Tag Archives: Grounding

The Significance of Grounding

Today people are beginning to understand the importance of a continuous grounding system. One of the most beneficial reasons is that it helps protect your home, electrical devices, and your family from electrical surges. With your system being grounded all of the excess electricity in the system goes to the earth ground, instead of into devices connected to your electrical system, such as a tv, computer, etc…

Your home may already face issues due to improperly trained electricians not connecting the ground wires on light switches, fixtures, and other devices. Your home may have been built and wired prior to a grounding system being required in your jurisdiction.

One of the biggest hazards is when a person has a home with a 3 prong dryer plug and they have a 4 wire dryer. They convert the dryer cord to a 3 prong and try to make that work, but they are only getting 220 volts when the dryer also needs a 120-volt leg to operate the control panel. If you use the designated ground wire for the Neutral you run a risk of fire and electrical shock. The Neutral is an insulated conductor while a ground wire is often just a bare copper wire. The Neutral carries any unbalanced load in the system which happens regularly. So as this unbalanced load energizes the bare ground wire, which has been bonded to the dryer. Now any and all of the unbalanced electrical energy will energize the dryer causing it to shock you. If your hands are wet, it can be very dangerous for you, if you have one hand on your washer, you have now completed a circuit which could really do a great deal of harm to you, your children, anyone using your dryer. Further, a lightning strike or a surge in your electrical system will fry your dryer.

The electrical system is a loop, power comes in on the Hot Leg (Ungrounded Conductor) and returns to the utility company on the Neutral Leg (Grounded Conductor), your electrical bill is the amount of electricity that does not return to the utility company. So if you have your unbalanced load going to the ground rather than returning to the utility company you have a higher electrical bill plus there is something called Ground to Earth Voltage. This is when voltage is sent to the ground (your yard) and energizes the yard, which can be deadly during a storm.

To protect your home and system add a grounding system to your home. On Receptacles in the house with just a 2 wire system, place a GFCI Receptacle at the front of the circuit and provide personal protection to all receptacles down line of the GFCI. Install a Surge protector at your panel for a whole house protection. Use point of use surge protection devices for electronic equipment, such as surge power strips for computer usage and a surge protection receptacle for devices such as a flat screen tv.

So while people are beginning to understand the importance of a continuous grounding system, electrical engineers and manufacturers have developed a means to protect you, your family, your electronic, and your home. You should have a qualified electrical contractor ensure that you have a properly grounded system.

Source: terrellelectric

Isolated Ground

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

An isolated ground (IG) is a local ground connection used with a supply, one of the common earthing arrangements used with domestic mains supplies.

Isolated Ground Devices

Description

The primary reason for the use of isolated grounds (IG) is to provide a noise-free ground return, separate from the equipment grounding (EG) return. The EG circuit includes all of the metal conduit, outlet boxes, and metal enclosures that contain the wiring and must be grounded to provide a safe return path in case of fault currents. The IG provides an insulated, separate ground path for the ground reference in electronic equipment, such as computers, hospital equipment, and audio equipment. IG does not break ground loops, which can damage equipment like computers, printers, etc.. Interconnected computer equipment often benefits from single-point grounding.

Isolated grounding system for branch circuits

IG is only used with special equipment that require it. The IG is typically insulated and separate all the way back to the point of earth grounding rod outside of the building. The IG is NOT connected neutral or any other. Due to the installation of a separate, insulated conductor and the associated special outlets required, IG circuits are more expensive to install than standard power circuits.

Its main downside is that an insulated grounding connection has higher impedance than a non-isolated grounding connection, and no redundancy, so safety is reduced. Isolated ground receptacles are allowed in patient care areas, but only when installed outside the immediate patient care vicinity.

Domestic Supplies

Until the 1950s, isolated ground domestic mains supplies tended to have no Residual-Current Device (RCD) or Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker (ELCB), and too high a ground impedance to blow a fuse if a live-to-earth fault occurred. This could leave metalwork in the house live. The use of Residual Current Devices (RCDs) or formerly ELCBs with such installs solved this problem. Such installs are called EEBAD (Earthed Equipotential Bonding and Automatic Disconnection).

The British term for isolated ground is “IT”, from the French terre isolée.

Noise

An isolated ground, if installed correctly, can reduce some electrical noise. However, complete power conditioning and protection usually requires additional devices such as a surge protector or an uninterruptible power supply. If the receptacle is not installed correctly, it can create a dangerous installation.

