Los Angeles

Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

Los Angeles (i/lɒs ˈændʒələs/ loss-an-jə-ləs; bahasa Spanyol: [los ˈaŋxeles], ditulis Los Ángeles; pengucapan Britania /lɒs ˈændʒəliːz/ loss-an-jə-leez) dengan jumlah penduduk sebanyak 3.792.621 jiwa sesuai Sensus Amerika Serikat 2010, adalah kota terpadat di negara bagian California, dan kota terpadat kedua di Amerika Serikat, setelah New York City. Luasnya mencapai 468,67 mil persegi (1213,8 km2), dan terletak di California Selatan. Terkenal dengan inisial L.A.-nya, kota ini merupakan titik utama wilayah statistik metropolitan Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana dan region Wilayah Los Angeles Raya, yang dihuni 12.828.837 dan hampir 18 juta jiwa pada tahun 2010, menjadikannya salah satu wilayah metropolitan terpadat di dunia[6] dan yang terbesar kedua di Amerika Serikat. Los Angeles juga merupakan ibu kota County Los Angeles, salah satu county terpadat dan paling beragam etnisnya[8] di Amerika Serikat, sementara seluruh wilayah Los Angeles sendiri diakui sebagai kota besar yang paling beragam di negara ini. Penduduk kota Los Angeles disebut “Angelenos”.

Los Angeles didirikan tanggal 4 September 1781 oleh gubernur Spanyol Felipe de Neve.  Kota ini menjadi bagian dari Meksiko pada tahun 1821 setelah Perang Kemerdekaan Meksiko.  Tahun 1848, pada akhir Perang Meksiko-Amerika Serikat, Los Angeles dan seluruh California dibeli sebagai bagian dari Traktat Guadalupe Hidalgo, sehingga menjadi bagian dari Amerika Serikat.  Los Angeles disatukan menjadi munisipalitas pada tanggal 4 April 1850, lima bulan sebelum California mendapat status negara bagian. 

Dijuluki City of Angels, Los Angeles adalah pusat dunia bisnis, perdagangan internasional, hiburan, budaya, media, mode, ilmu pengetahuan, olahraga, teknologi, dan pendidikan terdepan, serta merupakan kota terkaya ketiga di dunia dan kota paling kuat dan berpengaruh kelima di dunia. Kota ini adalah tempat berdirinya berbagai institusi yang mencakup berbagai bidang profesional dan budaya dan merupakan salah satu mesin ekonomi terpenting di Amerika Serikat. Wilayah statistik gabungan (CSA) Los Angeles memiliki produk metropolitan bruto (PMB) senilai $831 miliar (tahun 2008), menjadikannya pusat ekonomi terbesar ketiga di dunia, setelah wilayah metropolitan Tokyo Raya dan New York.  Sebagai basis Hollywood, kota ini dijuluki “Ibu Kota Hiburan Dunia”, yang memimpin pembuatan produksi televisi, permainan video, dan musik rekaman kelas dunia. Bisnis hiburan di kota ini mendorong banyak selebriti menetap di Los Angeles dan pinggiran kotanya. Selain itu, Los Angeles pernah menyelenggarakan Olimpiade Musim Panas tahun 1932 dan 1984.

Sejarah

Kawasan pesisir Los Angeles pertama dihuni oleh suku Pribumi Amerika Tongva (atau Gabrieleños) dan Chumash ribuan tahun yang lalu. Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, seorang penjelajah kelahiran Portugal, mengklaim wilayah California Selatan sebagai bagian dari Kekaisaran Spanyol pada tahun 1542.  Gaspar de Portolà dan misionaris Fransiskan Juan Crespí, berhasil mencapai daerah yang saat ini merupakan Los Angeles pada tanggal 2 Agustus 1769. 

Pada tahun 1771, biarawan Fransiskan Junípero Serra memimpin pembangunan Mission San Gabriel Arcangel, misi pertama di daerah ini. Pada tanggal 4 September 1781, empat puluh empat pendatang yang dijuluki “Los Pobladores” mendirikan sebuah pueblo bernama “La Reyna de los Angeles”, yang diberi nama untuk Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles del Río de Porciúncula (Our Lady the Queen of the Angels of the Porciúncula River). Dua per tiga pendatang adalah mestizo atau mulatto dengan keturunan Afrika, Amerindian, dan Eropa. Permukiman tersebut tetap menjadi kota ranca kecil selama beberapa dasawarsa, tetapi pada tahun 1820, populasinya bertambah hingga 650 jiwa. Hari ini, pueblo tersebut diabadikan di distrik bersejarah Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza dan Olvera Street, kawasan tertua di Los Angeles.

Spanyol Baru merdeka dari Kekaisaran Spanyol pada tahun 1821, dan pueblo ini masih menjadi bagian dari Meksiko. Selama masa kekuasaan Meksiko, Gubernur Pío Pico menjadikan Los Angeles ibu kota regional Alta California. Kekuasaan Meksiko berakhir pada Perang Meksiko-Amerika Serikat: Amerika Serikat merebut kota ini dari Californios setelah serangkaian pertempuran yang berujung pada penandatanganan Traktat Cahuenga pada tanggal 13 Januari 1847. 

Plaza kota lama, 1869

Rel kereta api datang seiring rampungnya jalur Southern Pacific menuju Los Angeles pada tahun 1876. Minyak ditemukan tahun 1892, dan pada 1923, penemuan tersebut membantu California menjadi produsen minyak terbesar di Amerika Serikat dengan pangsa sekitar seperempat produksi minyak dunia.

Los Angeles City Hall, tahun 1931, dibangun pada tahun 1928 dan merupakan struktur tertinggi di kota ini sampai tahun 1964 ketika batas ketinggian ditiadakan.

Pada tahun 1900, populasinya tumbuh hingga lebih dari 102.000 jiwa, sehingga membebani persediaan air kota.  Rampungnya pembangunan Los Angeles Aqueduct tahun 1913, di bawah arahan William Mulholland, menjamin pertumbuhan kota secara terus menerus. 

Pada tahun 1910, tidak cuma Los Angeles menganeksasi Hollywood, tetapi di kota ini sudah ada 10 perusahaan film yang beroperasi. Pada tahun 1921, lebih dari 80 persen industri film dunia terkonsentrasi di L.A. ] Uang yang dihasilkan industri ini melindungi kota dari guncangan ekonomi yang menyebar di seluruh Amerika Serikat selama Depresi Besar.  Pada tahun 1930, populasinya melewati angka satu juta jiwa. Pada tahun 1932, kota ini mengadakan Olimpiade Musim Panas.

Setelah akhir Perang Dunia II, Los Angeles tumbuh dengan sangat cepat, menyebar hingga San Fernando Valley.  Pada tahun 1969, Los Angeles menjadi salah satu tempat kelahiran Internet, karena transmisi ARPANET pertama dikirimkan dari University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) ke SRI di Menlo Park. 

Los Angeles Coliseum menjadi tempat penyelenggaraan Olimpiade Musim Panas 1932 dan 1984.

Pada tahun 1984, kota ini menyelenggarkaan Olimpiade Musim Panas untuk kedua kalinya. Meski diboikot oleh 14 negara Komunis, Olimpiade Musim Panas 1984 lebih sukses secara finansial ketimbang Olimpiade sebelumnya,[36] sekaligus Olimpiade kedua yang menghasilkan keuntungan setelah Olimpiade Musim Panas 1932 yang juga diadakan di Los Angeles. 

Ketegangan rasial mencuat pada tanggal 29 April 1992 setelah beberapa polisi yang tertangkap kamera sedang memukul Rodney King dibebaskan oleh hakim di Simi Valley, berujung pada kerusuhan berskala besar.  Pada tahun 1994, gempa bumi Northridge berkekuatan 6,7 mengguncang kota dan mengakibatkan kerusakan senilai $12,5 miliar serta kematian sebanyak 72 orang. Abad ini ditutup dengan skandal Rampart, salah satu kasus kelakuan buruk polisi yang paling banyak didokumentasikan sepanjang sejarah Amerika Serikat. 

Pada tahun 2002, para pemberi suara menggagalkan upaya San Fernando Valley dan Hollywood untuk memisahkan diri dari Los Angeles. 

Geografi

Topografi

Los Angeles berbentuk ireguler dan mencakup wilayah seluas 502,7 mil persegi (1302 km2), yang terdiri dari 468,7 mil persegi (1214 km2) daratan dan 34,0 mil persegi (88 km2) perairan. Kota ini membujur sepanjang 44 mile (71 km) dan melintang sepanjang 29 mile (47 km). Los Angeles memiliki batas kota sepanjang 342 mile (550 km).

Cekungan Los Angeles

Los Angeles datar dan berbukit. Titik tertinggi di kota ini adalah Mount Lukens pada ketinggian 5074 ft (1547 m), terletak di ujung timur laut Lembah San Fernando. Ujung timur Pegunungan Santa Monica membentang dari Downtown hingga Samudra Pasifik dan memisahkan Cekungan Los Angeles dari Lembah San Fernando. Daerah berbukit lainnya di Los Angeles adalah kawasan Mt. Washington di sebelah utara Downtown, bagian timur Boyle Heights, distrik Crenshaw di sekitar Baldwin Hills, dan distrik San Pedro.

Mallard di Sungai Los Angeles

Sungai Los Angeles, yang mengalir musiman saja, adalah saluran drainase utama di kota ini. Sungai ini diluruskan dan dan dibentangkan dengan beton sepanjang 51 mil oleh Army Corps of Engineers untuk dimanfaatkan sebagai saluran pengendali banjir. Sungai ini berawal di distrik Canoga Park, kemudian mengalir ke timur dari Lembah San Fernando di sepanjang tepian utara Pegunungan Santa Monica, dan berbelok ke selatan melintasi pusat kota, mengalir ke muaranya di Port of Long Beach di Samudra Pasifik. Ballona Creek yang lebih kecil mengalir ke Santa Monica Bay di Playa del Rey.

MacArthur Park

Wilayah Los Angeles kaya akan spesies tanaman asli karena keragaman habitatnya, termasuk pantai, rawa, dan pegunungan. Lingkungan botani yang paling cocok untuk kota ini adalah semak sage pesisir, yang menutupi sisi perbukitan yang dipenuhi chaparral mudah terbakar. Tanaman aslinya meliputi poppy California, poppy matilija, toyon, Coast Live Oak, dan Giant Wildrye. Banyak di antara spesies asli ini, seperti bunga matahari Los Angeles, menjadi langka dan terancam punah. Meski bukan tanaman asli daerah ini, pohon resmi kota Los Angeles adalah Pohon Koral (Erythrina caffra) dan bunga resmi kota Los Angeles adalah Burung Surga (Strelitzia reginae). Palem Kipas Meksiko, Palem Kipas California, dan Palem Pulau Canary dapat dilihat di seluruh kawasan Los Angeles, meski pohon yang terakhir disebutkan tadi bukan asli California Selatan.

Geologi

Los Angeles rawan gempa karena lokasinya di Cincin Api Pasifik. Ketidakstabilan geologinya telah menghasilkan banyak patahan, yang memunculkan 10.000 gempa bumi setiap tahunnya. Salah satu patahan besar di daerah ini adalah Patahan San Andreas. Terletak di perbatasan Lempeng Pasifik dengan Lempeng Amerika Utara, patahan ini diprediksi menjadi sumber gempa bumi besar selanjutnya di California. Gempa bumi besar yang pernah mengguncang wilayah Los Angeles adalah gempa bumi Northridge 1994, gempa bumi Whittier Narrows 1987, gempa bumi San Fernando 1971 dekat Sylmar, dan gempa bumi Long Beach 1993. Meski begitu, semua kecuali beberapa gempa memiliki intensitas rendah dan tidak dapat dirasakan manusia. Cekungan dan wilayah metropolitan Los Angeles juga terancam mengalami gempa bumi dorongan kosong. Sebagian wilayah kota juga rawan terkena tsunami; daerah pelabuhan pernah dirusak oleh gelombang akibat gempa bumi Valdivia tahun 1960.

Iklim

Lanskap kota

Panorama Los Angeles dilihat dari Mulholland Drive. Kiri ke kanan: Santa Ana Mountains, Downtown, Hollywood (latar depan), Wilshire Boulevard, Port of Los Angeles, Palos Verdes Peninsula, Santa Catalina Island, dan Los Angeles International Airport.

