Tag Archives: Bali

Peta Kabupaten Gianyar

Peta Kabupaten Gianyar Bali Lengkap

Gianyar adalah salah satu kabupaten yang masuk dalam pemerintahan Provinsi Bali. Gianyar merupakan pusat budaya ukir khas Bali. Batas-batas Kabupaten Gianyar adalah: sebelah barat daya berbatasan dengan Kota Denpasar, sebelah barat berbatasan dengan Kabupaten Badung, sebelah timur berbatasan dengan Kabupaten Bangli dan di sebelah tenggara berbatasan dengan Kabupaten Klungkung.

Kota Gianyar ditetapkan dengan Peraturan Daerah Kabupaten Gianyar No. 9 tahun 2004 tanggal 2 April 2004 tentang Hari jadi Kota Gianyar. Kota ini banyak menyimpan sejarah, anda bisa browsing tentang Gianyar Bali.

Gianyar membawahi 7 Kecamatan, adapun nama-nama kecamatan dibawah pemerintahan Kabupaten Gianyar adalah sebegai berikut:

  1. Kecamatan Blahbatuh
  2. Kecamatan Gianyar
  3. Kecamatan Payangan
  4. Kecamatan Tegallalang
  5. Kecamatan Tampaksiring
  6. Kecamatan Sukawati
  7. Kecamatan Ubud

Peta Kabupaten Gianyar

Peta Kabupaten Gianyar merupakan bagian dari Peta Bali yang meliputi seluruh kabupaten di Bali. Berikut adalah Peta Kab. Gianyar baik peta wisata, peta jalan, maupun peta dalam google map:

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Peta-Jalan-Kabupaten-Gianyar

Peta Kabupaten Buleleng

Peta Kabupaten Buleleng Lengkap

Buleleng merupakan salah satu kabupaten yang masuk dalam wilayah pemerintahan di provinsi Bali. Ibu Buleleng ada di Singaraja. Batas-batas Kabupaten Buleleng adalah: sebelah utara berbatasan dengan Laut Jawa, sebelah barat berbatasan dengan Kabupaten Jembrana, sebelah timur berbatasan dengan Kabupaten Karangasem dan Kabupaten Bangli, dan sebelah selatan berbatasan dengan Kabupaten Tabanan dan Kabupaten Badung.

Kab. Buleleng memiliki pantai sepanjang kurang lebih 144 km. Kecamatan Tejakula merupakan penghasil pertanian terbesar di Bali, selain itu terkenal penghasil salak bali dan jeruk keprok Tejakula, Seperti lainnya di Bali, Kabupaten Buleleng juga memiliki objek pariwisata yang cukup banyak, antara lain Pantai Lovina, Pura Pulaki, Air Sanih, ibu kota kabupaten Singaraja pun menjadi sasaran wisatawan.

Kabupaten Buleleng membawahi 9 kecamatan dan 148 desa/kelurahan. Adapun nama-nama kecamatan di kab. Buleleng yaitu sebagai berikut:

  1. Gerokgak
  2. Seririt
  3. Busung Biu
  4. Banjar
  5. Buleleng
  6. Sukasada
  7. Sawan
  8. Kubutambahan
  9. Tejakula

Peta Kabupaten Buleleng

Peta Kabupaten Buleleng merupakan bagian dari Peta Bali, karena kabupaten ini merupakan wilayah Provinsi Bali. Di bawah ini kami lampirkan 3 peta Kabupaten Buleleng, silahkan ambil yang sesuai:

Peta-Kabupaten-Buleleng-Lengkap

Peta-Infrastruktur-Kabupaten-Buleleng

 

Peta Kabupaten Bangli

Peta Kabupaten Bangli, Bali Lengkap

Bangli adalah salah satu kabupaten yang termasuk provinsi Bali dengan ibukotanya di Bangli Di banding yang lain, Kabupaten Bangli merupakan satu-satunya kabupaten di Bali yang tidak memiliki pantai, karena wilayahnyta terkurung oleh kabupaten-kabupaten yang lain.

Batas-batas Kabupaten Bangli adalah: sebelah utara berbatasan dengan Kabupaten Buleleng, sebelah timur berbatasan dengan kabupaten Klungkung dan Karangasem, sebelah selatan berbatasan dengan kabupaten Klungkung, Gianyar, dan sebelah barat berbatasan dengan Kabupaten Badung dan Gianyar.

Kabupaten Bangli hanya membawahi 4 Kecamatan, yaitu:

  1. Kintamani
  2. Susut
  3. Tembuku
  4. Bangli

Peta Kabupaten Bangli

Peta Kabupaten Bangli merupakan bagian dari Peta Bali yang lebih besar. Bagi anda yang ingin menelusuri wilayah kabupaten Bangli, di bawah ini kami lampirkan 3 peta, silahkan pilih mana yang anda suka menurut kebutuhan.

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Peta Kabupaten Badung

Peta Kabupaten Badung, Bali Lengkap

Badung merupakan salah satu kabupaten yang masuk dalam wilayah Provinsi Bali. Badung meliputi daerah-daerah yang tak asing lagi bagi para wisatawan, antara lain Kuta dan Nusa Dua. Ibu kota Kabupaten Badung adalah Mangupura, tetapi sebelumnya berada di Denpasar. Dalam sejarahnya, tahun 1999 di sana terjadi kerusuhan besar yang mengakibatkan Kantor Bupati Badung yang ada di Denpasar terbakar habis. Kemudian di pindah ke Mangupura.

Batas-batas Kabupaten Badung sebelah utara berbatasan dengan Kabupaten Buleleng, sebelah barat berbatasan dengan Kabupaten Tabanan, dan sebelah timur berbatasan dengan kota Denpasar, Kabupaten Bangli, dan Gianyar.

Kabupaten membawahi 6 kecamatan saja, yaitu sebagai berikut:

  1. Kecamatan ABIAN SEMAL
  2. Kecamatan KUTA
  3. Kecamatan KUTA SELATAN
  4. Kecamatan KUTA UTARA
  5. Kecamatan MENGWI
  6. Kecamatan PETANG

Peta Kabupaten Badung

Peta Badung merupakan bagian dari Peta Bali yang lebih besar. Agar lebih jelas, berikut kami lampirkan peta badung dalam 3 versi, selengkapnya di bawah ini:

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Peta-wisata-Kabupaten-Badung

Peta Pulau Bali

Peta Bali lengkap dengan Kabupaten dan Kota

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Bali 02

Bali merupakan salah satu provinsi di Indonesia yang memiliki tempat wisata yang terkenal di dunia. Setiap tahunnya ratusan bahkan ribuan wisatawan mancanegara pergi ke sana untuk melihat keindahan yang ada di Pulau Dewata ini. Berbagai tempat wisata khas mulai dari pantai, bangunan pura, dan seni tradisional Bali membuat para wisatawan mancanegara mengaguminya.

Tidak berbeda jauh dengan provinsi lainnya, meskipun Pulau Bali relatif kecil, namun menyimpan banyak sejarah yang patut dicatat bangsa Indonesia. Pada zaman kerajaan, Bali pernah berdiri sebuah kerajaan yang bernama Kerajaan Bali. Meski tak begitu populer seperti kerajaan-kerajaan besar nusantara yang populer seperti Majapahit misalnya, Kerajaan Bali juga meninggalkan berbagai situs sejarah seperti candi.

Di zaman kemerdekaan, rakyat Bali patut diacungi jempol atas semangatnya merebut dan mempertahankan kemerdekaan Republik Indonesia. Dibawah pimpinan I Gusti Ngurah Rai, rakyat Bali bertempur habis-habisan melawan penjajah. Pertempuran tersebut masih jelas teringat di jiwa rakyat Indonesia, yang terkenal dengan pertempuran Puputan Margarana.

