan pasir. Dukun desa Ngadisari menjadi pimpinan upacara sekaligus menjadi kepala dukun diseluruh masyarakat Tengger.

Upacara ini diadakan malam hari. Sore hari sebelumnya acara diadakan dibalai desa Ngadisari (resepsi) didesa ini diadakan hibura sebagai prosesi upacara, sebelum melakukan upacara puncak di pura lautan pasir Gunung Bromo, Ratusan orang datang untuk upacara dan berwisata (Wisata Budaya).

Umumnyua sebelum puncak acara Kasodo masyarakat terlebih dahulu mengadakan sesajian ditempat yang bernama watu baling, watu mungkuk dan watu dukun. Diwatu baling orang mengambil batu sebesar gengaman dan berkeliling sebanyak tiga kali. Arah putaranya searah jarum jam. Setelah berputar tiga kali kemudia naik keatas batu dengan menyampaikan niat yang diinginkanya sambil melempar batu ke lautan pasir.

Di watu wungkuk prosesinya berbeda yaitu dengan cara membakar kemenyan dibawah batu itu, sambil mengutarakan niat dan memberikan sesaji berupa bunga-bunga, buah-buahan dll. Jika niatnya terkabul pemohon wajib menyanpaikan korbanya ke kawah Gunung Bromo.

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Prosesi kegiatan di Pura Poten pertama kali adalah pembukaan atau ujub yaitu mengayubagyo (memulyakan) paara hadirin. Kemudian para dukun membacakan mantra untuk keselamatan desa. Selanjutya mumunen ujian bagi calon dukun untuk membacakan mantra Kasodo. Yang dapat menghafal mantra-mantra dan setelah mendapat persetujuan para dukun mulai dari brang wetan dan brang kulon. Maka calon dukun itu dinyatakan lulus menjadi dukun. Berikutnya wewerah yakni memberikan penerangan kepada hadirin yang disampaikan dukun tentang riwayat Tengger dan hari raya Kasodo. Tingkah laku yang baik dan petunju tentang kehidupan. Setelah itu menuju ke kawah Gunung Bromo untuk menyampaikan korban (sesaji). Setelah itu selamatan pagi.

Indonesia kaya akan budaya. Dengan mempelajari suku dan budaya suku Tengger atau suku lain akan memberikan banyak nilai positif terhadap diri. Selain kearifan lokal, pengetahuan dan wasasan kita pun semakin luas. kebanyakan orang yang berkunjung ke gunung Bromo (TNBTS) hanya menikmati keindahan panorama alamnya saja, sejarah dan budaya suku daerah lokasi wisata menjadi tidak penting. Padahal tempat wisata alam tidak dapat dipisahkan dari legenda, mitologi dan budaya daerah lokasi wisata tersebut berada. Mari ber-Wisata sehat, berwisata yang tidak hanya menikmati keindahan alamnya saja tetapi juga mempelajari kearifan lokalnya dan menjaga kelestarianya.

Source: JusteNote

6 Gunung di Indonesia Dengan Pemandangan yang Indah

Puncak gunung adalah salah satu tempat untuk melihat pemandangan yang indah. Beruntung kita tinggal di Indonesia yang punya banyak sekali gunung-gunung cantik. Dari atas ketinggian kalian dapat menyaksikan pemandangan alam sekitar beserta perkampungan penduduk yang berjejer seperti semut. Dari puncak gunung pula, kamu dapat merasakan sensasi berada di atas awan karena terkadang kawasan lembah tertutup kabut putih yang membuatmu berada lebih tinggi ketimbang awan.

Berada di puncak gunung membuat traveler merasa bebas dan lepas. Segala masalah seakan terlupakan begitu saja digantikan dengan perasaan senang dengan keagungan Tuhan yang terefleksi dari pemandangan alam yang tertangkap dari puncak gunung tersebut. Dari sekian banyak gunung yang ada di Indonesia, setidaknya ada 6 gunung yang punya pemandangan superb dan layak kamu daki paling tidak seumur hidup sekali.

1. GUNUNG PRAU, WONOSOBO, JAWA TENGAH

gunung-prau

Gunung Prau dapat menjadi pilihan utama buat kamu yang ingin mendaki gunung namun ogah trekking lama-lama dan capek-capekan. Letaknya ada di kawasan Dataran Tinggi Dieng, antara Kabupaten Kendal dan Wonosobo, Jawa Tengah. Sepintas tidak ada yang istimewa saat melewati rute pendakian, namun saat sampai di puncaknya traveler tidak akan berhenti mengagumi apa yang mereka lihat.

Gunung Prau memiliki tinggi 2.565 mdpl yang artinya untuk sampai di puncaknya hanya butuh trekking selama 2-3 jam saja. Tidak perlu cuti lama-lama atau menunggu libur panjang untuk mendaki gunung ini, karena jika mau kamu pun bisa naik dan turun di gunung ini dalam sehari saja. Jalur pendakiannya juga ramah buat traveler pemula, sebab jarang sekali ditemui jalan yang terjal dan curam.

Kawasan puncak Gunung Prau akan menjadi seperti kawasan perkotaan pada akhir pekan atau libur panjang. Puluhan hingga ratusan tenda dibangun oleh traveler yang berebut mendapatkan golden sunrise, istilah matahari terbit yang sempurna dengan warna jingga keemasan. Inilah fenomena alam yang paling banyak digandrungi traveler yang pergi ke Gunung Prau.

2. GUNUNG RINJANI, LOMBOK

gunung-rinjani

Banyak yang bilang jika Gunung Rinjani memiliki pemandangan paling top di Indonesia. Kamu tentu tidak akan percaya begitu saja sebelum datang langsung dan melihatnya sendiri. Cara lainnya adalah dengan ngepoin instagram para pendaki atau traveler yang sudah pernah ke sana, dari situ keindahan gunung serta alam sekitarnya sudah tergambarkan dengan jelas.

Namun tidak puas rasanya jika tidak menginjakkan kaki sendiri di Gunung Rinjani. Kalau mau ke puncaknya ada dua jalur yang bisa dipilih yaitu Sembalun dan Senaru, kedua jalur ini punya satu kesamaan yakni sama-sama menyuguhkan pemandangan yang superb. Pendakian ke gunung Rinjani tidaklah terlalu susah, dengan ketinggian maksimal 3.726 mdpl rute yang dilalui cukup landai apalagi starting point trekking sudah berada di separo lebih dari ketinggian maksimal.

Banyak sekali keistimewaan di gunung ini yang akan membuat traveler tercengang. Sebut saja pemandangan indah dari alam sekitar, serta adanya Danau Segara Anak yang begitu legendaris. Bukan suatu yang mengada-ada jika banyak sekali pendaki yang ketagihan untuk datang lagi ke Rinjani. Kamu kapan?

3. GUNUNG SEMERU, JAWA TIMUR

gunung-semeru

Sebagai pendaki tentu kamu tidak akan melewatkan pendakian ke “atapnya” Pulau Jawa yaitu Gunung Semeru. Sebagai gunung tertinggi di pulau Jawa, gunung Semeru juga menjadi buruan pendaki tak hanya dari dalam negeri namun juga luar negeri. Banyaknya pendaki yang pergi ke sana selain disebabkan karena trekknya yang menantang namun juga pemandangan alam yang luar biasa indah yang disuguhkan.

Di Camping Ground yang terletak di kawasan Danau Ranu Kumbolo pada ketinggian 2.400 mdpl, pendaki sudah disuguhi bentang alam berupa danau dengan pagar pegunungan hijau yang memukau. Sebelum sampai ke puncaknya, lagi sebuah pemandangan cantik berupa padang lavender di Oro-oro Ombo akan memanjakan mata. Terakhir, negeri atas awan alias puncak Mahameru yang gahar menjadi suguhan akhir pendaki yang berhasil melewati halang-rintang pada rute yang dilaluinya. Rasa bangga dan bahagia akan bercampur aduk jika kamu berhasil menggapai ketinggian 3.676 mdpl yang berarti kamu berada di puncak tertinggi Pulau Jawa.

4. GUNUNG BATUR, BALI

gunung-batur

Jika berlibur ke Bali, sesekali cobalah untuk menjauh dari pantai dan temukan surga lainnya di gunung. Kamu bisa memilih gunung Batur sebagai destinasi, gunung ini bisa kamu nikmati dengan cara mendaki atau hanya memandangi dari sisi danau di bawahnya. Tempat ini juga menyajikan matahari terbit yang tidak kalah cantik dari sunrise milik pantai Sanur dan sunset secantik pantai Kuta.