Kota ini dibagi menjadi lebih dari 80 distrik dan permukiman, banyak di antaranya merupakan tempat gabungan atau permukiman yang dianeksasi oleh pemerintah kota. Los Angeles Raya mencakup sejumlah enklave dan permukiman sekitarnya. Secara umum, kota ini dibagi menjadi wilayah-wilayah berikut: Downtown Los Angeles, East Los Angeles dan Northeast Los Angeles, South Los Angeles, Harbor Area, Greater Hollywood, Wilshire, Westside, dan San Fernando dan Crescenta Valley.

Sejumlah permukiman terkenal di Los Angeles meliputi West Adams, Watts, Leimert Park, Baldwin Hills, Venice, Downtown Financial District, Silver Lake, Hollywood, Koreatown, Westwood dan daerah yang lebih elit seperti Bel Air, Benedict Canyon, Hollywood Hills, Los Feliz, Hancock Park, Pacific Palisades, Century City, dan Brentwood.

Hollywood, sebuah distrik terkenal di Los Angeles, sering disalahartikan sebagai sebuah kota independen (sebagaimana West Hollywood).

Markah tanah

Markah tanah utama di Los Angeles meliputi Walt Disney Concert Hall, Kodak Theatre, Griffith Observatory, Getty Center, Getty Villa, Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Grauman’s Chinese Theatre, Hollywood Sign, Bradbury Building, Hollywood Boulevard, Capitol Records Building, Los Angeles City Hall, Hollywood Bowl, Theme Building, Watts Towers, Staples Center, Dodger Stadium, dan La Placita Olvera/Olvera Street.

L.A. Live
Grauman’s Chinese Theatre
Griffith Observatory
Capitol Records Building

Budaya

Los Angeles sering dijuluki “Ibu Kota Kreatif Dunia” karena kenyataan bahwa satu dari enam penduduknya adalah pekerja industri kreatif. Menurut USC Stevens Institute for Innovation, “lebih banyak seniman, penulis, pembuat film, aktor, penari dan musisi yang tinggal dan bekerja di Los Angeles daripada kota lain dalam sejarah peradaban manusia.”

Hollywood Sign

Los Angeles adalah rumah bagi Hollywood, yang dikenal secara global sebagai pusat industri perfilman. Sebagai bukti dominasinya dalam perfilman, kota ini menjadi tempat penyelenggaraan acara tahunan Academy Awards, acara penghargaan tertua dan berpengaruh di dunia. Los Angeles adalah rumah bagi USC School of Cinematic Arts, sekolah film tertua di Amerika Serikat.

Seni panggung memainkan peran utama dalam identitas budaya Los Angeles. Menurut USC Stevens Institute for Innovation, “ada lebih dari 1.100 produksi teatrikal setiap tahunnya dan 21 pementasan setiap minggunya.” Los Angeles Music Center merupakan “satu dari tiga pusat seni panggung terbesar di negara ini,” dengan lebih dari 1,3 juta pengunjung setiap tahun.[60] Walt Disney Concert Hall, bagian utama dari Music Center, adalah rumah bagi Los Angeles Philharmonic. Organisasi ternama seperti Center Theatre Group, Los Angeles Master Chorale, dan Los Angeles Opera juga menjadi perusahaan tetap di Music Center. Bakat masyarakat terus dikembangkan di institusi-institusi utama seperti Colburn School dan USC Thornton School of Music.

Museum dan galeri

Ada 841 museum dan galeri seni di Los Angeles County. Faktanya, Los Angeles memiliki lebih banyak museum per kapita daripada kota-kota lain di dunia.  Sejumlah museum ternama di sana mencakup Los Angeles County Museum of Art (museum seni terbesar di Amerika Serikat Barat), Getty Center (bagian dari J. Paul Getty Trust, institusi seni terkaya di dunia), dan Museum of Contemporary Art. Sejumlah galeri seni berdiri di Gallery Row, dan puluhan ribu orang mengunjungi Downtown Art Walk yang diadakan setiap bulan di sana. 

Media

Harian berbahasa Inggris utama di Los Angeles adalah Los Angeles Times. La Opinión adalah harian berbahasa Spanyol terbesar di kota ini, The Korea Times merupakan harian berbahasa Korea terbesar, dan Los Angeles Sentinel merupakan harian Afrika-Amerika terbesar di kota ini, dengan jumlah pembaca berkulit Hitam terbesar di Amerika Serikat Barat. Investor’s Business Daily didistribusikan dari kantor korporatnya di L.A. yang terletak di Playa del Rey. Ada pula beberapa surat kabar regional yang lebih kecil, mingguan alternatif dan majalah, termasuk Daily News (berfokus pada pemberitaan di San Fernando Valley), LA Weekly, Los Angeles CityBeat, L.A. Record (berfokus pada musik di Wilayah Los Angeles Raya), majalah Los Angeles, Los Angeles Business Journal, Los Angeles Daily Journal (surat kabar industri hukum), The Hollywood Reporter dan Variety (surat kabar industri hiburan), dan Los Angeles Downtown News. Selain surat kabar besar, beberapa surat kabar periodik lokal melayani masyarakat imigran dalam bahasa asli mereka, termasuk Armenia, Inggris, Korea, Persia, Rusia, Cina, Jepang, Ibrani, dan Arab. Banyak kota terdekat Los Angeles memiliki hariannya sendiri yang pemberitaannya juga mencakup beberapa permukiman di Los Angeles. Contoh harian tersebut adalah The Daily Breeze (melayani South Bay), dan The Long Beach Press-Telegram.

Fox Plaza di Century City, kantor pusat 20th Century Fox, merupakan distrik keuangan besar untuk West Los Angeles

Kota ini memiliki banyak saluran televisi besar dan tiga stasiun PBS. World TV mengudara di dua saluran dan wilayah ini memiliki beberapa jaringan televisi berbahasa Spanyol. KTBN 40 adalah stasiun utama Trinity Broadcasting Network, yang berbasis di luar Santa Ana. Berbagai stasiun televisi independen juga beroperasi di wilayah ini.

Kantor pusat Los Angeles Times

Ekonomi

Perusahaan-perusahaan seperti US Bancorp, Ernst & Young, Aon, Manulife Financial, City National Bank, Wells Fargo, Bank of America, Deloitte, KPMG, dan Union Bank of California memiliki kantor di Downtown Financial District

Ekonomi Los Angeles digerakkan oleh perdagangan internasional, hiburan (televisi, film, permainan video, musik rekaman), dirgantara, teknologi, minyak, mode, perlengkapan, dan pariwisata. Los Angeles juga merupakan pusat manufaktur terbesar di Amerika Serikat Barat. Pelabuhan Los Angeles dan Long Beach bersama-sama membentuk pelabuhan tersibuk kelima di dunia dan merupakan pelabuhan terpenting di Belahan Bumi Barat dan penting bagi perdagangan di Cincin Pasifik. Industri utama lainnya mencakup produksi media, keuangan, telekomunikasi, hukum, kesehatan, dan transportasi. Wilayah statistik metropolitan (WSM) Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana memiliki produk metropolitan bruto (PMB) senilai $735,7 miliar (tahun 2010), menjadikannya pusat ekonomi terbesar ketiga di dunia, setelah Wilayah Tokyo Raya dan Wilayah Statistik Gabungan (WSG) New York-Newark-Bridgeport. Jika dianggap negara, WSG Los Angeles adalah ekonomi terbesar ke-15 di dunia menurut PDB nominal.[68] Los Angeles telah dikelompokkan sebagai sebuah “kota dunia Alpha” menurut studi tahun 2010 oleh kelompok riset di Lougborough University di Inggris. 

Distrik Keuangan (“Financial District”) di pusat kota Los Angeles

Kota ini adalah tempat berdirinya tujuh perusahaan Fortune 500, yaitu kontraktor dirgantara Northrop Grumman, perusahaan energi Occidental Petroleum, penyedia layanan kesehatan Health Net, distributor logam Reliance Steel & Aluminum, firma teknik AECOM, grup real estat CBRE Group, dan perusahaan pembangun Tutor Perini.

Perusahaan lain yang berkantor pusat di Los Angeles meliputi California Pizza Kitchen, Capital Group, Capstone Turbine, The Cheesecake Factory, Cathay Bank, City National Bank, The Coffee Bean & Tea Leaf, DeviantArt, Far East National Bank, Farmers Insurance Group, Fox Entertainment Group, Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher, Guess?, Hanmi Bank, Herbalife, J2 Global Communications, The Jim Henson Company, KB Home, Korn/Ferry, Latham & Watkins, Mercury Insurance Group, Oaktree Capital Management, O’Melveny & Myers; Pabst Blue Ribbon, Paul, Hastings, Janofsky & Walker, Premier America, Premiere Radio Networks, Rentech, Roll International, Sunkist, The TCW Group, Tokyopop, Triton Media Group, United Online, dan VCA Antech.

Wilayah metropolitannya adalah rumah bagi kantor pusat berbagai perusahaan yang pindah ke luar Kota Los Angeles untuk menghindari pajak tinggi dan tingkat kejahatan yang tinggi, namun juga berusaha mempertahankan keuntungan dari lokasinya yang dekat Los Angeles. Misalnya, Los Angeles membebankan pajak penghasilan bruto berdasarkan persentasi penghasilan bisnis, sementara banyak kota sekitarnya cuma membebankan tarif tetap yang rendah.

University of Southern California (USC) merupakan penyedia pekerjaan sektor swasta terbesar di kota ini dan menyumbang $4 miliar setiap tahunnya kepada ekonomi setempat.

Walt Disney Concert Hall

Menurut 2010 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, sepuluh penyedia pekerjaan teratas di kota ini pada tahun 2009 adalah, secara menurun, Pemerintah Kota Los Angeles, Pemerintah Los Angeles County, University of California, Los Angeles, University of Southern California, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Kaiser Permanente, Fox Entertainment Group, Farmers Insurance Group, TeamOne, dan Northrop Grumman.

Pendidikan

Perguruan tinggi dan universitas

Ada tiga universitas umum yang terletak di kota ini: California State University, Los Angeles (CSULA), California State University, Northridge (CSUN) dan University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). Perguruan tinggi swasta di kota ini meliputi American Film Institute Conservatory, Alliant International University, Syracuse University (Los Angeles Campus), American InterContinental University, American Jewish University, The American Musical and Dramatic Academy – kampus Los Angeles, kampus Los Angeles Antioch University, Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science, Fashion Institute of Design & Merchandising’s Los Angeles campus (FIDM), Los Angeles Film School, Loyola Marymount University (LMU juga merupakan universitas induk Loyola Law School yang terletak di Los Angeles), Marymount College, Mount St. Mary’s College, National University of California, Occidental College (“Oxy”), Otis College of Art and Design (Otis), Southern California Institute of Architecture (SCI-Arc), Southwestern Law School, dan University of Southern California (USC).

Cabang kedua California State Normal School di Downtown Los Angeles dibuka tahun 1882.

Sistem perguruan tinggi komunitas mencakup sembilan kampus yang dipimpin dewan kepercayaan Los Angeles Community College District: East Los Angeles College (ELAC), Los Angeles City College (LACC), Los Angeles Harbor College, Los Angeles Mission College, Los Angeles Pierce College, Los Angeles Valley College (LAVC), Los Angeles Southwest College, Los Angeles Trade-Technical College, dan West Los Angeles College.

Sekolah dan perpustakaan

Los Angeles Unified School District melayani hampir seluruh kota Los Angeles, serta beberapa permukiman sekitarnya, dengan jumlah siswa mencapai 800.000 jiwa. Setelah Proposition 13 was disetujui tahun 1978, distrik sekolah kota mengalami masalah pendanaan. LAUSD semakin dikenal karena memiliki banyak kampus yang kurang pendanaan, terlalu padat dan dikelola dengan buruk, meski 162 sekolah magnetnya sudah membantu bersaing dengan sekolah swasta setempat. Beberapa wilayah kecil Los Angeles masuk dalam Las Virgenes Unified School District. Los Angeles County Office of Education mengoperasikan Los Angeles County High School for the Arts. Sistem Los Angeles Public Library mengoperasikan 72 perpustakaan umum di kota ini. Enklave wilayah lepas dilayani oleh County of Los Angeles Public Library, banyak di antaranya terletak dekat dengan penduduk City of Los Angeles.

