Tag Archives: Hewlett-Packard

Bill Hewlett

BIOGRAPHY-NEW

Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

740px-Tripp_and_hewlett

Hewlett (kiri) dan Alan Tripp di Pusat Pendidikan SCORE! tahun 1993

Bill Hewlett Data

Bill Hewlett bioData


William Redington Hewlett atau Bill Hewlett (20 Mei 1913-12 Januari 2001) adalah pengusaha yang bersama David Packard mendirikan Hewlett-Packard Company (HP). Ia tidak lagi menjabat presiden direktur sejak tahun 1977, dan pensiun dari jabatan CEO tahun berikutnya. Hewlett masih menjabat ketua dewan eksekutif HP hingga diangkat menjadi wakil ketua dewan pada tahun 1983. Jabatan direktur emeritus terus dijabatnya dari 1987 hingga tutup usia, 12 Januari 2001.

Ia dilahirkan di Ann Arbor, Michigan, 20 Mei 1913 dari ayah seorang dokter. Ketika ia berusia 3 tahun, keluarganya pindah ke California ketika ayahnya, Albion Walter Hewlett, diterima bekerja di Sekolah Kedokteran Universitas Stanford. Ayahnya meninggal ketika Bill berusia 12 tahun. Setelah menamatkan Sekolah Menengah Atas Lowell di San Francisco, ia kuliah di Universitas Stanford pada tahun 1930 hingga tamat dengan gelar Bachelor of Arts (1934). Ia melanjutkan ke Institut Teknologi Massachusetts hingga tamat dengan gelar magister EECS (teknik listrik dan ilmu komputer) pada tahun 1936, dan kembali ke Universitas Stanford pada 1936 hingga mendapat gelar magister teknik listrik pada tahun 1939. Ketika mahasiswa, ia adalah anggota fraternitas Kappa Sigma.

Hewlett bertemu Packard sewaktu masih kuliah tingkat sarjana di Stanford. Pada bulan Agustus 1937, mereka berdua berniat mendirikan usaha bersama. Perusahaan tersebut diberi nama Hewlett-Packard Company dan didirikan pada 1 Januari 1939. Produk pertama mereka adalah osilator audio resistansi-kapasitansi yang didesain Hewlett di program pascasarjana. Pabrik pertama mereka adalah sebuah garasi kecil di Palo Alto yang didirikan dengan modal awal AS$538.

Hewlett aktif di HP hingga tahun 1987, dan sempat bertugas sebagai tentara Angkatan Darat AS selama Perang Dunia II, termasuk sebagai kepala bagian elektronik untuk Divisi Pengembangan, Staf Khusus Departemen Perang. Seusai perang, ia menjadi anggota peninjau industri di Jepang. Setelah berada kembali di Palo Alto, Hewlett diangkat sebagai wakil presiden direktur HP pada tahun 1947, dipilih sebagai wakil presiden direktur eksekutif (1957), presiden direktur (1964), hingga menduduki jabatan CEO (1969).

Pada tahun 1939, Hewlett menikah dengan Flora Lamson. Keduanya mendapat lima orang anak, Eleanor, Walter, James, William, dan Mary. Pada tahun 1966, Hewlett dan Flora mendirikan yayasan bernama William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. Setelah Flora Hewlett meninggal tahun 1977, Hewlett menikahi istri kedua, Rosemary Bradford pada tahun 1978. Bill Hewllet, 87 tahun, meninggal dunia pada 12 Januari 2001.


William Redington Hewlett

Bill Hewlett was one of the twentieth century’s most remarkable men, and one of America’s most uncommon.

This quiet, self-effacing man, together with his longtime friend and partner, David Packard, changed the world and helped usher in the modern technological age.

Their co-founding of the Hewlett-Packard Company in 1939 (Hewlett won the coin-toss to decide which name would come first and which second in naming the company) was Silicon Valley’s defining partnership. It was also the valley’s first major start-up company, and one of its most successful, ranking at Hewlett’s death as the nation’s thirteenth largest business, with annual sales of nearly $50 billion and some ninety thousand employees in 120 countries.

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William Redington Hewlett was born 20 May 1913 in Ann Arbor, Michigan, where his father, a respected physician, served on the faculty of the university’s medical school.

The family’s subsequent move to California when Bill was three years old, occasioned by his father’s acceptance of a faculty position at Stanford University, introduced young Bill to the cultural, scientific, and literary world of a dynamic and growing San Francisco Bay Area, anchored on the East Bay by the University of California at Berkeley and on the West Bay by Stanford University, and centered in the vibrant, brash, and whimsical city of San Francisco, where the family lived.

Although the father died suddenly when Bill was twelve, the family rallied. Bill was enrolled in San Francisco’s Lowell High School, and life moved on. His high school years were not academically noteworthy, doubtless influenced by the then little noticed and rarely accommodated dyslexia with which he dealt all of his life; but his intellectual curiosity, his incessant “tinkering” as he called it when he sought to understand how things worked, and his sterling character, won the admiration and respect of his high school principal, who encouraged Stanford to take a chance on Bill. Bill was admitted as a freshman in 1930.

Hewlett was fortunate to have studied under and to have been mentored by Frederick Terman, one of Stanford’s most famous professors, who was to a great degree responsible for the subsequent development of Silicon Valley.

Upon completing his engineering studies at Stanford in 1934, Hewlett studied at, and earned a master’s degree in engineering from, MIT, returning to Stanford in 1936 to continue his graduate studies in engineering. Hewlett and his fellow student and close friend David Packard, with Terman’s encouragement, formed the Hewlett-Packard Company in 1939 (its corporate offices and laboratories being located in Packard’s garage at home in Palo Alto). With the exception of four years during World War II when he served as an officer in the U.S. Army, Hewlett’s professional life was committed to the building of the company.

“He was indifferent to the trappings of wealth, but used his to help others and to make good things happen.”

The year 1939 was also of signal importance in Hewlett’s life as he and Flora Lamson, whom he had been courting, married. They had five children and together raised them to adulthood until her untimely death in 1977.

Hewlett-Packard’s first commercially viable product, developed in Hewlett’s Stanford lab, was the audio oscillator. The Walt Disney Company purchased eight of the first ones for $71.50 each, for use in the 1940 film Fantasia. The product was also of use to medical doctors, hospitals and clinics, geologists, engineers, oil and mining companies, and the military, among others. This device launched Hewlett-Packard, whose products over the next sixty years captured the world’s admiration, and transformed the nature and character of technology, including its miniaturization in manufacturing, testing, measurements, copying, scanning, and calculating, and for the most sophisticated technological requirements of medicine, science, research, business, universities, and the military worldwide.

Hewlett and Packard oversaw the company with enviable management, technological, and scientific skills. They also managed the company with a new set of operating principles and with an intensely personal style that came to redefine much of American corporate life and culture, e.g., profit-sharing, employee stock ownership, flexible work hours, and health insurance. What came to be known as the “HP way” marked the company as a special place and made it nearly as famous for this unique business culture as its products later became for the inventive, cutting-edge technology that they consistently represented in the marketplace.

Hewlett regarded his employees as the foundation of Hewlett-Packard’s success and worked as comfortably with the most junior members of his engineering staff as he did with the most senior members of his management team. Hewlett never saw his employees as being mere interchangeable parts, nor as expendable; no, they were his partners, colleagues, and friends, and they counted. His fertile imagination and curiosity about how things worked, from childhood on, earned him the title of “true visionary” as he foresaw new answers to old and intractable problems and solutions to what had been unworkable answers. This he did in his notably quiet and unassuming way, and for all these reasons he is both remembered and respected by the tens of thousands of people whose lives he touched in the Hewlett-Packard Company for sixty-two years.

