The World’s Billionaires

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The World’s Billionaires is an annual ranking by documented net worth of the world’s wealthiest billionaires compiled and published in March annually by the American business magazine Forbes. The list was first published in March 1987. The total net worth of each individual on the list is estimated and is cited in United States dollars, based on their documented assets and accounting for debt. Royalty and dictators whose wealth comes from their positions are excluded from these lists. This ranking is an index of the wealthiest documented individuals, excluding and ranking against those with wealth that is not able to be completely ascertained.

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In 2017, there was a record of 2,043 people on the list, which is the first time over 2,000 people were listed, that included 195 newcomers that included 76 from China and 25 from the U.S.; there were 56 people under 40 and it had a record of 227 women. The average net worth of the list came in at US$ 3.75 billion, down US$ 110 million from 2015. Added together, the total net worth for 2017’s billionaires was US$7.67 trillion, up from US$ 7.1 trillion in 2015. In 2017, 500 of the richest people in the world became richer by $ 1 trillion, according to a report by Bloomberg News. As of 2017, Microsoft founder Bill Gates has topped the list 18 of the past 23 years.

According to a 2017 Oxfam report, the top eight billionaires own as much combined wealth as “half the human race”.

Methodology


Each year, Forbes employs a team of more than 50 reporters from a variety of countries to track the activity of the world’s wealthiest individuals. Preliminary surveys are sent to those who may qualify for the list. According to Forbes, they received three types of responses – some people try to inflate their wealth, others cooperate but leave out details, and some refuse to answer any questions. Business deals are then scrutinized and estimates of valuable assets – land, homes, vehicles, artwork, etc. – are made. Interviews are conducted to vet the figures and improve the estimate of an individual’s holdings. Finally, positions in a publicly traded stock are priced to market on a date roughly a month before publication. Privately held companies are priced by the prevailing price-to-sales or price-to-earnings ratios. Known debt is subtracted from assets to get a final estimate of an individual’s estimated worth in United States dollars. Since stock prices fluctuate rapidly, an individual’s true wealth and ranking at the time of publication may vary from their situation when the list was compiled.

Family fortunes dispersed over a large number of relatives are included only if those individuals’ holdings are worth more than a billion dollars. However, when a living individual has dispersed his or her wealth to immediate family members, it is included under a single listing provided that individual is still living. Royal families and dictators that have their wealth contingent on a position are always excluded from these lists.

Annual Rankings


The rankings are published annually in March, so the net worth listed are snapshots taken at that time. These lists only show the top 10 wealthiest billionaires.

2017

On the 30th anniversary of the Forbes’ list of the world’s billionaires, for the fourth year in a row, Bill Gates was named the richest man in the world. The number of billionaires increased 13% to 2,043 from 1,810 in 2016; this is the biggest change in over 30 years of tracking billionaires globally. This is the first time after 12 years that Carlos Slim was not within the top five. The U.S. continues to have the most billionaires in the world, with a record of 565. China has 319 (not including Hong Kong or Macau), Germany has 114, and India has the fourth most with 101; India has reached over 100 billionaires for its first time.

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2016


For the third year in a row, Bill Gates was named the richest man in the world by Forbes’s 2016 list of the world’s billionaires. This is the 17th time that the founder of Microsoft has claimed the top spot. Amancio Ortega rose from last year’s position of number four to second. Warren Buffett of Berkshire Hathaway came in third for the second consecutive time, while Mexican telecommunication mogul Carlos Slim slipped down from last year’s second position to fourth. Jeff Bezos of Amazon, Mark Zuckerberg of Facebook and Michael Bloomberg of Bloomberg L.P., appear for the first time on the Forbes top 10 billionaires list, coming at fifth, sixth and eighth position, respectively. Zuckerberg became the youngest top 10 billionaire this year at the age of 31. Larry Ellison, Charles Koch and David Koch also slipped down from their last year’s positions, with Ellison dropping to seventh from fifth and the Kochs falling to ninth position from sixth, respectively.

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2015

In the 29th annual Forbes list of global billionaires, a record 1,826 billionaires were named with an aggregated net worth of $7.1 trillion compared to $6.4 trillion last year. 46 of the billionaires in this list are under the age of 40. A record number of 290 people joined the list for the first time, of whom 25 percent hail from China, which produced a world-leading 71 newcomers. The United States came in second, with 57, followed by India, with 28, and Germany, with 23. The United States has the largest number of billionaires with 526. Russia went down to 88 from 111 in 2014. Russia was placed behind China, Germany and India by the number of billionaires. Self-made billionaires made up the largest number of people on the list with 1,191 positions (over 65 percent) while just 230 (under 13 percent) have wealth through inheritance. The number of billionaires who inherited a portion but are still working to increase their fortunes is 405.

Bill Gates was named the richest man in the world by Forbes’s annual list of the world’s billionaires. This was the 16th time that the founder of Microsoft claimed the top spot. Carlos Slim came in second for the second consecutive time. Warren Buffett of Berkshire Hathaway was placed third, while Amancio Ortega of Spain, slipped down a position from last year to number four. Larry Ellison, the founder of Oracle rounded off the top five. Christy Walton was the highest-ranking female at number eight. America’s Evan Spiegel, co-founder of photo messaging app Snapchat became the youngest billionaire this year at the age of 24. At age 99, David Rockefeller maintained his position as the oldest billionaire to be included in the list. Mark Zuckerberg, the founder of Facebook, rose to number 16 with $33.4 billion. Iceland had a billionaire, Thor Bjorgolfsson, in the list after a gap of five years. Guatemala had a billionaire, Mario Lopez Estrada, for the first time in its history.

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2014

Bill Gates added $9 billion to his fortune since 2013 and topped the Forbes 2014 billionaire list. He has topped the list 15 of the previous 20 years, but his previous number one ranking was in 2009. Mexican telecommunication mogul Carlos Slim came in second place after being number one the previous four years. Zara founder Amancio Ortegaplaced third for the second consecutive year. American investor Warren Buffett was in the top five for the 20th consecutive year, placing fourth. America’s Christy Walton was the highest ranking woman, placing ninth overall. Aliko Dangote of Nigeria became the first African ever to enter the top 25, with an estimated net worth of $25 billion.

A total of 1,645 people made the 2014 billionaire list, representing combined wealth of $6.4 trillion. Of those, a record 268 were newcomers, surpassing 2008’s 226 newcomers. One hundred people listed in 2013 failed to make the list. The number of women on the list rose to a record 172 in 2014. Approximately 66 percent of the list was self-made, 13 percent achieved their wealth through inheritance alone, and 21 percent through a mixture of the two.

The United States had 492 billionaires on the list, the most of any country. The country also had the most newcomers with 50, and women with 54. China had the second most billionaires with 152, while Russia was third with 111. Algeria, Lithuania, Tanzania, and Uganda were all represented on the list for the first time. Turkey saw the most people drop off the list, 19, due to a period of high inflation in the country.

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2013

Carlos Slim topped the 2013 billionaire list, marking his fourth consecutive year at the top. Bill Gates remained in second, while Amancio Ortega moved up to third. Ortega’s gain of $19.5 billion was the largest of anyone on the list. Warren Buffett failed to make the top three for the first time since 2000, placing fourth. Diesel founder Renzo Rosso was among the top newcomers, debuting with an estimate net worth of $3 billion.

A global rise in asset prices, led Forbes editor Randall Lane to declare “It [was] a very good year to be a billionaire”. However, it was not a good year to be Eike Batista who fell from seventh to 100th, suffering the largest net loss of anyone on the list. Overall, net gainers outnumbered net losers by 4:1.

A record total of 1,426 people made the 2013 list, representing $5.4 trillion of assets. Of those, 442 billionaires hailed from the United States. The Asian-Pacific region had 386 billionaires and Europe 366. The list also featured a record number of newcomers, 210, representing 42 different countries. Sixty people from the 2012 list fell below a billion dollar of assets in 2013 and eight others from the 2012 list died. The Asia-Pacific region had the most drop-offs, with 29, followed by the United States with 16. The 2013 list featured 138 women, of which 50 came from the United States. A majority of the list (961 individuals, 67 percent) was entirely self-made; 184 (13 percent) inherited their wealth, and 281 (20 percent) achieved their fortune through a combination of inheritance and business acumen.

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2012

Carlos Slim topped the 2012 list, marking this third consecutive year at the top. Bill Gates placed second, but narrowed the gap from 2011 as Slim’s fortune fell $5 billion while Gates’ rose $5 billion. Warren Buffett remained in third place. Bernard Arnault of France was the top-ranking European on the list, placing fourth. Ricardo Salinas Pliego was the greatest gainer in terms of dollars, adding $9.2 billion to his fortune and moving up to number 37 overall. Making her debut on the list at age 27, Spanx founder Sara Blakely became the youngest self-made female billionaire ever. Colombia’s Alejandro Santo Domingo was the highest-ranked newcomer, inheriting a $9.5 billion stake in Santo Domingo Group from his father. India’s Lakshmi Mittal was the largest loser as his fortune dropped from $31.1 billion to $20.7 billion as the price of steel maker ArcelorMittal fell sharply. As a result, he failed to make the top 10 for the first time since 2004 and lost his title of richest Asian to Hong Kong’s Li Ka-shing.

A record total of 1,226 people made the 2012 list, representing 58 different countries. Of those, 126 were newcomers to the list and 104 were women. The United States had the greatest number of billionaires with 425. Russia had 96 people on the list, while China had 95. Georgia, Morocco, and Peru were newly represented on the list. Falling stock prices in Asia contributed to 117 former billionaires falling from the list worldwide. Twelve others listed in 2011 died. Overall, net gainers (460) barely outnumbered net losers (441).

To coincide with the release of the 2012 list, Forbes announced a new “Billionaire Real-Time Ticker” updating the wealth of the world’s top fifty billionaires in real time.

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2011

In the 25th annual Forbes list of global billionaires, Carlos Slim added $20.5 billion to his fortune, the most of anyone, and retained his number one ranking with a total fortune of $74 billion. Bill Gates remained in second place with $56 billion, while Warren Buffett was third with $50 billion. The top 10 had a combined wealth of $406 billion, up from $342 billion in 2010. According to Forbes editor Kerry Dolan, “media and technology billionaires definitely benefited from a stronger stock market and a growing enthusiasm for all things social” since the 2010 list. However, Nigerian commodity mogul Aliko Dangote was the greatest gainer on a percentage basis as his fortune increased 557 percent to $13.5 billion. Mark Zuckerberg was one of seven Facebook-related billionaires on the list, as he $9.5 billion to his fortune to move up to 52nd. Facebook co-founder Dustin Moskovitz was the youngest person on the list. Aged 26, eight days younger than Zuckerberg, he debuted at number 420 with an estimated fortune of $2.7 billion. IKEA founder Ingvar Kamprad was the largest loser as he saw his fortune plummet from $23 billion to $6 billion, dropping him from 11th to 162nd overall.

A record 1,210 billionaires made the 2011 list, representing a combined wealth of $4.5 trillion, up from $3.6 trillion the previous year. One third of the world’s billionaires, 413, came from the United States. China had the second most billionaires with 115, while Russia was third with 101. Asia moved up to 332 billionaires, passing Europe as a region for the first time since the 1990s. The 2011 list included 214 newcomers and the average net worth of those on it increased to $3.7 billion.

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2010

Carlos Slim narrowly eclipsed Bill Gates to top the billionaire list for the first time. Slim saw his estimated worth surge $18.5 billion to $53.5 billion as shares of America Movil rose 35 percent. Gates’ estimated wealth rose $13 billion to $53 billion, placing him second. Warren Buffett was third with $47 billion. Christy Walton was the highest-ranking woman, placing 12th overall, with an inherited fortune of $22.5 billion. At age 25, Mark Zuckerberg continued to be the world’s youngest self-made billionaire. American Isaac Perlmutter was among the newcomers with an estimated fortune of $4 billion largely acquired in his sale of Marvel Entertainment to Disney.

A total of 1,011 people made the 2010 list. The United States accounted for 403 billionaires, followed by China with 89 and Russia with 62. It was the first time China, while including Hong Kong, placed second. A total of 55 countries were represented on the 2010 list, including Finland and Pakistan which claimed their first billionaires. Eighty-nine women made the list, but only 14 of them were self-made. The combined net worth of the list was $3.6 trillion, up 50 percent from 2009’s $2.4 trillion, while the average net worth was $3.5 billion.