Floating Ground

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Most electrical circuits have a ground which is electrically connected to the Earth, hence the name “ground”. The ground is said to be floating when this connection does not exist.

An example showing mains-powered electronic instruments with a floating ground.

Conductors are also described as having a floating voltage if they are not connected electrically to another non-floating conductor. Without such a connection, voltages and current flows are induced by electromagnetic fields or charge accumulation within the conductor rather than being due to the usual external potential difference of a power source.

Applications

Electrical equipment may be designed with a floating ground for one of several reasons. One is safety. For example, a low voltage DC power supply, such as a mobile phone charger is connected to the mains through a transformer of one type or another, and there is no direct electrical connection between the current return path on the low-voltage side and physical ground (earth). Ensuring that there is no electrical connection between mains voltage and the low-voltage plug makes it much easier to guarantee safety of the supply. It also allows the charger to safely only connect to live and neutral, which allows a two-prong plug in countries where this is relevant. Indeed, any home appliance with a two-prong plug must have a floating ground.

Another application is in electronic test equipment. Suppose you wish to measure a 0.5V potential difference between two wires that are both approximately 100V above Earth ground. If your measuring device has to connect to Earth, some of its electronic components will have to deal with a 100V potential difference across their terminals. If the whole device floats, then its electronics will only see the 0.5V difference, allowing more delicate components to be used which can make more precise measurements. Such devices are often battery powered.

An example showing mains-powered electronic instruments with a floating ground.
Thirdly, a floating ground can help eliminate ground loops, which reduces the noise coupled to the system. An example of such a configuration is shown in the image on the right. Systems isolated in this manner can and do drift in potential and if the transformer is capable of supplying much power, they can be dangerous. This is particularly likely if the floated system is near high voltage power lines. To reduce the danger of electric shocks, the chassis of the instruments are usually connected separately to Earth ground.

Safety

Floating grounds can be dangerous if they are caused by failure to properly ground equipment that was designed to require grounding, because the chassis can be at a very different potential from that of any nearby organisms, who then get an electric shock upon touching it. Live chassis TVs, where the set’s ground is derived by rectifying live mains, were common until the 1990s.

Exposed live grounds are dangerous. They are live, and can electrocute end users if touched. Headphone sockets fitted by end users to live chassis TVs are especially dangerous, as not only are they often live, but any electrical shock will pass through the user’s head. Sets that have both a headphone socket and a live chassis use an audio isolation transformer to make the arrangement safe.

Floating grounds can cause problems with audio equipment using RCA connectors (also called phono connectors). With these common connectors, the signal pin connects before the ground, and 2 pieces of equipment can have a greater difference between their grounds than it takes to saturate the audio input. As a result, plugging or unplugging while powered up can result in very loud noises in speakers. If the ground voltage difference is small, it tends to only cause hum and clicks.

A residual current device can be incorporated into a system to reduce but not eliminate the risks caused by a floating ground.

Ground Loop (Electricity)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In an electrical system, a ground loop or earth loop occurs when two points of a circuit both intended to be at ground reference potential have a potential between them. This can be caused, for example, in a signal circuit referenced to ground, if enough current is flowing in the ground to cause two points to be at different potentials.

Ground loops are a major cause of noise, hum, and interference in audio, video, and computer systems. Wiring practices that protect against ground loops include ensuring that all vulnerable signal circuits are referenced to one point as ground. The use of differential connections can provide rejections of ground-induced interference. Removal of safety ground connections to equipment in an effort to eliminate ground loops also eliminates the protection the safety ground connection is intended to provide.

Simplified circuit illustrating a ground loop.

Jenis-Jenis Kabel Listrik dan Grounding

Bersama ini saya sampaikan beberapa informasi yang berhubungan dengan Listrik. Data yang saya sajikan termasuk Kabel Listrik, Bahan-2 yang diperlukan untuk pemasangan Grounding (Arde).

Kabel digunakan untuk menghantarkan aliran listrik dari sumber listrik menuju ke perangkat pengguna listrik, sehingga perangkat tersebut dapat bekerja dengan baik sesuai fungsinya.