Gambar Peta Bali dan batasnya

Seperti telah disinggung di atas, provinsi Bali merupakan sebuah pulau yang relatif kecil. Pulau Bali di sebelah barat berbatasan dengan Selat Bali yang merupakan pertemuan antara Bali dan Jawa Timur. Bagian utara berbatasan dengan Laut Bali, sebelah timur berbatasan dengan Selat Lombok, dan bagian selatan berbatasan dengan Samudera Indonesia.

Jika anda hanya melihat peta Bali di bawah ini, saya yakin tidak akan jelas untuk melihat nama-nama kota, pantai maupun tempat-tempat wisata yang ada di sana. Untuk itu, agar anda dapat melihatnya secara rinci, silahkan klik gambar peta Bali di bawah ini dan simpan di komputer anda.

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Nama Kabupaten dan kota di Bali

Karena wilayahnya yang sempit, maka pembagian wilayah kabupaten dan kota provinsi Bali hanya sedikit saja, yaitu 8 kabupaten dan 2 kota saja. Untuk melengkapi pengetahuan kita mengenai Provinsi Bali, di bawah ini kami lampirkan sejumlah nama kabupaten dan kota beserta ibu kotanya.

Delapan nama kabupaten di Bali

Adapun nama-nama kabupaten dan kota di bali lengkap dengan peta kabupaten/kota dapat anda lihat pada link-link di bawah ini:

  1. Peta Kabupaten Badung, ibukota : Mangupura
  2. Peta Kabupaten Bangli, ibukota : Bangli
  3. Peta Kabupaten Buleleng, ibukota : Singaraja
  4. Peta Kabupaten Gianyar, ibukota : Gianyar
  5. Peta Kabupaten Jembrana, ibukota : Negara
  6. Peta Kabupaten Karangasem , ibukota : Karangasem
  7. Peta Kabupaten Klungkung, ibukota : Semarapura
  8. Peta Kabupaten Tabanan, ibukota : Tabanan

Dua nama kota di Bali

  1. Peta Kota Amlapura, ibukota : I Wayan Wira Dharma
  2. Peta Kota Denpasar, ibukota : Denpasar

Mungkin anda belum tahu hukum adat yang ada di Pulau Dewata ini? Silahkan baca selengkapnya di artikel : Sekilas tentang hukum adat Tawan Karang di Bali

Untuk mengetahui bagaimana pemerintahan Bali sekarang ini, silahkan kunjungi situs resminya di : http://www.baliprov.go.id

Demikian yang dapat kami sampaikan mengenai Peta Bali lengkap dengan nama kabupaten dan kota. Semoga menjadikan manfaat bagi anda yang sedang mencari Peta Bali beserta nama kabupaten dan kotanya.

 

Peta Pulau Bali

 

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Delapan nama kabupaten di Bali

  1. Peta Kabupaten Badung, Ibukota : Mangupura
  2. Peta Kabupaten Bangli,  Ibukota : Bangli
  3. Peta Kabupaten Buleleng, Ibukota : Singaraja
  4. Peta Kabupaten Gianyar,  Ibukota : Gianyar
  5. Peta Kabupaten Jembrana,  Ibukota : Negara
  6. Peta Kabupaten Karangasem ,  Ibukota : Karangasem
  7. Peta Kabupaten Klungkung,  Ibukota : Semarapura
  8. Peta Kabupaten Tabanan,  Ibukota : Tabanan

  1. Peta Kabupaten Badung, Ibukota : Mangupura

PETA PULAU BALI 003-Kabupaten Badung

 

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2. Peta Kabupaten Bangli,  Ibukota : Bangli

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PETA PULAU BALI 004-Kabupaten Bangli-2

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3. Peta Kabupaten Buleleng, Ibukota : Singaraja

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4. Peta Kabupaten Gianyar,  Ibukota : Gianyar

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PETA PULAU BALI 006-Kabupaten Gianyar-2


5. Peta Kabupaten Jembrana,  Ibukota : Negara

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PETA PULAU BALI 007-Kabupaten Jembrana-2


6. Peta Kabupaten Karangasem ,  Ibukota : Karangasem

PETA PULAU BALI 008-Kabupaten Karangasem-1

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7. Peta Kabupaten Klungkung,  Ibukota : Semarapura

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8. Peta Kabupaten Tabanan,  Ibukota : Tabanan

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PETA PULAU BALI 010-Kabupaten Tabanan-2


Dua nama kota di Bali

  1. Peta Kota Amlapura,  Ibukota : I Wayan Wira Dharma
  2. Peta Kota Denpasar,  Ibukota : Denpasar

  1. Peta Kota Amlapura,  Ibukota : I Wayan Wira Dharma

PETA PULAU BALI 011-KOTA Amlapura


2. Peta Kota Denpasar,  Ibukota : Denpasar

PETA PULAU BALI 012-KOTA Denpasar

Jokowi Puji Pembagian Sertifikat Tanah di Bali Paling Cepat

4 Agustus 2017

INDONESIA MEMBANGUN-NEW

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Bali – Presiden Joko Widodo atau Jokowi membagikan sertifikat hak atas tanah pada program strategis nasional di Lapangan Renon, Denpasar, Bali. Sedikitnya 5.903 sertifikat dibagikan kepada warga.

Jokowi menjelaskan, terdapat 126 juta bidang tanah yang harus disertifikasi. Sedangkan, saat ini baru 46 juta. Pemerintah menargetkan 200 ribu sertifikat di Bali tahun ini. Dan semua tanah sudah memiliki sertifikat pada 2019.

“Dari semua (daerah) di Bali ini paling cepat, 2019 sudah semuanya (sertifikat) diberikan. Yang lainnya sampai 2025,” kata Jokowi, Bali, Jumat (4/8/2017).

Kepemilikan sertifikat bagi warga sangat penting. Dengan ini, potensi sengketa lahan bisa ditekan, mengingat sengketa lahan sangat sering terjadi. Bahkan, bisa menimbulkan konflik.

“Kalau sudah memiliki sertifikat ini enak, enggak ada sengketa-sengketa lagi. Karena ada ribuan sengketa yang harus diselesaikan. Sengketa harus dihentikan dengan sertifikat tanah,” imbuh dia.

Mantan Gubernur DKI Jakarta itu meminta warga menjaga baik-baik sertifikat yang sudah didapat. Bila ingin dijadikan agunan di bank juga harus dihitung betul biaya yang harus dikeluarkan.

“Tapi hati-hati kalau ingin diagunkan ke bank. Kalkulasi dulu bunga dan pokoknya, bisa nyicil enggak? Kalau enggak bisa, jangan dipaksakan,” pungkas Jokowi.

Turut mendampingi Presiden Jokowi, Sekretaris Kabinet Pramono Anung, Menteri Agraria dan Tata Ruang/Kepala BPN Sofyan Djalil, dan Gubernur Bali I Made Mangku Pastika.

Ubud

Ubud is a town on the Indonesian island of Bali in Ubud District, located amongst rice paddies and steep ravines in the central foothills of the Gianyar regency. One of Bali’s major arts and culture centres, it has developed a large tourism industry.

Ubud has a population of about 30,000 people. Recently, it has become difficult to distinguish the town itself from the villages that surround it.

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Ubud

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History


8th century legend tells of a Javanese priest, Rsi Markendya, who meditated at the confluence of two rivers (an auspicious site for Hindus) at the Ubud locality of Campuan. Here he founded the Gunung Lebah Temple on the valley floor, the site of which remains a pilgrim destination.

The town was originally important as a source of medicinal herbs and plants; Ubud gets its name from the Balinese word ubad (medicine).

In the late nineteenth century, Ubud became the seat of feudal lords who owed their allegiance to the king of Gianyar, at one time the most powerful of Bali’s southern states. The lords were members of the satriya family of Sukawati, and were significant supporters of the village’s increasingly renowned arts scene.