The Los Angeles Central Library in Downtown

Transportasi

Jalan bebas

Kota ini dan seluruh wilayah metropolitan Los Angeles dilayani oleh jaringan jalan bebas dan jalan bebas hambatan yang luas. Texas Transportation Institute, yang menerbitkan Urban Mobility Report setiap tahunnya, menempatkan kemacetan lalu lintas jalanan Los Angeles pada peringkat pertama di Amerika Serikat pada tahun 2005 berdasarkan kemacetan tahunan per penglaju. Penglaju rata-rata di Los Angeles menghabiskan 72 jam dalam kemacetan per tahun menurut studi ini. Los Angeles diikuti oleh San Francisco/Oakland, Washington, D.C., dan Atlanta (masing-masing 60 jam kemacetan). Meski macet di kota, waktu tempuh rata-rata bagi penglaju di Los Angeles lebih pendek daripada kota-kota besar lainnya, seperti New York City, Philadelphia dan Chicago. Waktu tempuh rata-rata bagi penglaju kerja di Los Angeles pada tahun 2006 adalah 29,2 menit, sama seperti San Francisco dan Washington, D.C.

Jalan-jalan bebas hambatan besar yang menghubungkan LA dengan seluruh Amerika Serikat mencakup Interstate 5, yang membentang ke selatan melewati San Diego ke Tijuana di Meksiko dan ke utara melewati Sacramento, Portland, dan Seattle ke perbatasan Kanada; Interstate 10, Interstate Highway paling selatan yang membentang timur-barat dan pantai-ke-pantai di Amerika Serikat, yang membentang hingga Jacksonville, Florida; dan U.S. Route 101, yang mengarah ke California Central Coast, San Francisco, Redwood Empire, dan pesisir Oregon dan Washington.

Sistem angkutan cepat

Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority dan badan lain mengoperasikan sistem jalur bus yang besar, serta kereta bawah tanah dan kereta ringan di seluruh Los Angeles County, dengan jumlah penumpang bulanan (diukur secara pribadi) mencapai 38,8 juta orang pada September 2011. Sebagian besar (30,5 juta) berasal dari sistem bus kota, yang merupakan sistem bus tersibuk kedua di Amerika Serikat. Rata-rata gabungan kereta bawah tanah dan kereta ringan ditempati sisanya, 8,2 juta penumpang per bulan. Pada tahun 2005, 10,2% penglaju Los Angeles memakai transportasi umum.

Peta Los Angeles Metro Rail yang memperlihatkan jalur yang sudah ada dan sedang dibangun.

Sistem kereta bawah tanah kota adalah yang tersibuk kesembilan di Amerika Serikat dan sistem kereta ringannya merupakan yang tersibuk kedua di negara ini. Sistem kereta kota meliputi jalur kereta bawah tanah Red dan Purple, serta jalur kereta ringan Gold, Blue, dan Green. Fase pertama Expo Line dijadwalkan dibuka tanggal 28 April 2012. Metro Orange Line adalah sebuah jalur angkutan cepat bus dengan perhentian dan frekuensi yang sama seperti kereta ringan. Kota ini juga merupakan pusat sistem kereta komuter Metrolink, yang menghubungkan Los Angeles dengan seluruh county sekitarnya dan banyak pinggiran kota.

Di samping layanan kereta Metrolink dan Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Los Angeles dilayani oleh kereta penumpang antarkota Amtrak. Stasiun kereta utama di kota ini adalah Union Station yang terletak di sebelah utara Downtown.

Bandar udara

Bandar udara utama di Los Angeles adalah Bandar Udara Internasional Los Angeles (IATA: LAX, ICAO: KLAX). Bandar udara komersial tersibuk keenam di dunia dan ketiga di Amerika Serikat ini menangani lebih dari 61 juta penumpang dan 2 juta ton kargo pada tahun 2006. LAX adalah hub bagi United Airlines.

Bandar udara komersial besar di sekitarnya meliputi:

  • (IATA: ONT, ICAO: KONT) Bandar Udara Internasional LA/Ontario, dimiliki pemerintah kota Los Angeles; melayani Inland Empire.
  • (IATA: BUR, ICAO: KBUR) Bandar Udara Bob Hope, sebelumnya bernama Bandar Udara Burbank; melayani Lembah San Fernando dan San Gabriel
  • (IATA: LGB, ICAO: KLGB) Bandar Udara Long Beach, melayani Long Beach/Harbor
  • (IATA: SNA, ICAO: KSNA) Bandar Udara John Wayne di Orange County.

Sa;ah satu bandara penerbangan umum tersibuk di dunia juga terletak di Los Angeles, yaitu Bandar Udara Van Nuys (IATA: VNY, ICAO: KVNY).

Theme Building di LAX

Pelabuhan

Port of Los Angeles terletak di San Pedro Bay di permukiman San Pedro, sekitar 20 mile (32 km) di selatan Downtown. Juga disebut Los Angeles Harbor dan WORLDPORT LA, komplek pelabuhan ini menduduki wilayah daratan dan perairan seluas 7500 acre (30 km2) di tepian pesisir sepanjang 43 mile (69 km). Pelabuhan ini bergabung dengan Port of Long Beach.

Pemandangan Vincent Thomas Bridge yang berujung di Terminal Island

Port of Los Angeles dan Port of Long Beach bersama membentuk Los Angeles/Long Beach Harbor. Kedua pelabuhan tersebut membentuk pelabuhan kontainer tersibuk kelima di dunia, dengan volume perdagangan senilai lebih dari 14,22 juta TEU pada tahun 2008. Port of Los Angeles sendiri adalah pelabuhan kontainer tersibuk di Amerika Serikat dan puast kapal pesiar terbesar di Pesisir Barat Amerika Serikat – The Port of Los Angeles’ World Cruise Center melayani sekitar 800.000 penumpang pada tahun 2009.

Ada pula pelabuhan-pelabuhan non-industri yang lebih kecil di sepanjang pesisir Los Angeles. Penjaga pantai berpengalaman dari Los Angeles City hanya ada di pantai-pantai yang dimiliki pemerintah kota.

Pelabuhan ini memiliki empat jembatan, yaitu Vincent Thomas Bridge, Henry Ford Bridge, Gerald Desmond Bridge, dan Commodore Schuyler F. Heim Bridge.

Layanan feri penumpang dari San Pedro ke kota Avalon di Santa Catalina Island disediakan oleh Catalina Express.

Demografi

Los Angeles adalah rumah bagi orang-orang dari 140 negara yang mempertuturkan 224 bahasa yang berbeda. Enklave etnis seperti Chinatown, Historic Filipinotown, Koreatown, Little Armenia, Little Ethiopia, Tehrangeles, Little Tokyo, dan Thai Town memberi contoh karakter Los Angeles yang poliglot.

Pemandangan pusat kota Los Angeles dari udara.

Kota kembar

Los Angeles memiliki 25 kota kembar, diurutkan secara kronologis menurut tahun bergabung:

Mission San Fernando Rey de España, circa 1910
Papan dekat City Hall yang mengarah ke kota-kota kembar Los Angeles

The World’s Least Populated Capital Cities

World Facts


Ngerulmud, the capital city of the Pacific island nation of Palau, is the world’s least populated national capital.

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The Capitol Building in Ngerulmud, Palau.

By July 1, 2017, the global population reached approximately 7.550 billion. Exactly one year earlier, the global population stood at 7.466 billion, and by January 2018 it had surpassed the 7.6 billion mark. In 2016, the majority of the global population lived in Asia (59.69%), followed by Africa (16.36%), Europe (9.94%), North America (7.79%), South America (5.68%), Oceania (0.54%), and Antarctica (less than 0.1%). China remains the world’s most populous country, with an estimated population of 1.41 billion as of January 2018, while India ranks a close second with 1.35 billion. Both counties account for 19% and 18% of the global, respectively. However, the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs estimates that India will be the world’s most populous country by 2024 based on current trends in birth rate. Between 2010 and 2017 China experienced an annual population increase of 0.4%, while India experienced an annual increase of 1.1%. More than half (54%) of the global population resides in an urban environment. Urbanization of the rural environment and migration to urban areas mean that 66% of the global population will live in an urban environment by 2050. As some countries record high populations, others register less than 10,000 inhabitants. Vatican City remains the least populous country, with between 790-800 people. Tokelau and Niue both have less than 2,000 residents.

The World’s Least Populated Capital Cities

Palau is the capital of Ngerulmud and is the least populous capital city on the planet, with a population of just 400. The city became the national capital in 2006, succeeding Koror City, which is home to half of the country’s total population of 21,800. Since the 1950s the country’s population growth has been low, growing from 7,440 in 1950 to 21,800 in January 2018. The Vatican City ranks second, with a population of about 800 people, and is the world’s least populous country. The city-state is located entirely within the Italian city of Rome. Vatican City is associated with the Roman Catholic Church and is the home of the Catholic Pope.

The state of Nauru in Oceania has a population of 11,360. The capital city, Yaren, is inhabited by about 1,100 people, which represents 9.6% of the entire population. The island covers an area of 8.1 sqm. Yaren, which covers an area of 0.58 sqm on the southern part of the island, was established in 1968 surrounding an area that had clean drinking water. Nauru has no modern city, and Yaren was therefore recognized by the United Nations as the country’s de facto capital. Tuvalu, which is located in the Pacific Ocean, halfway between Australia and the U.S state of Hawaii, is a Polynesian nation with a population of about 11,200 people. The capital, Funafuti, is an atoll and home to 6,025 people, representing 56.6% of the entire population. The country’s parliament and administrative offices are located in Fongafale.

The microstate of San Marino is located in the Italian Peninsula and is enclosed by Italy. It covers an area of about 24 sqm and has a population of approximately 33,400. Serravalle is the largest city in the country, but the City of San Marino City is the capital. The City of San Marino is home to about 4,500 people, which is less than half of Serravalle’s population. It was founded by Christians in the early 4th century and remains a Christian city. The microstate of Liechtenstein in Central Europe is home to about 38,000 people. Its capital city, Vaduz, is home to about 5,250, and acts as the country’s political and administrative center. It is the most recognized city in the state, although Schaan has a larger population.

The capital city of Malta, Valletta, is home to 6,500 of the country’s 450,000 people. Founded on March 28, 1566, the city is popular for its cultural artifacts. St. George’s is the capital of Granada, and is home to about 7,500 people. Tourism has helped develop and market the city as a tourist destination, resulting in a rise in population. Granada is located in the Caribbean, is popular among tourists, and is known to be a leading export of nutmeg and mace crops.

Palikir is the capital of the Federated States of Micronesia, and is home to about 9,900 people. Micronesia has a population of 105,000 people, and maintains close relations with the United States. The capital city of Saint Kitts and Nevis, Basseterre, is the 10th least populous capital city, with a population of only 13,100.

The Least Populous Countries

Vatican City remains the least populous state, with a population of 800. Tokelau ranks second, with a population of about 1,300, and has a population growth rate of 1.3% annually. Montserrat, Falkland Islands, and Saint Helena, all register less than 6,000 people.

The World’s Least Populated Capital Cities

 

Opera Snapshot_2018-02-21_212423_www.worldatlas.com

Source: WorldAtlas

 

The Most Dangerous Cities In The World

World Facts


Caracas, Venezuela is the world’s most dangerous city with a murder rate of 130.35 per 100,000 inhabitants.

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Caracas, Venezuela, tops the list with the highest murder rate on the planet.

When planning your next trip, you may want to avoid some of the cities we’re about to mention. In 2016, they ranked among the world’s most dangerous places on the basis of murder cases per capita.

The World’s Most Dangerous Cities

Caracas, Venezuela has held on to its spot as the world’s most dangerous city with a murder rate of 130.35. This staggering number is followed by Acapulco, Mexico with 113.24 per 100,000 inhabitants and San Pedro Sula, Honduras with 112.09 homicides per 100,000 inhabitants. Violence brought on by drug trafficking and organized gangs have been blamed for the relentless violence in these cities, although the factors are generally quite complicated. Unfortunately, none of these cities are strangers to the top three positions, except for maybe the resort town of Acapulco, which violence from other regions of the country has been spilling into in recent years.

The Most Dangerous Cities in the United States

Four cities in the United States are counted the among the world’s most dangerous. The cities are, in descending order of homicide rates, St. Louis, Missouri (60.37), Baltimore, Maryland (51.14), New Orleans, Louisiana (45.17) and Detroit, Michigan (44.6). In the United States, the relaxed laws surrounding gun ownership is often subject of much debate. In the United States, gun violence is responsible for tens of thousands of deaths nationwide annually.

One city that is a notable omission from the list is Chicago. Although the city of Chicago has had a reputation for crime in recent years, its homicide rate is 27.22 murders per 100,000 residents. It is important to note that although the city of Chicago experienced an overall decrease in violent crime in the early 2000s, as of the 2010s crime again seems to be on an incline. 