The 2010 list featured 164 re-entries and 97 true newcomers. Asia accounted for more than 100 of the new entrants. Overall, just 12 percent of the list lost wealth since 2009, and 30 people fell off the list. Thirteen others died. Of the 89 women, 12 were newcomers in 2010. Steve Forbes said the growing number of billionaires was clear sign that the world’s economy was recovering from 2009’s global financial crisis.

In June 2010, Warren Buffett and Bill Gates announce The Giving Pledge that is a promise to give the majority of their wealth to philanthropy. As of 2017, the pledge has 158 signatories, but some of the signatories have since died. Most of the signers of the pledge are billionaires, and their pledges total to over $365 billion.

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2009

In the wake of the Financial crisis of 2007–2008, the world’s billionaires lose $2 trillion in net worth and the list becomes 30% smaller than the previous year’s list.

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2008

Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg, four years after starting the company, joins the list at 23 to become the youngest self-made billionaire.

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2007

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2006

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2005

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2004

The founders of Google, Sergey Brin and Larry Page, become billionaires at age 30.

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2003

Oprah Winfrey becomes the first female African American billionaire.

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  • Each hold an essentially equal share in Wal-Mart.

2002

As a result of the market crash caused by the Dot-com bubble, 83 billionaires drop off the list from the previous year.

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  • Each hold an essentially equal share in Wal-Mart.

2001

In 2001, BET founder Robert L. Johnson became the first ever African-American billionaire.

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  • Each hold an essentially equal share in Wal-Mart. Had he been alive in 2001, Sam Walton would have been the world’s wealthiest person.

2000

Bill Gates became the first American to take the top spot of the World’s Billionaires in 1995 with a net worth of $12.5 billion and he remained there during the Dot-com bubble’s height in 1999 when Gates’ fortune peaked at $90 billion. After the dot-com bubble started to collapse in 2000, his wealth dropped to $60 billion although he remained at the top of the list.

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Legend

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Statistics

The dot-com bubble created the most paper wealth for some billionaires. However, once the dotcom bubble burst the new rich saw their fortunes disappear. Billionaires’ fortunes were hit even harder by the global financial crisis; 2009 was the first time in five years that the world had a net loss in the number of billionaires. The strong performance of the financial markets and global economic recovery have erased financial assets losses. Most of the richest people in the world have seen their fortunes soar in the early 2010s.

Number and combined net worth of billionaires by year

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Source: Forbes.

100 People who changed the World

Source: biographyonline

This is a list of 100 people who have changed the world. This list is not a judgement about who is ‘best’.

People who changed the world

  1. Jesus Christ (circa 5 BCE – 30 CE) Spiritual Teacher, central figure of Christianity
  2. Thomas Jefferson  (1743 – 1826) American President 1801 – 1809, principle author of Declaration of Independence
  3. Mikhail Gorbachev  (1931 – ) Leader of Soviet Union 1985 – 1991, oversaw transition from Communism in Eastern Europe.
  4. Lord Buddha  (circa 563 BCE – 483 BCE) Spiritual teacher and founder of Buddhism
  5. Winston Churchill  (1874 – 1965) Prime Minister of Great Britain during Second World War
  6. William Shakespeare  (1564 – 1616) English poet and playwright
  7. Muhammad  (570 – 632) Founder of Islam
  8. Martin Luther King  (1929 – 1968) Civil Rights leader
  9. Abraham Lincoln  (1809 – 1865) American President during civil war, helped end slavery
  10. Nelson Mandela (1918 – 2013) Anti-apartheid leader, first President of democratic South Africa in 1994
  11.  St Paul (5 BCE – 67 CE) Christian missionary
  12. Adolf Hitler (1889 – 1945) Dictator of Nazi Germany
  13. George Washington (1732 – 1799) First President of USA
  14. Sri Krishna (circa 2000 BCE) Spiritual teacher, prominent figure in Hinduism
  15. Emperor Constantine (272 – 337) First Roman Emperor to embrace Christianity
  16. Martin Luther (1483 – – 1546) Key figure in Protestant Reformation
  17. Socrates (469 BCE – 399 BCE) Greek philosopher
  18. Mahatma Gandhi (1869 – 1948) Indian nationalist and politician
  19. Karl Marx (1818 –– 1883) German philosopher, founder of Marxism
  20. Napoleon Bonaparte (1769 –– 1821) French military and political leader
  21. Simon Bolivar (1783 – 1830) Liberator of South American countries
  22. Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882 – 1945) US President 1932-1945
  23. Charles Darwin (1809 –– 1882) Developed theory of evolution
  24. Sir Isaac Newton (1642 – 1727) English mathematician and scientist
  25. Confucius (551 BCE– – 479 BCE) Chinese philosopher
  26. Akbar (1542 – 1605) Mughal Emperor
  27. Queen Victoria (1819 –– 1901) British monarch 1837 – 1901
  28. Konrad Adenauer (1876 – 1967) German Chancellor post WWII
  29. Jawaharlal Nehru (1889 – 1964) First Prime Minister of India
  30. Ramses II (1279 BCE – 1213 BCE) Egyptian Pharoah
  31. Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790) American writer and polymath
  32. Alexander the Great (356 BCE –– 323 BCE) King of Macedonia
  33. Woodrow Wilson (1856 – 1924) American president during WWI
  34. Christopher Columbus (1451 – 1506) Italian explorer
  35. Marcus Aurelius (121 –– 180) Roman emperor and philosopher
  36. Galileo Galilei (1564 – 1642) Astronomer and physicist
  37. Plato (424 BCE –– 348 BCE) Philosopher
  38. Joan of Arc (1412 – 1431) French saint
  39. Charlemagne (742 – 814) King of Franks and Emperor of the Romans
  40. Aristotle (384BCE –– 322BCE) Greek philosopher
  41. Saladin (1138 –– 1193) Leader of Arabs during Crusades
  42. Babur (1483 – 1531) Founder of Mughal Empire
  43. Sir Walter Raleigh (1552 –– 1618) English explorer
  44. Voltaire (1694 – – 1778) French philosopher
  45. Catherine the Great (1729 –– 1796) Empress of all the Russias 1762 – 1796
  46. Mozart (1756 –– 1791) Austrian composer
  47. Guru Nanak (1469 – 1539) Spiritual teacher, founder of Sikhism
  48. Leonardo da Vinci (1452 –– 1519) Italian scientist, artist, polymath
  49. Louis Pasteur (1822 – 1895) French chemist and Biologist
  50. Leo Tolstoy (1828 –– 1910) Russian writer and philosopher
  51. Albert Einstein (1879 –– 1955) German physicist
  52. Ataturk (1881 – 1938) Founder of the Turkish Republic
  53. Pablo Picasso (1881 – 1973) Spanish painter and sculptor
  54. Pope John Paul II (1920 – 2005) Polish Pope from 1978-2005
  55. Margaret Thatcher (1925 – 2013) British Prime Minister 1979 – 1990
  56. Mohammed Ali (1942 – 2016) American boxer and human rights activist
  57. John F. Kennedy (1917 –– 1963) American President 1961 – 1963
  58. Boris Yeltsin (1931 –– 2007) First President of Russia 1991 – 1999
  59. Indira Gandhi (1917 –– 1984) Prime Minister of India 1980 – 1984
  60. William Tyndale (1494 – 1536)  Translated Bible into English
  61. Tim Berners Lee (1955 – ) Inventor of World Wide Web
  62. Rosa Parks (1913 – 2005) Civil Rights activist
  63. Benazir Bhutto (1953 – 2007) Prime Minister of Pakistan 1993 – 1996
  64. J.S. Bach (1685 – 1750) German composer
  65. 14th Dalai Lama (1938 – ) Spiritual and political leader of Tibetans
  66. Malcolm X (1925 – 1965) Black Civil Rights activist
  67. Lech Walesa (1943 – ) Leader of Polish solidarity movement
  68. Charles de Gaulle (1890 – 1970) French politician
  69. Joseph Stalin (1879 – 1953) Leader of the Soviet Union 1922 – 1952
  70. Marie Curie (1867 – 1934) Chemist and physicist
  71. Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807 – 1882) Independence leader in Italy and South America
  72. Johann Gutenberg (1395 – 1468 Inventor of the printing press
  73. Oliver Cromwell (1599 – 1658) British Parliamentarian
  74. Vladimir Lenin (1870 – 1924) Leader of Russian Revolution in 1917
  75. Sigmund Freud (1856 – 1939) Austrian neurologist, psychoanalyst
  76. Mother Teresa (1910 – 1997) Macedonian Catholic nun and missionary
  77. Bill Gates (1955 – ) Founder of Microsoft
  78. Ernest Hemingway ( 1899 – 1961) American author
  79. John Lennon (1940 – 1980) British musician and member of the Beatles
  80. Genghis Kahn (1162 – 1227) Ruler of Mongol Empire
  81. Haile Selassie (1892 – 1975) Emperor of Ethiopia 1930 – 1974
  82. John M Keynes (1883 – 1946) Influential economist
  83. Susan B. Anthony (1820 – 1906) American political activist
  84. George Orwell (1903 – 1950) English author
  85. Thomas Edison (1847 – 1931) Inventor and businessman
  86. Kofi Annan (1938 –  ) United Nations Secretary General 1997 – 2006
  87. Dwight Eisenhower (1890 – 1969) Supreme Allied Commander WWII
  88. Eleanor Roosevelt (1884 – 1962) helped to draft UN declaration of human rights
  89. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar (1891 – 1956) Indian political activist and social reformer who drafted Indian constitution
  90. Lyndon Johnson (1908 – 1973) US President 1963 – 1969
  91. William Wilberforce (1759 – 1833) Campaigner against slavery
  92. Nikola Tesla (1856 – 1943) Scientist, inventor
  93. Alexander Fleming (1881–1955) Scottish biologist who discovered antibiotics
  94. Samuel Johnson (1709 – 1784) British author and creator of the English dictionary
  95. Eva Peron (1919 – 1952) First Lady of Argentina 1946 – 1952
  96. Henry Ford (1864 – 1947) American industrialist
  97. Princess Diana (1961 –– 1997) Humanitarian
  98. Oscar Wilde (1854 – 1900) Irish author, playwright
  99. Beethoven (1770 – 1827) German composer
  100. Aung San Suu Kyi (1945 – ) Burmese opposition leader

100 Most Influential People in the World

Source: biographyonline

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100 Most influential people in the world by Michael H. Hast (Author)

This is a list chosen by Michael H. Hast, from the book ‘100 most influential people in the world‘. He chose people on a ranking of who had done the most to influence the world.