Gunung Batur memiliki tinggi 1.500 mdpl dan menjadi gunung tertinggi kedua di Bali setelah Gunung Agung. Kawasannya telah terdaftar sebagai Global Geopark Network (GGN) UNESCO. Karena tidak terlalu tinggi, puncak gunung ini bisa ditempuh hanya dalam waktu dua jam saja. Kalau naik ke puncaknya sebaiknya start agak sore agar saat sampai di puncaknya, bebarengan dengan matahari terbenam yang keren abis. Uniknya pendaki yang datang selalu membawa bekal berupa pisang, telur maupun jagung. Di puncak gunung ini ada lubang-lubang kawah yang bisa digunakan untuk memasak. Keren!

5. GUNUNG PAPANDAYAN, GARUT, JAWA BARAT

gunung-papandayan

Gunung Papandayan berada di kabupaten Garut, Jawa Barat. Gunung ini cocok menjadi pilihan khususnya bagi pendaki pemula sebab ukuran gunung ini tidak terlalu tinggi hanya sekitar 2.265 mdpl saja. Sebelum sampai di puncaknya ada satu kawasan yang tidak pernah dilewatkan pendaki mana pun untuk singgah yaitu kawasan hutan mati.

Kawasan hutan mati adalah bekas hutan pohon cantigi yang terbakar dan menyisakan pepohonan yang gosong. Kayu-kayu pohon yang masih berdiri tanpa daun ini kemudian menghasilkan gambar yang unik dan mirip seperti di dunia lain. Banyak sekali pendaki yang menyempatkan foto-foto di kawasan tersebut. Bahkan ada beberapa orang yang pernah melakukan sesi foto pre-wedding di hutan mati Gunung Papandayan ini.

6. GUNUNG BROMO, JAWA TIMUR

gunung-bromo

Gunung Bromo yang termasuk di dalam Taman Nasional Bromo Tengger Semerumemang terkenal memiliki pemandangan yang indah terutama matahari terbitnya. Di kawasan ini pula terdapat lautan pasir bak gurun pasir di Timur Tengah serta bukit Teletubbies yang mirip di Selandia Baru, tak ketinggalan kawah yang juga eksotis.

Gunung Bromo adalah gunung yang paling mudah didaki dibanding semua daftar gunung yang telah disebutkan Travelingyuk di atas. Tempat ini juga sudah dipenuhi dengan fasilitas yang lengkap sehingga traveler yang tidak punya basic mendaki sekalipun bisa menikmati gunung ini. Jika kamu sangat tertarik untuk datang ke Gunung Bomo, sepertinya harus sedikit bersabar sebab aktivitas gunung ini sedang meningkat sehingga saat ini kurang aman untuk dikunjungi.

Sudah menentukan gunung mana yang akan pertama kali kamu daki genks? Gunung mana saja pilihanmu yang jelas keenam gunung ini memiliki pemandangan yang superb abis!

Bromo

See Also: 6 Gunung di Indonesia Dengan Pemandangan yang Indah

WOW INDONESIA 2018

Panoramic view of Mount Bromo from the edge of Segara Wedi (
Panoramic view of Mount Bromo from the edge of Segara Wedi (“Sea of Sands”). Click Image to View Full Size Image

Mount Bromo (Indonesian: Gunung Bromo), is an active volcano and part of the Tengger massif, in East Java, Indonesia. At 2,329 metres (7,641 ft) it is not the highest peak of the massif, but is the most well known. The massif area is one of the most visited tourist attractions in East Java, Indonesia. The volcano belongs to the Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park. The name of Bromo derived from Javanese pronunciation of Brahma, the Hindu creator god.

Riding up the Volcano Mount Bromo
Riding up the Volcano Mount Bromo. Stairs lead to Mt Bromo caldera, Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park, East Java, Indonesia. 15 July 2010, 07:00 – Click Image to View Full Size Image

Mount Bromo sits in the middle of a vast plain called the “Sea of Sand” (Javanese: Segara Wedi or Indonesian: Lautan Pasir), a protected nature reserve since 1919. The typical way to visit Mount Bromo is from the nearby mountain village of Cemoro Lawang. From there it is possible to walk to the volcano in about 45 minutes, but it is also possible to take an organised jeep tour, which includes a stop at the viewpoint on Mount Penanjakan (2,770 m or 9,088 ft) (Indonesian: Gunung Penanjakan). The viewpoint on Mount Penanjakan can also be reached on foot in about two hours. From inside the caldera, sulfur is collected by workers.

Lokasi Gunung Bromo1024

Depending on the degree of volcanic activity, the Indonesian Centre for Vulcanology and Disaster Hazard Mitigation sometimes issues warnings against visiting Mount Bromo.

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Opera Snapshot_2018-01-25_184444_www.google.com

Culture


On the fourteenth day of the Hindu festival of Yadnya Kasada, the Tenggerese people of Probolinggo, East Java, travel up the mountain in order to make offerings of fruit, rice, vegetables, flowers and sacrifices of livestock to the mountain gods by throwing them into the caldera of the volcano. The origin of the ritual lies in the 15th century legend where a princess named Roro Anteng started the principality of Tengger with her husband, Joko Seger. The couple were childless and therefore beseeched the assistance of the mountain gods. The gods granted them 24 children but stipulated that the 25th child, named Kesuma, must be thrown into the volcano as a human sacrifice. The gods’ request was implemented. The tradition of throwing sacrifices into the volcano to appease these ancient deities continues today and is called the Yadnya Kasada ceremony. Though fraught with danger, some locals risk climbing down into the crater in an attempt to recollect the sacrificed goods that they believe could bring them good luck.

On the Segara Wedi sand plain sits a Hindu temple called Pura Luhur Poten. The temple holds a significant importance to the Tenggerese scattered across the mountain villages, such as Ngadisari, Wonokitri, Ngadas, Argosari, Ranu Prani, Ledok Ombo and Wonokerso. The temple organises the annual Yadnya Kasada ceremony which lasts for about one month. On the 14th day, the Tenggerese congregate at Pura Luhur Poten to ask for blessings from Ida Sang Hyang Widi Wasa and the God of Mahameru (Mount Semeru). Then the crowd proceeds along the crater edges of Mt Bromo where offerings are thrown into the crater. The major difference between this temple and Balinese ones are the type of stones and building materials. Pura Luhur Poten uses natural black stones from volcanoes nearby, while Balinese temples are mostly made from red bricks. Inside this pura, there are several buildings and enclosures aligned in a mandala zone composition.

Activity


2004 Eruptions

Mount Bromo erupted in 2004. That eruptive episode led to the death of two people who had been hit by rocks from the explosion.

2010 Eruptions

On Tuesday, 23 November 2010, 16.30 WIB (Western Indonesian Time), the Indonesian Centre of Vulcanology and Geology Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM) confirmed the activity status of Mount Bromo at “alert” due to increasing tremor activity and shallow volcanic earthquakes at the mountain. Concerns were raised that a volcanic eruption might be likely to occur. As a precaution local residents and tourists were instructed to remain clear of an area within a radius of three kilometres from the caldera and refugee encampments were erected. The area surrounding the Teggera caldera of Bromo remained off-limits for visitors throughout the remainder of 2010.

Bromo started to erupt ash on Friday 26 November 2010.

On 29 November 2010 Transport Ministry spokesman Bambang Ervan announced that Malang’s domestic airport would be closed until 4 December 2010. Malang is a city of about 800,000 people is about 25 km (16 mi) west of Mount Bromo. Abdul Rachman Saleh Airport normally handles 10 daily domestic flights from the capital Jakarta. Government volcanologist Surono reported that the volcano was spitting columns of ash some 700 metres (2,300 feet) into the sky.

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“Horseman during the Mount Bromo eruption in 2010” by spicedpumpkins in MostBeautiful

2011 Eruptions

399px-Mount_Bromo_eruption_2011_01_22_5-30AM

The Tengger Caldera was still active in late January 2011, the activity being characterised by fluctuating ongoing eruptions. On 23 January 2011 the Indonesian Centre for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM) (Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi) reported that since 19 December 2010 volcanic ash and incandescent material had been thrown up by eruptive activity resulting in a heavy rain of material that fell around the crater. Continuous eruptions on 21 January caused a thin ash fall mainly in the village areas of Ngadirejo and Sukapura Wonokerto in Probolinggo district. The impact of a heavy rain of volcanic ash from eruptions since 19 December 2010 resulted in disruption of normal activities. By early 2011 concerns were being raised concerning the effect upon the local economy and the potential for long term environmental and health problems amongst the residents in the locality surrounding Mount Bromo. Due to high seasonal rainfall in January 2011 the potential for lahar and lava flow was raised due to the deposits of volcanic ash, sand and other ejected material that had built up. Seismic activity was dominated by tremor vibration and reports of visual intensity and sounds of eruption continued to be reported from the mountain monitoring facility, Bromo Observation Post. People living on the banks of the Perahu Ravine, Nganten Ravine and Sukapura River were alerted to the possibility of lava flows, especially when it was raining heavily in the area around Cemorolawang, Ngadisari and Ngadirejo. Eruptions and volcanic tremors were reported on 21 January and 22 January with activity subsiding on 23 January 2011. On 23 January 2011 at 06:00 am the alert status at Mount Bromo remained at (Level III).