Hewlett was honored for his work both here and abroad by governments, universities, scholarly and scientific societies, trade associations, and all the others whose admiration and respect were expressed almost continuously in recent decades. In 1985, President Ronald Reagan conferred on Hewlett the Presidential Medal of Science, the nation’s highest recognition for scientific accomplishment.

Hewlett also served on several presidential commissions during his active years, participated in the affairs of the scholarly and scientific organizations to which he had been elected, and served on numerous boards and committees nationally and in his hometown of Palo Alto, California.

In his personal life, he lived modestly for one of his position, preferring to raise his five children in Palo Alto, to center Hewlett-Packard’s corporate interests within the city, and to participate in its civic affairs and in the work of his beloved Stanford.

He drove himself to work and occupied the same office (seemingly with the same furniture) for more than forty years, but, rather than work there, preferred to “walk around” the offices and labs to see what was happening and to engage, question, challenge, and encourage those who were doing the company’s work.

He was indifferent to the trappings of wealth, but used his to help others and to make good things happen.

His wants were remarkably simple and did not seem to be in any way the object of his professional life. He told me once that he did what interested him as an engineer and “the money just happened along.

“It was he who asked the right questions and left the answering to others. He helped us grow by learning from our mistakes and from the encouragement and confidence we all experienced when things went right.”

I recall one conversation involving Bill, his son Walter, and me at his home following a review of our upcoming meeting of his foundation’s board. Bill could not shop for a Christmas present for his second wife, Rosemary, owing to an operation from which he was then recovering. He asked Walter to shop for the gift he wanted, a pair of binoculars for Rosie’s bird-watching.

He gave Walter a hundred dollars for the purchase. Walter, who knew a great deal about binoculars and optics, suggested that his father might prefer one of the better German or Japanese binoculars that would cost not a hundred dollars but six to eight hundred dollars.

Bill was having none of this, and the matter was “discussed” for some twenty minutes. Finally, in exasperation, Bill said, “Walter, here is two hundred dollars. It is more than enough for a decent pair of binoculars. Please go buy it.”

All this after just settling on proposals to spend some $15 million of Bill’s money at our next board meeting.

He also loved and valued his friends, one of whom, Professor Herant Katchadourian of Stanford University, recalled the following story at Bill’s memorial: “I used to take Bill on long rides, usually to his beloved ranch, and we sometimes stopped at some hole in the wall for a bite to eat. When it came time to pay, I would say, ‘Please let me take care of it; I don’t think you can afford this place.’ He usually let me get away with it with his distinctive twinkle in the eye. But on one occasion, he insisted that he was going to pay the bill himself, and then it turned out that he had no money! I told him, ‘What is going to happen to you without friends like me?’ ‘I don’t know,’ he said, ‘I guess I would be homeless.’”

Many lives were touched by Hewlett through the remarkable scope and scale of his philanthropies. Stanford (his alma mater) and UC Berkeley (his late wife Flora’s alma mater) enjoyed his special attention.

These interests extended around the world: to population issues and the status of women, their education, and economic opportunities in Africa, Southeast Asia, and Latin America; to conflict resolution, particularly in eastern and southern Europe, the former republics of the Soviet Union, and the Middle East; to U.S.-Latin American relationships; to the needs of the nation’s liberal arts colleges and research universities; to the environment in the western United States; and to the improvement of K-12 education, the performing arts, and the many communities and neighborhoods of the San Francisco Bay Area. He also had a vital interest in his adopted California, and in 1994 founded the Public Policy Institute of California, to be guided by the longtime president of his foundation, Roger Heyns, chancellor emeritus of the Berkeley campus of the University of California.

The range of his philanthropy reflected his lifelong interests in other cultures and societies, in strengthening and improving the quality of life for disadvantaged people living in the Bay Area, in the health of the environment (he was an accomplished botanist and a lifelong climber, hiker, fisherman, hunter, and photographer of California’s high and coastal mountains, its wildlands, meadows, forests, rivers, and coastline and of much of the intermountain West as well), in the well-being and vibrancy of the communities and region in which he lived and in which Hewlett-Packard was located, and in music, which he deeply loved.

These philanthropies were accomplished by his personal generosity from funds he set aside, and through the work of the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, created in 1966 by Hewlett and his first wife. The foundation now ranks as one of the nation’s largest. “Never stifle a generous impulse” was one of his favorite and best-known phrases; as was his custom, he practiced what he taught.

It was my honor to serve as president of his foundation from 1993 to 1999. Never once in those years did he ask me to make a grant or deny one, relying instead on the collective judgment of his independent trustees and the work of his professional staff within the foundation. And while he chaired the board for most of those years, I never once observed him seeking to impose his will or to otherwise stifle or limit discussion. To the contrary, it was he who asked the right questions and left the answering to others. He helped us grow by learning from our mistakes and from the encouragement and confidence we all experienced when things went right.

Bill was not fond of looking backward. Instead, he looked steadily forward, beyond most people’s more limited perspectives or the natural limits of their imaginations, searching for the nuances and subtleties of the problems encountered, discovering how, by redefining a problem, the solution was made clearer or even self-evident, challenging when complacency became confused with contentedness, and asking, always asking, if there was not a better way or a more fundamental question to ask. He was a great teacher in this sense, as well as a colleague; and he seemed to derive as much pleasure from the one as from the other.

Bill’s character, honesty, generosity, and quiet, self-effacing ways, to his great credit, have come to be as much respected as his company. These personal traits were the markers of one whose life should be a source of inspiration to the young and a cause of admiration and respect for the rest of us. At the Stanford Memorial Church, where the service memorializing his life was held on 20 January 2001, one of his grandchildren’s recollections on the printed program read in part:

In the end, his greatest gift to future generations was not the compass he could build with his hands, but his moral compass. Its cardinal points were knowledge, modesty, justice and hard work. His life was guided by what seem to me innate principles of rectitude. He never wavered at home or at work. He was true to himself and an example to us all. It is for this I am most grateful to him.

What an example he was to us all; and so he shall remain.

Note: This essay by David Pierpont Gardner was delivered on the occasion of Bill Hewlett’s memorial service. At the time, David was president of the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation and president emeritus, University of California and University of Utah. This is reprinted with permission from the Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 147 , June 2003.


 

David Packard

BIOGRAPHY-NEW

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David_Packard

David_Packard Data


David Packard (lahir 7 September 1912 – meninggal 26 Maret 1996 pada umur 83 tahun) adalah salah satu pendiri Hewlett-Packard. Ia lahir di Pueblo, Coloradi, menerima gelar sarjana muda dari Unversitas Stanford pada tahun 1934. Setelah itu ia bekerja di General Electric di Schenectady, New York.

Pada tahun 1934, ia kembali dari New York ke Stanford, tempat ia memperoleh gelar master dalam bidang teknik elektro pada tahun berikutnya. Pada tahun yang sama ia menikahi Lucile Salter, yang kemudian memberinya 4 otang anak, David, Nancy, Susan, dan Julie. Lucile Salter meninggal dunia pada 1987.

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Hewlett-Packard


Pada tahun 1939, ia dan William Hewlett mendirikan Hewlett Packard di garasinya dengan modal awal sebesar 538 dollar AS. Perusahaan itu, di mana kemudian terbukti bahwa Packard adalah pengelola yang piawai dan Hewlett yang memunculkan berbagai inovasi teknologi, berkembang menjadi produsen alat uji elektro dan alat pengukur terbesar di dunia. Perusahaan itu kemudian juga menjadi produsen utama kalkulator, komputer, dan mesin cetak laser dan tinta. Packard menceritakan dalam bukunya the HP way bahwa nama Hewlett Packard ditentukan lewat lemparan koin menjadi HP bukan PH.