  1. Muhammad (570 – 632 AD) Prophet of Islam.
  2. Isaac Newton (1642 – 1727) – British mathematician and scientist.
  3. Jesus Christ (c.5BC – 30 AD) Spiritual teacher and central figure of Christianity.
  4. Buddha (c 563 – 483 BC) Spiritual Teacher and founder of Buddhism.
  5. Confucius (551 – 479 BC) – Chinese philosopher.
  6. St. Paul (5 – AD 67) – Christian missionary and one of main writers of New Testament.
  7. Ts’ai Lun (AD 50 – 121) Inventor of paper.
  8. Johann Gutenberg (1395 – 1468) – Inventor of printing press.
  9. Christopher Columbus (1451 – 1506) – Italian explorer landed in America.
  10. Albert Einstein (1879 – 1955) German/ US scientist discovered Theory of Relativity.
  11. Louis Pasteur (1822 – 1895) French biologist. Developed cure for rabies and other infectious diseases.
  12. Galileo Galilei (1564 – 1642) Italian scientist – confirmed heliocentric view of universe.
  13. Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC) – Greek philosopher and polymath
  14. Euclid (c. 325 – 265 BC) – Greek mathematician
  15. Moses (c 1391 – 1271 BC) A key figure of Jewish / Christian history gave 10 Commandments of Old Testament
  16. Charles Darwin (1809 -– 1882) –Scientist who proposed and popularised theory of evolution.
  17. Shih Huang Ti (259 – 210 BC) – King of the state of Qin who conquered and united different regions of China in 221 BC.
  18. Augustus Caesar (63 BC – AD 14) – First Emperor of Rome
  19. Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) Renaissance mathematician and astronomer who believed Sun was centre of Universe – rather than earth.
  20. Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (1743 – 1794) French chemist and biologist who had leading impact on the chemical revolution.
  21. Constantine the Great (272 AD – 337) Roman Emperor who accepted Christian religion.
  22. James Watt (1736 – 1819) Scottish engineer. Watt improved the Newcome steam engine creating an efficient steam engine
  23. Michael Faraday (1791 – 1867) – English scientist who contributed in fields of electromagnetism and electro-chemistry.
  24. James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) Scottish physicist. Maxwell made a significant contribution to understanding electro-magnetism
  25. Martin Luther (1483-1546) Sought to reform the Roman Catholic Church – starting the Protestant Reformation.
  26. George Washington (1732 – 1799) – Leader of US forces during American Revolution and 1st President of US.
  27. Karl Marx (1818 -– 1883) – German Communist philosopher.
  28. Orville and Wilbur Wright Orville (1871 – 1948) – Wilbur (1867 – 1912) – Created and flew first aeroplane.
  29. Genghis Kahn (1162 – 1227) – Military and political leader of the Mongols.
  30. Adam Smith (1723-1790) Scottish social philosopher and pioneer of classical economics.
  31. William Shakespeare (1564- 1616) English poet and playwright.
  32. John Dalton (1766 – 1844) English chemist and physicist. Made contributions to atomic theory.
  33. Alexander the Great (356 -– 323 BC) – King of Macedonia and military leader.
  34. Napoleon Bonaparte (1769 –- 1821) – French military and political leader.
  35. Thomas Edison (1847 – 1931) – Inventor and businessman helped introduce electricity and electric light bulbs.
  36. Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) Dutch chemist – founder of micro-biology.
  37. William T.G. Morton (1819 – 1868) American dentist who pioneered used of anesthetic.
  38. Guglielmo Marconi (1874 – 1937) Italian engineer who helped develop radio transmission.
  39. Adolf Hitler (1889 – 1945) – Dictator of Nazi Germany.
  40. Plato (424 –- 348 BC) – Greek philosopher.
  41. Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658) – Leader of Parliamentarians in English civil war.
  42. Alexander Graham Bell (1847 – 1922) – Scottish inventor of telephone.
  43. Alexander Fleming (1881-1955) Scottish biologist who discovered penicillin.
  44. John Locke (1632-1704) English political philosopher. Locke promoted theory of liberal democracy and a social contract.
  45. Ludwig van Beethoven (1770 – 1827) German composer of the classical and romantic period.
  46. Werner Heisenberg (1901–1976) German theoretical physicist – one of pioneers of Quantum mechanics
  47. Louis Daguerre (1787–1851) French artist and photographer, who is credited with the invention of the camera.
  48. Simon Bolivar (1783 – 1830) – Liberator of Latin American countries
  49. Rene Descartes (1596 – 1650) French philosopher and mathematician. “I think, therefore I am
  50. Michelangelo (1475 – 1564) Renaissance sculptor, painter and architect
  51. Pope Urban II
  52. ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab
  53. Asoka
  54. St. Augustine
  55. William Harvey
  56. Ernest Rutherford
  57. John Calvin
  58. Gregor Mendel
  59. Max Planck
  60. Joseph Lister
  61. Nikolaus August Otto
  62. Francisco Pizarro
  63. Hernando Cortes
  64. Thomas Jefferson (1743 – 1826) 3rd President of US. Principle author of the US Declaration of Independence.
  65. Queen Isabella I
  66. Joseph Stalin
  67. Julius Caesar
  68. William the Conqueror
  69. Sigmund Freud
  70. Edward Jenner
  71. Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen
  72. Johann Sebastian Bach
  73. Lao Tzu
  74. Voltaire
  75. Johannes Kepler
  76. Enrico Fermi
  77. Leonhard Euler
  78. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) – French philosopher, author of Social Contract
  79. Nicoli Machiavelli
  80. Thomas Malthus
  81. John F. Kennedy
  82. Gregory Pincus
  83. Mani
  84. Lenin
  85. Sui Wen Ti
  86. Vasco da Gama
  87. Cyrus the Great
  88. Peter the Great
  89. Mao Zedong
  90. Francis Bacon
  91. Henry Ford
  92. Mencius
  93. Zoroaster
  94. Queen Elizabeth I
  95. Mikhail Gorbachev
  96. Menes
  97. Charlemagne
  98. Homer
  99. Justinian I
  100. Mahavira

GW254H378

Maps They Didn’t Teach You In School

6 years ago by​ Tom

Ever wondered how your penis or breast size compares to the rest of the world? Which countries smile and which countries don’t? How smart are your fellow countrymen compared to the other nations? And nobody taught you that in school? Well, we collected a list of offbeat and fun maps that will answer your questions!

World Map of The Penis Size Worldwide

penis-world-map-large

Data: everyoneweb

The Breast Cup Size Worldwide

breast-world-map-large

Data: targetmap

World Map of Happiness

world-map-of-happiness-large

The Gallup researchers found evidence of what many have long suspected: money does buy happiness–at least a certain kind of it. In a related report, they studied the reasons why countries with high gross domestic products won out for well-being, and found an association between life satisfaction and income. Data: Gallup World Poll (full table of The World’s Happiest Countries)

World Map of Social Networks

world-map-of-social-networks-large

Nuclear Power Plants Worldwide

nuclear-power-world-map

Data: nuclearinfo

World Map of National IQ Scores

iq-world-map-large

The intelligence scores came from work carried out earlier this decade by Richard Lynn, a British psychologist, and Tatu Vanhanen, a Finnish political scientist, who analysed IQ studies from 113 countries, and from subsequent work by Jelte Wicherts, a Dutch psychologist. (Data: photius)

Bangkok

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bangkok DataBangkok_montage_3

Bangkok (UK: /bæŋˈkɒk/, US: /ˈbæŋkɒk/) is the capital and most populous city of the Kingdom of Thailand. It is known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon (กรุงเทพมหานคร, pronounced [krūŋ tʰêːp mahǎː nákʰɔ̄ːn] (About this sound listen)) or simply Krung Thep (About this sound listen (help•info)). The city occupies 1,568.7 square kilometres (605.7 sq mi) in the Chao Phraya River delta in Central Thailand, and has a population of over 8 million, or 12.6 percent of the country’s population. Over 14 million people (22.2 percent) live within the surrounding Bangkok Metropolitan Region, making Bangkok an extreme primate city, significantly dwarfing Thailand’s other urban centres in terms of importance.

Bangkok traces its roots to a small trading post during the Ayutthaya Kingdom in the 15th century, which eventually grew and became the site of two capital cities: Thonburi in 1768 and Rattanakosin in 1782. Bangkok was at the heart of the modernization of Siam, later renamed Thailand, during the late 19th century, as the country faced pressures from the West. The city was at the centre of Thailand’s political struggles throughout the 20th century, as the country abolished absolute monarchy, adopted constitutional rule and underwent numerous coups and several uprisings. The city grew rapidly during the 1960s through the 1980s and now exerts a significant impact on Thailand’s politics, economy, education, media and modern society.

The Asian investment boom in the 1980s and 1990s led many multinational corporations to locate their regional headquarters in Bangkok. The city is now a major regional force in finance and business. It is an international hub for transport and health care, and has emerged as a regional centre for the arts, fashion and entertainment. The city is well known for its vibrant street life and cultural landmarks, as well as its notorious red-light districts. The historic Grand Palace and Buddhist temples including Wat Arun and Wat Pho stand in contrast with other tourist attractions such as the nightlife scenes of Khaosan Road and Patpong. Bangkok is among the world’s top tourist destinations. It is named the most visited city in MasterCard’s Global Destination Cities Index, and was named “World’s Best City” for four consecutive years by Travel + Leisure magazine.

Bangkok’s rapid growth amidst little urban planning and regulation has resulted in a haphazard cityscape and inadequate infrastructure systems. Limited roads, despite an extensive expressway network, together with substantial private car usage, have led to chronic and crippling traffic congestion, which caused severe air pollution in the 1990s. The city has since turned to public transport in an attempt to solve this major problem. Five rapid transit lines are now in operation, with more systems under construction or planned by the national government and the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration.

Contents
1 History
2 Name
3 Government
4 Geography
4.1 Topography
4.2 Climate
4.3 Districts
4.4 Cityscape
4.5 Parks and green zones
5 Demography
6 Economy
7 Tourism
8 Culture
8.1 Festivals and events
8.2 Media
8.3 Art
8.4 Sport
9 Transport
9.1 Roads
9.2 Buses and taxis
9.3 Rail systems
9.4 Water transport
9.5 Airports
10 Health and education
10.1 Education
10.2 Healthcare
11 Crime and safety
12 International relations
12.1 International participation
12.2 Sister cities

History


La_Loubere_map_of_Bangkok_(English)

Map of 17th-century Bangkok, from Simon de la Loubère’s Du Royaume de Siam

The history of Bangkok dates at least back to the early 15th century, when it was a village on the west bank of the Chao Phraya River, under the rule of Ayutthaya. Because of its strategic location near the mouth of the river, the town gradually increased in importance. Bangkok initially served as a customs outpost with forts on both sides of the river, and became the site of a siege in 1688 in which the French were expelled from Siam. After the fall of Ayutthaya to the Burmese Empire in 1767, the newly declared King Taksin established his capital at the town, which became the base of the Thonburi Kingdom. In 1782, King Phutthayotfa Chulalok (Rama I) succeeded Taksin, moved the capital to the eastern bank’s Rattanakosin Island, thus founding the Rattanakosin Kingdom. The City Pillar was erected on 21 April, which is regarded as the date of foundation of the present city.

Bangkok’s economy gradually expanded through busy international trade, first with China, then with Western merchants returning in the early-to-mid 19th century. As the capital, Bangkok was the centre of Siam’s modernization as it faced pressure from Western powers in the late 19th century. The reigns of Kings Mongkut (Rama IV, 1851–68) and Chulalongkorn (Rama V, 1868–1910) saw the introduction of the steam engine, printing press, rail transport and utilities infrastructure in the city, as well as formal education and healthcare. Bangkok became the centre stage for power struggles between the military and political elite as the country abolished absolute monarchy in 1932. It was subject to Japanese occupation and Allied bombing during World War II, but rapidly grew in the post-war period as a result of United States developmental aid and government-sponsored investment. Bangkok’s role as an American military R&R destination boosted its tourism industry as well as firmly establishing it as a sex tourism destination. Disproportionate urban development led to increasing income inequalities and unprecedented migration from rural areas into Bangkok; its population surged from 1.8 million to 3 million in the 1960s. Following the United States’ withdrawal from Vietnam in 1973, Japanese businesses took over as leaders in investment, and the expansion of export-oriented manufacturing led to growth of the financial market in Bangkok. Rapid growth of the city continued through the 1980s and early 1990s, until it was stalled by the 1997 Asian financial crisis. By then, many public and social issues had emerged, among them the strain on infrastructure reflected in the city’s notorious traffic jams. Bangkok’s role as the nation’s political stage continues to be seen in strings of popular protests, from the student uprisings in 1973 and 1976, anti-military demonstrations in 1992, and successive anti-government demonstrations by opposing groups from 2008 onwards.

Administration of the city was first formalized by King Chulalongkorn in 1906, with the establishment of Monthon Krung Thep Phra Maha Nakhon (มณฑลกรุงเทพพระมหานคร) as a national subdivision. In 1915 the monthon was split into several provinces, the administrative boundaries of which have since further changed. The city in its current form was created in 1972 with the formation of the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA), following the merger of Phra Nakhon Province on the eastern bank of the Chao Phraya and Thonburi Province on the west during the previous year.

Name


The etymology of the name Bangkok (บางกอก, pronounced in Thai as [bāːŋ kɔ̀ːk] (About this sound listen)) is not absolutely clear. Bang is a Thai word meaning “a village situated on a stream”, and the name might have been derived from Bang Ko (บางเกาะ), ko meaning “island”, a reference to the area’s landscape which was carved by rivers and canals. Another theory suggests that it is shortened from Bang Makok (บางมะกอก), makok being the name of Elaeocarpus hygrophilus, a plant bearing olive-like fruit. This is supported by the fact that Wat Arun, a historic temple in the area, used to be named Wat Makok. Officially, however, the town was known as Thonburi Si Mahasamut (ธนบุรีศรีมหาสมุทร, from Pali and Sanskrit, literally “city of treasures gracing the ocean”) or Thonburi, according to Ayutthaya chronicles. Bangkok was likely a colloquial name, albeit one widely adopted by foreign visitors, who continued to use it to refer to the city even after the new capital’s establishment.