Mount Bromo Eruption 2011 01 22
Mount Bromo Eruption 2011 01 22
Crater Mount Bromo 2012-06-21 09.32.01
Crater Mount Bromo 2012-06-21 09.32.01

On 23 January 2011 an exclusion zone was recommended for communities living around Mount Bromo. Tourists and hikers were to advised not to come within a radius of 2 km from the active crater. CVGHM stated that they expected warning signs to be installed stating the limit radius of 2 km from the crater. Operational caution was recommended for flights into and leaving Juanda International Airport IATA:SUB in Surabaya. CVGHM recommended the establishment of public areas for the provision of face masks and eye protection. CVGHM also issued a warning to residents to be cautious of ash build up on roofs and other places that may give cause for collapse under the burden of ash.

NASA MODIS satellite image showing Bromo ash drifting over Denpasar on 27 January 2011, sourced through the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. January 2011. Click Image to View Full Size Image
NASA MODIS satellite image showing Bromo ash drifting over Denpasar on 27 January 2011, sourced through the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. January 2011. Click Image to View Full Size Image

Further eruptions and the issuing of Aviation Ash advisories on 27 January and 28 January 2011 led to concerns being raised regarding a volcanic ash plume, reported to be drifting eastward toward the air corridors used to access the Ngurah Rai International Airport IATA:DPS in Bali. Airport official Sherly Yunita was reported at the time as stating that concerns about visibility had prompted Singapore Airlines, Jetstar-ValueAir, Air France-KLM, Virgin Blue and Cathay Pacific to cancel several flights to Bali, 340 km (211 mi) to the east. SilkAir also cancelled flights on the 27 January between Singapore and Lombok, an island to the east of Bali. The Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre in Darwin, Australia released several Code Red Aviation Ash Advisories pertaining to Mount Bromo (Tengger Caldera), on 27 January. They indicated that ash was observed at altitudes up to 18,000 ft (FL180) extending 200 nautical mi to the south east of the caldera. In other ash advisories of that day the cloud was reported as at times having a 10 km/h drift, both to the east, and to the south east.

Deformation-late November 2010-late January 2011

The Indonesian Centre for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM) reported on 13 January 2011, that deformation using tiltmeter measurements indicated an inflation at rate of 5 micro radians between 25 November 2010 and 14 December 2010 and a relatively stable since 15 December 2010 both on Radial Components and Tangential Components.

Deformation measurement using electronic distance measurement equipment compared observations at designated measuring points; POS-BRO, POS-KUR and POS-BAT during the period 25 November 2010 – 20 December 2010 with observations from the period 21 December 2010 – 30 December 2010 indicated the shortening of the distance from the POS-BAT, or inflation. Observations between 30 December 2010 to 23 January 2011 were reported as relatively stable.

Johanna Whitaker’s Mount Bromo Trip Experience, November 11, 2013


Anyone who isn’t a little intrigued by the magic of volcanos is a little suspect in my opinion. I remember trying to create my own mini volcanos with a chemistry set and various kitchen ingredients as a kid but I never really dreamed that I would get the chance to see one. Let alone an active one and get so close that the sulphurous fumes would take over all my senses.

So first stop Mount Bromo. The trail from Yogyakarta to Bali is not for those that like sleep and hate long bus journeys, but it was worth every sweaty sleep deprived second. An 8am start and a bus journey all the way to a basic lodge near Mount Bromo, arriving at around 9pm. Up at 3.30am and a quick trek up to a view point to see Mount Bromo in all its glory as the sun comes up.

Spectacular Mount Bromo at Sunrise
Spectacular Mount Bromo at Sunrise
Mount Bromo as the Sun came up.
Mount Bromo as the Sun came up.
Sunrise at Mount Bromo
Sunrise at Mount Bromo
The surreal beauty of Mount Bromo.
The surreal beauty of Mount Bromo.
The sun rising next to mount Bromo.
The sun rising next to mount Bromo.

Then an uphill hike to Mount Bromo’s crater.

The Climb up Mount Bromo. Horses are for the Unfit!
The Climb up Mount Bromo. Horses are for the Unfit!

I almost took a horse…

The sulphur was quite strong and had a definite stench of rotting eggs, but the views were unbelievable. It was difficult to take in the fact that I was looking straight into the mouth of a volcano – wow!

Staring into the mouth of Mount Bromo.
Staring into the mouth of Mount Bromo.

Off again at 11am and heading straight for Ijen. We landed at around 4pm in a really bizarre homestay. No matter, quick bite to eat but mainly trying to sleep. A 1am start for a chance to see some magical ‘blue fire’. Literally had no idea what this blue fire was going to comprise of and it doesn’t seem to be documented in the bible (i.e. Lonely Planet), so we felt like explorers when we set off.

An hour or so hike up the volcano in the pitch black. A few had flashlights but we were pretty unprepared as we had no idea in advance that a night hike would be involved. A couple of local guides were dotted around but basically we relied on each other to check that we were still en route up to the top. We took mountain paths uphill all the way, with no clue what the landscape around us looked like.

We reached the top and there deep below the crater was engulfed in dancing blue and violet flames. Possibly one of the most spectacular things I’m ever likely to see but near impossible to capture on camera.

Now for the descent into the crater, still in complete darkness. It’s difficult to describe how I felt at that point, a mixture of fear, adrenaline, WTF am I doing but overall this is probably one of the most exciting journeys I’m ever going to take in my life. We started the near vertical climb with little light and a few falls. The rocks slipped from under our feet but there was absolutely no way anyone wanted to head back up. We headed towards the blue fire.

Roughly an hour after we started the decent we made it to the mouth of the crater and the flickering blue flames. It was thrilling and I’m not entirely sure why but images of the witches in Macbeth sprang to mind. It was a truly magical experience.  We wanted to get as close as possible to try and capture this unbelievable sight on camera, but then the wind changed and the sulphur cloud closed in on us. I couldn’t breathe, my eyes stung and there was no way to climb quickly out of its reach. We all stood like fools with scarves wrapped round our faces whilst scrambling to a safety point – made it, but the adrenaline was pumping.

The Magical Blue Fire.
The Magical Blue Fire.
Oops only spotted this when we got back to the top.
Oops only spotted this when we got back to the top.

We made the climb back up, still in darkness and sat at the top waiting for the sun to come up. When the light shone and the clouds lifted the blue fire was gone and a spectacular lake appeared.

The Lake within the Crater.
The Lake within the Crater.

This was one of the most mind-blowing experiences and my words and photos do not do it justice.

Thanks to Johanna Whitaker for sharing this amazing experience.

 10 Things You Need to Know about Mount Bromo, East Java, Indonesia


1. To tell you the truth, none of us knew about Mount Bromo until we were told about it while going for our maiden hiking expedition at Mount Kinabalu, Sabah. A fellow hiker, Akmar introduced to us to this absolutely beautiful and picturesque view of a volcanic mountain called Bromo or Mount Bromo straight out from her iPhone. We wow-ed over Mt.Bromo right at that instance and we told ourselves, we really need to go there and we finally made it there after 2 years which was on April 30th, 2012.

2. To get to Mount Bromo, you need to fly into Surabaya, East Java (Jawa Timur), Indonesia and take a couple of hours of car ride to Probolinggo province ( I think) and then exchange into a jeep to get you higher up the rough road condition up the mountain. When I say “rough road condition”, brace yourself for a super bumpy, almost roller coaster-like jeep ride. It was awful and if you needed to pee, forget about it. You will almost certainly pee in your pants with all those crazy bumps and bounces.

3. Akmar did mentioned that you can hike Mount Bromo by going on a horse ride and that’s exactly what we did. It cost us about IDR 90,000 (approx. MYR30 or USD10) for both ways going up and down the volcanic mountain. I can’t remember the exact duration we were on the back of the horse but it felt really long maybe about 15 minutes one way. Since it was our first time riding a horse, it was the most awesome thing anyone could have ever done in their life. At that moment, it wasn’t really about the fact that we were literally hiking an active volcanic mountain, but we were more excited with the whole idea of going horse back riding.

Mt Bromo horses with their guides and the jeeps
Mt Bromo horses with their guides and the jeeps

The horse riding episode is certainly something one should look forward to doing at Mt. Bromo and no worries for first timers, the horse is guided with his owner and just make sure you sit up straight, go along with the rhythm of the horse, hold on the rope tight and simply enjoy the ride and view!

4. Make sure before you get on the horse ride or if you can’t care for horse adventure and splurging money are not in your agenda, just be sure to clear your bladder before you begin your hike. There is a toilet right at the parking area with a typical standard fee of Indonesian toilet run – IDR2000. Bring your own TP or wet wipes if washing with water isn’t your thing and the toilet is in okay standard.