Latin American Cities

Of the entries on this list, many cities can be found in a region of the world known as Latin America. Latin America generally refers to countries in Central and South America, where the predominant language is Spanish (or in the case of Brazil, Portuguese). The factors for the dominance of these countries are varied and complicated. Violence related to drug trafficking and income inequality, corrupt politicians and officials, and residue from a history of brutal colonialism have all been indicated as factors that encourage violence. 

South African Cities

Of this list provided of the 50 most dangerous cities in the world by violent crime rate, three cities in South Africa make the list: Cape Town (60.77), Nelson Mandela Bay (39.19), and Durban (34.43). South Africa, which inhabits the southernmost point of the massive African continent, has often garnered publicity for its high crime rates, including murder rates. Factors such as high employment and systemic racism have all been blamed for the violent trends in South African cities.

The 50 Most Dangerous Cities

Opera Snapshot_2018-02-21_211032_www.worldatlas.com

Source: WorldAtlas

Medan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Medan_Montage

From top, left to right:
Graha Maria Annai Velangkanni church, London Sumatra building in Kesawan, Medan’s Old City Hall, Hillpark Sibolangit amusement park, Sun Plaza mall, and Great Mosque of Medan.

Medan (Jawi: ميدن, Batak: ᯔᯮᯑ᯲, Chinese: 棉蘭, Tamil: மேடான், Indonesian pronunciation: [meˈdan]); is the capital of North Sumatra province in Indonesia. Located along the northeastern coast of Sumatra island, Medan is the fourth biggest city by population in Indonesia, behind Jakarta, Surabaya and Bandung. With 2,097,610 inhabitants at the 2010 census, Medan remains the largest settlement outside Java island together with the richness of its multicultural peoples. Bordered by the Strait of Malacca, Medan is a busy trading city around the island as located near the strait which is one of the most important shipping lanes in the world. Medan is the gateway to the western part of Indonesia, accessible via the Port of Belawan and Kuala Namu International Airport, stated the city as the third largest city in the country by economy after Jakarta and Surabaya, this city economy is linked well with Malaysian cities (especially Penang and Kuala Lumpur) and Singapore by trade, service and natural resource exchanges. Both the seaport and the airport are connected to the city center via toll road and railway. Medan also became the first city in Indonesia to have an airport supported with train service.

The city was founded by Guru Patimpus, a Karonese man who named a swampy land in confluence of Deli River and Babura river as Kampung Medan Putri (Village of Medan) as the first settlement. In 1632, the Deli Sultanate was established by Tuanku Gocah Pahlawan, who became its first king. In the 18th century, the eighth king, Sultan Mahmud Al Rasyid Perkasa Alam, started a relationship with the Dutch. Jacob Nienhuys, a Dutch tobacco merchant, pioneered the opening of tobacco plantations in Deli Land. The area’s name changed to Medan-Deli when it was established by Dutch tobacco commerce after the formation of the Deli Company. With the help from the 9th Sultanate Sultan Ma’mun Al Rasyid Perkasa Alam, and also the well-known Chinese businessmen Tjong Yong Hian and Tjong A Fie, the rapid development of the economy transformed Medan-Deli into a big trading center with the nickname het land dollar, aka the land of the money. The Deli Railway was established for shipping rubber, tea, timber, palm oil, and sugar industries from the city to Belawan, a port town located north of Medan. Medan was briefly the capital of the State of East Sumatra, which was established in 1947 as a result of the Dutch “police actions” against newly-independent Indonesia and later became part of the United States of Indonesia from 1949 to 1950. Following the establishment of the Republic of Indonesia, Medan became the capital of North Sumatra in mid-1950.

Medan was dubbed by the Dutch Parijs van Sumatra due to the city’s resemblance to Paris. Lamudi, a worldwide real estate portal, recognized Medan as one among six cities in Asia to feature and preserve several colonial architectural sites, while accompanying its growth as a metropolitan city.

In recent years, the city has undergone rapid development, and has seen large scale infrastructure projects such as a new airport, seaport, elevated railroad, toll roads, and a planned mass rapid transit system. Residential property prices in Medan have also trended upward over the period from 2013 to the first quarter of 2015, according to Bank Indonesia (BI). According to BI, Medan’s residential property price index rose from 205.24 in the fourth quarter of 2013 to 212.17 in the fourth quarter of 2014, and to 214.41 in the first quarter of 2015.

Opera Snapshot_2018-01-24_181924_en.wikipedia.org

Etymology


According to the diary of a Portuguese merchant in the early 16th century, the name of Medan was actually derived from Tamil word Maidhan, also known as Maidhāṉam (Tamil: மைதானம்), that means Ground, adopted from Malay language. One of the Karo-Indonesia dictionaries written by Darwin Prinst SH published in 2002 stated that Medan could also be defined as “recover” or “be better”.

History


In ancient times, the city of Medan was known as Kampung Medan (Medan Village). It was a piece of swampy land with an area of approximately 4000 ha. Some of the rivers crossing the city of Medan drain into the Straits of Malacca. These rivers are Sei Deli, Sei Babura, Sei Sikambing, Sei Denai, Sei Putih, Sei Percut and Muara Belawan.

Aru Kingdom

The area in and around Medan city, Deli and Langkat Regency was the location of ancient Kingdom of Aru (Haru). The kingdom was established by Karo people and flourished between 13th to 16th century. Several archaeological sites around Medan are connected to the Kingdom of Aru, including Kota Rentang in Hamparan Perak area, Deli Serdang Regency, the Kota Cina archaeological site in Medan Marelan, and Benteng Putri Hijau, a fort ruin in Deli Tua, Namorambe, Deli Serdang Regency.

Founding of Medan

Medan started as a village called Kampung Medan (Medan Village). Kampung Medan was founded by Guru Patimpus Sembiring Pelawi, a Karonese man who came from the Karo Land. Before he became a Muslim, he was a Pemena follower. Following the history of “trombo” and Hamparan Perak (XII Kuta), Guru Patimpus studied Islam from Datuk Kota Bangun. At the time, Guru Patimpus and his people wanted to meet Datuk Kota Bangun. Not only did they want to meet Datuk Kota Bangun, they also wanted to compete with him for power. Whenever Guru Patimpus went to Kota Bangun, he always passed Pulo Brayan. In Pulo Brayan, Guru Patimpus fell in loved with the Princess of Pulo Brayan King. Eventually, he married the princess and had two sons, Kolok and Kecik. After he got married, Guru Patimpus and his wife turned the forest area in confluence between Deli Riverand Babura River into a small village and it was called Kampung Medan. The date when that happened has been marked as the date of Medan anniversary. It happened in July, 1st 1590.

In his days, Guru Patimpus is classified as people who were thinking ahead. This was proved by sending their children studied (study) read the Qur’an to Datuk Kota Bangun and then sent them for deepen about Islam to Aceh.

In early days, the natives called the area as the Land of Deli (Indonesian: Tanah Deli), it starts from Ular River to the Wampu River in Langkat while the Deli Sultanate in power at the time of his territory does not cover the area between the two rivers.

tatement confirming that the Kampung Medan is a description H. Muhammad Said quoting through the book Deli: In Woord en Beeld written by N. ten Cate. The statement said that early Kampung Medan was a fortress which was composed of two layers of roundabout-shaped walls at a confluence between two rivers namely Deli and Babura rivers. The Administrateur house is located across the river from the Kampung Medan. The location of Kampung Medan is in the modern-day location of the Wisma Benteng building now and the Administrateur house is in present-day PTP IX Deli Tobacco building.

Deli Sultanate

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Portrait of Sultan Ma’mun Al Rasyid Perkasa Alam, 1900s.

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Tjong A Fie, a kapitan of Medan and one of contributor to the early development in the city.

In the 16th century there was a kingdom called Aru, with its center located where Deli Tua is now (south of Medan). In 1612 the Acehnese Sultan Iskandar Muda defeated Aru. The Acehnese appointed Hisyamsudin (later he changed his name to “Tuanku Gocah Pahlawan”), titled as Laksamana Kuda Bintan as their representative in this kingdom of East Sumatra. In 1632 Aceh established the Deli Sultanate (Jawi: کسلطانن دلي) and Gocah Pahlawan became the first king. Gocah Pahlawan opens a new land in Sungai Lalang and Percut. As Mayor and Deputy of Sultan of Aceh as well as by utilizing the large size of Aceh Empire, Gocah Pahlawan managed to expand his territory, thereby covering Percut Sei Tuan and Medan Deli district now. He also founded the villages of Gunung Barus, Sampali, Kota Bangun, Pulo Brayan, Kota Jawa, Kota Rengas and Sigara-gara. He died in 1669 and was followed by his son “Tuangku Panglima Perunggit” who moved the center of the kingdom to Labuhan Deli, which then proclaimed the independence of Deli Sultanate from Aceh Sultanate in 1669, with its capital in Medan Labuhan, approximately 15 km from the city center now.

During the reign of the third king, “Tuanku Panglima Padrap” (ruled 1698–1728), the kingdom was moved to Pulo Brayan due to floods. The fourth king, “Tuanku Panglima Pasutan” (ruled between 1728–1761) organized the kingdom in four tribes, each led by a Datuk (a Malay title for high ranking persons). During the time of the fifth king, “Tuanku Panglima Gandar Wahib” (ruled 1761–1805) the Datuks increased their power.

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Sultan Amaluddin, the sixth sultan leaving the Great Mosque on his crowning day, in February 1925

The sixth ruler was “Sultan Amaluddin Mengedar Alam” (ruled 1805–1850). During his years the Siak Sultanate became a stronger influence in Deli than the Acehnese Sultanate, and the ruler was given the title: Sultan. The seventh ruler was “Sultan Osman Perkasa Alam” (ruled 1850 to 1858), during his leadership the Deli Sultanate became autonomous.

The eighth ruler, “Sultan Mahmud Al Rasyid Perkasa Alam” (ruled 1858–1873) started the relationship with the Dutch, a relationship that became rather intimate. The next ruler was “Sultan Ma’mun Al Rashid Perkasa Alamyah”, who ruled from 1873 to 1924 when the tobacco trade expanded. He moved the kingdom to Medan and finished the construction of the Maimun Palace in 1888. He also built the grand mosque of Al Ma’shun which is commonly known as (Great Mosque of Medan) now in 1907, he became known as the builder of early Medan in cooperation with the Dutch and “Tjong Yong Hian” and Tjong A Fie, two Chinese businessmen brothers and also Kapitans who built a large plantation business in Deli. They all brought Medan-Deli as new development area including business centers such as banks, offices, plantation areas, housing, railroad and a port. The tenth “Sultan Amaluddin Al Sani Perkasa Alamsyah” (ruled 1924–1945) expanded harbors, with commerce increased during his period. At the declaration of Indonesian Independence, the Sultan recognized the sovereignty of the republic and was in return given an important function as administrator of Deli-Malay traditions and culture.

The Sultanate of Deli still exists until this day, even though the administrative powers has been replaced with elected Mayors. The current sultan is “Sultan Mahmud Lamanjiji Perkasa Alam” the 14th sultan, (ruled since 2005). Coronated the age of eight, he is the youngest sultan that has been coronated in Deli Sultanate history.

Dutch East Indies era

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Aerial view of Port of Belawan, 1920s

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Coolies working in the seed beds on a tobacco plantation in Medan, circa 1900s

The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 meant strongly intensified traffic between Europe and the Far East. The Dutch started the shipping company Stoomvaart Maatschappij Nederland that quickly expanded to 43 steamships in 1877. The English, however, had already 3,000 ships in those days. A journey from Europe to Indonesia took approximately 40 days. Genoa, Italy became the new transit harbor for passenger ships after the opening of the Gotthard Tunnel in Switzerland. The journey was reduced to 23 days and 20 hours to Batavia (Jakarta). The ships also became bigger and more comfortable.

This resulted in an increase in cruise ships carrying predominantly white Europeans coming to Dutch East Indies as tourists for a tour of the region, including Medan as the largest tobacco plantation in Dutch East Indies at that time. To accommodate the tourists, it was deemed necessary to have European-class hotels. Therefore, in 1898, a Dutch businessman named Aeint Herman de Boer built Hotel de Boer in the northwest of the Esplanade (now Lapangan Merdeka Medan).

Exports were very dependent on British shipping in 1890 when Sabang became a bunker harbor. Belawan got its harbor in 1923. The shipping company Koninklijke Paketvaart Maatschappij (KPM) was established for the purpose of shipping valuable Deli Company tobacco, which was shipped to Batavia. This cargo was almost as valuable and stringent rules regulated its handling. It was strictly forbidden to stow anything on top of the tobacco and coolies were not even to walk on it when they worked in the hatches.