When King Rama I established his new capital on the river’s eastern bank, the city inherited Ayutthaya’s ceremonial name, of which there were many variants, including Krung Thep Thawarawadi Si Ayutthaya (กรุงเทพทวารวดีศรีอยุธยา) and Krung Thep Maha Nakhon Si Ayutthaya (กรุงเทพมหานครศรีอยุธยา). Edmund Roberts, visiting the city as envoy of the United States in 1833, noted that the city, since becoming capital, was known as Sia-Yut’hia, and this is the name used in international treaties of the period. Today, the city is known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon (กรุงเทพมหานคร) or simply as Krung Thep (กรุงเทพฯ). Its full ceremonial name, which came into use during the reign of King Mongkut, reads as follows:

Krungthepmahanakhon Amonrattanakosin Mahintharayutthaya Mahadilokphop Noppharatratchathaniburirom Udomratchaniwetmahasathan Amonphimanawatansathit Sakkathattiyawitsanukamprasit
กรุงเทพมหานคร อมรรัตนโกสินทร์ มหินทรายุธยา มหาดิลกภพ นพรัตนราชธานีบูรีรมย์ อุดมราชนิเวศน์มหาสถาน อมรพิมานอวตารสถิต สักกะทัตติยวิษณุกรรมประสิทธิ์

The name, composed of Pali and Sanskrit root words, translates as:

City of angels, great city of immortals, magnificent city of the nine gems, seat of the king, city of royal palaces, home of gods incarnate, erected by Vishvakarman at Indra’s behest.

The name is listed in Guinness World Records as the world’s longest place name, at 168 letters. Thai school children are taught the full name, although few can explain its meaning as many of the words are archaic, and known to few. Most Thais who recall the full name do so because of its use in a popular song, “Krung Thep Maha Nakhon” (1989) by Asanee–Wasan and will often recount it by singing it, much as an English speaker might sing the alphabet song to recite the alphabet. The entirety of the lyrics is just the name of the city repeated over and over.

The city is now officially known in Thai by a shortened form of the full ceremonial name, Krung Thep Maha Nakhon, which is colloquially further shortened to Krung Thep. Bangkok is the city’s official English name, as reflected in the name of the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration.

Government


1024px-Krungthepmahanakorn

The city’s ceremonial name (partially visible) is displayed in front of the Bangkok City Hall. On the building is the BMA seal bearing an image of Indra riding Erawan.

The city of Bangkok is locally governed by the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA). Although its boundaries are at the provincial (changwat) level, unlike the other 76 provinces Bangkok is a special administrative area whose governor is directly elected to serve a four-year term. The governor, together with four appointed deputies, form the executive body, who implement policies through the BMA civil service headed by the Permanent Secretary for the BMA. In separate elections, each district elects one or more city councillors, who form the Bangkok Metropolitan Council. The council is the BMA’s legislative body, and has power over municipal ordinances and the city’s budget. However, after the coup of 2014 all local elections have been cancelled and the council was appointed by the government on 15 September 2014. The current Bangkok Governor is Police General Aswin Kwanmuang, who was appointed by the military government on 26 October 2016 following the suspension of the last elected governor M.R. Sukhumbhand Paribatra.

Bangkok is subdivided into fifty districts (khet, equivalent to amphoe in the other provinces), which are further subdivided into 180 subdistricts (khwaeng, equivalent to tambon). Each district is managed by a district director appointed by the governor. District councils, elected to four-year terms, serve as advisory bodies to their respective district directors.

The BMA is divided into sixteen departments, each overseeing different aspects of the administration’s responsibilities. Most of these responsibilities concern the city’s infrastructure, and include city planning, building control, transportation, drainage, waste management and city beautification, as well as education, medical and rescue services. Many of these services are provided jointly with other agencies. The BMA has the authority to implement local ordinances, although civil law enforcement falls under the jurisdiction of the Metropolitan Police Bureau.

The seal of the city shows Hindu god Indra riding in the clouds on Airavata, a divine white elephant known in Thai as Erawan. In his hand Indra holds his weapon, the vajra. The seal is based on a painting done by Prince Naris. The tree symbol of Bangkok is Ficus benjamina. The official city slogan, adopted in 2012, reads:

As built by deities, the administrative center, dazzling palaces and temples, the capital of Thailand
กรุงเทพฯ ดุจเทพสร้าง เมืองศูนย์กลางการปกครอง วัดวังงามเรืองรอง เมืองหลวงของประเทศไทย

As the capital of Thailand, Bangkok is the seat of all branches of the national government. The Government House, Parliament House and Supreme, Administrative and Constitutional Courts are all located within the city. Bangkok is the site of the Grand Palace and Chitralada Villa, respectively the official and de facto residence of the king. Most government ministries also have headquarters and offices in the capital.

Geography


Bangkok_satellite_city-area

The Bangkok city proper is highlighted in this satellite image of the lower Chao Phraya delta. Notice the built-up urban area along the Chao Phraya River, which extends northward and southward into Nonthaburi and Samut Prakan Provinces.

The Bangkok city proper covers an area of 1,568.737 square kilometres (605.693 sq mi), ranking 69th among the other 76 provinces of Thailand. Of this, about 700 square kilometres (270 sq mi) form the built-up urban area. It is ranked 73rd in the world in terms of land area by City Mayors. The city’s urban sprawl reaches into parts of the six other provinces it borders, namely, in clockwise order from northwest: Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Chachoengsao, Samut Prakan, Samut Sakhon and Nakhon Pathom. With the exception of Chachoengsao, these provinces, together with Bangkok, form the greater Bangkok Metropolitan Region.

Topography

Bangkok is in the Chao Phraya River delta in Thailand’s central plains. The river meanders through the city in a southward direction, emptying into the Gulf of Thailand approximately 25 kilometres (16 mi) south of the city centre. The area is flat and low-lying, with an average elevation of 1.5 metres (4 ft 11 in) above sea level. Most of the area was originally swampland, which was gradually drained and irrigated for agriculture via the construction of canals (khlong) which took place throughout the 16th to 19th centuries. The course of the river as it flows through Bangkok has been modified by the construction of several shortcut canals.

642px-Chaophrayashortcut

Bangkok’s major canals are shown in this map detailing the original course of the river and its shortcut canals.

This intricate waterway network served as the primary mode of transport up until the late 19th century, when modern roads began to be built. Up until then, most people lived near or on the water, leading the city to be known during the 19th century as the “Venice of the East”. Many of these canals have since been filled in or paved over, but others still criss-cross the city, serving as major drainage channels and transport routes. Most canals are now badly polluted, although the BMA has committed to the treatment and cleaning up of several canals.

The geology of the Bangkok area is characterized by a top layer of soft marine clay known as Bangkok clay, averaging 15 metres (49 ft) in thickness, which overlies an aquifer system consisting of eight known units. This feature has contributed to the effects of subsidence caused by extensive ground water pumping. First recognized in the 1970s, subsidence soon became a critical issue, reaching a rate of 120 millimetres (4.7 in) per year in 1981. Ground water management and mitigation measures have since lessened the severity of the situation, although subsidence is still occurring at a rate of 10 to 30 millimetres (0.39 to 1.18 in) per year, and parts of the city are now 1 metre (3 ft 3 in) below sea level. There are fears that the city may be submerged by 2030. Subsidence has resulted in increased flood risk, as Bangkok is already prone to flooding due to its low elevation and inadequate drainage infrastructure resulting from rapid urbanization. The city now relies on flood barriers and augmenting drainage from canals by pumping and building drain tunnels, but parts of Bangkok and its suburbs are still regularly affected by flooding. Heavy downpours resulting in urban runoff overwhelming drainage systems, and runoff discharge from upstream areas, are major triggering factors. Severe flooding affecting much of the city occurred recently in 1995 and 2011. In the latter, most of Bangkok’s northern, eastern and western districts became inundated, in some places for over two months. Coastal erosion is also an issue in the gulf coastal area, a small length of which lies within Bangkok’s Bang Khun Thian District. Global warming poses further serious risks, and a study by the OECD has estimated that 5.138 million people in Bangkok may be exposed to coastal flooding by 2070, the seventh highest among the world’s port cities.:8

There are no mountains in Bangkok, the closest mountain range being the Khao Khiao Massif, located about 40 km (25 mi) southeast of the city. Phu Khao Thong, the only hill in the metropolitan area, originated in a very large chedi that King Rama III (1787–1851) decided to build at Wat Saket. The chedi collapsed during construction because the soft soil of Bangkok could not support the weight. Over the next few decades, the abandoned mud-and-brick structure acquired the shape of a natural hill and became overgrown with weeds. The locals called it “phu khao” (ภูเขา), as if it were a natural feature. In the 1940s surrounding concrete walls were added to stop the hill from eroding.

Climate

Like most of Thailand, Bangkok has a tropical savanna climate under the Köppen climate classification and is under the influence of the South Asian monsoon system. It experiences three seasons, hot, rainy and cool, although temperatures are fairly hot year-round, ranging from an average low of 22.0 °C (71.6 °F) in December to an average high of 35.4 °C (95.7 °F) in April. The rainy season begins with the arrival of the southwest monsoon around mid-May. September is the wettest month, with an average rainfall of 334.3 millimetres (13.16 in). The rainy season lasts until October, when the dry and cool northeast monsoon takes over until February. The hot season is generally dry, but also sees occasional summer storms. The surface magnitude of Bangkok’s urban heat island has been measured at 2.5 °C (4.5 °F) during the day and 8.0 °C (14 °F) at night. The highest recorded temperature of Bangkok metropolis was 40.0 °C (104.0 °F) in April 1979, and the lowest recorded temperature was 9.9 °C (49.8 °F) in January 1955.

Climate data for Bangkok Metropolis

Districts

 

Bangkok’s fifty districts serve as administrative subdivisions under the authority of the BMA. Thirty-five of these districts lie to the east of the Chao Phraya, while fifteen are on the western bank, known as the Thonburi side of the city. The fifty districts, arranged by district code, are:

Districts

Khet_Bangkok.svg

The BMA uses several schemes to organize the districts into groups for administrative and general planning purposes. The scheme adopted in 2004 used twelve characteristic groups.

Cityscape

Bangkok’s district areas often do not accurately represent the functional divisions of its neighbourhoods or actual land uses. Although urban planning policies date back to the commission of the “Litchfield plan” in 1960, which set out strategies for land use, transportation and general infrastructure improvements, actual zoning regulations were not fully implemented until 1992. As a result, the city grew organically throughout the period of its rapid expansion, both horizontally as ribbon developments extended along newly built roads, and vertically, with increasing numbers of high rises and skyscrapers being built in several commercial areas. The city has grown from its original centre along the river into a sprawling metropolis surrounded by swaths of suburban residential development extending north and south into neighbouring provinces. The highly populated and growing cities of Nonthaburi, Pak Kret, Rangsit and Samut Prakan are effectively now suburbs of Bangkok. Nevertheless, large agricultural areas remain within the city proper, in its eastern and western fringes. Land use in the city consists of 23 percent residential use, 24 percent agriculture, and 30 percent used for commerce, industry and by the government. The BMA’s City Planning Department is responsible for planning and shaping further development. It has published master plan updates in 1999 and 2006, and a third revision is undergoing public hearings in 2012.

พระบรมราชานุสาวรีย์_พระบรมรูปทรงม้า

The Royal Plaza in Dusit District was inspired by King Chulalongkorn’s visits to Europe.

Bangkok’s historic centre remains the Rattanakosin Island in Phra Nakhon District. It is the site of the Grand Palace and the City Pillar Shrine, primary landmarks of the city’s foundation, as well as many important Buddhist temples. Phra Nakhon, along with the neighbouring Pom Prap Sattru Phai and Samphanthawong Districts, formed what was the city proper in the later 19th century. Many traditional neighbourhoods and markets are located here, including the Chinese settlement of Sampheng. The city was expanded toward Dusit District in the early 19th century, following King Chulalongkorn’s relocation of the royal household to the new Dusit Palace. The buildings of the palace, including the neoclassical Ananta Samakhom Throne Hall, as well as the Royal Plaza and Ratchadamnoen Avenue which leads to it from the Grand Palace, reflect the heavy influence of European architecture at the time. Major government offices line the avenue, as does the Democracy Monument. The area is the site of the country’s seats of power as well as the city’s most popular tourist landmarks.

View_from_Baiyoke_Sky_Hotel,_Bangkok_(7053110333)_cropped

The Sukhumvit area appears as a sea of high-rise buildings in this photograph taken from Baiyoke Tower II, the second tallest building in Bangkok.