5. The weather at Mount Bromo is just nice but it can be very dusty to go all the way up the mountain. It only get worse when you will be hiking right next to people on horses because there is only one track to go up and down. Your best choice of clothing is to wear a long sleeve shirt and pants, sunglasses ( to keep the dust out of your eyes) and a bandana ( to function as a mask) or get yourself a proper mask to cover your nose. Do not be surprised when you blow your nose right after this hike, you’ll be seeing black dusty ashes coming out from your nose. So do make sure, you remember to clean up the nose right after. Haha.

Mount Bromo and it's very much alive smokey crater.
Mount Bromo and it’s very much alive smokey crater.

6. The horse ride will only take you to about 3/4 of the way up. The rest of the way, you will need to take the dusty ashen stairs which was fairly okay, not difficult to climb. You will have the view of the Bromo Crater right at the top and be careful right up there. There is no divider to protect you from falling down into the crater so don’t get all too excited with the camera works and do watch your steps.

7. I would say, all around 360 degrees view from the top of Mount Bromo was absolutely amazing. The place is totally barren and almost desert-looking with grey ashes covering pretty much everything.

Mt. Bromo view from the top facing away from the crater. If you look closely on the front of the picture, you'll see the trail of people climbing the stairs.
Mt. Bromo view from the top facing away from the crater. If you look closely on the front of the picture, you’ll see the trail of people climbing the stairs.

8. You can avoid the stairs when you are descending down from the mountain by going all adventurous, trailing down the mountain and kick more dusts all over you just like this guy in the picture below :

Mt Bromo
Mt Bromo

9. You will be bombarded with the many local folks who will come up to your face with bunch of Bromo tshirts for sale. You can however, choose to say no and walk away as quickly as possible or ended up buying a bunch of tees which will be way too small for your size. The last I checked, L size is equivalent to the standard S size. So make sure you check the size out first before buying.

10. Despite the cost for the horse ride was just IDR 90K, I’m pretty sure you will want to give the guides an extra tip for all their hard work or probably just something extra for the horses too. Their job is really tough and going through that kind of working condition everyday, climbing up and down the mountain multiple times a day while breathing black volcanic ashes day in and out is really one heck of a job to do.

Mt Bromo
Mt Bromo

All in all, if you are looking for a chance of a lifetime to experience stepping foot on one of the most beautiful and scenic volcanic mountain ( in my rating that is), Mount Bromo located just a couple of hours away from Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia is the place you certainly need to go.


11 September, 2013

Sleeping Giants | Mt Bromo Indonesia

Shared By Elia Locardi

Surely, I must be staring at some strange and fascinating alien world… Watching the stars dance above this extraordinary landscape.

Sleeping Giants || Mt Bromo Indonesia

There are only a few places on our beautiful planet that I would be so confident to call otherworldly. Fewer still that can impose such a profound sense of awe and wonder, where the simple act of seeing is enough to satisfy an avid explorer’s wild curiosity.

Enter The Tengger Massif

Indonesia houses many visual treasures but Mount Bromo is widely recognized as one of the most impressive. Part of the Tengger Massif and situated in a large caldera, Mt. Bromo is the collapsed remain of a once larger giant. Still active today, it shares proximity with (the active) Mount Semeru, the largest mountain on the island of Java which stands tall at an impressive 3,676 meters (12,060 feet). To give a total sense of scale, the entire area of Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park spans a massive 800 square kilometers.

EL-2013-07-30_Bromo_Cameras_Setup-960

Mount Semeru

Semeru, or Mount Semeru (Indonesian: Gunung Semeru), is an active volcano located in East Java, Indonesia. It is the highest mountain on the island of Java. The stratovolcano is also known as Mahameru, meaning ‘The Great Mountain. The name derived from the Hindu-Buddhist mythical mountain of Meru or Sumeru, the abode of gods.

EL-Semeru

Mount Semeru in 1985.

Geology

Known also as Mahameru the (Great Mountain), it is very steep rising abruptly above the coastal plains of eastern Java. Maars containing crater lakes have formed along a line through the summit of the volcano. It was formed south of the overlapping Ajek-ajek and Jambagan calderas. Semeru lies at the south end of the Tengger Volcanic Complex.

Eruptive History

Semeru’s eruptive history is extensive. Since 1818, at least 55 eruptions have been recorded (10 of which resulted in fatalities) consisting of both lava flows and pyroclastic flows. All historical eruptions have had a VEI of 2 or 3.

Semeru has been in a state of near-constant eruption from 1967 to the present. At times, small eruptions happen every 20 minutes or so.

Semeru is regularly climbed by tourists, usually starting from the village of Ranu Pane to the north, but though non-technical it can be dangerous. Soe Hok Gie, an Indonesian political activist of the 1960s died in 1969 from inhaling poisonous gases while hiking on Mount Semeru.

 Semeru volcano, July 2004Semeru Volcano, July 2004

Mythology

Semeru is named from Sumeru, the central world-mountain in Buddhist cosmology and by extension Hinduism. As stated in legend, it was transplanted from India; the tale is recorded in the 15th-century East Javanese work Tantu Pagelaran. It was originally placed in the western part of the island, but that caused the island to tip, so it was moved eastward. On that journey, parts kept coming off the lower rim, forming the mountains Lawu, Wilis, Kelut, Kawi, Arjuno and Welirang. The damage thus caused to the foot of the mountain caused it to shake, and the top came off and created Penanggungan as well. Indonesian Hindus also hold a belief that the mountain is the abode of Shiva in Java

 Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park

EL-Semeru_Bromo_Temple

Clockwise from lower left: the Hindu temple Poten, the steaming crater of Mount Bromo, erupting Mount Semeru, stately Mount Batok.

Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park is located in East Java, Indonesia, to the east of Malang and to the southeast of Surabaya, the capital of East Java. It is the only conservation area in Indonesia that has a sand sea, the Tengger Sand Sea (Indonesian: Laut Pasir Tengger), across which is the caldera of an ancient volcano (Tengger) from which four new volcanic cones have emerged. This unique feature covers a total area of 5,250 hectares at an altitude of about 2,100 m.[2] The massif also contains the highest mountain in Java, Mount Semeru (3,676 m), four lakes and 50 rivers.

The Tengger Sand Sea has been protected since 1919. The Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park was declared a national park in 1982.

EL-800px-Mount_Bromo

 The Tengger Sand Sea with Mount Bromo in the background

I spent the better part of 4 days in the area surrounding these extraordinary mountains, sleeping very little, and investing my twilight hours enjoying and photographing the beautiful stars above bromo. In that time, two of the mornings provided me the perfect recipe for crafting my vision – clear skies full of stars and epic fog below. To top it off, my last morning shooting from Penanjakan 1 was complemented with a beautiful cloudy sky.

The Incredible Tengger Massif || Bromo IndonesiaThe Extraordinary Mt Bromo during a sunrise. The Tengger Massif is absolutely gorgeous.

To get to the top viewpoint for bromo (Penanjakan 1) the average traveller must hire a 4×4 jeep with driver and depart their hotel around 3:30 AM. Then, after about an hour drive in complete darkness, down the crater ridge and EL-Jeep-Guide-MtBromo-650pxacross the foggy caldera, they begin to make the long slow climb up the mountain to the topmost viewing point for Mt. Bromo at an altitude of 2,770 meters (9087.93 feet). Once there—and if they’ve left early enough—they will have a front row view of sunrise among the thousands of others clamoring for a spot.

For my project, I left my very uncomfortable room at 1:00 AM every morning, giving myself plenty of time to reach my special (pre-scouted) locations and set up for the stars. Bromo is frequented by many travelers so I had to be careful where I decided to set up for long exposures. I made sure that I not only had a prime view, but that it was also far away from the thick crowds with curious headlamps and point and shoot camera flashes.

After sunrise, I’d make the long journey back to town, take a quick nap, and then head out again for sunset. Within a few hours of reaching my viewing areas, I had become completely shrouded in clouds as the mountains seemed to disappear.

EL-2013-07-29_Bromo_Clouds_Sunset_TMB-1280-webAfter careful planning and research, I knew that I had picked the best month of the year for a chance at these weather conditions, but I honestly couldn’t have asked for a better result.


Bromo-Tengger-Semeru National Park

Understand

This national park is named after its two mountains, Mount Semeru (the highest in Java at 3,676m), Mount Bromo (the most popular) and the Tengger people who inhabit the area.

Mount Semeru also known as Mahameru (“Great Mountain”), is one of Indonesia’s most active volcanoes. What stands out most about this mountain is the fact that it erupts periodically (and very reliably). Every 20min or so, the volcano belches out a huge cloud of steam and smoke, sometimes interspersed with ash and stones. Climbing Mount Semeru requires some planning and a permit from the national park authority. The mountain is often closed due to its highly active nature.
Mount Bromo (2,329m) is easily recognized as the entire top has been blown off and the crater inside constantly belches white sulphurous smoke. It sits inside the massive Tengger caldera. with a diameter of approximately 10km, surrounded by the Laut Pasir (Sea of Sand) of fine volcanic sand. The overall effect is unsettlingly unearthly, especially when compared to the lush green valleys all around the caldera.