Tourism on the island developed after the arrival of Walter Spies, an ethnic German born in Russia who taught painting and music, and dabbled in dance. Spies and foreign painters Willem Hofker and Rudolf Bonnet entertained celebrities including Charlie Chaplin, Noël Coward, Barbara Hutton, H.G. Wells and Vicki Baum. They brought in some of the greatest artists from all over Bali to teach and train the Balinese in arts, helping Ubud become the cultural centre of Bali.

A new burst of creative energy came in 1960s in the wake of Dutch painter Arie Smit (1916-), and development of the Young Artists Movement. There are many museums in Ubud, including the Museum Puri Lukisan, Museum Neka and the Agung Rai Museum of Art.

The Bali tourist boom since the late 1960s has seen much development in the town; however, it remains a centre of artistic pursuit.

Town Orientation and Tourism

The main street is Jalan Raya Ubud (Jalan Raya means main road), which runs east-west through the center of town. Two long roads, Jalan Monkey Forest and Jalan Hanoman, extend south from Jalan Raya Ubud. Puri Saren Agung is a large palace located at the intersection of Monkey Forest and Raya Ubud roads. The home of Tjokorda Gede Agung Sukawati (1910–1978), the last “king” of Ubud, it is now occupied by his descendants and dance performances are held in its courtyard. It was also one of Ubud’s first hotels, dating back to the 1930s.

The Ubud Monkey Forest is a sacred nature reserve located near the southern end of Jalan Monkey Forest. It houses a temple and approximately 340 Crab-eating Macaque (Macaca fascicularis) monkeys.

Ubud tourism focuses on culture, yoga and nature. In contrast to the main tourist area in southern Bali, the Ubud area has forests, rivers, cooler temperatures and less congestion although traffic has increased dramatically in the 21st century. A number of smaller “boutique”-style hotels are located in and around Ubud, which commonly offer spa treatments or treks up nearby mountains.

The Moon of Pejeng, in nearby Pejeng, is the largest single-cast bronze kettle drum in the world, dating from circa 300BC. It is a popular destination for tourists interested in local culture, as is the 11th century Goa Gajah, or ‘Elephant Cave’, temple complex.

The Blanco Renaissance Museum is also located in the town.

Things to Do in Ubud, Bali


The laid-back town of Ubud is considered by many to be the epicenter for arts and culture in Bali. Ubud (pronounced “Ew-bood”) has developed a reputation as a place with a positive vibe, possibly explaining why so many artists and naturalists have settled in the lush, green areas around town.

Although tourism in Ubud is growing faster than the town can keep up, there is still a certain tranquility and happiness to be found in the clean air. The town has become a popular and peaceful retreat from the parties and crowded madness of Kuta just two hours away.

1. Get Lost in the Ubud Monkey Forest

The shady, green Ubud Monkey Forest is the most popular stop for tourists in the town of Ubud itself. Hundreds of playful and interactive Macaque monkeys call the sacred forest home and roam freely around the tree canopy and temple complex.

Walking around the winding, moss-covered brick paths of the Monkey Forest is a great way to escape the heat of the afternoon, but mind your belongings. The steady stream of tourists has made the monkeys bold enough to even reach into pockets in search of something interesting!

Before visiting, read about the Safety, How to Avoid Monkey Bites and Attacks

ubud-monkey-forest_8-800-horzOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAMonkey forest2. Going Shopping in Ubud

The influx of tourism in Ubud mixed with the proximity of so many artists has caused a great deal of unique boutiques and shops to open.  Unlike the tacky, beach-tourist feeling of shopping in Kuta, Ubud provides a much more sophisticated experience.

Local shops are filled with unique and beautiful crafts, art work, carvings, jewelery, and gifts to take back home. The sprawling, indoor Ubud Market caters mostly to tourists in search of cheap souvenirs.  Be sure to haggle prices – negotiation is expected – or you may end up paying triple what something is worth.

Be sure to check out the Ganesha Bookstore, considered the best second-hand bookstore in Bali, if not all of Indonesia.

3. Visit Ubud’s Art Museums & Galleries

Ubud is known as a hothouse for fine art in Bali. It’s all down to the town’s royal family, which has traditionally patronized artists. The King of Ubud himself co-founded the Pitamaha Artists Cooperative in 1936, which was responsible for the cross-pollination between traditional Balinese art and Western art (represented by the expat artists Rudolph Bonnet and Walter Spies, two westerners who settled in Ubud).

You can see the development of Ubud fine art through its collection of museums: the Blanco Renaissance Museum (pictured at the left) and the Museum Puri Lukisan, among others, feature two visions of Balinese art, the former a one-man perspective, the latter a more general overview of the 20th century and its artistic output.

4. Walk Through Ubud’s Rice Fields

Ubud has spilled out into its tiny surrounding villages, but the growth has not ruined the natural setting of the beautiful surroundings.  Green rice fields still blanket much of the area and can easily be reached by foot or on bicycle.

The fields may be hiked along a twisting path for miles through tiny, thatched-roof villages.  You will find the start of one of the trails just past the small market outside the “top” entrance of the Ubud Monkey Forest.

Hiking these tranquil fields in the morning to the sounds village life beginning is something you will never forget.

5. Get Holistically Healed

With scores of holistic medicine practitioners now living around Ubud, it is no surprise that so many spas and meditation centers have opened up.  In town you can easily find all types of Eastern and Western massage centers, reiki healers, herbal medicine shops, and even acupuncture practitioners.

The Bodyworks Healing Centre was the first of such places and has been providing natural healing to the local people long before Ubud was on the tourist map. For a more upscale wellness experience, check out the Spa Alila at the Alila Ubud just ten minutes’ drive out of town.

6. See the Cranes of Petulu

A strange, natural phenomenon occurs each evening just north of Ubud in the village of Petulu.  Thousands of white herons arrive here around 6:00 p.m. and prepare to roost for the night before flying off again in the morning.

The birds first began coming here after a communist massacre in 1965 but no one is sure why they continue to return.  Local lore holds that these are the souls of those that were killed.  Such a predictable gathering of these large and beautiful birds is a spectacle not to be missed.

7. Watch Balinese Dance Performances

No visit to Ubud is complete without seeing at least one traditional dance performance.  Although the performances are very tourist-oriented, this is a great opportunity to see classic Hindu legends being told through dancers in colorful, traditional costumes.

Ubud Palace is a popular place providing shows nightly as well as Pura Dalem which has twice-weekly shows and fire dances performed outside.

8. Visit a Hindu Temple or Two

Ubud and the villages in the surrounding area contain dozens of examples of beautiful Hindu Temples. Most temples are free to visit or ask for a small donation. Proper attire is required, although many temples will loan or rent a sarong for your visit.

Pura Penataran Asih in nearby Pejeng is a charming temple containing the largest bronze kettle drum in the world. The Bronze Age drum is known as the “Moon of Pejeng” and dates back to 300 B.C.

Pura Besakih on the slopes of Mount Agung is Bali’s most sacred temple site. A complex of 23 temples can be explored on a day trip from Ubud.

9. Enter the Elephant Cave

Only 10 minutes south of Ubud lies one of the most sacred sites in Bali: Goa Gajah.  Also known as the Elephant Cave, this Hindu site dates back to the 11th Century and was nominated as a tentative UNESCO World Heritage Site.

The cave is believed to have been home to Hindu priests and the entrance is carved with menacing figures from Hindu legend.  The interior of the cave is dark and contains a few religious relics.  The site is still used for worship by locals so proper dress is required to enter.

450px-Goa_Gajah-Elephant_Cave_EntranceEntrance to the ‘Elephant Cave’

Pintu_Masuk_Goa_GajahEntrance to the ‘Elephant Cave’

800px-Ubud.GoaGajah.Fountain.DetailBathing Temple

Site description

At the façade of the cave is a relief of various menacing creatures and demons carved right into the rock at the cave entrance. The primary figure was once thought to be an elephant, hence the nickname Elephant Cave. The site is mentioned in the Javanese poem Desawarnana written in 1365. An extensive bathing place on the site was not excavated until the 1950s. These appear to have been built to ward off evil spirits.