Packard menjabat sebagai Presiden Hewlett-Packard dari tahun 1947 hingga 1964, CEO dan Ketua Dewan Direksi dari 1964 sampai 1968, dan Ketua Dewan Direksi dari 1972 hingga 1993. Pada saat ia meninggal pada tahun 1996, kepemilikan Packard di perusahaan tersebut mencapai lebih dari 1 miliar dolar AS.

Karier Politik


Sewaktu mulai menjabat pada tahun 1969, Presiden Richard Nixon menunjuk Packard sebagai Deputi Menteri Pertahanan AS di bawah Menteri Pertahanan Melvin Laird. Packard menjabat hingga tahun 1971, ketika kemudian ia mengundurkan diri dan pada tahun berikutnya kembali menjabat sebagai ketua dewan direksi HP. Pada tahun ’70-an dan ’80-an, Packard adalah penasihat utama Gedung Putih dalam pengadaan dan pengelolaan pertahanan.

Kedermawanan


Dari awal ’80-an hingga meninggalnya pada tahun 1996, Packard mendedikasikan sebagian besar waktu dan uangnya pada proyek-proyek filantropi. Dimulai dari anak mereka Nancy dan Julie, pada tahun 1978 David dan Lucile Packard menciptakan Yayasan Monterey Bay Aquarium. Pasangan itu menyumbangkan 55 juta Dollar AS untuk membangun akuarium yang baru, yang dibuka pada 1984 dengan eksekutif direkturnya Julie Packard. Pada tahun 1987, Packard menyumbangkan 13 juta dollar untuk mendirikan institut penelitian Monterrey Bay Aquarium, dan Sejas saat itu Yayasan Packard menyediakan 90% anggaran operacional institut tersebut. Atas kedermawanannya, ia dianugerahi penghargaan United States Military Academy’s Sylvanus Thayer Award pada tahun 1982 Pada tahun 1964, pasangan tersebut mendirikan Yayasan David dan Lucile Packard. Pada tahun 1986 mereka menyumbangkan 40 juta Dollar AS untuk membangun rumah sakit anak yang kemudian dikenal sebagai Lucile Salter Packard Children’s Hospital di Universitas Stanford. RS itu dibuka pada 1991.

Pada saat meninggal, ia memberikan kira-kira 4 miliar dollar AS pada Yayasan Packard termasuk di dalamnya properti berharga di Los Altos Hill. Ketiga putri Packard duduk dalam dewan wali amanah yayasan tersebut.

Penghargaan


Pada 6 Desember 2006, Gubernur California Arnold Schwarzenegger memasukkan nama keluarga Packard dalam museum The California Museum for History, Women, and the Arts. Sebagai tokoh ternama California. Museum ini didirikan istri Gubernur Maria Shriver untuk menghormati warga California yang berani memimpikan, dan menjadi panutan dalam menginspirasi generasi baru untuk memikirkan, menciptakan, memengaruhi, dan menciptakan.” Nama David Packard juga memiliki tanker minyak atas namanya, yang dibangun pada tahun 1977, yang dioperasikan untuk Chevron, memiliki kapasitas berat mati 406.592 ton, dan didaftarkan di bawah bendera Bahama.

 

Hewlett-Packard

TECHNOLOGY

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

768px-HP_logo_2012.svgLast logo of Hewlett-Packard used from 2010 to 2015; now used by HP Inc.

HP_Headquarters_Palo_Alto

HP headquarters in Palo Alto, California, U.S.

Hewlett-Packard


  • Former type: Public
  • Traded as: NYSE: HPQ
  • Industry:
    • Computer hardware
    • Computer software
    • IT services
    • IT consulting
  • Fate: Split into two companies
  • Successor: HP Inc., Hewlett Packard Enterprise
  • Founded: January 1, 1939; 78 years ago
  • Founders:
    • William Redington Hewlett and
    • David Packard
  • Defunct: November 1, 2015 (main company) (For Hewlett Packard Enterprise).
  • Now operating as HP Inc.
  • Headquarters: Palo Alto, California, U.S.
  • Area served: Worldwide
  • Products: See list of HP products.
  • Subsidiaries: List of subsidiaries
  • Website: www  dot hp dot  com

The Hewlett-Packard Company (commonly referred to as HP) or shortened to Hewlett-Packard (/ˈhjuːlɪt ˈpækərd/ HEW-lit PAK-erd) was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California. It developed and provided a wide variety of hardware components as well as software and related services to consumers, small- and medium-sized businesses (SMBs) and large enterprises, including customers in the government, health and education sectors.

The company was founded in a one-car garage in Palo Alto by William “Bill” Redington Hewlett and David “Dave” Packard, and initially produced a line of electronic test equipment. HP was the world’s leading PC manufacturer from 2007 to Q2 2013, after which Lenovo came to rank ahead of HP. It specialized in developing and manufacturing computing, data storage, and networking hardware, designing software and delivering services. Major product lines included personal computing devices, enterprise and industry standard servers, related storage devices, networking products, software and a diverse range of printers and other imaging products. HP marketed its products to households, small- to medium-sized businesses and enterprises directly as well as via online distribution, consumer-electronics and office-supply retailers, software partners and major technology vendors. HP also had services and consulting business around its products and partner products.

Hewlett-Packard company events included the spin-off of its electronic and bio-analytical measurement instruments part of its business as Agilent Technologies in 1999, its merger with Compaq in 2002, and the acquisition of EDS in 2008, which led to combined revenues of $118.4 billion in 2008 and a Fortune 500 ranking of 9 in 2009. In November 2009, HP announced the acquisition of 3Com, with the deal closing on April 12, 2010. On April 28, 2010, HP announced the buyout of Palm, Inc. for $1.2 billion. On September 2, 2010, HP won its bidding war for 3PAR with a $33 a share offer ($2.07 billion), which Dell declined to match.

On October 6, 2014, Hewlett-Packard announced plans to split the PC and printers business from its enterprise products and services business. The split closed on November 1, 2015, and resulted in two publicly traded companies: HP Inc. and Hewlett Packard Enterprise. In 2017, Hewlett Packard Enterprise spun-off its Enterprises Services division as DXC Technology and its Software division to Micro Focus.

History

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 The garage in Palo Alto where Hewlett and Packard began their company

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 Hewlett-Packard logo used from 1941 to 1964

William Redington Hewlett and David Packard graduated with degrees in electrical engineering from Stanford University in 1935. The company originated in a garage in nearby Palo Alto during a fellowship they had with a past professor, Frederick Terman at Stanford during the Great Depression. Terman was considered a mentor to them in forming Hewlett-Packard. In 1939, Packard and Hewlett established Hewlett-Packard (HP) in Packard’s garage with an initial capital investment of US$538. Hewlett and Packard tossed a coin to decide whether the company they founded would be called Hewlett-Packard or Packard-Hewlett. HP incorporated on August 18, 1947, and went public on November 6, 1957.

Of the many projects they worked on, their very first financially successful product was a precision audio oscillator, the Model HP200A. Their innovation was the use of a small incandescent light bulb (known as a “pilot light”) as a temperature dependent resistor in a critical portion of the circuit, the negative feedback loop which stabilized the amplitude of the output sinusoidal waveform. This allowed them to sell the Model 200A for $89.40 when competitors were selling less stable oscillators for over $200. The Model 200 series of generators continued until at least 1972 as the 200AB, still tube-based but improved in design through the years.

One of the company’s earliest customers was Walt Disney Productions which bought eight Model 200B oscillators (at $71.50 each) for use in certifying the Fantasound surround sound systems installed in theaters for the movie Fantasia.