The major access point is Cemoro Lawang (also Cemara Lawang or Cemora Lawang – blame the East Javanese accent!) at the northeastern edge of the caldera, but there are also trails from Tosari (northwest) and Ngadas (southwest). The village of Ngadisari, on the road from Probolinggo about 5.5km before Cemoro Lawang, marks the entrance to the national park. Both Cemoro Lawang and Ngadisari are rather picturesque, with brightly-painted houses and flower beds outside.

The Tenggerese

The area in and around the park is inhabited by the Tenggerese, one of the few significant Hindu communities left on the island of Java. The local religion is a remnant from the Majapahit era and therefore quite similar to that on Bali but with even more animist elements. The Tenggerese are believed to be descendants of the Majapahit princes and were driven into the hills after mass arrivals in the area of devoutly Muslim Madurese in the 19th century. These Madurese immigrants were labourers working for Dutch coffee plantation owners and the native Hindu people of the region soon found themselves outnumbered and either converted to Islam or fled to the inhospitable high mountain tops where they remain today.

The religion is quite low key though (certainly when compared to Bali) with the most visible manifestation of faith being the rather austere Poten temple in the sea of sand. The Tenggerese number about 600,000 and they reside in 30 villages scattered in and around the park with smaller communities elsewhere in East Java.

For many visitors, the sight of the angular-faced, sunburned, moustachioed Tenggerese wrapped in poncho-like blankets, trotting about on ponies with craggy mountains as the backdrop, more resembles Peru than Indonesia!

Landscape

If a landscape was ever needed to demonstrate the meaning of the phrase desolate beauty, then this is surely it. Rugged, barren volcanic peaks, gravel plains and that sea of sand. Truly unworldly.

The park also includes large areas which are very lush and green fed by rivers from the high tops. The medium elevations are clad with much thinner forest before this gives way to the barren plateau and peaks.

Flora and Fauna

In the parts of the park which most interest visitors (the caldera and mountain tops) flora and fauna is limited by the general lack of vegetation. At lower elevations and away from the sea of sand, there are though lush green valleys with a typical tropical forest flora. The higher elevations before the tree line ends are largely clad with casuarina (cemara) forest.

Down in the valleys, a few leopard cats are present but rarely seen. Java rusa deer, muntjac, marbled cat and wild pig are amongst the mammals more likely to be glimpsed by casual visitors. This park is not so renowned for birdwatching as others in Java, but up on the plateau you often see hawks and eagles soaring over the valleys below.

Climate

Temperatures are refreshingly cool during the day but outright cold at night as temperatures can drop to zero in the dry season and are rarely much above 5°C in wet season. Daytime temperatures anywhere in the park never exceed 20°C with low teens being normal.

It can rain at any time and the mean average rainfall of 6.6m is best measured in metres, not mm! Most of that comes in the wet season though – November to March. During periods of heavy rain in January and February especially, many parts of the park are inaccessible due to flooding. Landslips are also a real issue at these times.

The 2010/2011 Eruptions

In late 2010 and early 2011 volcanic ash and incandescent material was thrown up by eruptive activity with a heavy rain of ejected volcanic material falling around the crater. Continuous eruptions on 21 January caused a thin ash fall mainly in the village area of Ngadirejo and Sukapura Wonokerto, Probolinggo district. The impact of the heavy rain and volcanic ash from eruptions during December 2010 and January 2011 resulted in disruption to normal activities and the local economy. The potential for long term environmental damage and health problems amongst the residents in the locality surrounding Mount Bromo was paramount at that time.

Due to high seasonal rainfall in January 2011 the potential for lahar (cold lava) and lava flow (hot lava) was elevated due to the deposits of volcanic ash, sand and other ejected material that thad built up. Activity was dominated by tremor vibration, eruption of ash plumes and ejection of incandescent material.

People living on the banks of the Perahu Ravine, Nganten Ravine and Sukapura River were alerted to the high possibility of lahar flows, especially if further heavy rainfalls occur in the area around Cemorolawang, Ngadisari and Ngadirejo. Eruptions and volcanic tremors were reported on 21 January and 22 January with activity subsiding on 23 January 2011.

The park was reopened to visitors in April 2011.

Official Tourism Offices


East Java Tourism Office, Jalan Wisata Menanggal, Surabaya, East Java, Phone: +62 31 8531815 or 8531820 (Email: eastjava@indosat.net.id).

East Java Tourism Office, Jl Jendral Basuki Rachmat 6, Malang, East Java, Phone: +62 341 323966.

Office of the Bromo-Tengger-Semeru National Park, Jl Raden Intan No6, Malang, East Java, Phone: +62 341 491828 (Email: tn-bromo@malang.wasan-tara.net.id).

Get In


Mount Bromo is perhaps the most accessible of Java’s active volcanoes and for that reason it gets a lot of domestic tourists, often in package groups. It is also a popular destination for high school groups who camp in the area. For that reason, those visitors seeking a quiet appreciation of the park should avoid major domestic holiday periods. That being said, this is a large park and providing you get away from the main watchpoint areas, quiet enjoyment is possible at any time, as long as the Tenggar caldera in the Mount Bromo volcano complex is not erupting as it did in 2004, late 2010 and early 2011. If so some caution may be required.

Eruptive activity of Tenggar caldera in the Mount Bromo volcano complex-Cautions for visitors
A 2km general exclusion zone was proclaimed in early 2011 and currently remains in place at Mount Bromo.

Tourists and hikers are advised that they should not enter within any exclusion zone in the region and to maintain a safe distance at all times. The Indonesian Centre for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM) and Park authorities have installed warning signs to define the safe approach limits for visitors.

Warning signs and other advisories state the limit radius at the site as may be determined subject to the prevailing eruptive conditions. It is expected that the exclusion zone, extended significantly as an outcome of the eruptive activity in early 2011 may remain for an extended time.

It should be understood that that approaching the area still involves significant risk, even if staying outside the proclaimed exclusion zone.

This volcano has a history of spontaneous activity, sometimes including the ejection of ballistic projectile material. Some previous such spontaneous events have resulted in fatalities, injury and property damage.

As of 30 March, 2011 the tourist route to Mt. Bromo, Laut Pasir, Keciri, Jemplang, Padang Savana Tenger, & Bukit Adasan have reopened for visitors. However, since the eruptive activity of Mt. Bromo is upredictable please ensure that you pay close attention to all advisories and cautions and use special care whilst in the area.

Visit times are restricted to 07:00-17:00.

Current cautions

If eruptive activity recommences and you are in the area please consider your need to remain there. If contemplating travel to the area during an eruption you should anticipate that services including the provision of accommodation, tourism related activities and facilities, civil services and travel arrangements may be disrupted, most especially if the eruptive activity is prolonged or escalates in intensity.

You should monitor the media for information concerning eruptive activity at the site if you are considering travel to the Mount Bromo area and use extra care at all times if near the site.

By Plane

The nearest major airport is in Surabaya (IATA: SUB), three to four hours away by car (and more by bus). Surabaya is well served by regular domestic flights from Jakarta and Bali and some other countries in Asia. Private cars can be arranged in the arrival hall. Fare for a drop off is around IDR600,000 and you may be able to get a car with driver (including fuel and tolls) for IDR500,000 after some negotiation (March 2014).

Abdul Rachman Saleh Airport (IATA: MLG) at Malang is a small regional airport with flights from Jakarta only and access from here makes sense if you intend to enter the park via the Tumpang/Ngadas route.

By Train

A Railway station exists in Probolinggo. It is around 10km from Probolinggo Train Station to Probolinggo Bus Terminal and you can use a Bemo. Lookup picture from Terminal to avoid scam (stop at hotel/travel agency). Outside Probllinggo Bus Station you can take a Bemo to Cemoro Lawang for IDR30,000 (Nov 2013). The Bemos drop you off in the village at the T-Crossing; one way goes to Cafe Lawa, the other way to Cemera Indiah Hotel. It takes 1.5h to drive to from Probolingo to Cemoro Lawang. Before you reach the Cemoro Lawang the Bemo stops and you have to pay Park Entrance Fee at a checkpoint.

By Road

There are three established routes into the park.

1. The Probolinggo → Ngadisari Route (Cemoro Lawang and Mount Bromo)

The nearest larger town is Probolinggo, on the north coast of Java about 45km as the crow flies from the park (but it feels a lot further). This is by far the most common route used to access the park as it is the most straightforward (but not necessarily the most interesting). About 6km west of Probolinggo on the main coastal highway, turn south at the village of Ketapang. From there the road snakes up for 40 km through Sukapura (not a bad idea to stay the night here as the hotels are good) to Ngadisari and finally Cemoro Lawang on the edge of the caldera. Total journey time about 1h30.