World Heritage Status

This site was added to the UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List on October 19, 1995 in the Cultural category.

10. Scale Mount Batur in Kintamani

Although technically an hour north, many people visiting Ubud make at least a day trip to the Kintamani region.  Kintamani in North Bali is home to Mount Batur and some of Bali’s best scenery.  Mount Batur is an active volcano that regularly smolders and surprises visitors with minor eruptions.

The largest crater lake in Bali fills part of Mount Batur’s caldera while small villages cling to the rim.  The views of Kintamani from the nearby village of Penelokan are well worth getting outside of Ubud for a day.

For those with lots of energy, a beautiful sunrise can be enjoyed from the summit of Mount Batur.  Travel agencies around Ubud provide early pickup and a guide for the two-hour trek to the top of the volcano.

MapBali1Bali-Kintamani-Mapkintamani-004KintamaniTourists Enjoy the view of Batur Mount

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Bali

Profil Pulau Bali


From Wikipedia, the free Encyclopedia

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Bali is an island and province of Indonesia, and includes a few smaller neighbouring islands, notably Nusa Penida. It is located at the westernmost end of the Lesser Sunda Islands, between Java to the west and Lombok to the east, and has its capital of Denpasar at the southern part of the island.

With a population of 3,890,757 in the 2010 census, and currently 4.22 million, the island is home to most of Indonesia’s Hindu minority. According to the 2010 Census, 84.5% of Bali’s population adhered to Balinese Hinduism, 12% to Islam, and most of the remainder followed Christianity. Bali is also the largest tourist destination in the country and is renowned for its highly developed arts, including traditional and modern dance, sculpture, painting, leather, metalworking, and music. A tourist haven for decades, the province has seen a further surge in tourist numbers in recent years.

Bali is part of the Coral Triangle, the area with the highest biodiversity of marine species. In this area alone over 500 reef building coral species can be found. For comparison, this is about 7 times as many as in the entire Caribbean. There is a wide range of dive sites with high quality reefs, all with their own specific attractions. Many sites can have strong currents and swell, so diving without a knowledgeable guide is unadvisable. Bali is the host of 2011 ASEAN Summit, 2013 APEC and Miss World 2013.

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Tanah Lot Temple located in Tabana Bali. The most famous tourism site in Bali, the most photographed site in Bali Island.

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Flag of Bali
Flag of Bali

Seal

Seal of Bali
Seal of Bali

Nickname(s): Island of Peace, Morning of The World, Island of Gods, Island of Hinduism, Island of Love.

Motto: Bali Dwipa Jaya (Kawi) (Glorious Bali Island)

Map of Bali

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  • Coordinates: 8°39′S 115°13′E
  • Country:  Indonesia
  • Capital:  Denpasar
  • Government
    • Governor: Made Mangku Pastika
  • Area
    • Total: 5,780.06 km2 | 2,231.69 sq mi)
  • Population (2012)
    • Total: 4,220,000
    • Density: 730/km2 (1,900/sq mi)
  • Demographics
    • Ethnic Groups
      • Balinese (89%)
      • Javanese (7%)
      • Baliaga (1%)
      • Madurese (1%)
    • Religion
      • Hindu (84.5%)
      • Muslim (13.3%)
      • Christian (1.7%)
      • Buddhist (0.5%)
  • Languages
    • Indonesian (official)
    • Balinese
    • English
  • Time Zone: WITA (UTC+08)

History


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At religious festivals on Bali the sculptures get dressed up and umbrellas are placed by the temples.Bali was inhabited around 2000 BC by Austronesian people who migrated originally from Southeast Asia and Oceania through Maritime Southeast Asia. Culturally and linguistically, the Balinese are thus closely related to the people of the Indonesian archipelago, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Oceania. Stone tools dating from this time have been found near the village of Cekik in the island’s west.

In ancient Bali, nine Hindu sects existed, namely Pasupata, Bhairawa, Siwa Shidanta, Waisnawa, Bodha, Brahma, Resi, Sora and Ganapatya. Each sect revered a specific deity as its personal Godhead.

Balinese culture was strongly influenced by Indian, Chinese, and particularly Hindu culture, beginning around the 1st century AD. The name Bali dwipa (“Bali island”) has been discovered from various inscriptions, including the Blanjong pillar inscription written by Sri Kesari Warmadewa in 914 AD and mentioning “Walidwipa”. It was during this time that the complex irrigation system subak was developed to grow rice. Some religious and cultural traditions still in existence today can be traced back to this period. The Hindu Majapahit Empire (1293–1520 AD) on eastern Java founded a Balinese colony in 1343. When the empire declined, there was an exodus of intellectuals, artists, priests, and musicians from Java to Bali in the 15th century.

The first European contact with Bali is thought to have been made in 1585 when a Portuguese ship foundered off the Bukit Peninsula and left a few Portuguese in the service of Dewa Agung. In 1597 the Dutch explorer Cornelis de Houtman arrived at Bali and, with the establishment of the Dutch East India Company in 1602, the stage was set for colonial control two and a half centuries later when Dutch control expanded across the Indonesian archipelago throughout the second half of the 19th century (see Dutch East Indies). Dutch political and economic control over Bali began in the 1840s on the island’s north coast, when the Dutch pitted various distrustful Balinese realms against each other.[15] In the late 1890s, struggles between Balinese kingdoms in the island’s south were exploited by the Dutch to increase their control.

In June 1860 the famous Welsh naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace travelled to Bali from Singapore landing at Bileling on the northcoast of the island. Wallace’s trip to Bali was instrumental in helping him devise his Wallace Line theory. The Wallace Line is a faunal boundary that run through the strait between Bali and Lombok, which, though a short distance, is a boundary between species of Asiatic origin in the east and a mixture of Australian and Asian species to the west. In his travel memoir The Malay Archipelago Wallace writes of his experience in Bali:

I was both astonished and delighted; for as my visit to Java was some years later, I had never beheld so beautiful and well-cultivated a district out of Europe. A slightly undulating plain extends from the seacoast about ten or twelve miles inland, where it is bounded by a fine range of wooded and cultivated hills. Houses and villages, marked out by dense clumps of coconut palms, tamarind and other fruit trees, are dotted about in every direction; while between them extend luxurious rice-grounds, watered by an elaborate system of irrigation that would be the pride of the best cultivated parts of Europe.

The Dutch mounted large naval and ground assaults at the Sanur region in 1906 and were met by the thousands of members of the royal family and their followers who fought against the superior Dutch force in a suicidal puputan defensive assault rather than face the humiliation of surrender. Despite Dutch demands for surrender, an estimated 200 Balinese marched to their death against the invaders. In the Dutch intervention in Bali, a similar massacre occurred in the face of a Dutch assault in Klungkung. Afterwards the Dutch governors were able to exercise administrative control over the island, but local control over religion and culture generally remained intact. Dutch rule over Bali came later and was never as well established as in other parts of Indonesia such as Java and Maluku.

In the 1930s, anthropologists Margaret Mead and Gregory Bateson, and artists Miguel Covarrubias and Walter Spies, and musicologist Colin McPhee created a western image of Bali as “an enchanted land of aesthetes at peace with themselves and nature”, and western tourism first developed on the island.

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Balinese dancers show for tourists, in Ubud.

Imperial Japan occupied Bali during World War II. Bali Island was not originally a target in their Netherlands East Indies Campaign, but as the airfields on Borneo were inoperative due to heavy rains the Imperial Japanese Army decided to occupy Bali, which did not suffer from comparable weather. The island had no regular Royal Netherlands East Indies Army (KNIL) troops. There was only a Native Auxiliary Corps Prajoda (Korps Prajoda) consisting of about 600 native soldiers and several Dutch KNIL officers under command of KNIL Lieutenant Colonel W.P. Roodenburg. On 19 February 1942 the Japanese forces landed near the town of Senoer [Senur]. The island was quickly captured.