They worked on counter-radar technology and artillery shell fuses during World War II, which allowed Packard (but not Hewlett) to be exempt from the draft.

1960s

HP is recognized as the symbolic founder of Silicon Valley, although it did not actively investigate semiconductor devices until a few years after the “traitorous eight” had abandoned William Shockley to create Fairchild Semiconductor in 1957. Hewlett-Packard’s HP Associates division, established around 1960, developed semiconductor devices primarily for internal use. Instruments and calculators were some of the products using these devices.

HP partnered in the 1960s with Sony and the Yokogawa Electric companies in Japan to develop several high-quality products. The products were not a huge success, as there were high costs in building HP-looking products in Japan. HP and Yokogawa formed a joint venture (Yokogawa-Hewlett-Packard) in 1963 to market HP products in Japan. HP bought Yokogawa Electric’s share of Hewlett-Packard Japan in 1999.

HP spun off a small company, Dynac, to specialize in digital equipment. The name was picked so that the HP logo “hp” could be turned upside down to be a reverse reflect image of the logo “dy” of the new company. Eventually Dynac changed to Dymec, then was folded back into HP in 1959. HP experimented with using Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) minicomputers with its instruments, but after deciding that it would be easier to build another small design team than deal with DEC, HP entered the computer market in 1966 with the HP 2100 / HP 1000 series of minicomputers. These had a simple accumulator-based design, with registers arranged somewhat similarly to the Intel x86 architecture still used today. The series was produced for 20 years, in spite of several attempts to replace it, and was a forerunner of the HP 9800 and HP 250 series of desktop and business computers.

1970s

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 Hewlett-Packard logo used from 1964 to 1979

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 Introduced in 1968, “The new Hewlett-Packard 9100A personal computer is ready, willing, and able … to relieve you of waiting to get on the big computer.”

The HP 3000 was an advanced stack-based design for a business computing server, later redesigned with RISC technology. The HP 2640 series of smart and intelligent terminals introduced forms-based interfaces to ASCII terminals, and also introduced screen labeled function keys, now commonly used on gas pumps and bank ATMs. The HP 2640 series included one of the first bit mapped graphics displays that when combined with the HP 2100 21MX F-Series microcoded Scientific Instruction Set enabled the first commercial WYSIWYG Presentation Program, BRUNO that later became the program HP-Draw on the HP 3000. Although scoffed at in the formative days of computing, HP would eventually surpass even IBM as the world’s largest technology vendor, in terms of sales.

Although Programma 101 was the first commercial “desktop computer”, HP is identified by Wired magazine as the producer of the world’s first device to be called a personal computer, the Hewlett-Packard 9100A, introduced in 1968. Programma 101 was called “computer personale” (in Italian), at Fiera di Milano, 1966. HP called it a desktop calculator, because, as Bill Hewlett said, “If we had called it a computer, it would have been rejected by our customers’ computer gurus because it didn’t look like an IBM. We therefore decided to call it a calculator, and all such nonsense disappeared.” An engineering triumph at the time, the logic circuit was produced without any integrated circuits; the assembly of the CPU having been entirely executed in discrete components. With CRT display, magnetic-card storage, and printer, the price was around $5,000. The machine’s keyboard was a cross between that of a scientific calculator and an adding machine. There was no alphabetic keyboard.

Steve Wozniak, co-founder of Apple, originally designed the Apple I computer while working at HP and offered it to them under their right of first refusal to his work, but they did not take it up as the company wanted to stay in scientific, business, and industrial markets. Wozniak said that HP “turned him down 5 times.” Wozniak said his loyalty to HP made him hesitant to start Apple with Steve Jobs.

The company earned global respect for a variety of products. They introduced the world’s first handheld scientific electronic calculator in 1972 (the HP-35), the first handheld programmable in 1974 (the HP-65), the first alphanumeric, programmable, expandable in 1979 (the HP-41C), and the first symbolic and graphing calculator, the HP-28C. Like their scientific and business calculators, their oscilloscopes, logic analyzers, and other measurement instruments have a reputation for sturdiness and usability (the latter products are now part of spin-off Agilent’s product line). The company’s design philosophy in this period was summarized as “design for the guy at the next bench”.

The 98×5 series of technical desktop computers started in 1975 with the 9815, and the cheaper 80 series, again of technical computers, started in 1979 with the 85. These machines used a version of the BASIC programming language which was available immediately after they were switched on, and used a proprietary magnetic tape for storage. HP computers were similar in capabilities to the much later IBM Personal Computer, although the limitations of available technology forced prices to be high.

1980s

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Hewlett-Packard logo used from 1979 to 2010

In 1984, HP introduced both inkjet and laser printers for the desktop. Along with its scanner product line, these have later been developed into successful multifunction products, the most significant being single-unit printer/scanner/copier/fax machines. The print mechanisms in HP’s tremendously popular LaserJet line of laser printers depend almost entirely on Canon Inc.’s components (print engines), which in turn use technology developed by Xerox. HP develops the hardware, firmware, and software that convert data into dots for the mechanism to print.

On March 3, 1986, HP registered the HP.com domain name, making it the ninth Internet .com domain ever to be registered.

In 1987, the Palo Alto garage where Hewlett and Packard started their business was designated as a California State historical landmark.

1990s

In the 1990s, HP expanded their computer product line, which initially had been targeted at university, research, and business users, to reach consumers. HP also grew through acquisitions. It bought Apollo Computer in 1989 and Convex Computer in 1995.

Later in the decade, HP opened hpshopping.com as an independent subsidiary to sell online, direct to consumers; in 2005, the store was renamed “HP Home & Home Office Store.”

From 1995 to 1998, Hewlett-Packard were sponsors of the English football team Tottenham Hotspur.

In 1999, all of the businesses not related to computers, storage, and imaging were spun off from HP to form Agilent Technologies. Agilent’s spin-off was the largest initial public offering in the history of Silicon Valley. The spin-off created an $8 billion company with about 30,000 employees, manufacturing scientific instruments, semiconductors, optical networking devices, and electronic test equipment for telecom and wireless R&D and production.

In July 1999, HP appointed Carly Fiorina as CEO, the first female CEO of a Fortune-20 company in the Dow Jones Industrial Average. Fiorina served as CEO during the technology downturn of the early 2000s. During her tenure, HP laid off 30,000 U.S. employees in order to save 80,000 jobs. The company then grew to 150,000 jobs. Under her leadership, the company doubled in size. The HP Board of Directors asked Fiorina to step down in 2005 following a boardroom disagreement, and she resigned on February 9, 2005. Tom Perkins, who as a board member led efforts to force Fiorina out, stated years later that doing so was a “mistake”.

Sales to Iran Despite Sanctions

In 1997, HP sold over $120 million worth of its printers and computer products to Iran through a European subsidiary and a Dubai-based East distributor, despite U.S. export sanctions prohibiting such deals imposed by Bill Clinton’s executive orders issued in 1995. The story was initially reported by The Boston Globe, and it triggered an inquiry by the SEC. HP responded that products worth US$120 million were sold in fiscal year 2008 for distribution by way of Redington Gulf, a company based in the Netherlands, and that as these sales took place through a foreign subsidiary, HP had not violated sanctions.

HP named Redington Gulf “Wholesaler of the Year” in 2003, which in turn published a press release stating that “[t]he seeds of the Redington-Hewlett-Packard relationship were sowed six years ago for one market — Iran.” At that time, Redington Gulf had only three employees whose sole purpose was to sell HP products to the Iran market. According to former officials who worked on sanctions, HP was using a loophole by routing their sales through a foreign subsidiary. HP ended its relationship with Redington Gulf after the SEC inquiry.