Dari berbagai jenis kabel listrik yang dijual, berdasarkan tegangannya, dapat dikelompokkan menjadi:

  • Kabel listrik tegangan rendah
  • Kabel listrik tegangan menengah
  • Kabel listrik tegangan tinggi

Kita dapat melihat bahwa kabel listrik ada yang memiliki pembungkus, ada yang telanjang tanpa pembungkus. Kali ini kita akan membahas kabel listrik dengan pembungkus yang umum digunakan di dalam rumah tinggal.

Secara umum, bentuk fisik kabel listrik yang terbungkus terbagi menjadi dua bagian, yaitu:

  • Isolator: ini adalah bagian pembungkus kabel yang tidak menghantarkan listrik. Isolator umumnya dibuat dari bahan termoplastik. Fungsinya adalah untuk melindungi kabel supaya tidak terpapar oleh pengaruh alam di sekelilingnya. Isolator juga berfungsi melindungi perangkat agar tidak mengalami hubungan pendek. Pembungkus ini juga melindungi kita dari tersengat aliran listrik yang mengalir dalam kabel. Semakin baik kualitas isolatornya, biasanya semakin baik kualitas kabel dalam menghantarkan listrik dan semakin panjang pula usia pakainya.
  • Konduktor: ini adalah bagian kabel yang berfungsi menghantarkan aliran listrik. Biasanya bagian ini dibuat dari tembaga ataupun aluminum. Kemampuan setiap jenis konduktor dalam menghantarkan listrik tergantung dari jenis konduktornya dan nilai ini disebut dengan Kemampuan Hantar Arus atau disingkat menjadi KHA.

Jenis-jenis kabel listrik berisolator

  1. Kabel NYA
  2. Kabel NYAF
  3. Kabel NYY
  4. Kabel NYM
  5. Kabel NYMHY
  6. Kabel NYYHY
  7. Kabel NYRGbY/NYBY
  8. Kabel NYCY

Kabel Grounding & Lightning Protection

  1. Kabel BC (Bare Conductor Cable for Grounding)
  2. Kabel Penangkal Petir (Lightning Protection)
  3. Single Core Cable Type N2XSY, NA2XSY

Grounding Installation Components

  1. Solid Copper Ground Rod
  2. Accessories for Grounding Rod Installation

Tools

Megger Digital Ground Tester Overview

  • 2, 3 and 4 point testing
  • Stakeless or clamp-on testing option
  • ART (Attached Rod Technique) capability
  • Multiple, user selectable test frequencies
  • Resistance measurement range to 200 kΩ
  • IP54 rated
  • Warning indicators prevent test failure
  • Simple one button operation
  • Included leads, stakes, calibration certificate and rugged carry case
  • Optional earth testing kit (ETK) available

The DET4 contractor series includes

  • DET4TD2: Dry-cell battery powered basic 4-terminal tester
  • DET4TR2: Rechargeable battery powered basic 4-terminal tester
  • DET4TC2: Dry-cell battery powered 4-terminal tester with selectable test frequencies, greater measurement sensitivity and attached rod technique and stakeless measurement capability
  • DET4TCR2: Rechargeable battery powered 4-terminal tester with selectable test frequencies, greater measurement sensitivity and attached rod technique and stakeless measurement capability
  • Megger DET4TC2 and DET4TCR2 Digital Ground Testers
  • Megger DET4TD2 and DET4TR2 Digital Ground Testers

1 | Kabel NYA

Kabel listrik hanya memiliki satu inti kabel yang terdiri dari kabel tembaga tunggal ini berdiameter 1.5 – 2.5 mm dan memiliki isolator berbahan PVC. Biasa digunakan di dalam instalasi listrik rumah tinggal. Isolator pembungkus kabel NYA diberi warna merah, kuning, biru dan hitam untuk memudahkan pemasangan jalur jaringan instalasi listrik. Karena pembungkus ini hanya satu lapisan tipis, maka kabel ini mudah rusak karena faktor cuaca maupun karena digerogoti oleh tikus. Untuk menghindari kerusakan tersebut sebaiknya jalur jaringan listrik dilindungi dengan pipa PVC. Tegangan nominalnya sekitar 400 – 690 (600) V.

Spesifikasi Kabel NYA berdasarkan Ukuran

2 | Kabel NYAF

Kabel ini secara awam mirip dengan kabel NYA, hanya memiliki satu inti kabel, tetapi berupa serabut bukan tunggal. Isolasinya tipis dan juga diberi warna berbeda. Kabel NYAF ini lebih fleksibel dibandingkan kabel NYA, sehingga cocok digunakan pada belokan-belokan jaringan listrik. Seperti kabel NYA, kabel NYAF ini perlu diberi pelindung pipa. Tegangan nominal 300 – 500 V.