In contrast with the low-rise historic areas, the business district on Si Lom and Sathon Roads in Bang Rak and Sathon Districts teems with skyscrapers. It is the site of many of the country’s major corporate headquarters, but also of some of the city’s infamous red-light districts. The Siam and Ratchaprasong areas in Pathum Wan are home to some of the largest shopping malls in Southeast Asia. Numerous retail outlets and hotels also stretch along Sukhumvit Road leading southeast through Watthana and Khlong Toei Districts. More office towers line the streets branching off Sukhumvit, especially Asok Montri, while upmarket housing span many of its sois.

Bangkok lacks a single distinct central business district. Instead, the areas of Siam and Ratchaprasong serve as a “central shopping district” containing many of the bigger malls and commercial areas in the city, as well as Siam Station, the only transfer point between the city’s two elevated train lines. The Victory Monument in Ratchathewi District is among its most important road junctions, serving over 100 bus lines as well as an elevated train station. From the monument, Phahonyothin and Ratchawithi / Din Daeng Roads respectively run northward and eastward linking to major residential areas. Most high-density development is located within the 113-square-kilometre (44 sq mi) area encircled by the Ratchadaphisek inner ring road. Ratchadaphisek is lined with businesses and retail outlets, and office buildings also concentrate around Ratchayothin Intersection in Chatuchak District to the north. Farther from the city centre, most areas are primarily mid- or low-density residential. The Thonburi side of the city is less developed, with fewer high rises. With the exception of a few secondary urban centres, Thonburi, as well as the outlying eastern districts, consist mostly of residential and rural areas.

While most of Bangkok’s streets are fronted by vernacular shophouses, the largely unrestricted building frenzy of the 1980s has transformed the city into an urban jungle of skyscrapers and high rises exhibiting contrasting and clashing styles. There are 581 skyscrapers over 90 metres (300 feet) tall in the city. Bangkok was ranked as the world’s 8th tallest city in 2016. On the other hand, as a result of economic disparity, many slums have emerged in the city. In 2000 there were over 1 million people living in about 800 slum settlements. A large number of slums are concentrated near the Bangkok Port in Khlong Toei District.

1280px-Bangkok_Night_Wikimedia_Commons
Skyscrapers of Ratchadamri and Sukhumvit at night, viewed across Lumphini Park from the Si Lom – Sathon business district

Parks and Green Zones

1024px-Aerial_view_of_Lumphini_Park

Lumphini Park appears as an oasis of greenery among the skyscrapers of Ratchadamri and Sukhumvit.

Bangkok has several parks, although these amount to a per-capita total park area of only 1.82 square metres (19.6 sq ft) in the city proper. Total green space for the entire city is moderate, at 11.8 square metres (127 sq ft) per person; however, in the more densely built-up areas of the city these numbers are as low as 1.73 and 0.72 square metres (18.6 and 7.8 sq ft) per person. More recent numbers claim that there is only 3.3 m2 of green space per person, compared to an average of 39 m2 in other cities across Asia. In Europe, London has 33.4 m2 of green space per head. Bangkokians thus have 10 times less green space than is standard in the region’s urban areas. Green belt areas include about 700 square kilometres (270 sq mi) of rice paddies and orchards in the eastern and western edges of the city proper, although their primary purpose is to serve as flood detention basins rather than to limit urban expansion. Bang Kachao, a 20-square-kilometre (7.7 sq mi) conservation area in an oxbow of the Chao Phraya, lies just across the southern riverbank districts, in Samut Prakan Province. A master development plan has been proposed to increase total park area to 4 square metres (43 sq ft) per person.

Bangkok’s largest parks include the centrally located Lumphini Park near the Si Lom – Sathon business district with an area of 57.6 hectares (142 acres), the 80-hectare (200-acre) Suanluang Rama IX in the east of the city, and the Chatuchak–Queen Sirikit–Wachirabenchathat park complex in northern Bangkok, which has a combined area of 92 hectares (230 acres).

Demography


Historical census populations

Historical census populations

The city of Bangkok has a population of 8,280,925 according to the 2010 census, or 12.6 percent of the national population. However, there are only 5,692,284 registered residents, belonging to 2,672,423 households. A large number of Bangkok’s daytime population commutes from surrounding provinces in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region, the total population of which is 14,565,547. Bangkok is a cosmopolitan city; the census showed that it is home to 81,570 Japanese and 55,893 Chinese nationals, as well as 117,071 expatriates from other Asian countries, 48,341 from Europe, 23,418 from the Americas, 5,289 from Australia and 3,022 from Africa. Immigrants from neighbouring countries include 303,595 Burmese, 63,438 Cambodians and 18,126 Lao.

Although it has been Thailand’s largest population centre since its establishment as capital city in 1782, Bangkok grew only slightly throughout the 18th and early 19th centuries. British diplomat John Crawfurd, visiting in 1822, estimated its population at no more than 50,000. As a result of Western medicine brought by missionaries as well as increased immigration from both within Siam and overseas, Bangkok’s population gradually increased as the city modernized in the late 19th century. This growth became even more pronounced in the 1930s, following the discovery of antibiotics. Although family planning and birth control was introduced in the 1960s, the lowered birth rate was more than offset by increased migration from the provinces as economic expansion accelerated. Only in the 1990s have Bangkok’s population growth rates decreased, following the national rate. Thailand had long since become highly centralized around the capital. In 1980, Bangkok’s population was fifty-one times that of Hat Yai and Songkhla, the second-largest urban centre, making it the world’s most prominent primate city.

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Yaowarat Road is the centre of Bangkok’s Chinatown. Chinese immigrants and their descendants form the largest minority group in the city.

The majority of Bangkok’s population are of Thai ethnicity, although details on the city’s ethnic make-up are unavailable, as the national census does not document race. Bangkok’s cultural pluralism dates back to the early days of its foundation; several ethnic communities were formed by immigrants and forced settlers including the Khmer, Northern Thai, Lao, Vietnamese, Tavoyan, Mon and Malay. Most prominent were the Chinese, who played major roles in the city’s trade and became the majority of Bangkok’s population—estimates include up to three-fourths in 1828 and almost half in the 1950s. However, Chinese immigration was restricted from the 1930s and effectively ceased after the Chinese Revolution in 1949. Their prominence subsequently declined as most of younger generations of Thai Chinese have integrated and adopted a Thai identity. Bangkok is still nevertheless home to a large Chinese community, with the greatest concentration in Yaowarat, Bangkok’s Chinatown. The majority (91 percent) of the city’s population is Buddhist. Other religions include Islam (4.7%), Christianity (2.0%), Hinduism (0.5%), Sikhism (0.1%) and Confucianism (0.1%).

Apart from Yaowarat, Bangkok also has several other distinct ethnic neighbourhoods. The Indian community is centred in Phahurat, where the Gurdwara Siri Guru Singh Sabha, founded in 1933, is located. Ban Khrua on Saen Saep Canal is home to descendants of the Cham who settled in the late 18th century. Although the Portuguese who settled during the Thonburi period have ceased to exist as a distinct community, their past is reflected in Santa Kruz Church, on the west bank of the river. Likewise, the Assumption Cathedral on Charoen Krung Road is among many European-style buildings in the Old Farang Quarter, where European diplomats and merchants lived during the late 19th to early 20th centuries. Nearby, the Haroon Mosque is the centre of a Muslim community. Newer expatriate communities exist along Sukhumvit Road, including the Japanese community near Soi Phrom Phong and Soi Thong Lo, and the Arab and North African neighbourhood along Soi Nana. Sukhumvit Plaza, a mall on Soi Sukhumvit 12, is popularly known as Korea Town.

Economy


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The BTS Skytrain passes through the business district of Sathon. The Robot Building (centre-right) was completed in 1986 and is a symbol of Bangkok’s rapid growth in the mid-1980s.

Bangkok is the economic centre of Thailand, and the heart of the country’s investment and development. In 2010, the city had an economic output of 3.142 trillion baht (98.34 billion US dollars), contributing 29.1 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP). This amounted to a per-capita GDP value of ฿456,911 ($14,301), almost three times the national average of ฿160,556 ($5,025). The Bangkok Metropolitan Region had a combined output of ฿4.773tn ($149.39bn), or 44.2 percent of GDP. Bangkok’s economy ranks as the sixth among Asian cities in terms of per-capita GDP, after Singapore, Hong Kong, Tokyo, Osaka–Kobe and Seoul.

Wholesale and retail trade is the largest sector in the city’s economy, contributing 24.0 percent of Bangkok’s gross provincial product. It is followed by manufacturing (14.3%); real estate, renting and business activities (12.4%); transport and communications (11.6%); and financial intermediation (11.1%). Bangkok alone accounts for 48.4 percent of Thailand’s service sector, which in turn constitutes 49.0 percent of GDP. When the Bangkok Metropolitan Region is considered, manufacturing is the most significant contributor at 28.2 percent of the gross regional product, reflecting the density of industry in the Bangkok’s neighbouring provinces. The automotive industry based around Greater Bangkok is the largest production hub in Southeast Asia. Tourism is also a significant contributor to Bangkok’s economy, generating ฿427.5bn ($13.38bn) in revenue in 2010.

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Outside view of MBK Center

The Stock Exchange of Thailand (SET) is located on Ratchadaphisek Road in inner Bangkok. The SET, together with the Market for Alternative Investment (MAI) has 648 listed companies as of the end of 2011, with a combined market capitalization of 8.485 trillion baht ($267.64bn). Due to the large amount of foreign representation, Thailand has for several years been a mainstay of the Southeast Asian economy and a centre of Asian business. The Globalization and World Cities Research Network ranks Bangkok as an “Alpha−” world city, and it is ranked 59th in Z/Yen’s Global Financial Centres Index 11.

Bangkok is home to the headquarters of all of Thailand’s major commercial banks and financial institutions, as well as the country’s largest companies. A large number of multinational corporations base their regional headquarters in Bangkok due to the lower cost of the workforce and firm operations relative to other major Asian business centres. Seventeen Thai companies are listed on the Forbes 2000, all of which are based in the capital, including PTT, the only Fortune Global 500 company in Thailand.

Income inequality is a major issue in Bangkok, especially between relatively unskilled lower-income immigrants from rural provinces and neighbouring countries, and middle-class professionals and business elites. Although absolute poverty rates are low—only 0.64 percent of Bangkok’s registered residents were living under the poverty line in 2010, compared to a national average of 7.75—economic disparity is still substantial. The city has a Gini coefficient of 0.48, indicating a high level of inequality.

Tourism


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A Thai temple complex with several ornate buildings and a stupa, and a lot of visitors
Wat Phra Kaeo in the Grand Palace is among Bangkok’s major tourist attractions.

Bangkok is one of the world’s top tourist destination cities. MasterCard ranked Bangkok as the top destination city by international visitor arrivals in its Global Destination Cities Index 2016, ahead of London with more than 21 million overnight visitors. Euromonitor International ranked Bangkok fourth in its Top City Destinations Ranking for 2016. Bangkok was also named “World’s Best City” by Travel + Leisure magazine’s survey of its readers for four consecutive years, from 2010 to 2013. As the main gateway through which visitors arrive in Thailand, Bangkok is visited by the majority of international tourists to the country. Domestic tourism is also prominent. The Department of Tourism recorded 26,861,095 Thai and 11,361,808 foreign visitors to Bangkok in 2010. Lodgings were made by 15,031,244 guests, who occupied 49.9 percent of the city’s 86,687 hotel rooms. Bangkok also topped the list as the world’s most popular tourist destinations in 2017 rankings.

Bangkok’s multi-faceted sights, attractions and city life appeal to diverse groups of tourists. Royal palaces and temples as well as several museums constitute its major historical and cultural tourist attractions. Shopping and dining experiences offer a wide range of choices and prices. The city is also famous for its dynamic nightlife. Although Bangkok’s sex tourism scene is well known to foreigners, it is usually not openly acknowledged by locals or the government.

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Khao San Road is lined by budget accommodation, shops and bars catering to tourists.

Among Bangkok’s well-known sights are the Grand Palace and major Buddhist temples, including Wat Phra Kaew, Wat Pho, and Wat Arun. The Giant Swing and Erawan Shrine demonstrate Hinduism’s deep-rooted influence in Thai culture. Vimanmek Mansion in Dusit Palace is famous as the world’s largest teak building, while the Jim Thompson House provides an example of traditional Thai architecture. Other major museums include the Bangkok National Museum and the Royal Barge National Museum. Cruises and boat trips on the Chao Phraya and Thonburi’s canals offer views of some of the city’s traditional architecture and ways of life on the waterfront.