2000–2005

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 Hewlett-Packard Deskjet 3845 printer

On September 3, 2001, HP announced that an agreement had been reached with Compaq to merge the two companies. In May 2002, after passing a shareholder vote, HP officially merged with Compaq. Prior to this, plans had been in place to consolidate the companies’ product teams and product lines.

Compaq had already taken over Digital Equipment Corporation in 1998. HP therefore still offers support for the former Digital Equipment products PDP-11, VAX and AlphaServer.

The merger occurred after a proxy fight with Bill Hewlett’s son Walter, who objected to the merger. Compaq itself had bought Tandem Computers in 1997 (which had been started by ex-HP employees), and Digital Equipment Corporation in 1998. Following this strategy, HP became a major player in desktops, laptops, and servers for many different markets. After the merger with Compaq, the new ticker symbol became “HPQ”, a combination of the two previous symbols, “HWP” and “CPQ”, to show the significance of the alliance and also key letters from the two companies Hewlett-Packard and Compaq (the latter company being famous for its “Q” logo on all of its products).

In 2004, HP released the DV 1000 Series, including the HP Pavilion dv 1658 and 1040 two years later in May 2006, HP began its campaign, “The Computer is Personal Again”. The campaign was designed to bring back the fact that the PC is a personal product. The campaign utilized viral marketing, sophisticated visuals and its own website (www.hp.com/personal). Some of the ads featured Pharrell, Petra Nemcova, Mark Burnett, Mark Cuban, Alicia Keys, Jay-Z, Gwen Stefani, and Shaun White.

2006–2009

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 A sign marking the entrance to the HP corporate headquarters in Palo Alto, California, 2006

On May 13, 2008, HP and Electronic Data Systems (EDS) announced that they had signed a definitive agreement under which HP would purchase EDS. On June 30, HP announced that the waiting period under the Hart-Scott-Rodino Antitrust Improvements Act of 1976 had expired. “The transaction still requires EDS stockholder approval and regulatory clearance from the European Commission and other non-U.S. jurisdictions and is subject to the satisfaction or waiver of the other closing conditions specified in the merger agreement.” The agreement was finalized on August 26, 2008 at $13 billion, and it was publicly announced that EDS would be re-branded “EDS a HP company.” The first targeted layoff of 24,600 former EDS workers was announced on September 15, 2008. (The company’s 2008 Annual Report gave the number as 24,700, to be completed by end of 2009.[44]) This round was factored into purchase price as a $19.5 billion liability against goodwill. As of September 23, 2009, EDS is known as HP Enterprise Services.

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 iPAQ 112 Pocket PC from 2008

On November 11, 2009, 3Com and Hewlett-Packard announced that Hewlett-Packard would be acquiring 3Com for $2.7 billion in cash. The acquisition is one of the biggest in size among a series of takeovers and acquisitions by technology giants to push their way to become one-stop shops. Since the beginning of the financial crisis in 2007, tech giants have constantly felt the pressure to expand beyond their current market niches. Dell purchased Perot Systems recently to invade into the technology consulting business area previously dominated by IBM. Hewlett-Packard’s latest move marked its incursion into enterprise networking gear market dominated by Cisco.

2010–2012

On April 28, 2010, Palm, Inc. and Hewlett-Packard announced that HP would buy Palm for $1.2 billion in cash and debt. Before this announcement, it was rumored that either HTC, Dell, Research in Motion or HP would buy Palm. Adding Palm handsets to the HP product line created some overlap with the iPAQ series of mobile devices but was thought to significantly improve HP’s mobile presence as iPAQdevices had not been selling well. Buying Palm gave HP a library of valuable patents, as well as the mobile operating platform known as webOS. On July 1, 2010, the acquisition of Palm was final. The purchase of Palm’s webOS began a big gamble – to build HP’s own ecosystem. On July 1, 2011, HP launched its first tablet named HP TouchPad, bringing webOS to tablet devices. On September 2, 2010, HP won its bidding war for 3PAR with a $33 a share offer ($2.07 billion) which Dell declined to match. After HP’s acquisition of Palm, it phased out the Compaq brand.

On August 6, 2010, CEO Mark Hurd resigned amid controversy and CFO Cathie Lesjak assumed the role of interim CEO. Hurd had turned HP around and was widely regarded as one of Silicon Valley’s star CEOs, but was accused of sexual harassment against a colleague. Although the allegations were deemed baseless, the investigation led to questions concerning between $1000 and $20000 of his private expenses and his lack of disclosure related to the friendship. Some observers have argued that Hurd was innocent, but the board asked for his resignation to avoid negative PR. Public analysis was divided between those who saw it as a commendable tough action by HP in handling expenses irregularities, and those who saw it as an ill-advised, hasty and expensive reaction, in ousting a remarkably capable leader who had turned the business around. Shares of HP dropped by 8.4% in after-hours trading, hitting a 52-week low with $9 billion in market capitalization shaved off. Larry Ellison publicly attacked HP’s board for his ousting.

On September 30, 2010, Léo Apotheker was named as HP’s new CEO and President. Apotheker’s appointment sparked a strong reaction from Oracle chief executive Larry Ellison, who complained that Apotheker had been in charge of SAP when one of its subsidiaries was systematically stealing software from Oracle. SAP accepted that its subsidiary, which has now closed, illegally accessed Oracle intellectual property. Following Hurd’s departure, HP was seen by the market as problematic, with margins falling and having failed to redirect and establish itself in major new markets such as cloud and mobile services.

Apotheker’s strategy was broadly to aim at disposing of hardware and moving into the more profitable software services sector. On August 18, 2011, HP announced that it would strategically exit the smartphone and tablet computer business, focusing on higher-margin “strategic priorities of Cloud, solutions and software with an emphasis on enterprise, commercial and government markets” They also contemplated selling off their personal computer division or spinning it off into a separate company, quitting the ‘PC’ business, while continuing to sell servers and other equipment to business customers, was a strategy already undertaken by IBM in 2005.

HP’s stock continued to drop, by about a further 40% (including 25% on one day, August 19, 2011), after the company abruptly announced a number of decisions: to discontinue its webOS device business (mobile phones and tablet computers), the intent to sell its personal computer division (at the time HP was the largest personal computer manufacturer in the world), and to acquire British big data software firm Autonomy for a 79% premium, seen externally as an “absurdly high” price for a business with known concerns over its accounts. Media analysts described HP’s actions as a “botched strategy shift” and a “chaotic” attempt to rapidly reposition HP and enhance earnings that ultimately cost Apotheker his job. The Autonomy acquisition had been objected to even by HP’s own CFO.

On September 22, 2011, the HP Board of Directors fired Apotheker as chief executive, effective immediately, and replaced him with fellow board member and former eBay chief Meg Whitman, with Raymond J. Lane as executive chairman. Though Apotheker served barely ten months, he received over $13 million in compensation. HP lost more than $30 billion in market capitalization during his tenure. Weeks later, HP announced that a review had concluded their PC division was too integrated and critical to business operations, and the company reaffirmed their commitment to the Personal Systems Group. A year later in November 2012 wrote-down almost $9 billion related to the Autonomy acquisition (see below: Takeover of Autonomy), which became the subject of intense litigation as HP accused Autonomy’s previous management of fraudulently exaggerating Autonomy’s financial position and called in law enforcement and regulators in both countries, and Autonomy’s previous management accused HP of “textbook” obfuscation and finger pointing to protect HP’s executives from criticism and conceal HP culpability, their prior knowledge of Autonomy’s financial position, and gross mismanagement of Autonomy after acquisition.

On March 21, 2012, HP said its printing and PC divisions would become one unit headed by Todd Bradley from the PC division. Printing chief Vyomesh Joshi is leaving the company.