Spesifikasi Kabel NYAF berdasarkan Ukuran

3 | Kabel NYY

Memiliki lapisan isolasi PVC (biasanya warna hitam), ada yang berinti 2, 3 atau 4. Kabel NYY dieprgunakan untuk instalasi tertanam (kabel tanah), dan memiliki lapisan isolasi yang lebih kuat dari kabel NYM (harganya lebih mahal dari NYM). Kabel NYY memiliki isolasi yang terbuat dari bahan yang tidak di sukai tikus.

4 | Kabel NYM

Kabel ini memiliki konduktor atau inti kabel tunggal lebih dari satu dan masing-masing dilapisi dengan isolator dengan warna berbeda. Inti-inti kabel ini kemudian bersama-sama dibungkus dengan serat PVC dan bagian luarnya dilapisi dengan selubung PVC. Karena perlindungan berlapis ini, kabel NYM cukup kuat untuk digunakan pada lingkungan yang lembab dan basah. Tegangan nominalnya 230 – 400 (300) V.

5 | Kabel NYMHY

Kabel ini memiliki beberapa inti kabel serabut yang masing-masing dilapisi isolator dengan warna berbeda. Kabel ini memiliki selubung dalam dan luar dari PVC. Cukup fleksibel dan kuat untuk tegangan listrik nominal 300 – 500 V.

6 | Kabel NYYHY

Kabel ini juga memiliki beberapa inti kabel serabut yang masing-masing dilapisi isolator dengan warna berbeda. Kabel ini hanya memiliki selubung luar PVC dan sangat fleksibel. Cocok untuk digunakan pada perangkat listrik portabel seperti mesin bor, mesin las, mesin gerinda, dan sebagainya. Tegangan nominal berkisar antara 450 – 750 V.

7 | Kabel NYRGbY/NYBY

Kabel dengan insulator yang cukup kuat dan memiliki lapisan pita serat baja galvanis di antara selubung dalam dan selubung luarnya yang terbuat dari PVC. Kabel ini dapat dipendam tanpa perlindungan tambahan. Tegangan nominalnya 0.6 – 1 (1.2) kV.

8 | Kabel NYCY

Kabel yang dirancang untuk digunakan dipendam dalam tanah ataupun jaringan di luar ruangan atau outdoor installation. Memiliki lapisan pita serabut tembaga yang kuat di antara selubung dalam dan selubung luarnya yang terbuat dari PVC.

Kabel Grounding & Lightning Protection

  1. Kabel BC (Bare Conductor Cable for Grounding)
  2. Kabel Penangkal Petir (Lightning Protection)

1 | Kabel BC

Secara umum kabel penangkal petir atau kabel anti petir yang dibutuhkan dalam instalasi penangkal petir adalah kabel penangkal petir yang memiliki luas penghantar 50 mm (minimal), bila lebih besar kemampuan penghantarnya akan lebih baik. Berbagai macam kabel penangkal petir atau kabel anti petir yang dapat digunakan untuk menyalurkan arus petir ke tanah, karakteristik utama adalah steel frame (rawan terhadap putus/gagal sambungan yang menyebabkan loncatan petir dan adanya kebocoran induksi di sekeliling arus petir).

Daftar Harga Bare Copper (BC)

  1. Kabel Grounding ( Kabel Bc ) 4Mm : Rp. 5.700, -/ Meter
  2. Kabel Grounding ( Kabel Bc ) 6Mm : Rp. .7.050, -/ Meter
  3. Kabel Grounding ( Kabel Bc ) 10Mm : Rp. 11.400, -/ Meter
  4. Kabel Grounding ( Kabel Bc ) 16Mm : Rp. 16.650, -/ Meter
  5. Kabel Grounding ( Kabel Bc ) 25Mm : Rp. 22.500, -/ Meter
  6. Kabel Grounding ( Kabel Bc ) 35Mm : Rp. 30.450, -/ Meter
  7. Kabel Grounding ( Kabel Bc ) 50Mm : Rp. 36.700, -/ Meter
  8. Kabel Grounding ( Kabel Bc ) 70Mm : Rp. .53.600, -/ Meter
  9. Kabel Grounding ( Kabel Bc ) 95Mm : Rp. 98.750, -/ Meter
  10. Kabel Grounding ( Kabel Bc ) 120Mm : Rp. 113.200, -/ Meter
  11. Kabel Grounding ( Kabel Bc ) Bc-150 Mm : Rp. 173.000, -/ Meter
  12. Kabel Grounding ( Kabel Bc ) 185Mm : Rp. 254.800, -/ Meter
  13. Kabel Grounding ( Kabel Bc ) 240 Mm : Rp. 295.000, -/ Meter