Shopping venues, many of which are popular with both tourists and locals, range from the shopping centres and department stores concentrated in Siam and Ratchaprasong to the sprawling Chatuchak Weekend Market. Taling Chan Floating Market is among the few such markets in Bangkok. Yaowarat is known for its shops as well as street-side food stalls and restaurants, which are also found throughout the city. Khao San Road has long been famous as a backpackers’ destination, with its budget accommodation, shops and bars attracting visitors from all over the world.

Bangkok has a reputation overseas as a major destination in the sex industry. Although prostitution is technically illegal and is rarely openly discussed in Thailand, it commonly takes place among massage parlours, saunas and hourly hotels, serving foreign tourists as well as locals. Bangkok has acquired the nickname “Sin City of Asia” for its level of sex tourism.

Issues often encountered by foreign tourists include scams, overcharging and dual pricing. In a survey of 616 tourists visiting Thailand, 7.79 percent reported encountering a scam, the most common of which was the gem scam, in which tourists are tricked into buying overpriced jewellery.

Culture


The culture of Bangkok reflects its position as Thailand’s centre of wealth and modernisation. The city has long been the portal of entry of Western concepts and material goods, which have been adopted and blended with Thai values to various degrees by its residents. This is most evident in the lifestyles of the expanding middle class. Conspicuous consumption serves as a display of economic and social status, and shopping centres are popular weekend hangouts. Ownership of electronics and consumer products such as mobile phones is ubiquitous. This has been accompanied by a degree of secularism, as religion’s role in everyday life has rather diminished. Although such trends have spread to other urban centres, and, to a degree, the countryside, Bangkok remains at the forefront of social change.

A distinct feature of Bangkok is the ubiquity of street vendors selling goods ranging from food items to clothing and accessories. It has been estimated that the city may have over 100,000 hawkers. While the BMA has authorised the practice in 287 sites, the majority of activity in another 407 sites takes place illegally. Although they take up pavement space and block pedestrian traffic, many of the city’s residents depend on these vendors for their meals, and the BMA’s efforts to curb their numbers have largely been unsuccessful.

In 2015, however, the BMA, with support from the National Council for Peace and Order (Thailand’s ruling military junta), began cracking down on street vendors in a bid to reclaim public space. Many famous market neighbourhoods were affected, including Khlong Thom, Saphan Lek, and the flower market at Pak Khlong Talat. Nearly 15,000 vendors were evicted from 39 public areas in 2016. While some applauded the efforts to focus on pedestrian rights, others have expressed concern that gentrification would lead to the loss of the city’s character and adverse changes to people’s way of life.

Festivals and Events

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Ratchadamnoen Avenue is annually decorated with lights and displays in celebration of the king’s birthday.

The residents of Bangkok celebrate many of Thailand’s annual festivals. During Songkran on 13–15 April, traditional rituals as well as water fights take place throughout the city. Loi Krathong, usually in November, is accompanied by the Golden Mount Fair. New Year celebrations take place at many venues, the most prominent being the plaza in front of CentralWorld. Observances related to the royal family are held primarily in Bangkok. Wreaths are laid at King Chulalongkorn’s equestrian statue in the Royal Plaza on 23 October, which is King Chulalongkorn Memorial Day. The present king’s and queen’s birthdays, respectively on 5 December and 12 August, are marked as Thailand’s national Father’s Day and national Mother’s Day. These national holidays are celebrated by royal audiences on the day’s eve, in which the king or queen gives a speech, and public gatherings on the day of the observance. The king’s birthday is also marked by the Royal Guards’ parade.

Sanam Luang is the site of the Thai Kite, Sport and Music Festival, usually held in March, and the Royal Ploughing Ceremony which takes place in May. The Red Cross Fair at the beginning of April is held at Suan Amporn and the Royal Plaza, and features numerous booths offering goods, games and exhibits. The Chinese New Year (January–February) and Vegetarian Festival (September–October) are celebrated widely by the Chinese community, especially in Yaowarat.

Media

Bangkok is the centre of Thailand’s media industry. All national newspapers, broadcast media and major publishers are based in the capital. Its 21 national newspapers had a combined daily circulation of about two million in 2002. These include the mass-oriented Thai Rath, Khao Sod and Daily News, the first of which currently prints a million copies per day, as well as the less sensational Matichon and Krungthep Thurakij. The Bangkok Post and The Nation are the two national English language dailies. Foreign publications including The Asian Wall Street Journal, Financial Times, The Straits Times and the Yomiuri Shimbun also have operations in Bangkok. The large majority of Thailand’s more than 200 magazines are published in the capital, and include news magazines as well as lifestyle, entertainment, gossip and fashion-related publications.

Bangkok is also the hub of Thailand’s broadcast television. All six national terrestrial channels, Channels 3, 5 and 7, Modernine, NBT and Thai PBS, have headquarters and main studios in the capital. With the exception of local news segments broadcast by the NBT, all programming is done in Bangkok and repeated throughout the provinces. However, this centralised model is weakening with the rise of cable television, which has many local providers. There are numerous cable and satellite channels based in Bangkok. TrueVisions is the major subscription television provider in Bangkok and Thailand, and it also carries international programming. Bangkok was home to 40 of Thailand’s 311 FM radio stations and 38 of its 212 AM stations in 2002. Broadcast media reform stipulated by the 1997 Constitution has been progressing slowly, although many community radio stations have emerged in the city.

Likewise, Bangkok has dominated the Thai film industry since its inception. Although film settings normally feature locations throughout the country, the city is home to all major film studios. Bangkok has dozens of cinemas and multiplexes, and the city hosts two major film festivals annually, the Bangkok International Film Festival and the World Film Festival of Bangkok.

Art

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Bangkok Art and Culture Centre, the city’s major public contemporary art venue, was opened in 2008 after many delays.

Traditional Thai art, long developed within religious and royal contexts, continues to be sponsored by various government agencies in Bangkok, including the Department of Fine Arts’ Office of Traditional Arts. The SUPPORT Foundation in Chitralada Palace sponsors traditional and folk handicrafts. Various communities throughout the city still practice their traditional crafts, including the production of khon masks, alms bowls, and classical musical instruments. The National Gallery hosts permanent collection of traditional and modern art, with temporary contemporary exhibits. Bangkok’s contemporary art scene has slowly grown from relative obscurity into the public sphere over the past two decades. Private galleries gradually emerged to provide exposure for new artists, including the Patravadi Theatre and H Gallery. The centrally located Bangkok Art and Culture Centre, opened in 2008 following a fifteen-year lobbying campaign, is now the largest public exhibition space in the city. There are also many other art galleries and museums, including the privately owned Museum of Contemporary Art.

The city’s performing arts scene features traditional theatre and dance as well as Western-style plays. Khon and other traditional dances are regularly performed at the National Theatre and Salachalermkrung Royal Theatre, while the Thailand Cultural Centre is a newer multi-purpose venue which also hosts musicals, orchestras and other events. Numerous venues regularly feature a variety of performances throughout the city.

Sport

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Games of sepak takraw can be spotted throughout Bangkok’s parks and streets.

Modern Bangkok has developed a strong spectator sport culture. While muay Thai kickboxing matches at Rajadamnern and Lumpini Stadiums are regularly broadcast on television, the sport has mostly been overtaken in popularity by association football. Several foreign leagues and competitions, especially England’s Premier League, have large followings in Bangkok as well as other Thai urban centres. In recent years, the Thai Premier League has been gaining popularity. BEC–Tero Sasana based in Bangkok and Muangthong United based in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region are leading clubs.

While sepak takraw can be seen played in open spaces throughout the city, especially by the working class, football and other modern sports are now more of the norm. Western sports were introduced during the reign of King Chulalongkorn, and were originally only available to the privileged. Such status is still associated with certain sports. Golf is popular among the upwardly mobile, and while Thailand’s more famous clubs are in the countryside, there are several courses in Bangkok itself. Horse riding takes place in a couple of exclusive clubs in the city. Horse racing is very popular in Bangkok and betting on horses is legal. There are two racecourses in Bangkok: “Royal Bangkok Sports Club” and “Royal Turf Club of Thailand”.

There are many public sporting facilities located throughout Bangkok. The two main centres are the National Stadium complex, which dates to 1938, and the newer Hua Mak Sports Complex, which was built for the 1998 Asian Games. Bangkok had also hosted the games in 1966, 1970 and 1978. The city was the host of the inaugural 1959 Southeast Asian Games, the 2007 Summer Universiade and the 2012 FIFA Futsal World Cup.

Transport


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Streetlamps and headlights illuminate the Makkasan Interchange of the expressway. The system sees a traffic of over 1.5 million vehicles per day.

Although Bangkok’s canals historically served as a major mode of transport, they have long since been surpassed in importance by land traffic. Charoen Krung Road, the first to be built by Western techniques, was completed in 1864. Since then, the road network has vastly expanded to accommodate the sprawling city. A complex elevated expressway network helps bring traffic into and out of the city centre, but Bangkok’s rapid growth has put a large strain on infrastructure, and traffic jams have plagued the city since the 1990s. Although rail transport was introduced in 1893 and electric trams served the city from 1894 to 1968, it was only in 1999 that Bangkok’s first rapid transit system began operation. Older public transport systems include an extensive bus network and boat services which still operate on the Chao Phraya and two canals. Taxis appear in the form of cars, motorcycles, and “tuk-tuk” auto rickshaws.

Bangkok is connected to the rest of the country through the national highway and rail networks, as well as by domestic flights to and from the city’s two international airports. Its centuries-old maritime transport of goods is still conducted through Khlong Toei Port.

The BMA is largely responsible for overseeing the construction and maintenance of the road network and transport systems through its Public Works Department and Traffic and Transportation Department. However, many separate government agencies are also in charge of the individual systems, and much of transport-related policy planning and funding is contributed to by the national government.

Roads

]Road-based transport is the primary mode of travel in Bangkok. Due to the city’s organic development, its streets do not follow an organized grid structure. Forty-eight major roads link the different areas of the city, branching into smaller streets and lanes (soi) which serve local neighbourhoods. Eleven bridges over the Chao Phraya link the two sides of the city, while several expressway and motorway routes bring traffic into and out of the city centre and link with nearby provinces.

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Traffic jams are common in Bangkok.

Bangkok’s rapid growth in the 1980s resulted in sharp increases in vehicle ownership and traffic demand, which have since continued—in 2006 there were 3,943,211 in-use vehicles in Bangkok, of which 37.6 percent were private cars and 32.9 percent were motorcycles. These increases, in the face of limited carrying capacity, caused severe traffic congestion evident by the early 1990s. The extent of the problem is such that the Thai Traffic Police has a unit of officers trained in basic midwifery in order to assist deliveries which do not reach hospital in time. While Bangkok’s limited road surface area (8 percent, compared to 20–30 percent in most Western cities) is often cited as a major cause of its traffic jams, other factors, including high vehicle ownership rate relative to income level, inadequate public transport systems, and lack of transportation demand management, also play a role. Efforts to alleviate the problem have included the construction of intersection bypasses and an extensive system of elevated highways, as well as the creation of several new rapid transit systems. The city’s overall traffic conditions, however, remain bad.

Traffic has been the main source of air pollution in Bangkok, which reached serious levels in the 1990s. However, efforts to improve air quality by improving fuel quality and enforcing emission standards, among others, have been largely successful. Atmospheric particulate matter levels dropped from 81 micrograms per cubic metre in 1997 to 43 in 2007.

Although the BMA has created thirty signed bicycle routes along several roads totalling 230 kilometres (140 mi), cycling is still largely impractical, especially in the city centre. Most of these bicycle lanes share the pavement with pedestrians. Poor surface maintenance, encroachment by hawkers and street vendors, and a hostile environment for cyclists and pedestrians, make cycling and walking unpopular methods of getting around in Bangkok.

Buses and Taxis

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A large number of buses, minibuses and taxis share the streets with private vehicles at Victory Monument, a major public transport hub.

Bangkok has an extensive bus network providing local transit services within the Greater Bangkok area. The Bangkok Mass Transit Authority (BMTA) operates a monopoly on bus services, with substantial concessions granted to private operators. Buses, minibus vans, and song thaeo operate on a total of 470 routes throughout the region. A separate bus rapid transit system owned by the BMA has been in operation since 2010. Known simply as the BRT, the system currently consists of a single line running from the business district at Sathon to Ratchaphruek on the western side of the city. The Transport Co., Ltd. is the BMTA’s long-distance counterpart, with services to all provinces operating out of Bangkok.