To get to Probolinggo from Surabaya, take a Damri shuttle bus from the Juanda International Airport in Surabaya to the Bungurasih bus terminal (also called Purabaya) in the city. Then take an express Patas air-conditioned bus for the 2-3h journey from Surabaya to Probolinggo (about IDR25,000). Buses without air-con, but with fans, cost IDR14,000.

Green Mini-Buses (10 seats) from Probolinggo to Cemoro Lawang are located right outside the terminal: IDR250,000 (translates to IDR30,000 per passenger). Departure from the the terminal bus station as soon as the bus is full or someone pays the full price. Can delay the bus up to 2.5 hours to get enough passengers though after 16:00 it’s quite hard to get enough passengers, its possible to negotiate for a whole minibus at IDR200,000. However, the drivers can sometimes be less demanding for return trip back to Probolinggo, and can start out with fewer passengers on board.

2. The Pasuruan → Tosari Route

This route is only a little harder than the Probolinggo option and Pasuruan has the benefit of being closer to Surabaya. From Pasuruan on the main north coast road between Surabaya and Probolinggo, take the road 45km south to Tosari via Pastepan. Irregular buses ply this route or you can drive it in a regular car. From Tosari to Wonokitri it is another 3km via a local bemo or on the back of a truck. From Wonokotri up to Bromo it is a really nice, three hour 14km trek, so you do need to start very early if you want sunrise. Alternatively you should be able to hire a 4×4 with a driver for that journey. There is accommodation in both Tosari and Wonokitri.

3. The Malang → Tumpang Route

This route approaches from the south east and is seldom used due to the lack of facilities. Certainly the most off-the-beaten-path way to approach the park. Take a microbus from Arjosari bus station in Malang to Tumpang and then a 4×4 vehicle or a heavy truck from Tumpang to Ngadas. There are no facilities to speak of at Ngadas but you will find informal accommodation in family homes in the village. At Ranupani up on the top there is very simple homestay accommodation avaiable – ask at the park office there. The route from Ngadas on to the caldera is interesting because it transverses the Sea of Sand and directly passes Mount Bromo. A dirt road leads across the flat bottom of the caldera, up to Jemplang on the southern rim and on to Ranupani where you should check in at the park office. You have to take a 4×4 vehicle (unless you prefer to walk).

Tour from Yogyakarta


From Yogyakarta you can do a 3 Day Tour (Bromo; Ijen; Transfer to Bali; 2 Nights with Breakfast) for around IDR60,0000 (Nov 2013). This is the fastest way, but many complains can be found online because it takes long and it is exhausting.

Leave Yogya 08:00-09:00; arrival late night in Comoro Lawang (11h+); wake-up 03:00 for sunrise; 21:30 continue to Ijen (6h+).

If you look at the distances (online route planner) and consider Indonesian travel speeds of 30km/h then the late arrival is no surprise:

400km Yogyakarta Probolinggo
1.5h Probolinggo Bus Station Cemoro Lawang
325km Yogyakarta Surabaya
100km Surabaya Probolinggo
60km Surabaya Pasuruan
40km Pasuruan Probolinggo
55km Pasuruan Malang
200km Probolinggo Banyuwangi (Train Station; Ferry to Gilimanuk Bali; Tour to Ijen Crater)
125km Gilimanuk Ubung (One of many Bus Terminal in Denpasar)
10km Ubung Batubulan (One of many Bus Terminal in Denpasar)

Fees/Permits


Prior to entering the park, your car will be directed into a parking lot at the base of the mountain. Upon exiting your car, unless you are on a prearranged tour, middlemen will approach you to offer tickets for a jeep ride to see the sunrise and be taken to the Bromo crater. If you buy your ticket from them, they will hike the price and buy your ticket for you from the office which is directly behind them. Simply avoid them by going to the office and asking to purchase a voucher. Alternatively, you can walk or take a motorcycle taxi, rates negotiable for motorcycle taxi. When entering the park the current ticket fee stands at IDR 10,000 for Indonesians and for foreigners it has increased from IDR 75,000 in 2013 to IDR 217,500 in early May, 2014. In weekends and on public holidays the entrance fee is 320,000 (since May 2014).

“Bogus” Park Tickets

When going on a pre-arranged sunrise tour, be aware when your tour agency or hotel attempts to collect a park entrance fee at the time of pick-up. Operators have been asking for the fee payment before you board the jeep and will hand you a standard receipt for the fee paid. This receipt is not an entrance ticket and will go unchecked at the park entrance gate, as most likely the park staff is getting a cut on this scheme for not checking tickets on these specific vehicles.

If you do not agree with this practice, refuse to pay and demand to stop at the park gate to purchase your ticket. The official ticket is printed on pink paper and sequenqualy numbered. Not having a real ticket won’t get you on trouble but authorities seem to be aware and some vehicles are being stopped on the return to Cemoro Lawang as of May, 2014.

You can enter for free on foot, and walk to the crater and viewpoints (or hire a motorbike with driver once you are inside). Use the horse track on the right side of the Cemara Indah hotel. Also, during the day you can just walk past the gate without being asked to pay.

If you intend to climb Mount Semeru (only for serious trekkers and often closed due to eruptive activity) you will need to apply for a permit in advance to:

Office of Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park, Jl Raden Intan No6, PO Box 54, Malang, East Java, Phone:+62 341 491828

Get Around


From the village of Cemoro Lawang, you can easily hike up Mount Bromo and Mount Penanjakan and the best time to do this is pre-dawn or later in the afternoon, if you wish to avoid the hundreds of people on pre-arranged tours. Villagers offer horseback rides to the top of Mount Bromo and you can also hire a jeep to take you around the area (about Rp 350,000 for one jeep ride in the caldera).

Walking to the Bromo crater from Cemoro Lawang takes only 45 minutes: a path immediately to the right of Cemoro Indah Hotel will lead down to the Sea of Sand. There is no ticket checkpoint.

Information on getting to the viewpoints without a vehicle is presented on the following sections.

See


  • By far the most common activity in the park is visiting the collapsed but still smouldering Mount Bromo, located in the huge, unearthly moonscape of a caldera known as the Sea of Sand (Pasir Lautan). The much photographed view of steaming Mount Bromo surrounded by the Sea of Sand, its rather serene neighbour Mount Batok and mighty Mount Semeru as the southern backdrop, is one of the great iconic images of Indonesia.
  • Mount Batok (2,440m) is a brown volcano at the north centre of the caldera. Unlike the other nearby peaks it is no longer active and actually has some vegetation growing on it, mostly casuarina (cemara) trees that somehow manage to survive even on volcanic ash.
  • The wonderfully coloured and immaculately tidy Tenggerese houses. The Tenggerese culture is unique and an effort to understand these fine people, where they have come from and how they live in this sometimes difficult environment, will be rewarded.
  • The Upacara Kasodo (also Kasada) is held every year at the full moon of the 12th month of the Tenggerese calendar and it is the most demonstrable Tenggerese religious ceremony. The Tenggerese invoke the approval of the gods to ensure a successful harvest, to be spared from any natural calamities and to be cured of disease. Selected Tenggerese men climb down to precarious ledges on the Bromo crater wall and catch the offerings thrown down by their excited neighbours above. A scramble ensues for possession of the offerings and whole thing is both exciting and rather terrifying as it is not unknown in all the mayhem for a “catcher” to slip off his ledge and fall. You can check the date of the next Upacara Kasodo at the East Java Tourism Office in Surabaya (+62 31 567 7219).
  • Madakaripura waterfall. These spectacular falls in the foothills of the park are easily reached by anyone visiting with their own transport. From Sukapura take the north-heading road towards Tongas and after about 6 km close to the village of Sapih the turning to the falls is signposted on your left. Continue down this small road to reach the car park for the falls. There are often lots of hawkers in the car park waiting to hire or sell you umbrellas and ponchos to protect from the spray. There are actually seven waterfalls here some of which drop over the access path during the wet season, so an umbrella is not as silly as it sounds. Legend abounds here: bathing in the chill waters is said to be an elixir of life, the water is regarded as holy by the Tenggerese and is used in their important ceremonies, and the great Majapahit prime minister Gajah Madah is reputed to have meditated here. A very attractive and relaxing spot. According to agents in the Bus Terminal (Nov 2013). the waterfall is a little bit dangerous because monkeys throws stones from the top onto your head, and there are floods in the wet-season (check if the waterfall is closed). The Public Transport route is: Probolingo – Tongas – Pasur Lumbang (from there 5km on foot to the waterfall). From Pasu Lumbang you can continue to Cemoro Lawang (Bromo) via Sukupurak. It might be hard (depending on season) to find Bemo and/or locals might use the opportunity to overcharge you or make you hire a motorbike with driver (No Bemo today). A local guide is handy because they know the easiest way to walk and will assist you when crossing the river several times (especially when the water is high in or just after the rainy season). It will cost around IDR 70.000-100.000 after bargaining (May 2014). To walk here from the parking area will take about one hour.
Madakaripura Waterfall - a good example of the lush nature of the park at lower elevations
Madakaripura Waterfall – a good example of the lush nature of the park at lower elevations

If you want to visit from Cemoro Lawang, you can ask at Cafe Lava Hostel to hire a car with driver. It will cost around IDR 600.000 to take you from there to the falls, wait for you, and drop you of in Probolinggo (May 2014).