Source: sinarterangstore6

2 | Kabel Penangkal Petir (Lightning Protection)

  • Outdoor Installation

Bila instalasi kabel penghantar penangkal petir diletakkan di luar bangunan dan jauh dari instalasi lain (jaringan listrik dan data) ataupun jauh dari jangkauan penghuni maka kabel bisa menggunakan kabel BCC minimal 50 mm (Bare Copper Conductor) dengan pertimbangan lebih murah. Hanya saja jika menggunakan kabel BC sebagai kabel penyalur penangkal petir, sangat di sarankan dilengkapi dengan memakai conduite.

Copper Bonded Earth Grounding Lugs Grounding rods Ground Rods

Earth Rods Earth Rods

  • Copper Grounding Rods Copper earthing Rods
  • Ground rod clamps Pipe clamps earthing clamps

Bronze Earth Clamps

  • Rod to Tape Bronze clamps Lugs Clamp
  • Rod to Conductor Bronze grounding clamps Clamp
  • Rod to Cable Lug Clamp

Fittings
Driving Head: Reusable high tensile steel.
Coupling: Brass or Aluminum Bronze.
Driving Spike: High strength alloy steel.
Internal Coupling: Phosphorous Bronze or high tensile Brass dowel.

Copper Bonded Earth Grounding Lugs Grounding rods Ground Rods

CONEX Earth Grounding Rods are made from high tensile-low carbon steel compelling with requirements of BS 4360 Grade 43 A. Each grounding rod is molecularly bonded by 99.99% pure, high conductivity copper bonding’s, each rod is treated with Benzol-triozole derivatives. Threads on rods are formed by roll threading process, giving threads extra strength, eliminating risk of chipping the threads while driving the rods in the ground.

Solid Copper Earth Rods

CONEX Earth Grounding Rods are made from high tensile-low carbon steel compelling with requirements of BS 4360 Grade 43 A. Each grounding rod is molecularly bonded by 99.99% pure, high conductivity copper bonding’s, each rod is treated with Benzol-triozole derivatives. Threads on rods are formed by roll threading process, giving threads extra strength, eliminating risk of chipping the threads while driving the rods in the ground.

Rod Details for Internal Threaded Solid Copper Earth Rods

Earth Clamps

CONEX manufactures a vast range of Earth ground earthing grounding Rod clamps in Naval Brass, Gunmetal , Bronze and Aluminium. Special clamp as per customer specifications can also be supplied for grounding rods.

Rod to tape clamp
(A Clamp) Accommodates wide range of Copper / AI tape.
Rod to Conductor Clamp
(G clamp) Available in light and heavy duty. Accommodates conductor size from 10 mm 2 to 120mm 2 .
Rod to cable Lug clamp
(Type B) Available with M12 Bolt complete with Brass washer and nuts.

  • Indoor / Outdoor Installation

Sedangkan bila kabel penghantar anti petir diletakkan di dalam bangunan dan bisa jauh dari instalasi lain (jaringan listrik dan data) ataupun jauh dari jangkauan penghuni maka kabel penangkal petir bisa menggunakan kabel NYY minimal 50 mm atau kabel NYY 70 mm dengan pertimbangan kabel ini cukup mampu menahan induksi petir. Kabel NYA sama percis dengan kabel NYY, yang membendakan yaitu kalau kabel NYY memiliki dua isolator atau dua lapisan pembungkus tembaga, sedangkan kabel NYA satu lapisan pembungkus atau satu isolator.

  • Indoor High Installation

Dan bila jalur instalasi tidak bisa dihindarkan dari instalasi lain (listrik, data, kontrol dll) maka jenis kabel HVSC (High Voltage Single Core) yang harus digunakan karena hanya kabel ini yang mampu menahan tegangan tembus atau induksi (inception voltage) arus petir, misalnya Coaxial Cable dan kabel N2XSY ukuran 2 x 35 mm.