On May 23, 2012, HP announced plans to lay off approximately 27,000 employees, after posting a profit decline of 31% in the second quarter of 2012. The profit decline is on account of the growing popularity of smart phones, tablets, and other mobile devices, that has slowed the sale of personal computers.

On May 30, 2012, HP unveiled its first net zero energy data center. HP data center plans to use solar energy and other renewable sources instead of traditional power grids.

On July 10, 2012, HP’s Server Monitoring Software was discovered to have a previously unknown security vulnerability. A security warning was given to customers about two vulnerabilities, and a patch released. One month later, HP’s official site of training center was hacked and defaced by a Pakistani hacker known to as ‘Hitcher’ to demonstrate a web vulnerability.

On September 10, 2012, HP revised their restructuring figures; they are now cutting 29,000 jobs. HP had already cut 3,800 jobs – around 7 percent of the revised 29,000 figure – as of July 2012.

2013–2015

On December 31, 2013, HP revised the amount of jobs cut from 29,000 to 34,000 up to October 2014. The current amount of jobs cut until the end of 2013 was 24,600. At the end of 2013 the company had 317,500 employees. On May 22, 2014 HP announced it would cut a further 11,000 to 16,000 jobs, in addition to the 34,000 announced in 2013. “We are gradually shaping HP into a more nimble, lower-cost, more customer and partner-centric company that can successfully compete across a rapidly changing IT landscape,” CEO Meg Whitman said at the time.

In June 2014, during the HP Discover customer event in Las Vegas, Meg Whitman and Martin Fink announced a project for a radically new computer architecture called The Machine. Based on memristors and silicon photonics, The Machine is supposed to come in commercialization before the end of the decade, meanwhile representing 75% of the research activity in HP Labs.

On October 6, 2014, Hewlett-Packard announced it was planning to split into two separate companies, separating its personal computer and printer businesses from its technology services. The split, which was first reported by The Wall Street Journal and confirmed by other media, would result in two publicly traded companies: Hewlett Packard Enterprise and HP Inc. Meg Whitman would serve as chairman of HP Inc. and CEO of Hewlett Packard Enterprise, Patricia Russo would be chairman of the enterprise business, and Dion Weisler would be CEO of HP, Inc.

On October 29, 2014, Hewlett-Packard announced their new Sprout personal computer.

In May 2015, the company announced it would be selling its controlling 51 percent stake in its Chinese data-networking business to Tsinghua Unigroup for a fee of at least $2.4 billion.

On November 1, 2015, as previously announced, Hewlett-Packard legally ceased to exist and split into two companies, HP Inc. and Hewlett Packard Enterprise. HP Inc. is the legal successor of the old Hewlett-Packard; the split was structured so that Hewlett-Packard changed its name to HP Inc. and spun off Hewlett Packard Enterprise as a new publicly traded company. HP Inc. retains Hewlett-Packard’s stock price history and its stock ticker symbol, HPQ, while Hewlett Packard Enterprise trades under its own symbol, HPE.

Facilities

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 The research center of Hewlett-Packard in the Paris-Saclay cluster, France.

HP’s global operations are directed from its headquarters in Palo Alto, California, USA. Its U.S. operations are directed from its facility in unincorporated Harris County, Texas, near Houston. Its Latin America offices are in unincorporated Miami-Dade County, Florida, U.S., near Miami; Its Europe offices are in Meyrin, Switzerland, near Geneva, but it has also a research center in the Paris-Saclay cluster, 20 km south of Paris, France. Its Asia-Pacific offices are in Singapore.

It also has large operations in Leixlip, Ireland; Austin, Texas; Boise, Idaho; Corvallis, Oregon; Fort Collins, Colorado; Roseville, California; Saint Petersburg, Florida; San Diego, California; Tulsa, Oklahoma; Vancouver, Washington; and Plano, Texas (the former headquarters of EDS, which HP acquired). In the UK, HP is based at a large site in Bracknell, Berkshire with offices in various UK locations, including a landmark office tower in London, 88 Wood Street. Its recent acquisition of 3Com will expand its employee base to Marlborough, Massachusetts. The company also has a large workforce and numerous offices in Bucharest, Romania and at Bangalore, India, to address their back end and IT operations. MphasiS, which is headquartered at Bangalore, also enabled HP to increase their footprint in the city as it was a subsidiary of EDS which the company acquired.

Products and Organizational Structure

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 HP office in Japan

HP produces lines of printers, scanners, digital cameras, calculators, PDAs, servers, workstation computers, and computers for home and small-business use; many of the computers came from the 2002 merger with Compaq. HP as of 2001 promotes itself as supplying not just hardware and software, but also a full range of services to design, implement, and support IT infrastructure.

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HP Presario F700 F767CL

HP’s Imaging and Printing Group (IPG) was described by the company in 2005 as “the leading imaging and printing systems provider in the world for printer hardware, printing supplies and scanning devices, providing solutions across customer segments from individual consumers to small and medium businesses to large enterprises”.

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 iPAQ h4150 Pocket PC from 2003

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 An HP camera with an SDIO interface, designed for use in conjunction with a Pocket PC

Products and Technology Associated with IPG include:

  • Inkjet and LaserJet printers
  • consumables and related products
  • Officejet all-in-one multifunction printer/scanner/faxes
  • Designjet and Scitex Large Format Printers
  • Indigo Digital Press
  • HP Web Jetadmin printer management software
  • HP Output Management suite of software
  • LightScribe optical recording technology
  • HP Photosmart digital cameras and photo printers
  • HP SPaM
  • Snapfish by HP, a photo sharing and photo products service.

On December 23, 2008, HP released iPrint Photo for iPhone, a free downloadable software application that allows the printing of 4″ x 6″ photos.

HP’s Personal Systems Group (PSG) claims to be “one of the leading vendors of personal computers (“PCs”) in the world based on unit volume shipped and annual revenue.”

PSG deals with:

  • business PCs and accessories
  • consumer PCs and accessories, (e.g., HP Pavilion, Compaq Presario, VoodooPC)
  • handheld computing (e.g., iPAQ Pocket PC)
  • digital “connected” entertainment (e.g., HP MediaSmart TVs, HP MediaSmart
  • Servers, HP MediaVaults, DVD+RW drives)

HP resold the Apple iPod until November 2005.

HP Enterprise Business (EB) incorporates HP Technology Services, Enterprise Services (an amalgamation of the former EDS, and what was known as HP Services), HP Enterprise Security Services oversees professional services such as network security, information security and information assurance/ compliancy, HP Software Division, and Enterprise Servers, Storage and Networking Group (ESSN). The Enterprise Servers, Storage and Networking Group (ESSN) oversees “back end” products like storage and servers. HP Networking (former ProCurve) is responsible for the NW family of products. They are a business unit of ESSN.

HP Software Division is the company’s enterprise software unit. For years,[when?] HP has produced and marketed its brand of enterprise-management software, HP OpenView. From September 2005 HP purchased several software companies as part of a publicized, deliberate strategy to augment its software offerings for large business customers.

HP Software sells several categories of software, including:

  • business service management software
  • application lifecycle management software
  • mobile apps
  • big data and analytics
  • service and portfolio management software
  • automation and orchestration software
  • enterprise security softwareArcSight
  • Fortify Software
  • Atalla
  • TippingPoint

HP Software also provides software as a service (SaaS), cloud computing solutions, and software services, including consulting, education, professional services, and support.