The Poten. This is the Tenggerese Hindu temple that sits looking eerily beautiful in the sea of sand close to Mount Bromo. There is something quite magical about this place and the frugality of its decoration and austere design seems very appropriate for the location. Easily found, you really cannot miss it.

Lakes Ranupani and Ranu Regulo. These small, serene and always misty lakes are adjacent to the village of Ranupani on the south side of the crater. The village is the usual start point for ascending Mount Semeru and there is a park office here. Most visitors to this side of the crater will be happy though to take in the beauty of the small highland lakes and leave climbing Mount Semeru to the professionals. Ranupani is an extremely mystical village even by East Javanese standards and the rather ghostly lakes only add to the feelings of spirituality here. If this side of the crater appeals to you, it should be possible to arrange some simple homestay accommodation in Ranupani – ask at the park office.

Do


When timing any activities in the area, bear in mind that sunset is soon after 17:00 and sunrise is correspondingly early at around 05:30. This means you will usually need to get up by 03:30 or so to get to a viewpoint in time for dawn. It will be very crowded, so try to arrive as early as possible if you want to have a good spot (which is at front by the fence). Most people will be watching the sunrise itself (from the left side of the platform), so get a good position to see Mt Bromo and other volcanoes while you can (middle-right side of the platform). About one hour before sunrise (4 AM) it will already be crowded, also in low season and at a weekday.

For the keen hiker, this park is a dream come true and you can make your own schedule. There are many possibilities once you are away from the more popular area at Mount Bromo. Maps and information about the area are available at one of the many official locations. A very easy hike to the first viewpoint takes 1 hour.

The park operates vehicular transport options, for the official prices of IDR275,000 for 2 locations; usually one of the Pananjakan viewpoints and the parking area towards Mount Bromo, or IDR450,000 for 4 locations. Be weary of hawkers offering “guided” trips for up to twice as much. The official driver provided are locals and usually have good knowledge. Feel free to ask drivers at any time to stop for photos or ask questions. Visitors may also bring their own vehicles; alternatively, guides can also be rented on motorbike to guide you around. A tour 4×4 can fit up to 6 people. When organized from any hotel the price seems to be fixed to IDR 125,000 per person to go to the viewpoint at sunrise (leave between 3AM and 4AM), crater and back.

Posts may also request entrance fees (one post per visit). The official fee is minimal, but the local guides may ask for more, this should still be well under IDR10,000 per person. The attentive visitor might rather walk to the post and ask to have the tickets issued directly. No other fees exist, aside from transportation services.

  • Mount Bromo The edges are tinged with sulphur and always bubbling. Due to safety concerns, for some tourists at times may be very limited. When eruptive activity and the prevailing alert status permits the caldera may be approached by foot. Take the left fork at Cemoro Lawang’s solitary crossing, then head down the ramp into the caldera and then across the caldera to the Hindu temple (Poten) at the foot of the mountain. From the temple a steep path of 250 concrete steps leads to the edge of the crater and a precarious 1m-wide ledge from where you can gaze into the steaming crater. A “fence” will block vehicles from getting too close to Poten, and hundreds of horses serve the trail for those who prefer not to go up on foot. A round trip will cost IDR100,000 from the parking area, or a single trip back will cost IDR30,000 (these are official prices with vouchers). It’s much better to casually walk, though: the walk from the tourist centre to the top of the mountain should take no longer than 90min and is about 3km. In February 2011 the crater could be approached to a distance of 1km. The eruptive status remained too dangerous to descend into the caldera during February and March 2011 and smoke could still be seen rising out of the crater. Generally the more brown the smoke is, the more the volcano is active. Although the eruptive activity of early 2011 has subsided the area surrounding Teggara Caldera should still be approached with considerable caution.
  • Mount Semeru can be climbed over 2 days but it is a venture for serious trekkers only and requires a high level of physical fitness. A permit must obtained in advance and would be climbers should be very aware that the mountain will be off-limits during periods of eruptive activity. This is a very active volcano. If you do decide you are up for this you should be able to find a guide to go at least part of the way with you at the park office in Ranupani. That office is also the best source of information for an assessment of the current state of the mountain and for hooking up with serious climbers from around the world.
  • Mount Penanjakan (2,770m), its peak also called Viewpoint #1, located just north of the caldera, is a mountaintop viewpoint accessible by paved road from Tosari and hence popular with jeeps and even tour buses. At the peak lies an antenna array (easily spotted from miles around), many shops, a mosque and several “real” buildings. It’s the highest point easily accessible, so many visit here to get a good look around. The most popular sight is the sunrise: most of the crowd comes to see the dawn at 05:00 and you will likely have the large concrete observation post to yourself if you arrive later in the day. A steady hike from Bromo to Batok and then around the rim to Penanjakan will take about three hours and the last ascent of about 500m is very stiff indeed but truly worthwhile. Ancient Javanese Hindu texts tell of how Bromo-Penanjakan-Semeru (or Mahameru as it was then) was the spiritual axis of the universe and the point of all creation. The view from Penanjakan will explain why – it is truly breathtaking. This is where most of those iconic picture postcard views are taken from. After you have had your fill of the views, a hike back across the sea of sand to Cemoro Lawang will take about 2h.
  • Viewpoint #2, along the trail from Cemoro Lawang to Mount Penanjakan, is an excellent way to get a stunning view of the caldera without the crowds. To reach it, head west from Cemoro Lawang (past the Cemoro Indah hotel) for 6km, passing Tenngerese farms and fields. The paved road eventually turns into a twisty mountain trail that ends with a flight of stairs on the right, and the viewpoint (with concrete shelter) is at the top. Allow 90min for the climb up at a steady pace and bring along a flashlight if attempting this at night. From here, you can continue onto Mount Penanjakan by following the trail upwards, after which the trail merges onto the paved road to the viewpoint (total time about 60min one way). If planning to return the same way, mark the spot where the trail emerges onto the road (if you pass a stone lantern on the way down you have gone too far. Descending on this section can get slippery due to loose sand and rocks. As of September 2008, the direct route from Cemoro Lawang up to Penanjakan and Viewpoint #2 is severely damaged because of landslides. The path is still passable, but it can be tricky to spot the dangerous parts in the dark — each vistor should have their own flashlight.
  • Jazz Gunung, Java Banana Bromo, Wonotoro, [1]. Jazz Gunung (Mountain Jazz) is an annual music event that is held at Java Banana Bromo’s open stage every July. It is a unique event that celebrates music, nature, and culture since 2009. The stunning scenery in breezy mountainous tropical climate with the temperature around 14-18°C (about 57-65°F) during daylight and hit as low as 6-10°C (42-50°F) at night distinguish this event from other jazz festivals in Indonesia. Visit the website for more information. Rp 150,000. edit
  • Do it yourself – Mount Penanjakan Sunrise on foot. With good shoes and fitness you need not horse, bike or jeep. On foot it takes:

1 hour to Viewpoint2
1 hour to Viewpoint1 from Viewpoint2
1.5 hours to go back
1 hour to the Crater.

A (basic) map exists in Cafe Lava (or search online).

Instruction to do it yourself:
1) Around 03:00 go to Cemara Indah Hotel and follow the sealed road. It is easy to follow the road because many Jeeps drive around and on the target (top of the mountains) are already lights because locals sell Breakfast and Coffee at Viewpoint1, …)
2) On the way (30min) you will pass a little bridge – just continue and follow the road.
3) Before you reach Viewpoint2 you have to go up some stairs (I guess shorter than the street).
4) From Viewpoint2 you can go up a steep, narrow, washed out trail to Viewpoint1.
5) Enjoy the sunrise.
6) Go same way back.
7) At Cemera Indiah Hotel you can go down a muddy trail (with Horse-Apples) and then head to the Temple and the Crater.
8) Head back – The majority of tours leave Cemoro Lawang around 09:00.

Bromo-Map

 Buy


The most popular local product, at least based on the number of hawkers selling them, appears to be the Bromo hat, a colourful woolly hat with BROMO embroidered on it.

Scarfs and extra warm clothing are also popular and useful if you are not prepared for the cold mountain air.

Eat


Every lodge and hotel has an attached restaurant and there are few independent eateries of any note.

There are simple roadside warungs though selling the regular basic Indonesian dishes and IDR2,000 mugs of hot Javanese coffee (kopi panas). There is no nightlife in the usual sense of the word but all restaurants are open at 03:00 as that is when everybody wakes to see the sun rise.