3 | Single Core Cable Type N2XSY, NA2XSY

SINGLE CORE CABLE

  • COPPER OR ALUMINIUM CONDUCTOR,
  • XLPE INSULATED,
  • COPPER WIRES SCREENED AND PVC SHEATHED
  • Type N2XSY, NA2XSY

Feature
XLPE insulated single core cables are applied for installation indoors, outdoors, underground and cable rack.

CONSTRUCTION

Conductor
Stranded compacted circular copper or aluminium conductors. All internal interstices of trie conductor rilled with water blocking compound which is specified to prevent ingress of water through conductor during storage, handling, installation and operating of the cable.

Conductor Screen
Extruded Semi-conducting compound. Minimum thickness 0.5 mm and the maximum volume resistivity of 5000 ohm-an at 20° C and 25000 ohm-cm at 90° C.

Insulation
Extruded XLPE with high degree of cross-linking, free from contaminants, air voids and heat resistant by dry cured process.

The nominal thickness as shown in table 1.

Type : N2XSY, NA2XSY

Nominal Voltage :

  • 3.6/6 ( 7.2 ) kV
  • 6/10 ( 12 ) kV
  • 8.7/15 ( 17.5 ) kV
  • 12/20 ( 24 ) kV
  • 18/30 ( 36 ) kV

Specification : SPLN 43-5

Table 1. Insulation Thickness
Tabel 2 . Minimum Total Cross Section Of Metallic Screen

Insulation Screen
Extruded Semi-conducting compound. Minimum thickness 0.5 mm and the maximum volume resistivity of 5000 ohm-cm at 20°C and 25000 ohm-cm at WC The screen is tightly fitted to insulation to exdude all air voids and can be easily hand stripped on site.

Conduction Water Blocking Layer
Semi-conductive water blocking tape provided over the insulation screen which will swell up under the influence ofmoisture or water.

Metallic Screen
Copper wires applied over the conducting water blocking layer. Minimum cross section of concentric conductor as shown in table 2. Copper tape with minimum thickness 0.1 mm and maximum 0.3mm applied over copper wires.

Water Blocking Layer
Non-conducting water blocking tape provided the metallic screen which will swellup under ihe influence of moisture or water.

Outer Sheath
Extruded red PVC, suitable tar exposure to sun-light or other local atmospheric environments and for the operating temperature of the cable.

Data from Voksel Electric Tbk.

Grounding Installation Components

1 | Solid Copper Ground Rod

Technical Details:

Agricultural Wire Ground Rod

Description

6 AWG solid copper or #10 AWG solid copper green insulated wire silver brazed to ground rod for the strongest, lowest resistance connection.

BARE COPPER WIRE

  • Soft-Annealed, uncoated copper, 18AWG – 1/0AWG.
  • 250, 500, and 1,000 foot spools. Custom lengths possible.
  • Solid or stranded.

GROUNDING, BONDING AND SHIELDING PRODUCTS
Ground Rod Clamps, Cast Bronze
For 5/8″ Diameter ground rods. Part number 182005

CADWELD PLUS “ONE-SHOT”

  • Permanently welds multiple bare copper wires together or bare copper wire to 5/8″ diameter ground rods, so the connection doesn’t loosen or corrode
  • UL® listed. Exothermic reaction welding process meets National Electrical Code® requirements

GROUND ENHANCEMENT MATERIALS/EARTH CONTACT BACKFILLS

  • Superior conductive material that improves the effectiveness of ground rods/plates.
  • It permanently reduces resistance-to-ground, regardless of soil conditions.
  • Ideal for use in dry conditions, rocky ground and sandy soils.
  • 50 pound bags
  • PowerSetTM hardens when wetted and can be used in any application. Paige part number 1820058.
  • PowerFillTM is non-hardening and must be used in non-porous soils. Paige part number 1820059.
  • Non-flammable. Safe to use while igniting CADWELDs and in storage
Ilustrasi Grounding yang telah dipasang dengan menggunakan Copper Rod. Kedalaman dari Copper Rod tergantung dari kondisi Tanah. Contoh: untuk tanah yg bersifat lembah (banyak kandungan airnya) minum kedalaman 12 meter utk mendapat Grounding. Nilai Ohm harus mendekati NOL.

2 | Accessories for Grounding Rod Installation

Copper Rod Clamps
Driving Head, Rod, Coupler, Driving Tip

Source: Compilation from many references