Cleaning of roads in Medan was, until 1912, done by prisoners. After that free coolies got the job. In 1917 the authorities started to use horse-drawn carts, equipped with brooms for the cleaning. In 1928 the horse-drawn carts were replaced by motorized vehicles. The first newspaper was the ‘Deli Courant’, established in 1885 although it was not a daily publication. In 1898, Joseph Hallermann, a German, established the daily ‘De Sumatra Post’, which survived until 1939.

There were planters in Medan from many countries: England, the Netherlands, USA, France, Germany, Poland, and Switzerland. Many of them became very rich and led affluent lifestyles. Medan became known as the Paris of Sumatra. Up till today, the area in downtown where the old airport is located is called Polonia, a name given by a Polish aristocrat who once owned a plantation here. One area of Medan is still called Helvetia (the old name of Switzerland). This name was given by a plantation owner from Switzerland.

Tobacco Plantation

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Painting of Jacob Nienhuys, the founder of tobacco producer Deli Company (Deli Maatschappij) during Dutch East Indies era

Medan did not develop rapidly until the 1860s, when the Dutch authorities began to release new land for tobacco plantations. Jacob Nienhuys, Van der Falk, and Elliot, who were Dutch tobacco merchants, pioneered the opening of the tobacco plantation in Deli. Nienhuys’ previous tobacco business in Java moved to Deli after an invitation by an Arab from Surabaya named Said Abdullah Bilsagih, brother in law of the Deli Sultan Mahmud Perkasa Alam. Initially Nienhuys cultivated tobacco on 4,000 hectares of land in Tanjong Spassi, near Labuhan, owned by the Sultan of Deli. On March 1864, Nienhuys sent samples of his crop of tobacco to Rotterdam, Netherlands to test its quality. Apparently, the tobacco leaves were considered high quality for cigar materials. Hence Deli’s name rose as a producer of the best cigar wrappers for Europeans.

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Coat of arms of Medan during colonial era, showing tobacco plant as the charge.

The tobacco treaty was signed by the Sultan of Deli and the Dutch in 1865. After two years, Nienhuys along with Jannsen, P.W. Clemen, and Cremer founded the company De Deli Maatschappij abbreviated Deli Mij in Labuhan. In 1869, Nienhuys moved the head office of Deli Mij to Kampung Medan. The new office was built on the confluence of Deli and Babura river, precisely at the office of PTPN II (ex PTPN IX) now. With the transfer of the office, Medan quickly became the center of government activity and trade, as well as area with the most dominant development in western Indonesia. The rapid development of the economy transformed Deli into a major trading center nicknamed het land dollar aka the land of the money. Then, they opened up new plantations in the Martubung and Sunggal areas in 1869, as well in Sungai Beras and Klumpang in 1875, bringing the total to 22 plantation companies in the year 1874. Given the activities of the tobacco trade was already very broad and growing, Kampung Medan became increasingly crowded and then developed with a name that is known as the Medan-Deli.

The development of Medan-Deli as a trading center was followed by it becoming a center of government. In 1879, Capital Assistant of Deli Resident moved from Labuhan to Medan. On 1 March 1887, the capital of the Resident of East Sumatra also moved from Bengkalis to Medan Deli Sultanate Palace which was originally located in Kampung Bahari (Labuhan) and Pulo Brayan also moved with the completion of Maimoon Palace on May 18, 1891, and thus the Capital of Deli officially moved to Medan.

Growth of Medan-Deli

Medan taken from the air, cicra 1928–1940

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Aerial view of Medan, 1920. It can be seen from the photo: the railway station, the Esplanade (now Merdeka Walk), City Hall, the Javasche Bank (now Bank Indonesia), post office, Hotel de Boer and office of the Deli Maatschappij

In 1915, the Residency of East Sumatra enhanced its status to Gubernermen. In 1918 the city of Medan officially became Gemeente (Municipal) with Mayor Baron Daniël Mackay. Based on the “Acte van Schenking” (Grant Deed) No. 97 Notary J.M. de-Hondt Junior, dated November 30, 1918, the Sultan of Deli handed over the land of Medan-Deli to the Gemeente, thus officially becoming the region under the direct rule of the Dutch East Indies. In the early days of this township, Medan still consists of four villages, namely Kampung Kesawan, Kampung Sungai Rengas, Kampung Petisah Hulu and Kampung Petisah Hilir.

In 1918 there were 43.826 residents of Medan, made up of 409 Europeans, 35,009 Native Indonesians, 8,269 Chinese and 139 East foreign such as Indians.

Since then the Medan developed more rapidly. Various facilities are built. Some of these include the Office of Experiment Stations named AVROS in Kampung Baru (1919), now RISPA, the railway of Pangkalan Brandan – Besitang (1919), Tirtanadi Water Tower (1908), American Consulate (1919), Teacher school on Jl. H.M. Yamin now (1923), Mingguan Soematra (1924), Pool Association Medan (1924), Central Market (Grote Markt/Toa Pa Sat or 大巴刹), St. Elizabeth Hospital, Eye Hospital and Kebun Bunga Sports field (1929).

Historically, the development of the city of Medan, since the beginning, has been positioned at the center of trade (export-import). Being chosen as the Deli capital, Medan also developed into a center of government. Until now beside one of the areas of the city, also serves as the capital of North Sumatra province.

Japanese occupation and post independence era

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British troops end Japanese occupation in Medan.

The Japanese invasion began in 1942 throughout Indonesia. The Japanese troops who landed in Sumatra were XXV Army soldiers who were based in Shonanto which is currently known as Singapore, they landed on the 11 and 12 March 1942. The force was made up of Imperial Guard Division coupled with the 18th Division led by Lieutenant General Nishimura. They landed in four locations: Sabang, Ulele, Kuala Bugak (near Perlak, Aceh now) and Tanjung Tiram (Batubara region now). The Tanjung Tiram troops were the soldiers who went to the city of Medan, they rode bikes that they bought from the locals, and the Japanese troops occupied Medan until 1945.

After the Independence, the central government began to establish RIS (United States of Indonesia) In 1949, and Medan became the capital of state of East Sumatra with Tengku Mansur as State Mayor. After the RIS era ended, Medan officially became the capital of North Sumatra. The city development remained stagnant until the 1970s, when big developments, especially palm oil and rubber plantation company headquarters, making Medan the busiest city outside Java. The big migration program brought a lot of Javanese and the Bataks people began to settle in the city as many people from Java and rural part of the province sought jobs.

Medan hit the one million population mark in 1998 and 2 million in 2010, and city has begun to be referred as a Metropolis around 2006.

Geography


Medan is in the northeastern part of Sumatra island, in Sumatera Utara province. Medan lies on the banks of the Deli River and Babura River which feed into a naturally sheltered harbor and then into the Straits of Malacca, it has helped the city grow in significance as a trading port. Its elevation varies between 2.5 and 37.5 metres (8 ft 2 in and 123 ft 0 in) above sea level. Medan is close to the Barisan Mountains which is located in the southern part of the city and close to volcanoes such as Sibayak Mountain and Sinabung Mountain (located as far as 50 to 70 kilometres (31 to 43 miles) from the city).

Climate

Under the Köppen climate classification, Medan features a tropical rainforest climate (Af) with no real dry season. Medan does have noticeably wetter and drier months, with its driest month (February) on average seeing about one third of the precipitation of its wettest month (October). Temperatures in the city average approximately 27 °C (81 °F) throughout the course of the year. Annual precipitation in the Medan is around 2,200 millimetres (87 inches).

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Located in the central part of Deli Serdang Regency, Medan is surrounded by satellite cities and towns such as Binjai, Lubuk Pakam, Tanjung Morawa, Tembung, Percut Sei Tuan, and Labuhan Deli which help the city become a new urban area in Indonesia which known as ‘Mebidang’ (Medan, Binjai, Deli Serdang)

Governance


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The old and former Medan City Hall building

Mayor

Medan was governed by mayor Dr. H. Abdillah Ak, MBA (appointed for the period 2005–2010). However, Abdillah and his vice mayor were caught by Indonesian Corruption Eradication Commission officials in 2008. Syamsul Arifin, the Governor of North Sumatra Province, then appointed Affifudin Lubis to become the acting mayor. In 2009, Affifudin Lubis resigned as mayor and the Governor then appointed Rahudman Harahap as mayor. Because Rahudman wanted to be a candidate in the 2010 mayor election, he too resigned from the office. Then Syamsul Arifin himself became the acting mayor. In the 2010 mayor election, Rahudman Harahap won the election. Rahudman was arrested due to corruption which resulted in his deputy Dzulmi Eldin officially becoming the acting mayor.

Administrative divisions

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District divisions of Medan

Medan is divided into 21 districts (Indonesian: kecamatan), tabulated below, and is sub-divided into 151 neighborhoods or villages (kelurahan):

  • Medan Amplas
  • Medan Area
  • West Medan
  • Medan Baru
  • Medan Belawan
  • Medan Deli
  • Medan Denai
  • Medan Helvetia
  • Medan Johor
  • Medan Kota
  • Medan Labuhan
  • Medan Maimun
  • Medan Marelan
  • Medan Perjuangan
  • Medan Petisah
  • Medan Polonia
  • Medan Selayang
  • Medan Sunggal
  • Medan Tembung
  • East Medan
  • Medan Tuntungan

Based on the map, the city are centralised around Medan Petisah, Medan Baru, Medan Polonia, Medan Maimun, Medan Kota, and West Medan which is act as city center. Medan Labuhan is one of the largest districts by area other than Medan Belawan and Medan Marelan which is lies on the northern part of the city. Medan Tuntungan serves as the gateway to Karoland regency, Medan Helvetia to Binjai City and Langkat and Medan Amplas to Tebing Tinggi and Pematang Siantar.

Demographics


The city is Indonesia’s fourth most populous after Jakarta, Surabaya, and Bandung, as well as Indonesia’s largest city outside Java island. The population has risen from 568,000 in 1968 fourfold to 2.1 million in 2010. Much of the population lies outside its city limits, especially in Deli Serdang Regency. The official Metropolitan area (Wilayah Metropolitan Medan) was inhabited by 4,144,583 people in 2010.

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Source: BPS Sumut

Ethnicities and languages

Batak (including Mandailing and Karo people) and Javanese are the major ethnic groups in Medan, with sizeable Chinese, Minangkabau and Malay populations and smaller groups of Acehnese, Indians, Nias, and Sundanese people. Medan also has foreign residents from India, Sri Lanka Bangladesh, Thailand, China, Taiwan, Middle East and other Asian countries.

Ethnicities of Medan – 2000 Census

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The city has diverse communities, reflected by its history. The Bataks is one of the major ethnic groups in Medan, there are three sub-ethnic Bataknese in the city such as Toba, Karo and Mandailing Bataks. Karo are the natives in Medan, meanwhile Toba people cames in the past by the Dutch and employed them as workers in oil palm plantations, the last one are Mandailing people that came in big mass after the independence era to find a better jobs. The Bataks reside throughout the city, as the Karo people reside around southern area like Padang Bulan, Medan Johor and Tuntungan. Toba Batak people reside in Marindal and Amplas, there are big number also living in nearby city-center like in Medan Perjuangan district, meanwhile the Mandailing people mostly reside in Medan Tembung.

In addition, there is a large ethnic Javanese community, largely made up of the descendants of people transported from Java in the last 19th century to be employed as contract workers at various plantations in North Sumatra. They are usually known as Pujakesuma (Indonesian: Putra Jawa Kelahiran Sumatera, English: Sumatra-born Javanese). Their presence in Medan can be marked from various Javanese toponymies in Medan, such as Tanjungsari, Sarirejo, Sidodadi, Sidorejo, etc. (mostly in East Medan and Medan Tembung area). The Malays are another natives in Medan, already living in outskirt area like Belawan and Labuhan since Aru era as fisherman, and then they’re come to city area after establishment of Deli Sultanate new palace in 18th century. The Malays living spread throughout the city, but they have a big concentration population in Medan Maimun, Kota Matsum, Labuhan and Belawan.

A highly visible component of city population is the large number of Chinese as them starting migrate from China to Deli since 16th century and big flow migration in 19th century as planters and coolies. Now, Medan is home of the largest Chinese community in the Sumatra island, who are active in the business and trading activities. Mostly Chinese residents in Medan can speak fluent Hokkien, a dialect originating from Fujian in Southern China. Medan also has its own variation of Hokkien, known as Medan Hokkien, which has the same similarity with Penang’s one. The Chinese reside throughout the city, but majority lives around city centre area. The city also host a sizable community of Tamil descendants who are commonly known as Madrasis or Tamilan. A well-known Tamil neighbourhood are Kampung Madras which is located on the city-center, added up as being one of the busiest part of the city.