Taxis are ubiquitous in Bangkok, and are a popular form of transport. As of August 2012, there are 106,050 cars, 58,276 motorcycles and 8,996 tuk-tuk motorized tricycles cumulatively registered for use as taxis. Meters have been required for car taxis since 1992, while tuk-tuk fares are usually negotiated. Motorcycle taxis operate from regulated ranks, with either fixed or negotiable fares, and are usually employed for relatively short journeys.

Despite their popularity, taxis have gained a bad reputation for often refusing passengers when the requested route is not to the driver’s convenience. Motorcycle taxis were previously unregulated, and subject to extortion by organized crime gangs. Since 2003, registration has been required for motorcycle taxi ranks, and drivers now wear distinctive numbered vests designating their district of registration and where they are allowed to accept passengers.

Rail Systems

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A BTS train passes over the busy Sala Daeng Intersection. The MRT also crosses below the street at this location.

Bangkok is the location of Hua Lamphong Railway Station, the main terminus of the national rail network operated by the State Railway of Thailand (SRT). In addition to long-distance services, the SRT also operates a few daily commuter trains running from and to the outskirts of the city during the rush hour.

Bangkok is currently served by three rapid transit systems: the BTS Skytrain, the underground MRT and the elevated Airport Rail Link. Although proposals for the development of rapid transit in Bangkok had been made since 1975, it was only in 1999 that the BTS finally began operation.

The BTS consists of two lines, Sukhumvit and Silom, with thirty stations along 30.95 kilometres (19.23 mi). The MRT opened for use in July 2004, and currently consists of two line, the Blue Line and Purple Line. The Airport Rail Link, opened in August 2010, connects the city centre to Suvarnabhumi Airport to the east. Its eight stations span a distance of 28 kilometres (17 mi).

Although initial passenger numbers were low and their service area remains limited to the inner city, these systems have become indispensable to many commuters. The BTS reported an average of 600,000 daily trips in 2012, while the MRT had 240,000 passenger trips per day.

As of 2016, construction work is ongoing to extend BTS and MRT, as well as several additional transit lines, including the Light Red grade-separated commuter rail line. The entire Mass Rapid Transit Master Plan in Bangkok Metropolitan Region consists of eight main lines and four feeder lines totalling 508 kilometres (316 mi) to be completed by 2029. In addition to rapid transit and heavy rail lines, there have been proposals for several monorail systems.

Water Transport

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The Khlong Saen Saep water bus serves over 50,000 passengers daily.

Although much diminished from its past prominence, water-based transport still plays an important role in Bangkok and the immediate upstream and downstream provinces. Several water buses serve commuters daily. The Chao Phraya Express Boat serves thirty-four stops along the river, carrying an average of 35,586 passengers per day in 2010, while the smaller Khlong Saen Saep boat service serves twenty-seven stops on Saen Saep Canal with 57,557 daily passengers. Long-tail boats operate on fifteen regular routes on the Chao Phraya, and passenger ferries at thirty-two river crossings served an average of 136,927 daily passengers in 2010.

Bangkok Port, popularly known by its location as Khlong Toei Port, was Thailand’s main international port from its opening in 1947 until it was superseded by the deep-sea Laem Chabang Port in 1991. It is primarily a cargo port, though its inland location limits access to ships of 12,000 deadweight tonnes or less. The port handled 11,936,855 tonnes (13,158,130 tons) of cargo in the first eight months of the 2010 fiscal year, about 22 percent the total of the country’s international ports.

Airports

Bangkok is one of Asia’s busiest air transport hubs. Two commercial airports serve the city, the older Don Mueang International Airport and the new Bangkok International Airport, commonly known as Suvarnabhumi. Suvarnabhumi, which replaced Don Mueang as Bangkok’s main airport at its opening in 2006, served 52,808,013 passengers in 2015, making it the world’s 20th busiest airport by passenger volume. This amount of traffic is already over its designed capacity of 45 million passengers. Don Mueang reopened for domestic flights in 2007, and resumed international services focusing on low-cost carriers in October 2012. Suvarnabhumi is undergoing expansion to increase its capacity to 60 million by 2019 and to 90 million by 2021.

Health and Education


Education

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The campus of Chulalongkorn University was surrounded by rural fields when it was established in 1917. Pathum Wan District has since become part of the Bangkok city centre.

Bangkok has long been the centre of modern education in Thailand. The first schools in the country were established here in the later 19th century, and there are now 1,351 schools in the city. The city is home to the country’s five oldest universities, Chulalongkorn, Thammasat, Kasetsart, Mahidol and Silpakorn, founded between 1917 and 1943. The city has since continued its dominance, especially in higher education; the majority of the country’s universities, both public and private, are located in Bangkok or the Metropolitan Region. Chulalongkorn and Mahidol are the only Thai universities to appear in the top 500 of the QS World University Rankings. King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, also located in Bangkok, is the only Thai university in the top 400 of the 2012–13 Times Higher Education World University Rankings.

Over the past few decades the general trend of pursuing a university degree has prompted the founding of new universities to meet the needs of Thai students. Bangkok became not only a place where immigrants and provincial Thais go for job opportunities, but also for a chance to receive a university degree. Ramkhamhaeng University emerged in 1971 as Thailand’s first open university; it now has the highest enrolment in the country. The demand for higher education has led to the founding of many other universities and colleges, both public and private. While many universities have been established in major provinces, the Greater Bangkok region remains home to the greater majority of institutions, and the city’s tertiary education scene remains over-populated with non-Bangkokians. The situation is not limited to higher education, either. In the 1960s, 60 to 70 percent of 10- to 19-year-olds who were in school had migrated to Bangkok for secondary education. This was due to both a lack of secondary schools in the provinces and perceived higher standards of education in the capital. Although this discrepancy has since largely abated, tens of thousands of students still compete for places in Bangkok’s leading schools. Education has long been a prime factor in the centralization of Bangkok and will play a vital role in the government’s efforts to decentralize the country.

Healthcare

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Siriraj Hospital, established in 1888, is the oldest hospital in Thailand.

Much of Thailand’s medical resources are disproportionately concentrated in the capital. In 2000, Bangkok had 39.6 percent of the country’s doctors and a physician-to-population ratio of 1:794, compared to a median of 1:5,667 among all provinces. The city is home to 42 public hospitals, five of which are university hospitals, as well as 98 private hospitals and 4,063 registered clinics. The BMA operates nine public hospitals through its Medical Service Department, and its Health Department provides primary care through sixty-eight community health centres. Thailand’s universal healthcare system is implemented through public hospitals and health centres as well as participating private providers.

Research-oriented medical school affiliates such as Siriraj, King Chulalongkorn Memorial and Ramathibodi Hospitals are among the largest in the country, and act as tertiary care centres, receiving referrals from distant parts of the country. Lately, especially in the private sector, there has been much growth in medical tourism, with hospitals such as Bumrungrad and Bangkok Hospital, among others, providing services specifically catering to foreigners. An estimated 200,000 medical tourists visited Thailand in 2011, making Bangkok the most popular global destination for medical tourism.

Crime and Safety


Bangkok has a relatively moderate crime rate when compared to urban counterparts around the world. Traffic accidents are a major hazard, while natural disasters are rare. Intermittent episodes of political unrest and occasional terrorist attacks have resulted in losses of life.

Although the crime threat in Bangkok is relatively low, non-confrontational crimes of opportunity such as pick-pocketing, purse-snatching, and credit card fraud occur with frequency. Bangkok’s growth since the 1960s has been followed by increasing crime rates partly driven by urbanisation, migration, unemployment and poverty. By the late 1980s, Bangkok’s crime rates were about four times that of the rest of the country. The police have long been preoccupied with street crimes ranging from housebreaking to assault and murder. The 1990s saw the emergence of vehicle theft and organized crime, particularly by foreign gangs. Drug trafficking, especially that of ya ba methamphetamine pills, is also chronic.

According to police statistics, the most common complaint received by the Metropolitan Police Bureau in 2010 was housebreaking, with 12,347 cases. This was followed by 5,504 cases of motorcycle thefts, 3,694 cases of assault and 2,836 cases of embezzlement. Serious offences included 183 murders, 81 gang robberies, 265 robberies, 1 kidnapping and 9 arson cases. Offences against the state were by far more common, and included 54,068 drug-related cases, 17,239 cases involving prostitution and 8,634 related to gambling. The Thailand Crime Victim Survey conducted by the Office of Justice Affairs of the Ministry of Justice found that 2.7 percent of surveyed households reported a member being victim of a crime in 2007. Of these, 96.1 percent were crimes against property, 2.6 percent were crimes against life and body, and 1.4 percent were information-related crimes.

Political demonstrations and protests are common in Bangkok. While most events since 1992 had been peaceful, the series of protests since 2006 have often turned violent. Demonstrations during March–May 2010 ended in a crackdown in which 92 were killed, including armed and unarmed protesters, security forces, civilians and journalists. Terrorist incidents have also occurred in Bangkok, most notably the 2015 Bangkok bombing at the Erawan shrine, and also a series of bombings on the 2006–07 New Year’s Eve.

Traffic accidents are a major hazard in Bangkok. There were 37,985 accidents in the city in 2010, resulting in 16,602 injuries and 456 deaths as well as 426.42 million baht in damages. However, the rate of fatal accidents is much lower than in the rest of Thailand. While accidents in Bangkok amounted to 50.9 percent of the entire country, only 6.2 percent of fatalities occurred in the city. Another serious public health hazard comes from Bangkok’s stray dogs. Up to 300,000 strays are estimated to roam the city’s streets, and dog bites are among the most common injuries treated in the emergency departments of the city’s hospitals. Rabies is prevalent among the dog population, and treatment for bites pose a heavy public burden. Natural disasters, on the other hand, are rare. While the severe floods of 2011 adversely affected Bangkok, no deaths were reported in city itself. Such extreme flooding is uncommon, although limited flooding does occur regularly in some neighbourhoods.

International Relations


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Protesters in front of the United Nations Building during the 2009 Bangkok Climate Change Conference—Bangkok is home to several UN offices.

The city’s formal international relations are managed by the International Affairs Division of the BMA. Its missions include facilitating cooperation with other major cities through sister city agreements, participation and membership in international organizations, and pursuing cooperative activities with the many foreign diplomatic missions based in the city.

International Participation

Bangkok is a member of several international organizations and regional city government networks, including the Asian Network of Major Cities 21, the Japan-led Asian-Pacific City Summit, the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group, the ESCAP-sponsored Regional Network of Local Authorities for Management of Human Settlements in Asia and Pacific (CITYNET), Japan’s Council of Local Authorities for International Relations, the World Association of the Major Metropolises and Local Governments for Sustainability, among others.

With its location at the heart of mainland Southeast Asia and as one of Asia’s hubs of transportation, Bangkok is home to many international and regional organizations. Among others, Bangkok is the seat of the Secretariat of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), as well as the Asia-Pacific regional offices of the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the International Organization for Migration (IOM), the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the UN High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR), and the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF).

Sister Cities

Bangkok has made sister city and/or friendship agreements with twenty-seven other cities in sixteen countries, as of 2016. They are:

Sister cities

193 Nama Negara di Dunia

Menurut dari berbagai sumber yang dibaca penulis, sampai tahun 2017 ini negara di dunia berjumlah 193. Pada posting kali ini Sejarah Negara Com akan memberikan informasi mengenai nama-nama negara tersebut.

Di bawah ini adalah 193 Nama Negara di Dunia lengkap dengan ibukotanya dan termasuk wilayah atau benua mana negara tersebut. Informasi 193 negara di bawah ini kami tampilkan dalam bentuk tabel, semoga mempermudah anda menyerap informasi ini. Untuk mengetahui profil setiap negara silahkan klik nama negara yang tercantum dalam tabel.