HP’s Office of Strategy and Technology has four main functions:

  • steering the company’s $3.6 billion research and development investment
  • fostering the development of the company’s global technical community
  • eading the company’s strategy and corporate development efforts,
  • erforming worldwide corporate marketing activities

Under the Office of Strategy and Technology comes HP Labs, the research arm of HP. Founded in 1966, HP Labs aims to deliver new technologies and to create business opportunities that go beyond HP’s current strategies. Examples of recent HP Labs technology includes the Memory spot chip of 2006. HP IdeaLab further provides a web forum on early-state innovations to encourage open feedback from consumers and the development community.

HP also offers managed services by which they provide complete IT-support solutions for other companies and organizations.

Some examples of these include:

  • offering “Professional Support” and desktop “Premier Support” for Microsoft in the EMEA marketplace. This is done from the Leixlip campus near Dublin, Sofia and Israel. Support is offered on the line of Microsoft operation systems,
  • Exchange, Sharepoint and some office-applications.
  • outsourced services for companies like Bank of Ireland, some UK banks, the U.S. defense forces.
  • the computerisation project at Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust.

Staff and Culture

The founders developed a management style that came to be known as “The HP Way.” In Hewlett’s words, the HP Way is “a core ideology … which includes a deep respect for the individual, a dedication to affordable quality and reliability, a commitment to community responsibility, and a view that the company exists to make technical contributions for the advancement and welfare of humanity.”

The following are the tenets of The HP Way:

  • We have trust and respect for individuals.
  • We focus on a high level of achievement and contribution.
  • We conduct our business with uncompromising integrity.
  • We achieve our common objectives through teamwork.
  • We encourage flexibility and innovation.

Notable People

  • Michael Capellas (Compaq CEO/Chairman – HP President)[107]
  • Barney Oliver, founder and director of HP laboratories
  • Steve Wozniak
  • Tom Perkins
  • Carly Fiorina, 2016 Republican presidential candidate
  • Matt Shaheen, management consultant executive at HP Enterprise Services in
  • Plano, Texas; Republican member of the Texas House of Representatives
  • List of HP Chairmen and CEOs
  • John Schultz (HP Lawyer – Oracle Lawsuit)

Corporate Social Responsibility

In July 2007, the company announced that it had met its target, set in 2004, to recycle one billion pounds of electronics, toner and ink cartridges. It set a new goal of recycling a further two billion pounds of hardware by the end of 2010. In 2006, the company recovered 187 million pounds of electronics, 73 percent more than its closest competitor.

In 2008, HP released its supply chain emissions data — an industry first.

In September 2009, Newsweek ranked HP No. 1 on its 2009 Green Rankings of America’s 500 largest corporations. According to environmentalleader.com, “Hewlett-Packard earned its number one position due to its greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction programs, and was the first major IT company to report GHG emissions associated with its supply chain, according to the ranking. In addition, HP has made an effort to remove toxic substances from its products, though Greenpeace has targeted the company for not doing better.”

HP took the top spot on Corporate Responsibility Magazine’s 100 Best Corporate Citizens List for 2010. The list is cited by PR Week as one of America’s most important business rankings. HP beat out other Russell 1000 Index companies because of its leadership in seven categories including environment, climate changes and corporate philanthropy. In 2009, HP was ranked fifth.

Fortune magazine named HP one of the World’s Most Admired Companies in 2010, placing it No. 2 in the computer industry and No. 32 overall in its list of the top 50. This year in the computer industry HP was ranked No. 1 in social responsibility, long-term investment, global competitiveness, and use of corporate assets.

In May 2011, HP released a Global Responsibility report covering accomplishments during 2010. The report, the company’s tenth, provides a comprehensive view of HP’s global citizenship programs, performance, and goals and describes how HP uses its technology, influence, and expertise to make a positive impact on the world. The company’s 2009 report won best corporate responsibility report of the year. The 2009 reports claims HP decreased its total energy use by 9 percent compared with 2008. HP recovered a total of 118,000 tonnes of electronic products and supplies for recycling in 2009, including 61 million print cartridges.

In an April 2010 San Francisco Chronicle article, HP was one of 12 companies commended for “designing products to be safe from the start, following the principles of green chemistry.” The commendations came from Environment California, an environmental advocacy group, who praised select companies in the Golden State and the Bay Area for their efforts to keep our planet clean and green.

In May 2010, HP was named one of the World’s Most Ethical Companies by Ethisphere Institute. This is the second year in a row HP has made the list. Ethisphere reviewed, researched and analyzed thousands of nominations in more than 100 countries and 35 industries to create the 2010 list. HP was one of only 100 companies to earn the distinction of top winner and was the only computer hardware vendor to be recognized. Ethisphere honors firms that promote ethical business standards and practices by going beyond legal minimums, introducing innovative ideas that benefit the public.

HP is listed in Greenpeace’s Guide to Greener Electronics that ranks electronics manufacturers according to their policies on sustainability, energy and climate and green products. In November 2011, HP secured the 1st place (out of 15) in this ranking (climbing up 3 places) with an increased score of 5.9 (up from 5.5). It scored most points on the new Sustainable Operations criteria, having the best program for measuring and reducing emissions of greenhouse gases from its suppliers and scoring maximum points for its thorough paper procurement policy. In the November 2012 report, HP was ranked second, with a score of 5.7.

HP does especially well for its disclosure of externally verified greenhouse gas emissions and its setting of targets for reducing them. However, Greenpeace reports that HP risks a penalty point in future editions due to the fact that it is a member of trade associations that have commented against energy efficiency standards.

HP has earned recognition of its work in the area of data privacy and security. In 2010 the company ranked No. 4 in the Ponemon Institute’s annual study of the most trusted companies for privacy. Since 2006, HP has worked directly with the U.S. Congress, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), and the Department of Commerce to establish a new strategy for federal legislation. HP played a key role in work toward the December 2010 FTC report “Protecting Consumer Privacy in an Era of Rapid Change.”

After winning nine straight annual “Most Respected Company in China” awards from the Economic Observer and Peking University, HP China has added the “10 Year Contribution” award to its list of accolades. The award aims to identify companies doing business in China with outstanding and sustained performance in business operations, development and corporate social responsibility.

In its 2012 rankings of consumer electronics companies on progress relating to conflict minerals, the Enough Project rated HP second out of 24 companies, calling it a “Pioneer of progress”.

Brand

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 The company sponsored the HP Pavilion at San Jose (now SAP Center at San Jose), home to the NHL’s San Jose Sharks.

According to a BusinessWeek Study, HP was the world’s 11th most valuable brand as of 2009.

Porsche-Carrera-Cup_Alzen2006

HP has many sponsorships. One well known sponsorship is Mission: SPACE in Epcot at the Walt Disney World Resort. From 1995 to 1999, and again from 2013, HP has been the shirt sponsor of Premier League club Tottenham Hotspur F.C.[citation needed] From 1997 to 1999 they were sponsors of Australian Football League club North Melbourne Football Club.[citation needed] They also sponsored the BMW Williams Formula 1 team until 2005 (a sponsorship formerly held by Compaq), and as of 2010 sponsor Renault F1. Hewlett-Packard also had the naming rights arrangement for the HP Pavilion at San Jose, home of the San Jose Sharks NHL hockey team until 2013, in which the arena’s naming rights were acquired by SAP AG, renaming the arena to the SAP Center at San Jose. The company also maintains a number of corporate sponsorships in the business sector, including sponsorships of trade organisations including Fespa (print trade exhibitions), and O’Reilly Media’s Velocity (web development) conference.

After the acquisition of Compaq in 2002, HP has maintained the “Compaq Presario” brand on low-end home desktops and laptops, the “HP Compaq” brand on business desktops and laptops, and the “HP ProLiant” brand on Intel-architecture servers. (The “HP Pavilion” brand is used on home entertainment laptops and all home desktops.)