Alongside Chinese, Minangkabaus is also known as the merchants, peddlers, and artisans, in addition to as white collar, doctor, lawyer, and journalist. Minang people came to Medan since mid-19th century. In 1960s to 1980s, the number of Minangkabau people migrating to Medan surged, and formed 10% to population in the city. Minangkabaus living around Medan Denai and Medan Maimun area. Acehnese is other minority ethnics in Medan. Big number of Aceh people mostly coming after conflict that has happening in Aceh in late 1970s as seeking for a peace place. Nowadays, they are known working as merchant like operates grocery store and Mie Aceh restaurant around Setia Budi and Ring Road/Sunggal area.

Religion

Religion of Medan – 2015 Census

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Islam is the major religion of Medan, constituting almost 60 percent of all residents; most of those who follow Islam are Javanese, Minangkabaus, Mandailings, Malays, Acehnese and small Karonese people. Mosques and Halal food are quite easy to find anywhere around the city. Christianity is the second largest religion, constituting around 29.26 percent, most are Protestants and small (around 10 percent out of all Christians) are Catholics. The Bataks (Toba, Karo, Simalungun), Nias with a small Chinese and Indian people are the main adherents of this religion. The HKBP, GBKP and Methodist are the biggest Christian denominations in Medan.

Buddhism formed around 9.90 percent, with the Chinese being the largest group of followers. Most Buddhists in Medan follow Mahayana Buddhism. The followers worship Buddha, Maitreya and also Avalokitesvara. Hindu are the 4th largest religion at around 2.15 percent. The Indonesian government does not include Sikhs as an official religion, but the majority of the Indians who are living in Medan are followers. Hinduism in Medan is quite different from other parts of Indonesia where the branch is the Balinese version of Hindusm and the major Gods worshipped include Murugan, Shiva, Mariamman and Krishna. The last registered religion in Medan are Confucianism or in Indonesian known as Konghucu, mostly adherent are the Chinese, the Taoism and Chinese Folk religion are also including as Confucian in ID Card, Confucius, Mazu and Guandi are the most worshipped God and Goddesses for this religion followers in Medan.

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Al-Osmani Mosque, the oldest mosque in the city

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Immanuel Church, one of oldest church in the city

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Vihara Gunung Timur, the oldest Taoist also Buddhist temple in Sumatra Island

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Sri Mariamman Temple, main Hindu temple in Medan

Economy


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Bank Indonesia building in Medan

Medan has already grown to become one of the largest metropolitan cities in Indonesia and become the center of growth in the province of North Sumatra. Now the city is an important commercial and economic hub of Indonesia. Locals, as well as many foreigners have set up their business to take advantage of its dynamism and boost its economy. Medan’s economy was mainly based on tobacco, rubber, tea and coffee culture and production, but growing manufacturing sector such as automotive assembly, production of machinery, tiles, etc., also contributing now to the city’s economy. Medan is more like the most industrious city in Sumatra consisting of many small, medium and large-scale enterprises. Because of its location and its proximity to Singapore it functions strategically as the main gateway in the western region of Indonesia & for the trading of goods and financial services on domestic, regional and international levels. Many international companies maintain offices in the city, namely London Sumatra, Philips Lighting, Toba Pulp Lestari, Marriott, ABB Group and DBS Bank, etc. Medan is one of the Indonesia’s most promising property markets outside Java, and several high-value developments have transformed its property market – and skyline. Many of country’s big property developers are building condominiums, hotels, office towers and a shopping malls in the city.

Culture


Medan is inhabited by many different ethnic groups. Malay people are the natives of the Medan area, and have deep roots in Medan. They began ruling there during the Deli Sultanate until now. The empire has many lands and property of heritage in Medan, such a palace, mosque and park. The Dutch and Chinese bringing a big contributor to the city development, include during Dutch East Indies era, many historical buildings are made by Dutch and Peranakan architercture along Jalan Kesawan and Pemuda. The arrival of Minangkabaus, Bataks, Javanese and Indian people bringing more colours to the culture of Medan, especially cuisine.

Museum

Primate_Taxidermy,_Rahmat_International_Wildlife_Museum_and_Gallery

Taxidermy collection at Rahmat International Wildlife Museum and Gallery

The North Sumatra Museum is located approximately 4 kilometres (2.5 miles) to the south from the center of the city, which is in Jalan HM. Joni 15 Medan. The Minister of Education and Culture Dr. Daoed Joesoef opened north Sumatran museum in April 1982.This museum is open on: Tuesday – Thursday (08.00 – 16.00) Friday – Sunday (08.00 – 15.30) and Closed on: Monday. This museum gives a lot of information about ethnic and cultural which exists in North Sumatra, including history and stories of the museum. Some activities that can be done in this museum are: photographs and studying and learn about culture and the object of the North Sumatran history.

The Bukit Barisan Museum is a military museum opened by Brigade General Leo Lopulisa on June 21, 1971. This museum is located at 8 Jalan H. Zainul Arifin, Medan. It houses several historic weapons include weapons that were used in the struggle for independence and the revolt in North Sumatra during 1958. In this museum we could see several motives/ painting of the revolt against the Netherlands.

Rahmat International Wildlife Museum & Gallery or more known as Rahmat Gallery, opened in 1999 and is chiefly the most incredible global taxidermy collection in the city, including various collections of wildlife, located on Jalan Letjen S. Parman no.309.

Cuisine

Soto_medan

Soto Medan

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Bika Ambon

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Teng-Teng

Because of its multiculturality, Medan has wide varies of cuisine which are categorized as local, western, east and southern Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine, the city hosts a lot of cafes, restaurants, food centre and also street vendors with a varies prices.

Nelayan is one of the famous restaurants in Medan, serving a halal-Chinese seafood especially dim sum. Garuda is the most popular Minangkabau and Malay restaurant in Medan serves nasi padang and gulai, Cahaya Baru is an Indian restaurant located on Kampung Madras with its most recommended food as chapati and tandoori. The most visited Bataknese restaurant are OnDo Batak grill and Tesalonika with known as best babi panggang or Saksang.

This city is known as culinary heaven of Indonesia which is prominent for its street hawkers offering a great variety of cuisine which often serves cheap local delicacies, Medan has several most known culinary spots like Jalan Selat Panjang and Jalan Semarang for Chinese food, Jalan Pagaruyung for Indian and Malay food and Jalan Padang Bulan for Bataknese food.

Merdeka Walk is the first Tensile Structure (Alfresco Outdoor Concept) in Indonesia, filled with a variety of cafés and restaurants. Durian is a popular fruit in Indonesia and nowhere more so than in Medan. This thorny fruit, with its very distinctive taste and smell, is available for cheap all over the city. Ucok Durian along Jalan Iskandar Muda is the most known Durian seller in the city.

Soto Medan, is a chicken/pork/beef/innards soto with added coconut milk and served with potato croqutte (perkedel). The meat pieces are fried before being served or mixed.

Bika Ambon is a dessert from Indonesia. Made from ingredients such as tapioca flour, eggs, sugar, yeast and coconut milk, Bika Ambon are generally sold in pandan flavour, although other flavors such as banana, durian, cheese, chocolate are also available.

Babi Panggang Karo abbreviated as BPK, is a grilled pork with its blood as a dipping sauces serve with slice of tomato and cucumber. The three dishes are served with plain rice and a sambal andaliman, made from fresh sichuan peppers. The Chinese equivalent of grilled pork are called as Cha Sio (叉燒)

Tau Kua He Ci (豆干虾炸) is local Chinese version of Rojak but made with fried prawn, vegetables and tofu with chilli sauce. Its other name also called as Lap Choi (腊菜). Teng-Teng (丁丁) is a candy made with peanut.

Dried fruits and many unique cuisines can be found in Pasar Rame, which operates every day from morning to afternoon, located just beside Thamrin Plaza.

Bolu Meranti is the most famous homemade Swiss roll in Medan, usually local and international tourist always bought the cakes for souvenir from the city. The Medanese dried anchovies also is one of a “must” souvenirs from Medan, could be bought from Pusat Pasar (Central Market).

Tourism


Landmarks

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The peranakan Tjong A Fie Mansion

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Tirtanadi Water Tower, the main icon of Medan, built in 1908

There are many old buildings in Medan that still retain their Dutch architecture. These include the old City Hall, the Medan Post Office, Inna Dharma Deli Hotel, Titi Gantung (a bridge over the railway), The London Sumatra building, Tjong A Fie Mansion, AVROS, Warenhuis, and The Tirtanadi Water Tower, mostly located around the old town Kesawan.

There are several historic places such as Maimoon Palace built in years 1887–1891, where the Sultan of Deli still lives (the Sultan no longer holds any official power), The Great Mosque of Medan built in 1906 in the Moroccan style by the Dutch architect A.J. Dingemans,. both location of Maimoon Palace and The Great Mosque are close. The Mosque located on Jalan Sisingamangaraja and The Palace located on Jalan Brigjen Katamso.

Gunung Timur Temple or locally known as Tông-Yuk-Kuàng in Hokkien, is a city’s oldest Taoism temple, located on Jalan Hang Tuah. Medan has a Buddhist temple named as Maha Vihara Maitreya, and there is also a Buddhist centre nearby named as Maha Karuna Buddhist Centre (MKBC) this temple complex known as one of the biggest non-historical Buddhist temple in Indonesia, both situated around Cemara Asri housing complex. Medan Cathedral is the oldest church in the city, was built by the Dutch and Indian community nearby, and the church was named as Indische Kerk back then, located on the old town along Jalan Pemuda. Sri Mariamman Temple is the first Hindu temple in Medan built around 1881 by The Tamil peoples in the city, located on Jalan Zainul Arifin, The City’s Little India or more known as Kampung Madras, the temple has unique south Indian architecture with hundred Hindu deity statues around the building.

Since 2005, a catholic church named Graha Maria Annai Velangkanni was built with an Indo-Mogul style, devoted to Mary, this particular Saint knows its origin with an apparition in the 17th century in Tamil Nadu, India. The temple has two stories and a small tower of seven storeys, it is situated on Jalan Sakura III, besides outer ring road on Jalan TB Simatupang.

Shopping

800px-Sun_Plaza_Medan_(Medium)

Sun Plaza front view

Medan_Mall_exterior

Medan Mall, considered as one of oldest shopping mall in Medan, located on Jalan M.T Haryono

Medan is one of the major shopping destinations of Indonesia, along with Jakarta and Bandung. It has several markets and shopping malls offering a wide range of goods and qualities. Some of the more popular markets for tourists include Pasar Rame (Rame Market) and Pasar Petisah (Petisah Market), which specialize in selling clothing and food; and the Pasar Ikan Lama (Old Fish Market), a marketplace for traditional Islamic wear and souvenirs of Medan. Some other marketplaces in the city are Pasar Beruang, Pasar Hong Kong, Pasar Sambas and Pasar Aksara.

Medan also has some modern malls. The newest and most popular among them are Sun Plaza, Centre Point, Cambridge City Square, Medan Focal Point, Hermes Place Polonia and Plaza Medan Fair. The oldest malls are Thamrin Plaza, Medan Mall, Medan Plaza, Yang Lim Plaza, and Yuki Simpang Raya.

The upcoming malls in Medan are Podomoro City Medan, Metrolink Trade Center, Ring Road City Walks, and The Manhattan.

Theme parks

There are some theme parks in the city or outside city, most of them are water park.

HillPark GreenHill City – the latest theme park 1 hour from Medan on the way to Berastagi.

Pantai Cermin Themepark – the first and only water theme park in North Sumatra, which located in Cermin Beach, Serdang Bedagai. The theme park is organized by Malaysia Investor and Local Government.

Wonder Water World – latest waterpark in Medan, located on Central Business District (CBD) Polonia.

Hairos Water Park – another waterpark near the city, located on Jalan Djamin Ginting Km.14, Deliserdang.

Transportation


Medan is well-connected by road, air, rail and sea. There are plenty of options for public transport within city and intercity.

Airport

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Kualanamu International Airport.