Waroeng Basuki. Nice eatery at Cemoro Lawang serving many traditional Indonesian dishes such as tahu tek (tofu/beancurd), rujak cingur (salad with a sweet and spicy sauce and garnished with ox-nose). Also serves Chinese food. Reasonably priced. edit

Drink


Evenings in the park are quiet. A few beers with fellow travellers are in order.

The mulled wine served at some places in the evening seems to be heated Tuak (a palm wine) with some local spices added. Only those with the strongest constitution should even consider this and frankly, it is not very nice.

Make sure you always have enough water with you during the day as it is deceptively easy to de-hydrate here, despite the fresh climate.

Sleep


Lodging

There are plenty of accommodation options around the park. Facilities at Cemoro Lawang and elsewhere close to the caldera are quite basic though and those visitors looking for more comfortable accommodation should stay in Sukapura or Tosari. If not on a pre-arranged tour and planning on hiking to the viewpoints and/or crater, favor hotels closer to the crater. That will also facilitate arranging public transportation onwards, as the public buses (green coloured vans) park close to the park entrance.

CemoroLawang_Farmhouse

Cemoro Lawang

  • Homestays, Cemero Lawang (near the bus stop). All rooms are small and prices are similar (250,000 with en suite hot shower, 150,000 with shared hot shower, IDR130,000 with shared cold water), but room qualities range from stinky no window to modern rooms with a nice view. One of the cheapest options is left of the main road, 100m before Cafe Lava with five clean rooms with shared cold water mandi. One hot shower room with good view can be found at Riky Homestay 3 houses before park fee collection. IDR150,000-250,000 (Apr 2014)
  • Cafe Lava, Cemoro Lawang (very close to the park entrance). This former budget option now offers budget rooms at medium class hotel prices. Its kitchen will never win any star, but is one of the rare options in town get non-local food. From IDR218,000 for an economy room
  • Hotel Bromo Permai, Jl Raya Cemoro Lawang, Ngadisari, Phone: +62 335 541021. It is right on top in a fabulous location but it is not cheap compared to the other options. Also reports of the hot water and heating not working. 
  • Lava View Lodge, Cemoro Lawang, +62 335 541009. The most upmarket option in Cemoro Lawang, located at the caldera edge some 500m west of the village and the price is a bit higher than other options here. Looks better from outside than in, but the rooms are clean and have hot water. From IDR375,000
  • Yoschi’s, Sukapura (below Java Banana Bromo Lodge and about 5 km down from Cemero Lawang), Phone: +62 335 541018, [2]. 24 rooms and two x 2 bedroom family cottages. 20% is added to the stated prices. Cheaper rooms have shared toilets and a hot water shower outside. Be aware of the hotel distance to the crater if attempting to visit the sites independently, the 5 km distance is mostly uphill From IDR175,000

Sukapura

  • Java Banana Bromo Lodge, Jl Raya Bromo, Wonotoro, Sukapura, Probolinggo, East Java, Phone: +62 335 541193 (booking@java-banana.com), . checkin: 14.00; checkout: 12:00. A cozy boutique hotel with beautiful views. It is a lodge, cafe and gallery. Also offer mountain bike rental. Prices from IDR1,210,000.  
  • Grand Bromo Hotel (formerly Hotel Raya Bromo), Desa Sukapura, Probolinggo, East Java, Phone: +62 335 581103 (info@grandbromo.com), . Formerly this was clearly the grandest place to stay near the park but Java Banana may now hold that accolade. Located in Sukapura about one hour down the hill from Cemoro Lawang. They are close now, under renovation. Internet rates from USD55 and frequently included on package tours

Tosari/Wonokitri

  • Bromo Cottages, Tosari, Pasuaran, Phone: +62 335 515253 (info@bromocottages.com), . Despite the name, it is actually a fairly upmarket hotel with 100 rooms. Has a good Chinese restaurant attached and can arrange car hire. Offer a full compliment of organised tours in and around the park as well as catering for the independent traveller. From IDR600,000.
  • Bromo Surya Indah Homestay, Wonokitri village, Phone: +62 343 571049. Simple place to stay in an excellent location. Popular with budget travellers. About Rp 120,000

Camping

Camping is certainly possible in the park but you must register at the Cemoro Lawang gate (where there is an adjacent campsite). There are many sources of safe, fresh water in the park – ask locally.

Potential campers should be very aware of how cold it gets here though and be thoroughly prepared for that. Heavy duty sleeping bags are essential.

Stay Healthy


Temperatures on Mount Bromo are refreshingly cool during the day (although sunburn is still a real danger), but outright cold at night, as temperatures can drop to zero in the dry season and are rarely much above 5°C in wet season. Some of the cheaper places to stay may not provide adequate blankets or heating, so come prepared. If needed, you can rent jackets and hats at Cemoro Lawang and at the Penanjakan viewpoint for about IDR20,000. Hats and gloves are important if you wish to survive in the cold especially early in the morning, face masks would keep the dust away if the crowd gets big around the crater.

Mount Semeru erupting in 2004
Mount Semeru erupting in 2004

There are cases of malaria each year in the lower foothills of the park and any visitor planning a long stay or to camp in this area should take necessary precautions. This is not though a problem for those visiting Mount Bromo or the high plateau only.

Stay Safe


The “path” at the top of the steps up to Mount Bromo is only about 1 metre wide and in places the drop into the crater is sheer and considerable. Be careful, make sure you have a flashlight for any pre-dawn climb and always have your wits about you. The steps can be covered with crater dust and its possible to slip while climbing, be wary while climbing.

Bromo is an active volcano, and Semeru is a very active volcano. In June 2004, two tourists were killed at Bromo by rocks flung from a sudden explosion. The Smithsonian Institute’s Volcanic Activity Report keeps an eye on both, and is worth checking.

It gets very cold up on the high tops at night, probably colder than anywhere in Indonesia outside of the glacial highlands of Papua. Be suitably prepared for nightime temperatures not far above zero.

Get Out


  • Malang is the cultural capital of East Java.
  • Banyuwangi for ferries to Bali, more national parks and the Ijen Crater.
  • Surabaya for flights elsewhere in Indonesia and to Singapore and Malaysia.

Map


Mt. Bromo Map-1280Potentials of natural resources that ground the designation of the area as a national park area : Natural phenomena caused uniquely by or as volcanic activities from Mount Tengger have become 5 (five) mountains :

Mt. Bromo ( 2,392 m high asl.)
Mt. Batok ( 2,400 m asl.)
Mt. Widodaren ( 2,614 m asl.)
Mt. Watangan ( 2,601 m asl.) and
Mt. Kursi ( 2,581 m asl ), and
a wide Laut Pasir ( Sand Sea ) caused by its eruption.

Besides Mount Semeru (3,676 m asl.) is the highest mountain in Java Island and it is now still an active volcano.

indonesia mapMap Mt. Bromo w Probolinggo

Transportation from Yogyakarta to Mt. Bromo (to Bali): While in Yogyakarta, we booked a combined 2-day/1-night minivan/bus ride including a stop over at Mt. Bromo for 310,000 IDR each. Our ticket included:

  1. 9-hour drive from Yogyakarta to Probolinggo (main entrance town to Mt. Bromo) in minivan.
  2. Switch minivans to travel from Probolinggo to Ngadisari (Guesthouse town closer to Mt. Bromo).
  3. Guesthouse with double bed and cold shower (customizable).
  4. Jeep 4×4 ride to sunrise lookout point over Mt. Bromo (add-on).
  5. Hike to the top of Mt. Bromo from the Sea of Sand.
  6. Return transportation to guesthouse to shower and pack.
  7. Breakfast.
  8. Return minivan transportation from Ngadisari to Probolinggo.
  9. Bus ride from Probolinggo to Ketapang, Java (Port Town).
  10. Ferry from Ketapang to Gilimanuk, Bali.
  11. Bus ride from Gilimanuk to Densapar, Bali (11-hours total from Probolinggo to Densapar).

Labeled Mt Bromo

Staircase leading to the top of Mt. Bromo Volcano

Fog covering the Sea of Sand. Mt. Batok on the Left

Fog covering the Sea of Sand. Mt. Batok on the Left, Mountain range behind that held our morning viewpoint.

Fog halfway back across the Sea of Sand

Fog halfway back across the Sea of Sand

Fog fully cleared from the Sea of Sand

Fog fully cleared from the Sea of Sand.

Overall Impression: The 2-day travel was long and tedious, but totally worth it for the spectacular sunrise and opportunity to hike to the crater of Mt. Bromo volcano. I thought the morning Jeep 4×4 tour was worth the extra 80,000 IDR, and I could not of been happier with the entire experience. Posted 8th April 2013 by Roxanne

Taman Nasional Bromo Tengger Semeru, Indonesia

Satellite Photo of Bromo – Tengger – Semeru

Satelite-bromo-tengger-batok

Satelite-semeru-mountain

Satelie-bromo-caldera

Satelite-semeru-bromo