Tandem’s “NonStop” servers are now branded as “HP Integrity NonStop”.

HP Discover Customer Event

In 2011, HP Enterprise Business, along with participating independent user groups, combined its annual HP Software Universe, HP Technology Forum and HP Technology@Work into a single event, HP Discover. There are two HP Discover events annually, one for the Americas and one for Europe, Middle East and Africa (EMEA). HP Discover 2011 Americas took place June 6–10, in Las Vegas at the Venetian/Palazzo. The company demonstrated the webOS TouchPad, introduced July 1, 2011.

The HP Discover 2011 event in EMEA took place in Vienna, Austria, on November 29 through December 1, 2011.

Controversies

Restatement

In March 2003, HP restated its first-quarter cash flow from operations, reducing it 18 percent because of an accounting error. Actual cash flow from operations was $647 million, not $791 million as reported earlier. HP shifted $144 million to net cash used in investing activities.

Spying Scandal

On September 5, 2006, Shawn Cabalfin and David O’Neil of Newsweek wrote that HP’s general counsel, at the behest of chairwoman Patricia Dunn, contracted a team of independent security experts to investigate board members and several journalists in order to identify the source of an information leak. In turn, those security experts recruited private investigators who used a spying technique known as pretexting. The pretexting involved investigators impersonating HP board members and nine journalists (including reporters for CNET, The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal) in order to obtain their phone records. The information leaked related to HP’s long-term strategy and was published as part of a CNET article[146] in January 2006. Most HP employees accused of criminal acts have since been acquitted.

Hardware

In November 2007, Hewlett-Packard released a BIOS update covering a wide range of laptops with the intent to speed up the computer fan as well as have it run constantly, whether the computer was on or off. The reason was to prevent the overheating of defective Nvidia graphics processing units (GPUs) that had been shipped to many of the original equipment manufacturers, including Hewlett-Packard, Dell, and Apple. The defect concerned the new packaging material used by Nvidia from 2007 onwards in joining the graphics chip onto the motherboard, which did not perform well under thermal cycling and was prone to develop stress cracks – effectively severing the connection between the GPU and the motherboard, leading to a blank screen. In July 2008, HP issued an extension to the initial one-year warranty to replace the motherboards of selected models. However this option was not extended to all models with the defective Nvidia chipsets despite research showing that these computers were also affected by the fault. Furthermore, the replacement of the motherboard was a temporary fix, since the fault was inherent in all units of the affected models from the point of manufacture, including the replacement motherboards offered by HP as a free ‘repair’. Since this point, several websites have been documenting the issue, most notably http://www.hplies.com, a forum dedicated to what they refer to as Hewlett-Packard’s “multi-million dollar cover up” of the issue, and http://www.nvidiadefect.com, which details the specifics of the fault and offers advice to the owners of affected computers. There have been several small-claims lawsuits filed in several states, as well as suits filed in other countries. Hewlett-Packard also faced a class-action lawsuit in 2009 over its i7 processor computers. The complainants stated that their systems locked up within 30 minutes of powering on, consistently. Even after being replaced with newer i7 systems, the lockups continued.

Lawsuit Against Oracle

On June 15, 2011, HP filed a lawsuit in California Superior Court in Santa Clara, claiming that Oracle Corporation had breached an agreement to support the Itanium microprocessor used in HP’s high-end enterprise servers. On June 15, 2011, HP sent a “formal legal demand” letter to Oracle in an attempt to force the world’s No. 3 software maker to reverse its decision to discontinue software development on Intel Itanium microprocessor and build its own servers. HP won the lawsuit in 2012, requiring Oracle to continue to produce software compatible with the Itanium processor. HP was awarded $3 billion in damages against Oracle on June 30, 2016. HP argued Oracle’s canceling support damaged HP Itanium server brand. Oracle has announced it will appeal both the decision and damages.

Takeover of Autonomy

In November 2012, HP recorded a writedown of around $8.8 billion related to its acquisition a year earlier of the UK based Autonomy Corporation PLC. HP accused Autonomy of deliberately inflating the value of the company prior to its takeover. The former management team of Autonomy flatly rejected the charge.

Autonomy specialized in analysis of large scale unstructured “big data”, and by 2010 was the UK’s largest and most successful software business. It maintained an aggressively entrepreneurial marketing approach, and controls described as a “rod of iron”, which was said to include zero tolerance and firing the weakest 5% of its sales force each quarter, while compensating the best sales staff “like rock stars”.

At the time, HP had fired its previous CEO for expenses irregularities a year before, and appointed Léo Apotheker as CEO and President. HP was seen as problematic by the market, with margins falling and having failed to redirect and establish itself in major new markets such as cloud and mobile services. Apotheker’s strategy was to aim at disposing of hardware and moving into the more profitable software services sector.

As part of this strategy, Autonomy was acquired by HP in October 2011. HP paid $10.3 billion for 87.3% of the shares, valuing Autonomy at around $11.7 billion (£7.4 billion) overall, a premium of around 79% over market price. The deal was widely criticized as “absurdly high”, a “botched strategy shift” and a “chaotic” attempt to rapidly reposition HP and enhance earnings,[61][63][64] and had been objected to even by HP’s own CFO. Within a year, Apotheker himself had been fired, major culture clashes became apparent and HP had written off $8.8 billion of Autonomy’s value.

HP claim this resulted from “accounting improprieties, misrepresentations and disclosure failures” by the previous management, who in turn accuse HP of a “textbook example of defensive stalling” to conceal evidence of its own prior knowledge and gross mismanagement and undermining of the company, noting public awareness since 2009 of its financial reporting issues and that even HP’s CFO disagreed with the price paid. External observers generally state that only a small part of the write-off appears to be due to accounting mis-statements, and that HP had overpaid for businesses previously.

The Serious Fraud Office (United Kingdom), and the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission joined the FBI in investigating the potential anomalies. HP incurred much damage with its stock falling to decades’ low. Three lawsuits were brought by shareholders against HP, for the fall in value of HP shares. In August 2014 a United States district court judge threw out a proposed settlement, which Autonomy’s previous management had argued would be collusive and intended to divert scrutiny of HP’s own responsibility and knowledge, by essentially engaging the plaintiff’s attorneys from the existing cases and redirecting them against the previous Autonomy vendors and management, for a fee of up to $48 million, with plaintiffs agreeing to end any claims against HP’s management and similarly redirect those claims against the previous Autonomy vendors and management. In January 2015 the SFO closed its investigation as the likelihood of a successful prosecution was low. The dispute is still being litigated in the US, and is being investigated by the UK and Ireland Financial Reporting Council. On June 9, 2015, HP agreed to pay $100 million to investors who bought HP shares between August 19, 2011, and November 20, 2012 to settle the suite over Autonomy purchase.

Bribery

On April 9, 2014, an administrative proceeding before Securities and Exchange Commission was settled by HP consenting to an order acknowledging that HP had violated the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) when HP subsidiaries in Russia, Poland, and Mexico made improper payments to government officials to obtain or retain lucrative public contracts.

The SEC’s order finds that HP’s subsidiary in Russia paid more than $2 million through agents and various shell companies to a Russian government official to retain a multimillion-dollar contract with the federal prosecutor’s office. In Poland, HP’s subsidiary provided gifts and cash bribes worth more than $600,000 to a Polish government official to obtain contracts with the national police agency. And as part of its bid to win a software sale to Mexico’s state-owned petroleum company, HP’s subsidiary in Mexico paid more than $1 million in inflated commissions to a consultant with close ties to company officials, and money was funneled to one of those officials. HP agreed to pay $108 million to settle the SEC charges and a parallel criminal case.