During the Japanese occupation a Balinese military officer, Gusti Ngurah Rai, formed a Balinese ‘freedom army’. The lack of institutional changes from the time of Dutch rule however, and the harshness of war requisitions made Japanese rule worse than the Dutch one. Following Japan’s Pacific surrender in August 1945, the Dutch promptly returned to Indonesia, including Bali, immediately to reinstate their pre-war colonial administration. This was resisted by the Balinese rebels now using Japanese weapons. On 20 November 1946, the Battle of Marga was fought in Tabanan in central Bali. Colonel I Gusti Ngurah Rai, by then 29 years old, finally rallied his forces in east Bali at Marga Rana, where they made a suicide attack on the heavily armed Dutch. The Balinese battalion was entirely wiped out, breaking the last thread of Balinese military resistance. In 1946 the Dutch constituted Bali as one of the 13 administrative districts of the newly proclaimed State of East Indonesia, a rival state to the Republic of Indonesia which was proclaimed and headed by Sukarno and Hatta. Bali was included in the “Republic of the United States of Indonesia” when the Netherlands recognised Indonesian independence on 29 December 1949.

The 1963 eruption of Mount Agung killed thousands, created economic havoc and forced many displaced Balinese to be transmigrated to other parts of Indonesia. Mirroring the widening of social divisions across Indonesia in the 1950s and early 1960s, Bali saw conflict between supporters of the traditional caste system, and those rejecting these traditional values. Politically, the opposition was represented by supporters of the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) and the Indonesian Nationalist Party (PNI), with tensions and ill-feeling further increased by the PKI’s land reform programs. An attempted coup in Jakarta was put down by forces led by General Suharto. The army became the dominant power as it instigated a violent anti-communist purge, in which the army blamed the PKI for the coup. Most estimates suggest that at least 500,000 people were killed across Indonesia, with an estimated 80,000 killed in Bali, equivalent to 5% of the island’s population. With no Islamic forces involved as in Java and Sumatra, upper-caste PNI landlords led the extermination of PKI members.

As a result of the 1965/66 upheavals, Suharto was able to manoeuvre Sukarno out of the presidency, and his “New Order” government reestablished relations with western countries. The pre-War Bali as “paradise” was revived in a modern form, and the resulting large growth in tourism has led to a dramatic increase in Balinese standards of living and significant foreign exchange earned for the country. A bombing in 2002 by militant Islamists in the tourist area of Kuta killed 202 people, mostly foreigners. This attack, and another in 2005, severely affected tourism, bringing much economic hardship to the island.

Geography


The island of Bali lies 3.2 km (2 mi) east of Java, and is approximately 8 degrees south of the equator. Bali and Java are separated by the Bali Strait. East to west, the island is approximately 153 km (95 mi) wide and spans approximately 112 km (69 mi) north to south; administratively it covers 5,780 km2, or 5,577 km2 without Nusa Penida District, its population density is roughly 750 people/km2.

Bali’s central mountains include several peaks over 3,000 metres in elevation. The highest is Mount Agung (3,031 m), known as the “mother mountain” which is an active volcano. Mountains range from centre to the eastern side, with Mount Agung the easternmost peak. Bali’s volcanic nature has contributed to its exceptional fertility and its tall mountain ranges provide the high rainfall that supports the highly productive agriculture sector. South of the mountains is a broad, steadily descending area where most of Bali’s large rice crop is grown. The northern side of the mountains slopes more steeply to the sea and is the main coffee producing area of the island, along with rice, vegetables and cattle. The longest river, Ayung River, flows approximately 75 km.

Topography of the island
Topography of the island

The island is surrounded by coral reefs. Beaches in the south tend to have white sand while those in the north and west have black sand. Bali has no major waterways, although the Ho River is navigable by small sampan boats. Black sand beaches between Pasut and Klatingdukuh are being developed for tourism, but apart from the seaside temple of Tanah Lot, they are not yet used for significant tourism.

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Subak Irrigation system

The largest city is the provincial capital, Denpasar, near the southern coast. Its population is around 491,500 (2002). Bali’s second-largest city is the old colonial capital, Singaraja, which is located on the north coast and is home to around 100,000 people. Other important cities include the beach resort, Kuta, which is practically part of Denpasar’s urban area, and Ubud, situated at the north of Denpasar, is the island’s cultural centre.

Three small islands lie to the immediate south east and all are administratively part of the Klungkung regency of Bali: Nusa Penida, Nusa Lembongan and Nusa Ceningan. These islands are separated from Bali by the Badung Strait.

To the east, the Lombok Strait separates Bali from Lombok and marks the biogeographical division between the fauna of the Indomalayan ecozone and the distinctly different fauna of Australasia. The transition is known as the Wallace Line, named after Alfred Russel Wallace, who first proposed a transition zone between these two major biomes. When sea levels dropped during the Pleistocene ice age, Bali was connected to Java and Sumatra and to the mainland of Asia and shared the Asian fauna, but the deep water of the Lombok Strait continued to keep Lombok Island and the Lesser Sunda archipelago isolated.

Ecology


The Bali Starling is found only on Bali and is critically endangered.
The Bali Starling is found only on Bali and is critically endangered.

Bali lies just to the west of the Wallace Line, and thus has a fauna that is Asian in character, with very little Australasian influence, and has more in common with Java than with Lombok. An exception is the Yellow-crested Cockatoo, a member of a primarily Australasian family. There are around 280 species of birds, including the critically endangered Bali Starling, which is endemic. Others Include Barn Swallow, Black-naped Oriole, Black Racket-tailed Treepie, Crested Serpent-eagle, Crested Treeswift, Dollarbird, Java Sparrow, Lesser Adjutant, Long-tailed Shrike, Milky Stork, Pacific Swallow, Red-rumped Swallow, Sacred Kingfisher, Sea Eagle, Woodswallow, Savanna Nightjar, Stork-billed Kingfisher, Yellow-vented Bulbul, White Heron, Great Egret.

Until the early 20th century, Bali was home to several large mammals: the wild Banteng, leopard and the endemic Bali tiger. The Banteng still occurs in its domestic form, whereas leopards are found only in neighbouring Java, and the Bali tiger is extinct. The last definite record of a tiger on Bali dates from 1937, when one was shot, though the subspecies may have survived until the 1940s or 1950s. The relatively small size of the island, conflict with humans, poaching and habitat reduction drove the Bali tiger to extinction. This was the smallest and rarest of all tiger subspecies and was never caught on film or displayed in zoos, whereas few skins or bones remain in museums around the world. Today, the largest mammals are the Javan Rusa deer and the Wild Boar. A second, smaller species of deer, the Indian Muntjac, also occurs. Saltwater crocodiles were once present on the island, but became locally extinct sometime during the last century.

Monkey at Ulu Watu Temple
Monkey at Ulu Watu Temple

Squirrels are quite commonly encountered, less often is the Asian Palm Civet, which is also kept in coffee farms to produce Kopi Luwak. Bats are well represented, perhaps the most famous place to encounter them remaining the Goa Lawah (Temple of the Bats) where they are worshipped by the locals and also constitute a tourist attraction. They also occur in other cave temples, for instance at Gangga Beach. Two species of monkey occur. The Crab-eating Macaque, known locally as “kera”, is quite common around human settlements and temples, where it becomes accustomed to being fed by humans, particularly in any of the three “monkey forest” temples, such as the popular one in the Ubud area. They are also quite often kept as pets by locals. The second monkey, endemic to Java and some surrounding islands such as Bali, is far rarer and more elusive is the Javan Langur, locally known as “lutung”. They occur in few places apart from the Bali Barat National Park. They are born an orange colour, though by their first year they would have already changed to a more blackish colouration. In Java however, there is more of a tendency for this species to retain its juvenile orange colour into adulthood, and so you can see a mixture of black and orange monkeys together as a family. Other rarer mammals include the Leopard Cat, Sunda Pangolin and Black Giant Squirrel.

