Indonesia’s transport system has been shaped over time by the economic resource base of an archipelago, and the distribution of its 250 million people highly concentrated on Java. All transport modes play a role in the country’s transport system and are generally complementary rather than competitive. In 2016, the transport sector generated about 5.2% of GDP.
The road transport system is predominant, with a total length of 537,838 kilometres (334,197 miles) as of 2016. Jakarta has the longest bus rapid transit system in the world, boasting some 251.2 kilometres (156.1 miles) in 13 corridors and ten cross-corridor routes. Rickshaws such as bajaj and becak, and share taxis such as Angkot and Metromini are a regular sight in the country. Java is home to most of Indonesia’s railways, used for both passenger and freight transport, and local commuter rail services complement the inter-city rail network in Greater Jakarta, Surabaya, and Bandung. Mass rapid transit and light rail transit systems are currently under construction in Jakarta and Palembang, and a plan to build a high-speed rail was announced in 2015, the first in Southeast Asia.
Indonesia’s largest airport, Soekarno–Hatta International Airport is the busiest in the Southern Hemisphere, serving 63 million passengers in 2017. Ngurah Rai International Airport and Juanda International Airport are the country’s second and third busiest airport respectively. Garuda Indonesia, the country’s flag carrier since 1949, is one of the world’s leading airlines and a member of the global airline alliance SkyTeam. Port of Tanjung Priok is the busiest and most advanced Indonesian port, handling more than 50% of Indonesia’s trans-shipment cargo traffic.