No Nama Negara Nama Ibukota Wilayah / Benua
1 Afghanistan Kabul Asia
2 Afrika Selatan Pretoria Afrika
3 Afrika Tengah Bangui Afrika
4 Albania Tirana Eropa
5 Aljazair Algiers Afrika
6 Amerika Serikat Washington D.C Amerika Utara
7 Andorra Andorra la Vella Eropa
8 Angola Luanda Afrika
9 Antigua dan Barbuda St. John’s Amerika Utara
10 Arab Saudi Riyadh Asia
11 Argentina Buenos Aires Amerika Selatan
12 Armenia Yerevan Asia
13 Australia Canberra Australia
14 Austria Wina Eropa
15 Azerbaijan Baku Asia
16 Bahama Nassau Amerika Utara
17 Bahrain Manama Asia
18 Bangladesh Dhaka Asia
19 Barbados Bridgetown Amerika Utara
20 Belanda Amsterdam Eropa
21 Belarus Minsk Eropa
22 Belgia Brussel Eropa
23 Belize Belmopan Amerika Utara
24 Benin Porto Novo Afrika
25 Bhutan Thimphu Asia
26 Bolivia La Paz Amerika Selatan
27 Bosnia dan Herzegovina Sarajevo Eropa
28 Botswana Gabourone Afrika
29 Brasil Brasilia Amerika Selatan
30 Britania Raya London Eropa
31 Brunei Darussalam Bandar Seri Begawan Asia
32 Bulgaria Sofia Eropa
33 Burkina Faso Ouagadoudou Afrika
34 Burundi Bujumbura Afrika
35 Ceko Praha Eropa
36 Chad Ndjamena Afrika
37 Chili Santiago Amerika Selatan
38 China Beijing Asia
39 Denmark Kopenhagen Eropa
40 Djibouti Djibouti City Afrika
41 Dominika Roseau Amerika Utara
42 Ekuador Quito Amerika Selatan
43 El Salvador San Salvador Amerika Utara
44 Eritrea Asmara Afrika
45 Estonia Tallinu Eropa
46 Ethiopia Addis Ababa Afrika
47 Fiji Suva Osenia
48 Filipina Manila Asia
49 Finlandia Helsinki Eropa
50 Gabon Libreville Afrika
51 Gambia Banyul Afrika
52 Georgia Grozny Eropa
53 Ghana Akra Afrika
54 Grenada St. George’s Amerika Utara
55 Guatemala Guatemala City Amerika Utara
56 Guinea Konakry Afrika
57 Guinea Bissau Bissau Afrika
58 Guinea Khatulistiwa Malabo Afrika
59 Guyana George Town Amerika Selatan
60 Haiti Port-au-Prince Amerika Utara
61 Honduras Tegucigalpa Amerika Utara
62 Hongaria Budapest Eropa
63 India New Delhi Asia
64 Indonesia Jakarta Asia
65 Irak Bagdad Asia
66 Iran Teheran Asia
67 Irlandia Dublin Eropa
68 Islandia Reykyavik Eropa
69 Israel Tel Aviv Asia
70 Italia Roma Eropa
71 Jamaika Kingstone Amerika Utara
72 Jepang Tokyo Asia
73 Jerman Berlin Eropa
74 Kamboja Phnom Penh Asia
75 Kamerun Yaonde Afrika
76 Kanada Ottawa Amerika Utara
77 Kazakhstan Alma Ata Eropa
78 Kenya Nairobi Afrika
79 Kirgizstan Frunze Eropa
80 Kiribati Bairiki Osenia
81 Kolombia Bogota Amerika Selatan
82 Komoro Moroni Afrika
83 Republik Kongo Brazzaville Afrika
84 Korea Selatan Seoul Asia
85 Korea Utara Pyongyang Asia
86 Kosta Rika San Yose Amerika Utara
87 Kroasia Zagrib Eropa
88 Kuba Havana Amerika Utara
89 Kuwait Kuwait City Asia
90 Laos Vientiane Asia
91 Latvia Riga Eropa
92 Lebanon Beirut Asia
93 Lesotho Maseru Afrika
94 Liberia Monrovia Afrika
95 Libya Tripoli Afrika
96 Liechtenstein Vaduz Eropa
97 Lituania Vilna Eropa
98 Luksemburg Luxembourg City Eropa
99 Madagaskar Antananarivo Afrika
100 Makedonia Skopje Eropa
101 Maladewa Male Asia
102 Malawi Lilongwe Afrika
103 Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Asia
104 Mali Bamako Afrika
105 Malta La Valetta Eropa
106 Maroko Rabat Afrika
107 Marshall Majuro Osenia
108 Mauritania Nouakchott Afrika
109 Mauritius Port Louis Afrika
110 Meksiko Mexico City Amerika Utara
111 Mesir Kairo Afrika
112 Mikronesia Palikir Osenia
113 Moldova Kishinev Eropa
114 Monako Monako Eropa
115 Mongolia Ulanbator Asia
116 Montenegro Podgorica Eropa
117 Mozambik Maputo Eropa
118 Myanmar Naypyidaw Asia
119 Namibia Windhoek Afrika
120 Nauru Yaren Osenia
121 Nepal Kathmandu Asia
122 Niger Niamey Afrika
123 Nigeria Lagos Afrika
124 Nikaragua Managua Amerika Utara
125 Norwegia Oslo Eropa
126 Oman Muskat Asia
127 Pakistan Islamabad Asia
128 Palau Melekeok Osenia
129 Panama Panama Amerika Utara
130 Pantai Gading Yamoussoukro Afrika
131 Papua Nugini Port Moresby Osenia
132 Paraguay Asuncion Amerika Selatan
133 Perancis Paris Eropa
134 Peru Lima Amerika Selatan
135 Polandia Warsawa Eropa
136 Portugal Lisabon Eropa
137 Qatar Doha Asia Barat
138 Republik Demokratik Kongo Kinshasa Afrika
139 Republik Dominika Santo Domingo Amerika
140 Rumania Bukarest Eropa
141 Rusia Moskow Eropa
142 Rwanda Kigali Afrika
143 Saint Kitts and Nevis Basseterre Amerika
144 Saint Lucia Castries Amerika
145 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Kingstown Amerika
146 Samoa Apia Osenia
147 San Marino San Marino Eropa
148 Sao Tome and Principe Sao Tome Afrika
149 Selandia Baru Wellington Osenia
150 Senegal Dakar Afrika
151 Serbia Beograd Eropa
152 Seychelles Victoria Afrika
153 Sierra Leone Freetown Afrika
154 Singapura Singapura Asia
155 Siprus Nikosia Asia
156 Slovenia Ljubljana Eropa
157 Slowakia Bratislava Eropa
158 Solomon Honiara Osenia
159 Somalia Mogadishu Afrika
160 Spanyol Madrid Eropa
161 Sri Lanka Kolombo Asia
162 Sudan Khartoum Afrika
163 Sudan Selatan Juba Afrika
164 Suriah Damaskus Asia
165 Suriname Paramaribo Amerika Selatan
166 Swaziland Mbabane Afrika
167 Swedia Stockholm Eropa
168 Swiss Bern Eropa
169 Tajikistan Dushanbe Eropa
170 Tanjung Verde Praia Afrika
171 Tanzania Dodoma Afrika
172 Thailand Bangkok Asia
173 Timor Leste Dili Asia
174 Togo Lome Afrika
175 Tonga Nukualofa Osenia
176 Trinidad and Tobago Port of Span Amerika Utara
177 Tunisia Tunis Afrika
178 Turki Ankara Asia
179 Turkmenistan Ashakabad Eropa
180 Tuvalu Funafuti Osenia
181 Uganda Kampala Afrika
182 Ukraina Kiev Eropa
183 Uni Emirat Arab Abu Dhabi Asia
184 Uruguay Montevideo Amerika Selatan
185 Uzbekistan Tashkent Eropa
186 Vanuatu Pelabuhan Vila Osenia
187 Venezuela Caracas Amerika Selatan
188 Vietnam Hanoi Asia
189 Yaman Sanaa Asia
190 Yordania Amman Asia
191 Yunani Athena Eropa
192 Zambia Lusaka  

Afrika

193 Zimbabwe Harare Afrika

Peta 193 Negara di Dunia

Di bawah ini adalah peta dari 193 negara yang di sebutkan di atas. Dengan melihat peta kualitas HD ini anda akan dengan mudah menemukan setiap negara yang ada di dunia ini, silahkan unduh untuk lebih jelasnya.

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10 Wanita Tercantik 2016

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10 Wanita Tercantik Dunia Tahun 2016

Setiap tahunnya pasti akan muncul sejumlah wanita yang memiliki wajah cantik. Tidak hanya pria, bahkan para wanita juga penasaran siapa sih wanita tercantik di dunia. Kali ini di thaun 2016, Tahupedia akan kembali merilis daftar 10 wanita tercantik di dunia. Siapa saja yang masuk ke dalam daftar tersebut? Selengkapnya bisa dilihat pada artikel di bawah ini.

10. Emilia Clarke


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Aktris yang pernah bermain dalam film Terminator Genesys dan dalam serial televisi terkenal Game of Thrones yaitu Emilia Clarke menjadi aktris tercantik dunia di posisi ke-10. Aktris cantik ini merupakan aktris berdarah Inggris yang lahir pada 23 Oktober 1986. Tidak cuma cantik, Emilia Clarke juga memiliki tubuh yang seksi. Tubuh seksinya tersebut membuat dirinya masuk ke dalam majalah Esquire sebagai salah satu wanita terseksi di dunia.

Dalam serial Game of Thrones, Emilia Clarke memainkan peran sebagai Daenerys Targaryen. Berkat aktingnya, Emilia menerika 3 penghargaan Emmy Award dalam kategori Outstanding Supporting Actress. Ketika penghargaan tersebut diperolehnya di tahun 2013, 2015, dan 2016.

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9. Liza Soberano


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Mungkin ada beberapa dari kalian yang masih asing dengan nama Liza Soberano. Wanita satu ini merupakan artis campuran Filipina-Amerika yang berpforesi sebagai seorang model. Liza Soberano lahir pada tanggal 4 Januari 1998. Dirinya sangat dikenal melalui peran protagonisnya, Maria Agnes Calay dalam sebuah film seri komedi berjudul Forevermore yang tayang pada tahun 2014.

Liza Soberano HD Images

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Di tahun 2016 ini, nama Liza Soberano masuk ke dalam daftar wanita tercantik di dunia. Tidak heran kenapa wanita ini bisa jadi wanita tercantik di dunia. Tidak hanya memiliki wajah yang cantik, dirinya juga masih tergolong dalam usia yang muda. Kini Liza Soberano adalah seorang artis yang bermain dalam sebuah film seri berjudul Dolce Amore.

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8. Aishwarya Rai


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Film Bollywood bisa dibilang sangatlah unik. Selain memiliki banyak adegan yang menampilkan tarian, film Bollywood juga diisi dengan sejumlah artis dengan wajah khas India. Ada yang tampan dan ada juga yang cantik, namun kali ini kita akan membahas yang cantik saja. Adalah artis cantik Aishwarya Rai yang termasuk ke dalam daftar wanita tercantik di dunia tahun 2016.

Aishwarya Rai merupakan aktris sekaligus model asal India yang lahir pada tanggal 1 November 1973. Aishwarya Rai pernah meraih prestasi dengan menjuarai kompetisi Miss World Pageant di tahun 1994. Berkat kesuksesannya di dunia akting, Aishwarya Rai menjadi salah satu selebriti paling terkenal dan juga berpenghasilan tinggi di India.

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7. Zhang Ziyi


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Usia boleh saja jadi faktor penentu seseorang apakah ia tampan atau cantik. Apalagi jika membicarakan wanita cantik, usia menjadi faktor yang sangat menentukan. Biasanya wanita yang sudah memasuki usia diatas 30 tahun sudah tidak begitu menarik lagi. Tapi hal tersebut tidak terjadi pada Zhang Ziyi.

Zhang Ziyi adalah seorang artis Asia yang berasal dari Cina. Lahir pada tanggal 9 Februari 1979. Ada begitu banyak film terkenal yang dibintangi oleh Zhang Ziyi antara lain Crouching Tiger Hidden Dragon, Rush Hour 2, Hero, House of Flying Dagger, dan Memoirs of a Geisha. Kecantikan yang dimiliki oleh Ziyi seakan tak lekang oleh waktu.

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6. Kate Upton


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Wanita berikutnya yang masuk dalam daftar ini bernama Katherine Elizabeth Upton atau yang lebih terkenal dengan nama Kate Upton. Pada mulanya Kate Upton berprofesi sebagai seorang model. Setelah sukses menjadi model papan atas dunia, Kate mulai menjajal dunia akting. Kate lahir di Michigan, Amerika Serikat pada 10 Juni 1992.

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Kate yang mmerupakan model papan atas sekaligus salah satu wanita tercantik dunia ini menghabiskan sebagian besar waktu kecilnya di Melbourne, Australia. Kate sempat bermain dalam 5 film layar lebar yaitu Tower Heist, The Three Stoges, The Other Woman, The Layover, dan The Masterpiece.

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5. Taylor Swift