Snakes include the King Cobra and Reticulated Python. The Water Monitor can grow to at least 1.5 m (4.9 ft) in length and 50 kg (110 lb) and can move quickly.

The rich coral reefs around the coast, particularly around popular diving spots such as Tulamben, Amed, Menjangan or neighbouring Nusa Penida, host a wide range of marine life, for instance Hawksbill Turtle, Giant Sunfish, Giant Manta Ray, Giant Moray Eel, Bumphead Parrotfish, Hammerhead Shark, Reef Shark, barracuda, and sea snakes. Dolphins are commonly encountered on the north coast near Singaraja and Lovina.

A team of scientists conducted a survey from 29 April 2011 to 11 May 2011 at 33 sea sites around Bali. They discovered 952 species of reef fish of which 8 were new discoveries at Pemuteran, Gilimanuk, Nusa Dua, Tulamben and Candidasa, and 393 coral species, including two new ones at Padangbai and between Padangbai and Amed. The average coverage level of healthy coral was 36% (better than in Raja Ampat and Halmahera by 29% or in Fakfak and Kaimana by 25%) with the highest coverage found in Gili Selang and Gili Mimpang in Candidasa, Karangasem regency.

Many plants have been introduced by humans within the last centuries, particularly since the 20th century, making it sometimes hard to distinguish what plants are really native. Among the larger trees the most common are: Banyan trees, Jackfruit, coconuts, bamboo species, acacia trees and also endless rows of coconuts and banana species. Numerous flowers can be seen: hibiscus, frangipani, bougainvillea, poinsettia, oleander, jasmine, water lily, lotus, roses, begonias, orchids and hydrangeas exist. On higher grounds that receive more moisture, for instance around Kintamani, certain species of fern trees, mushrooms and even pine trees thrive well. Rice comes in many varieties. Other plants with agricultural value include: salak, mangosteen, corn, Kintamani orange, coffee and water spinach.

Environment


Some of the worst erosion has occurred in Lebih Beach, where up to 7 metres of land is lost every year. Decades ago, this beach was used for holy pilgrimages with more than 10,000 people, but they have now moved to Masceti Beach.

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Rice Terraces in Bali

From ranked third in previous review, in 2010 Bali got score 99.65 of Indonesia’s environmental quality index and the highest of all the 33 provinces. The score measured 3 water quality parameters: the level of total suspended solids (TSS), dissolved oxygen (DO) and chemical oxygen demand (COD).

Because of over-exploitation by the tourist industry which covers a massive land area, 200 out of 400 rivers on the island have dried up and based on research, the southern part of Bali would face a water shortage up to 2,500 litres of clean water per second by 2015. To ease the shortage, the central government plans to build a water catchment and processing facility at Petanu River in Gianyar. The 300 litres capacity of water per second will be channelled to Denpasar, Badung and Gianyar in 2013.

Administrative Divisions


The province is divided into 8 regencies (kabupaten) and 1 city (kota). These are:

Administrative divisions

Economy


Three decades ago, the Balinese economy was largely agriculture-based in terms of both output and employment. Tourism is now the largest single industry in terms of income, and as a result, Bali is one of Indonesia’s wealthiest regions. About 80% of Bali’s economy depends on tourism; Note: non-referenced % in the article: in fact a great number of the population still lives thanks to agriculture although this situation is changing rapidly. By end of June 2011, non-performing loan of all banks in Bali were 2.23%, lower than the average of Indonesian banking industry non-performing loan (about 5%). The economy, however, suffered significantly as a result of the terrorist bombings 2002 and 2005. The tourism industry has since recovered from these events.

Agriculture

Although tourism produces the GDP’s largest output, agriculture is still the island’s biggest employer; most notably rice cultivation. Crops grown in smaller amounts include fruit, vegetables, Coffea arabica and other cash and subsistence crops. Fishing also provides a significant number of jobs. Bali is also famous for its artisans who produce a vast array of handicrafts, including batik and ikat cloth and clothing, wooden carvings, stone carvings, painted art and silverware. Notably, individual villages typically adopt a single product, such as wind chimes or wooden furniture.

The Arabica coffee production region is the highland region of Kintamani near Mount Batur. Generally, Balinese coffee is processed using the wet method. This results in a sweet, soft coffee with good consistency. Typical flavours include lemon and other citrus notes. Many coffee farmers in Kintamani are members of a traditional farming system called Subak Abian, which is based on the Hindu philosophy of “Tri Hita Karana”. According to this philosophy, the three causes of happiness are good relations with God, other people and the environment. The Subak Abian system is ideally suited to the production of fair trade and organic coffee production. Arabica coffee from Kintamani is the first product in Indonesia to request a Geographical Indication.

Tourism

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Canyoning in Gitgit Waterfall, Bali, Indonesia

The tourism industry is primarily focused in the south, while significant in the other parts of the island as well. The main tourist locations are the town of Kuta (with its beach), and its outer suburbs of Legian and Seminyak (which were once independent townships), the east coast town of Sanur (once the only tourist hub), in the center of the island Ubud, to the south of the Ngurah Rai International Airport, Jimbaran, and the newer development of Nusa Dua and Pecatu.

The American government lifted its travel warnings in 2008. The Australian government last issued an advice on Friday, 4 May 2012. The overall level of the advice was lowered to ‘Exercise a high degree of caution’. The Swedish government issued a new warning on Sunday, 10 June 2012 because of one more tourist who has been killed by methanol poisoning.

An offshoot of tourism is the growing real estate industry. Bali real estate has been rapidly developing in the main tourist areas of Kuta, Legian, Seminyak and Oberoi. Most recently, high-end 5 star projects are under development on the Bukit peninsula, on the south side of the island. Million dollar villas are being developed along the cliff sides of south Bali, commanding panoramic ocean views. Foreign and domestic (many Jakarta individuals and companies are fairly active) investment into other areas of the island also continues to grow. Land prices, despite the worldwide economic crisis, have remained stable.

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The Tirtha Empul Temple draws tourists who seek its holy waters

In the last half of 2008, Indonesia’s currency had dropped approximately 30% against the US dollar, providing many overseas visitors value for their currencies. Visitor arrivals for 2009 were forecast to drop 8% (which would be higher than 2007 levels), due to the worldwide economic crisis which has also affected the global tourist industry, but not due to any travel warnings.

Bali’s tourism economy survived the terrorist bombings of 2002 and 2005, and the tourism industry has in fact slowly recovered and surpassed its pre-terrorist bombing levels; the longterm trend has been a steady increase of visitor arrivals. In 2010, Bali received 2.57 million foreign tourists, which surpassed the target of 2.0–2.3 million tourists. The average occupancy of starred hotels achieved 65%, so the island is still able to accommodate tourists for some years without any addition of new rooms/hotels, although at the peak season some of them are fully booked.

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Pura Taman Ayun, another temple which is a popular tourist destination

Bali received the Best Island award from Travel and Leisure in 2010. The island of Bali won because of its attractive surroundings (both mountain and coastal areas), diverse tourist attractions, excellent international and local restaurants, and the friendliness of the local people. According to BBC Travel released in 2011, Bali is one of the World’s Best Islands, rank in second after Greece.

In August 2010, the film version of Eat, Pray, Love (EPL) was released in theatres. The movie was based on Elizabeth Gilbert’s best-selling memoir of the same name. It took place at Ubud and Padang-Padang Beach at Bali. The 2006 book, which spent 57 weeks at the No. 1 spot on the New York Times paperback nonfiction best-seller list, had already fuelled a boom in EPL tourism in Ubud, the hill town and cultural and tourist center that was the focus of Gilbert’s quest for balance through traditional spirituality and healing that leads to love.