The new Kualanamu International Airport (KNO) was opened to the public on July 25, 2013. The new airport is the second largest airport after Soekarno-Hatta International Airport with a 224,298 m2 (2,414,324 sq ft) passengers terminal and will eventually have a capacity of 50 million passengers (2030). It is the first airport in Indonesia which has direct rail links to the city. The airport is the hub for Garuda Indonesia, Indonesia AirAsia, Lion Air, Susi Air and Wings Air. The new airport is a replacement for the Polonia Airport. Unlike the old Polonia Airport which was located in the heart of the city, this new airport is approximately 39 km (24 mi) from downtown. The airport has direct domestic flights to many major cities in Sumatra and Java. There are also some international flights to Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, etc. An airport train known as Airport Railink Services (ARS) connects the airport to city center. The train runs from Medan Main Station beside the Merdeka Square at Jalan Balai Kota from 4:00 a.m. to 08:00 p.m, and from the airport from 5:25 a.m. to 9:30 p.m. It is the fastest way to reach the airport from the city, taking 30 minutes. Alternate modes of transport from the airport into the city take longer (30 to 47 minutes).

Seaport

Port_of_Belawan

Port of Belawan

The Port of Belawan (Pelabuhan Belawan) is the main seaport in Medan. Located in the northeast coast of Sumatra, Belawan is situated 12 miles (19 kilometres) north of Medan city and serves as a port, which is the terminus of a railway that crosses the channel south of the island by bridge.

The port was initially built in 1890 to provide a location where tobacco could be transferred directly between rail lines from the interior and deep-draft ships. The harbor expanded in 1907 with the construction of a new section intended for Chinese and indigenous traders, reserving the existing port for European shipping. In the early twentieth century the port’s business expanded, with the growth of major rubber and palm oil plantations in northern Sumatra. In the 1920s several major berthing facilities were built. In 1938, the port was the largest port in the Dutch East Indies, in terms of cargo value. Cargo volumes dropped substantially after Indonesian independence, and did not reach pre-independence levels again until the mid-1960s. A major restructuring in 1985 saw the construction of a container terminal; it almost immediately captured about one-fifth of Indonesia’s containerized exports. Major products exported include rubber, palm oil, tea, and coffee.

There are two port terminals, one for passenger and ferry services to Penang and Langkawi and some Indonesian cities such as Batam, Jakarta and Surabaya. Another terminal known as Belawan International Container Terminal (BICT), used for export and importing services. BICT is one of the largest shipping industry port in Indonesia.

Road and highway

Amplas_Toll_Plaza,_Medan

Amplas toll plaza

Medan is connected by the Trans-Sumatran Highway, the main road across Sumatra, and the Belawan-Medan-Tanjung Morawa Toll Road, also known as the Belmera Toll Road, the one and only available toll road in Medan, connecting Belawan, Medan and Tanjung Morawa. Currently there are additional toll roads under construction which will connect the city to the airport, Binjai, and Tebing Tinggi.

Rail

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Commuter train in Medan.

Railway lines connect Medan to Binjai and Tanjungpura to the northwest, to port of Belawan to the north, to Tebing Tinggi and Pematang Siantar to the southeast, and also Rantau Prapat among other cities. The largest train station in Medan is Medan Station. There are also smaller stations in Medan, such as Medan Pasar, Pulu Brayan, Titi Papan, and Labuhan, and Belawan. Titi Papan and Pulu Brayan only serve as the stop for freight trains carrying oil palm and petroleum. There are also have express train connecting to another North Sumatra cities such as Tebing Tinggi, Pematang Siantar, Tanjung Balai, and Rantau Prapat. Several rail lines around medan is under-constructed to replace them with an elevated railway.

The destination from main station are:

  • Sri Bilah to Rantau Prapat
  • Lancang Kuning to Tanjung Balai
  • Putri Deli to Tanjung Balai
  • Siantar Express to Pematang Siantar
  • Feeder Putri Deli to Binjai
  • Feeder Sri Bilah to Binjai
  • Sri Lelawangsa to Binjai, Tebingtinggi and Belawan

The Railink train is an airport express train connecting from Medan Station (City Railway Station – CRS) to Kuala Namu International Airport station (Airport Railink Station – ARS), operated 18 hours (from 5 am to 11 pm) with 30-minute distances. An elevated railway is under construction to make this airport rail service 15-minute distances. The CRS provides with a city check-in services for selected airlines.

Public transport

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Motorized rickshaw in Medan.

One of the unique features of Medan are the motorized rickshaws known as Becak Motor (Bentor) or Becak Mesin. The becaks are found almost everywhere. Unlike the Javanese rickshaws, the driver sits on the right side of the vehicle and unlike traditional becaks, a motorized becak can take its passenger anywhere in the city. The fare to ride a becak is relatively cheap and is usually negotiated beforehand.

There are also more public transport like taxis and minibuses, known as Sudako or Angkutan Kota (Angkot). The angkot can be found easily in medium-to-high congested roads, and angkots always use a route number.

TransMebidang is a new bus rapid transit system in North Sumatra, Indonesia that has 2 active corridors.

  • Corridor # 1:              Medan – Binjai
  • Corridor # 2:              Medan – Lubuk Pakam

Media


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Medan Post Office

Medan serves with several Radio and TV channels, also newspaper in local and foreign language such as Indonesian, English, Chinese, Batak, Malay and others:

Television channels

Medan also has twelve tvri national television stations:The (state-owned), (private) are the and five local television stations that airing in Medan.

  • TVRI Medan
  • Indosiar
  • MNCTV
  • Trans TV
  • Antv
  • GTV
  • RCTI
  • SCTV
  • TV One
  • Metro TV
  • Trans7
  • NET.
  • iNews
  • DAAI TV
  • RTV Medan
  • INTV Medan (id)
  • Kompas TV

Radio

RRI is the only state-owned radio in Medan, provides in Indonesian and English language. Several local languages radio are also serves, such as: Kardopa Radio (in Batak language), CityRadio FM and A-Radio FM (in Chinese language) and Simphony FM (in Malay language). Medan also has several popular radio channels like Prambors FM, MNC Trijaya FM, I-Radio, KISS FM, VISI FM, Delta Fm and others.

Publication

Several national and local newspapers are running in the city with Harian Mimbar Umum as the oldest one. Other popular newspapers include Harian Waspada, Analisa, Kompas, Jurnal Medan, Berita Sore, Harian Global, Harian Medan Bisnis, Posmetro Medan, Suara Indonesia Baru, and Tribun Medan. There are also has some Mandarin language newspaper such as Harian Indonesia (印尼星洲日报), Guo Ji Ri Bao (国际日报) and Shangbao (印尼商报). English newspaper like The Jakarta Post also distributed in the city.

Aplause Magazine, is one of the magazines from the city, published monthly and brings on Food, Travel, and Inspiration theme and what’s is happening around Medan. This magazine is the pioneer of a local magazine that specializes in the discussion of the theme of lifestyle or urban lifestyle. Publication 2005, Applause Magazine itself managed by Analisa Daily, the newspaper has a circulation of 65,000 copies in North Sumatra.

Sport


Football is one of the more popular sports in Medan, with five local clubs: PSMS Medan, Medan Jaya, Medan Chiefs, Bintang PSMS and Medan United; and a basketball club named Angsapura Sania. Another locally popular sport is Wushu, with significant growth in recent years as one of the favorite sports in Medan. It has its training center in Jalan Plaju in heart of town. Medan has recently seen much success in Wushu nationally and internationally. Medan has a multi-purpose stadium named Teladan Stadium. This stadium is used mostly for football matches, and serves as a home stadium for PSMS Medan.

Healthcare


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St. Elisabeth Hospital

Medan has more than 30 registered hospitals, 3 of them are public hospital and the rest are private hospital, these hospital are:

  • Pirngadi General Hospital
  • Adam Malik General Hospital
  • Haji General Hospital
  • St. Elisabeth Hospital
  • Martha Friska Hospital
  • Columbia Asia Hospital
  • Permata Bunda Hospital
  • Murni Teguh Hospital
  • Advent Hospital
  • Siloam-Dhirga Surya Hospital
  • Imelda Hospital
  • Vina Estetica Hospital
  • Stella Maris Hospital
  • Putri Hijau Military Hospital
  • Mitra Sejati General Hospital
  • Bunda Thamrin Hospital
  • Roya Prima Hospital
  • Methodist Hospital
  • Sumatra Eye Center

Education


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State University of Medan, postgraduate campus

As the largest city outside Java island, Medan provides with more than 827 registered Elementary school, 337 Middle School and 288 High school, this is included state-owned school, private school, religious school and foreign school. Some of notable school are: Sutomo School, Chandra Kusuma School, Medan International School Prime One School, Telkom Sandhy Putra Vocational School, St. Thomas School, SMA Negeri (State high-school) 1,2,3,4, etc.

Medan also has 72 registered universities, academy, polytechnics, and colleges such as:

  • University of North Sumatra
  • Medan State Polytechnic
  • State University of Medan
  • Prima University
  • HKBP Nommensen University
  • Dharmawangsa University
  • Universitas Methodist Indonesia
  • STBA-PIA (亚洲-国际友好学院)
  • Muhammadiyah University of North Sumatra
  • IT&B Campus
  • Medan Tourism Academy
  • Technology Institute of Medan
  • University of Pembangunan Panca Budi
  • Pelita Harapan University and others.

Twin towns – sister cities


Medan has sister relationships with these cities:

Gallery


Gallery of panoramic and street view images from Medan

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Jalan Kesawan in the 1910s.

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Another old view of Jalan Kesawan.

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Night street view of Medan.

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Cityscape around Jalan Irian Barat, Medan.

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Tirtanadi Tower.

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View of Jalan Sisingamaraja, Medan.

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Medan skyline, 2010.

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Another Medan skyline, 2012.

Palembang

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jembatan_Ampera_awak

Palembang (Indonesian pronunciation: [palɛmˈbaŋ]) is the second-largest city on Sumatra island after Medan and the capital city of the South Sumatra province in Indonesia. It is one of the oldest cities in the Malay Archipelago and Southeast Asia. Palembang is located on the Musi River banks on the east coast of southern Sumatra, with a land area of 369.22 square kilometres (142.56 square miles) and a population of 1,708,413 people (2014). Palembang is the ninth most populous city in Indonesia after Jakarta, Surabaya, Bandung, Bekasi, Medan, Tangerang, Depok and Semarang, and the nineteenth most populous city in Southeast Asia. Its built-up (or metro) area with Talang Kelapa and Rambutan was home to 1,620,429 inhabitants at the 2010 census.

Palembang is the oldest city in Indonesia, and has a history of being the capital city of the Kingdom of Srivijaya, a powerful Malay kingdom, which influenced many areas in Southeast Asia. The earliest evidence of its existence dates from the 7th century; a Chinese monk, Yijing, wrote that he visited Srivijaya in the year 671 for 6 months. The first inscription in which the name Srivijaya appears also dates from the 7th century, namely the Kedukan Bukit Inscription around Palembang in Sumatra, dated 683.

Palembang’s main landmarks include Ampera Bridge and Musi River, the latter of which divides the city into two. The north bank of river in Palembang is known as Seberang Ilir and the south bank of the river in Palembang is known as Seberang Ulu. Palembang is known as the host city of 2011 Southeast Asian Games and 2018 Asian Games along with Jakarta.

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Opera Snapshot_2018-01-24_090752_www.google.com

Etymology


The word “Palembang” is derived from two words in Malay “pa” and “lembang”. “Pa” or “Pe” in Malay is a prefix which indicates a place or situation meanwhile “lembang” or “lembeng” means lowland, a swollen root because inundated by water for a long time. In other words, “Palembang” literally means “the place which was constantly inundated by water”.

History


Srivijaya Period

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Srivijaya Archaeological Park located Southwest from Palembang city centre (green). The site forming axis connecting Bukit Seguntang and Musi River.

The Kedukan Bukit Inscription, which is dated 682 AD, is the oldest inscription found in Palembang. The inscription tells of a king who acquires magical powers and leads a large military force over water and land, setting out from Tamvan delta, arriving at a place called “Matajap,” and (in the interpretation of some scholars) founding the polity of Srivijaya. The “Matajap” of the inscription is believed to be Mukha Upang, a district of Palembang.

According to George Coedes, “in the second half of the 9th century Java and Sumatra were united under the rule of a Sailendra reigning in Java…its centre at Palembang.”