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A statue of Arjuna on a street in Bali

Since 2011, China has displaced Japan as the second-largest supplier of tourists to Bali, while Australia still tops the list. Chinese tourists increased by 17% from last year due to the impact of ACFTA and new direct flights to Bali. In January 2012, Chinese tourists year on year (yoy) increased by 222.18% compared to January 2011, while Japanese tourists declined by 23.54% yoy.

Bali reported that it has 2.88 million foreign tourists and 5 million domestic tourists in 2012, marginally surpassing the expectations of 2.8 million foreign tourists. Forecasts for 2013 are at 3.1 million.

Based on Bank Indonesia survey in May 2013, 34.39 percent of tourists are upper-middle class with spending between $1,286 to $5,592 and dominated by Australia, France, China, Germany and the US with some China tourists move from low spending before to higher spending currently. While 30.26 percent are middle class with spending between $662 to $1,285.

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Kuta Beach is a popular tourist spot in Bali

Transportation


The Ngurah Rai International Airport is located near Jimbaran, on the isthmus at the southernmost part of the island. Lt.Col. Wisnu Airfield is found in north-west Bali.

A major form of transport in Bali is the Moped
A major form of transport in Bali is the Moped

A coastal road circles the island, and three major two-lane arteries cross the central mountains at passes reaching to 1,750m in height (at Penelokan). The Ngurah Rai Bypass is a four-lane expressway that partly encircles Denpasar and enables cars to travel quickly in the heavily populated south. Bali has no railway lines yet.

December 2010: the Government of Indonesia has invited investors to build Tanah Ampo Cruise Terminal at Karangasem, Bali amounted $30 million. In 17 July 2011 the first cruise ship (Sun Princess) anchored about 400 meters away from the wharf of Tanah Ampo harbour. The current pier is only 154 meters and will eventually be 300 to 350 meters to accommodate international cruise ships. The harbour would be safer than Benoa and has a scenic backdrop of a panoramic view of mountainous area with green rice fields. By December 2011 the auction process will be settled and Tanah Ampo is predicted to become the main hub for cruise ships in Indonesia by 2013.

A Memorandum of Understanding has been signed by two ministers, Bali’s Governor and Indonesian Train Company to build 565 kilometres of railway along the coast around the island. It should be operating by 2015.

On 16 March 2011 (Tanjung) Benoa port received the “Best Port Welcome 2010” award from London’s “Dream World Cruise Destination” magazine. Government plans to expand the role of Benoa port as export-import port to boost Bali’s trade and industry sector. The Tourism and Creative Economy Ministry has confirmed that 306 cruise liners are heading for Indonesia in 2013 – an increase of 43 percent compared to the previous year.

On May 2011, an integrated Areal Traffic Control System (ATCS) was implemented to reduce traffic jams at four crossing points: Ngurah Rai statue, Dewa Ruci Kuta crossing, Jimbaran crossing and Sanur crossing. ATCS is an integrated system connecting all traffic lights, CCTVs and other traffic signals with a monitoring office at the police headquarters. It has successfully been implemented in other ASEAN countries and will be implemented at other crossings in Bali.

On 21 December 2011 construction started on the Nusa Dua-Benoa-Ngurah Rai International Airport toll road which will also provide a special lane for motorcycles. This has been done by seven state-owned enterprises led by PT Jasa Marga with 60% of shares. PT Jasa Marga Bali Tol will construct the 9.91 kilometres toll road (totally 12.7 kilometres with access road). The construction is estimated to cost Rp.2.49 trillion ($273.9 million). The project goes through 2 kilometres of mangrove forest and through 2.3 kilometres of beach, both within 5.4 hectares area. The elevated toll road is built over the mangrove forest on 18,000 concrete pillars which occupied 2 hectares of mangroves forest. It compensated by new planting of 300,000 mangrove trees along the road. On 21 December 2011 the Dewa Ruci 450 meters underpass has also started on the busy Dewa Ruci junction near Bali Kuta Galeria with an estimated cost of Rp136 billion ($14.9 million) from the state budget. On 23 September 2013, the Bali Mandara Toll Road is opened and the Dewa Ruci Junction (Simpang Siur) underpass is opened before. Both are ease the heavy traffic congestion.

To solve chronic traffic problems, the province will also build a toll road connecting Serangan with Tohpati, a toll road connecting Kuta, Denpasar and Tohpati and a flyover connecting Kuta and Ngurah Rai Airport.

Demographics


The population of Bali was 3,890,757 as of the 2010 Census. There are an estimated 30,000 expatriates living in Bali.

HISTORICAL POPULATIONEthnic Origins

A DNA study in 2005 by Karafet et al. found that 12% of Balinese Y-chromosomes are of likely Indian origin, while 84% are of likely Austronesian origin, and 2% of likely Melanesian origin. The study does not correlate the DNA samples to the Balinese caste system.

RELIGION IN BALI 2012Caste System

Main article: Balinese caste system

Bali has a caste system based on the Indian Hindu model, with four castes:

  • Sudra – peasants constituting close to 93% of Bali’s population.
  • Wesia (Vaishyas) – the caste of merchants and administrative officials
  • Ksatrias (Kshatriyas) – the kingly and warrior caste
  • Brachmana – holy men and priests

Religion

Unlike most of Muslim-majority Indonesia, about 83.5% of Bali’s population adheres to Balinese Hinduism, formed as a combination of existing local beliefs and Hindu influences from mainland Southeast Asia and South Asia. Minority religions include Islam (13.3%), Christianity (1.7%), and Buddhism (0.5%). These figures do not include immigrants from other parts of Indonesia.

The Mother Temple of Besakih, one of Bali's most significant Hindu temples.
The Mother Temple of Besakih, one of Bali’s most significant Hindu temples.

When Islam surpassed Hinduism in Java (16th century), Bali became a refuge for many Hindus. Balinese Hinduism is an amalgam in which gods and demigods are worshipped together with Buddhist heroes, the spirits of ancestors, indigenous agricultural deities and sacred places. Religion as it is practised in Bali is a composite belief system that embraces not only theology, philosophy, and mythology, but ancestor worship, animism and magic. It pervades nearly every aspect of traditional life. Caste is observed, though less strictly than in India. With an estimated 20,000 puras (temples) and shrines, Bali is known as the “Island of a Thousand Puras”, or “Island of the Gods”.

A religious procession
A religious procession

Balinese Hinduism has roots in Indian Hinduism and in Buddhism, and adopted the animistic traditions of the indigenous people. This influence strengthened the belief that the gods and goddesses are present in all things. Every element of nature, therefore, possesses its own power, which reflects the power of the gods. A rock, tree, dagger, or woven cloth is a potential home for spirits whose energy can be directed for good or evil. Balinese Hinduism is deeply interwoven with art and ritual. Ritualizing states of self-control are a notable feature of religious expression among the people, who for this reason have become famous for their graceful and decorous behaviour.

Apart from the majority of Balinese Hindus, there also exist Chinese immigrants whose traditions have melded with that of the locals. As a result, these Sino-Balinese not only embrace their original religion, which is a mixture of Buddhism, Christianity, Taoism and Confucianism, but also find a way to harmonise it with the local traditions. Hence, it is not uncommon to find local Sino-Balinese during the local temple’s odalan. Moreover, Balinese Hindu priests are invited to perform rites alongside a Chinese priest in the event of the death of a Sino-Balinese. Nevertheless, the Sino-Balinese claim to embrace Buddhism for administrative purposes, such as their Identity Cards.

Language

Balinese and Indonesian are the most widely spoken languages in Bali, and the vast majority of Balinese people are bilingual or trilingual. The most common spoken language around the tourist areas is Indonesian, as many people in the tourist sector are not solely Balinese, but migrants from Java, Lombok, Sumatra, and other parts of Indonesia. There are several indigenous Balinese languages, but most Balinese can also use the most widely spoken option: modern common Balinese. The usage of different Balinese languages was traditionally determined by the Balinese caste system and by clan membership, but this tradition is diminishing. Kawi and Sanskrit are also commonly used by some Hindu priests in Bali, for Hinduism literature was mostly written in Sanskrit.

English is a common third language (and the primary foreign language) of many Balinese, owing to the requirements of the tourism industry. Other foreign languages, such as Chinese, Japanese, Korean, French or German are often used in multilingual signs for foreign tourists.

Culture


Bali is renowned for its diverse and sophisticated art forms, such as painting, sculpture, woodcarving, handcrafts, and performing arts. Balinese cuisine is also distinctive. Balinese percussion orchestra music, known as gamelan, is highly developed and varied. Balinese performing arts often portray stories from Hindu epics such as the Ramayana but with heavy Balinese influence. Famous Balinese dances include pendet, legong, baris, topeng, barong, gong keybar, and kecak (the monkey dance). Bali boasts one of the most diverse and innovative performing arts cultures in the world, with paid performances at thousands of temple festivals, private ceremonies, or public shows.

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A Kecak dance being performed at Uluwatu, in Bali

The Hindu New Year, Nyepi, is celebrated in the spring by a day of silence. On this day everyone stays at home and tourists are encouraged to remain in their hotels. On the day before New Year, large and colourful sculptures of ogoh-ogoh monsters are paraded and finally burned in the evening to drive away evil spirits. Other festivals throughout the year are specified by the Balinese pawukon calendrical system.

Celebrations are held for many occasions such as a tooth-filing (coming-of-age ritual), cremation or odalan (temple festival). One of the most important concepts that Balinese ceremonies have in common is that of désa kala patra, which refers to how ritual performances must be appropriate in both the specific and general social context. Many of the ceremonial art forms such as wayang kulit and topeng are highly improvisatory, providing flexibility for the performer to adapt the performance to the current situation. Many celebrations call for a loud, boisterous atmosphere with lots of activity and the resulting aesthetic, ramé, is distinctively Balinese. Often two or more gamelan ensembles will be performing well within earshot, and sometimes compete with each other to be heard. Likewise, the audience members talk amongst themselves, get up and walk around, or even cheer on the performance, which adds to the many layers of activity and the liveliness typical of ramé.

Cremation in Ubud
Cremation in Ubud

Kaja and kelod are the Balinese equivalents of North and South, which refer to ones orientation between the island’s largest mountain Gunung Agung (kaja), and the sea (kelod). In addition to spatial orientation, kaja and kelod have the connotation of good and evil; gods and ancestors are believed to live on the mountain whereas demons live in the sea. Buildings such as temples and residential homes are spatially oriented by having the most sacred spaces closest to the mountain and the unclean places nearest to the sea.

Most temples have an inner courtyard and an outer courtyard which are arranged with the inner courtyard furthest kaja. These spaces serve as performance venues since most Balinese rituals are accompanied by any combination of music, dance and drama. The performances that take place in the inner courtyard are classified as wali, the most sacred rituals which are offerings exclusively for the gods, while the outer courtyard is where bebali ceremonies are held, which are intended for gods and people. Lastly, performances meant solely for the entertainment of humans take place outside the walls of the temple and are called bali-balihan. This three-tiered system of classification was standardised in 1971 by a committee of Balinese officials and artists to better protect the sanctity of the oldest and most sacred Balinese rituals from being performed for a paying audience.

Tourism, Bali’s chief industry, has provided the island with a foreign audience that is eager to pay for entertainment, thus creating new performance opportunities and more demand for performers. The impact of tourism is controversial since before it became integrated into the economy, the Balinese performing arts did not exist as a capitalist venture, and were not performed for entertainment outside of their respective ritual context. Since the 1930s sacred rituals such as the barong dance have been performed both in their original contexts, as well as exclusively for paying tourists. This has led to new versions of many of these performances which have developed according to the preferences of foreign audiences; some villages have a barong mask specifically for non-ritual performances as well as an older mask which is only used for sacred performances.

Balinese society continues to revolve around each family’s ancestral village, to which the cycle of life and religion is closely tied.[74] Coercive aspects of traditional society, such as customary law sanctions imposed by traditional authorities such as village councils (including “kasepekang”, or shunning) have risen in importance as a consequence of the democratisation and decentralisation of Indonesia since 1998.

Peta-Uluwatu-horz

Bali Gallery

Maps of Bali in Various Versions

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Map of City Streets in Bali

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Tanah Lot – Pulau Dewata Bali (in Indonesian)

Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

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Tanah Lot’ adalah sebuah objek wisata di Bali, Indonesia. Di sini ada dua pura yang terletak di atas batu besar. Satu terletak di atas bongkahan batu dan satunya terletak di atas tebing mirip dengan Pura Uluwatu. Pura Tanah Lot ini merupakan bagian dari pura Dang Kahyangan. Pura Tanah Lot merupakan pura laut tempat pemujaan dewa-dewa penjaga laut.

Tanah_Lot

 Legenda

Menurut legenda, pura ini dibangun oleh seorang brahmana yang mengembara dari Jawa. Ia adalah Danghyang Nirartha yang berhasil menguatkan kepercayaan penduduk Bali akan ajaran Hindu dan membangun Sad Kahyangan tersebut pada abad ke-16. Pada saat itu penguasa Tanah Lot, Bendesa Beraben, iri terhadap beliau karena para pengikutnya mulai meninggalkannya dan mengikuti Danghyang Nirartha. Bendesa Beraben menyuruh Danghyang Nirartha untuk meninggalkan Tanah Lot. Ia menyanggupi dan sebelum meninggalkan Tanah Lot beliau dengan kekuatannya memindahkan Bongkahan Batu ke tengah pantai (bukan ke tengah laut) dan membangun pura di sana. Ia juga mengubah selendangnya menjadi ular penjaga pura. Ular ini masih ada sampai sekarang dan secara ilmiah ular ini termasuk jenis ular laut yang mempunyai ciri-ciri berekor pipih seperti ikan, warna hitam berbelang kuning dan mempunyai racun 3 kali lebih kuat dari ular cobra. Akhir dari legenda menyebutkan bahwa Bendesa Beraben ‘akhirnya’ menjadi pengikut Danghyang Nirartha.

Lokasi

Obyek wisata tanah lot terletak di Desa Beraban Kecamatan Kediri Kabupaten Tabanan, sekitar 13 km barat Tabanan. Disebelah utara Pura Tanah Lot terdapat sebuah Pura yang terletak di atas tebing yang menjorok ke laut. Tebing ini menghubungkan Pura dengan daratan dan berbentuk seperti jembatan (melengkung). Tanah Lot terkenal sebagai tempat yang indah untuk melihat matahari terbenam (sunset), turis-turis biasanya ramai pada sore hari untuk melihat keindahan sunset di sini.

Hari Raya

Odalan atau hari raya di Pura ini diperingati setiap 210 hari sekali, sama seperti pura-pura yang lain. Jatuhnya dekat dengan perayaan Galungan dan Kuningan yaitu tepatnya pada Hari Suci Buda Cemeng Langkir. Saat itu, orang yang sembahyang akan ramai bersembahyang di Pura Ini.

Galungan

450px-Street_decoration_for_Galungan_celebrationHari raya Galungan: Buda Kliwon Dungulan adalah hari memperingati terciptanya alam semesta beserta isinya dan kemenangan dharma melawan adharma Umat Hindu melakukan persembahan kehadapan Sang Hyang Widhi dan Dewa Bhatara/dengan segala manisfestasinya sebagai tanda puji syukur atas rahmatnya serta untuk keselamatan selanjutnya. Sedangkan penjor yang dipasang di muka tiap-tiap perumahan yaitu merupakan aturan kehadapan Bhatara Mahadewa yang berkedudukan di Gunung Agung.

Tanah Lot Gallery

Tanah Lot Sunset
Tanah Lot Sunset
Sunset at Tanah Lot
Sunset at Tanah Lot
Pura Batu Balong, another temple found in the area
Pura Batu Balong, another temple found in the area

DPS Bali Tanah Lot Temple_b

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