As the capital of the Srivijaya kingdom, this second oldest city in Southeast Asia has been an important trading centre in maritime Southeast Asia for more than a millennium. The kingdom flourished by controlling the international trade through the Strait of Malacca from the seventh to thirteenth century, establishing hegemony over polities in Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula. Sanskrit inscriptions and Chinese travelogues report that the kingdom prospered as an intermediary in the international trade between China and India. Because of the Monsoon, or biannual seasonal wind, after getting to Srivijaya, traders from China or India had to stay there for several months waiting the direction of the wind changes, or had to go back to China or India. Thus, Srivijaya grew to be the biggest international trade centre, and not only the market, but also infrastructures for traders such as lodging and entertainment also developed. It functioned as a cultural centre as well. Yijing, a Chinese Buddhist pilgrim who stayed in today’s Palembang and Jambi in 671, recorded that there were more than a thousand Buddhist monks and learned scholars, sponsored by the kingdom to study religion in Palembang. He also recorded that there were many “states” under the kingdom called Srivijaya (Shili Foshi).

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A statue of Buddha, discovered in Bukit Seguntang archaeological site, today displayed in Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II Museum Palembang.

In 990, an army from the Kingdom of Medang in Java attacked Srivijaya. Palembang was sacked and the palace was looted. Cudamani Warmadewa, however, requested protection from China. By 1006, the invasion was finally repelled. In retaliation, Srivijaya king sent his troops to assist King Wurawari of Luaram in his revolt against Medang. In subsequent battles, Medang Palace was destroyed and the royal family of Medang executed.

In 1068, King Virarajendra Chola of the Chola Dynasty of India conquered what is now Kedah from Srivijaya. Having lost many soldiers in the war and with its coffers almost empty due to the twenty-year disruption of trade, the reach of Srivijaya was diminished. Its territories began to free themselves from the suzerainty of Palembang and to establish many small kingdoms all over the former empire. Srivijaya finally declined with the military expedition by Javanese kingdoms in the thirteenth century.

Post-Srivijaya Period

Prince Parameswara fled from Palembang after being crushed by Javanese forces, The city was then plagued by pirates, notably Chen Zuyi and Liang Daoming. In 1407, Chen was confronted at Palembang by the returning Imperial treasure fleet under Admiral Zheng He. Zheng made the opening gambit, demanding Chen’s surrender and the pirate quickly signalled agreement while preparing for a surprise pre-emptive strike. But details of his plan had been provided to Zheng by a local Chinese informant, and in the fierce battle that ensued, the Ming soldiers and Ming superior armada finally destroyed the pirate fleet and killed 5,000 of its men. Chen was captured and held for public execution in Nanjing in 1407. Peace was finally restored to the Strait of Malacca as Shi Jinqing was installed as Palembang’s new ruler and incorporated into what would become a far-flung system of allies who acknowledged Ming supremacy in return for diplomatic recognition, military protection, and trading rights. Palembang is called Chinese: 巨港; pinyin: Jù gǎng; literally: “Giant Harbour”.

Palembang Sultanate Period

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The walled city of Palembang with its three fortresses in 1682.

After Demak Sultanate fell under Kingdom of Pajang, a Demak nobleman, Geding Suro with his followers fled to Palembang and established a new dynasty. Islam become dominant in Palembang since this period. Grand Mosque of Palembang built in 1738 under the reign of Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin I Jaya Wikrama, completed in 1748. Settlement flourished along Musi River bank, some of houses built on rafts. The Sultanate enacted legislation that portion downstream of Seberang Ilir where the palace was located, was intended for residents of Palembang, whereas foreigners who were not citizens of Palembang was at the opposite bank of the palace called Seberang Ulu.

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Local elders of Palembang during colonial period.

Several local rivals, such as Banten, Jambi, and Aceh threatened the existence of the Sultanate, meanwhile Dutch East India Company established a trade post in Palembang in 1619. In 1642, the company obtained monopoly right over pepper trading in the port. Tension mounted between the Dutch and the locals, peaked at 1657 when a Dutch ship was attacked in Palembang, gave a signal to the company to launch a punitive expedition in 1659 which burned the city to the ground.

During Napoleonic Wars in 1812, the sultan at that time, Mahmud Badaruddin II repudiated British claims to suzerainty, which was responded by British by attacking Palembang, sacking the court, and installing sultan’s more cooperative younger brother, Najamuddin to the throne. The Dutch attempted to recover their influence at the court in 1816, but Sultan Najamuddin was uncooperative with them. An expedition launched by the Dutch in 1818 and captured Sultan Najamudin and exiled him to Batavia. A Dutch garrison was established in 1821, but sultan attempted an attack and a mass poisoning to the garrison, which were intervened by Dutch. Mahmud Badaruddin II was exiled to Ternate, and his palace was burned to the ground. The Sultanate was later abolished by Dutch and direct colonial rule was established.

Colonial Period

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A painting of Palembang during Dutch rule.

Since the abolition of the Palembang Sultanate in 1825 by the Dutch, Palembang become the capital of Residency of Palembang, encompassing whole territory who will be South Sumatra province after independence, led by Jan Izaäk van Sevenhoven as its first resident.

From the late nineteenth century, with the introduction of new export crops by the Dutch companies, Palembang rose again as an economic centre. In the 1900s, the development of the petroleum and rubber industries caused unprecedented economic growth, which brought about the influx of migrants, an increase in urbanisation, and development of the socioeconomic infrastructure.

The emergence of rubber cultivation in South Sumatra began in the late 19th century. In the early 20th century, several major Western companies entered the area and operated rubber plantations. From the mid-1920s, rubber became the biggest export crop in the area, surpassing robusta coffee. Although there were large rubber estates owned by Western enterprises, rubber in Palembang was produced mainly by smallholders. By the 1920s, the Residency of Palembang (today’s South Sumatra province) was ranked sixth among the regions of smallholder rubber production, becoming the largest of the smallholder rubber regions in the 1940s, producing 58,000 tons of rubber.

There were three petroleum companies in 1900: the Sumatra-Palembang Petroleum Company (Sumpal); the French-owned Muara Enim Petroleum Company; and the Musi Ilir Petroleum Company. The Sumpal was soon assimilated into the Royal Dutch, and the Muara Enim Co. and the Musi Ilir Co. were also assimilated into the Royal Dutch, in 1904 and in 1906, respectively. Based on this assimilation, Royal Dutch and Shell established the BPM, the operating company of Royal Dutch Shell, and opened an oil refinery at Plaju, on the shore of the Musi River in Palembang, in 1907. While BPM was the only operating company in this area until the 1910s, American oil companies launched their business in the Palembang region from the 1920s. Standard Oil of New Jersey established a subsidiary, the American Petroleum Company, and, to prevent Dutch laws to restrict the activities of foreign firms, the American Petroleum Company established its own subsidiary, the Netherlands Colonial Oil Company (Nederlandche Koloniale Petroleum Maatschapij, NKPM). The NKPM began to establish itself in Sungai Gerong area in the early 1920s, and completed the construction of pipelines to send 3,500 barrels per day from their oilfields to the refinery at Sungai Gerong. The two refinery complexes were like enclaves, separate urban centres with houses, hospitals, and other cultural facilities built by the Dutch and Americans. In 1933, Standard Oil incorporated the NKPM holdings into the Standard Vacuum Company, a new joint venture corporation, which was renamed the Standard Vacuum Petroleum Maatschappij (SVPM). Caltex (a subsidiary of the Standard Oil California and Texas Company) secured extensive exploration concessions in Central Sumatra (Jambi) in 1931. By 1938, the production of crude oil in the Netherlands East Indies totalled 7,398,000 metric tons, and the shares of the BPM reached seventy two percent, while the NKPM (StandardVacuum)’s share was twenty eight percent. Whereas the most prolific area in crude oil production was East Kalimantan until the late 1930s, since then Palembang and Jambi took over the position. All crude oil production in the NEI was processed at seven refineries at this time, especially at three large export refineries: the NKPM plant at Sungai Gerong, the BPM refineries at Plaju, and the one in Balikpapan. Thus Palembang held two of the three biggest oil refineries in the archipelago.

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Coat of Arms of Palembang during colonial era, adopted in 1925.

In the 1920s, with the guidance of Thomas Karsten, one of the pioneers of architectural project in the cities in the Netherlands East Indies, the Traffic Commission (Komisi Lalu Lintas) of Palembang was to improve inland transportation conditions in Palembang. The Commission reclaimed land from rivers and asphalted roads. Traffic plan in the city of Palembang was based on Karsten’s city plan, in which the Ilir was in the form of a road ring, starting form an edge of the Musi River. From then they built many smaller bridges on both sides of the Musi River, including the Wilhelmina Bridge over the Ogan River that vertically divides the Ulu area. The bridge was built in 1939 with the intention of connecting oil refineries in the eastern bank to western bank, where the Kertapati train station was located.In the late 1920s, ocean steamers navigated the Musi River on a regular basis.

In the 1930s, the Residency of Palembang was one of the “three giants” in the export economy of the Netherlands East Indies, together with the East Sumatran Plantation Belt and Southeast Kalimantan, and the city of Palembang was the most populous urban centre outside Java. Its population was 50,703 in 1905; it reached 109,069, while the population of Makassar and Medan was 86,662 and 74,976, respectively. It was surpassed only by three larger cities located in Java: Batavia, Surabaya and Semarang.

Japanese Occupation Period

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Imperial Japanese Army paratrooper are landing during the battle of Palembang, 13 February 1942.

Palembang was a high priority objective for Japanese forces, because it was the location of some finest oil refineries in Southeast Asia. An oil embargo had been imposed on Japan by the United States, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. With the area’s abundant fuel supply and airfield, Palembang offered significant potential as a military base area, to both the Allies and the Japanese.

The main battle occurred during 13–16 February 1942. While the Allied planes were attacking Japanese shipping on 13 February, Kawasaki Ki-56 transport planes of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Chutai, Imperial Japanese Army Air Force (IJAAF), dropped Teishin Shudan (Raiding Group) paratroopers over Pangkalan Benteng airfield. At the same time Mitsubishi Ki-21 bombers from the 98th Sentai dropped supplies for paratroopers. The formation was escorted by a large force of Nakajima Ki-43 fighters from the 59th and 64th Sentai. As many as 180 men from the Japanese 2nd Parachute Regiment, under Colonel Seiichi Kume, dropped between Palembang and Pangkalan Benteng, and more than 90 men came down west of the refineries at Plaju. Although the Japanese paratroopers failed to capture the Pangkalan Benteng airfield, at the Plaju oil refinery they managed to gain possession of the entire complex, which was undamaged. However, the second oil refinery in Sungai Gerong was successfully demolished by the Allies. A makeshift counter-attack by Landstorm troops and anti-aircraft gunners from Prabumulih managed to retake the complex but took heavy losses. The planned demolition failed to do any serious damage to the refinery, but the oil stores were set ablaze. Two hours after the first drop, another 60 Japanese paratroopers were dropped near Pangkalan Benteng airfield.

As the Japanese landing force approached Sumatra, the remaining Allied aircraft attacked it, and the Japanese transport ship Otawa Maru was sunk. Hurricanes flew up the rivers, machine-gunning Japanese landing craft. However, on the afternoon of 15 February, all Allied aircraft were ordered to Java, where a major Japanese attack was anticipated, and the Allied air units had withdrawn from southern Sumatra by the evening of 16 February 1942. Other personnel were evacuated via Oosthaven (now Bandar Lampung) by ships to Java or India.

The Japanese managed to restore production at both main refineries, and these petroleum products were significant in their war effort. Despite Allied air raids, production was largely maintained.

In August 1944 USAAF B-29 bombers, flying from India, raided the Palembang refineries in what was the longest range regular bombing mission of the war.

In January 1945, in Operation Meridian, the British Royal Navy Fleet Air Arm launched two major attacks on the two refinery complexes, against determined Japanese defence.

National Revolution Period

On 8 October 1945, Resident of South Sumatra, Adnan Kapau Gani with all Gunseibu officers raised the Indonesian flag during a ceremony. On that day, it was announced that Palembang Residency was under control of Republicans.

Palembang was occupied by Dutch after an urban battle between the Republicans and the Dutch on 1–5 January 1947, which is nicknamed Pertempuran Lima Hari Lima Malam (Five Days and Nights Battle). There were three fronts during the battle which are Eastern Ilir front, Western Ilir front, and Ulu front. The battle ended with ceasefire and the Republican forces was forced to retreat as far as 20 kilometres (12 miles) from Palembang.

During the occupation, the Dutch formed the federal state of South Sumatra on September 1948. After the transfer of sovereignty on 27 December 1949, South Sumatra State, along with other federal states and the Republic had formed short-lived United States of Indonesia before the states were abolished and integrated back into the form of Republic on 17 August 1950.

Old Order and New Order Period 

During PRRI/Permesta rebellion, the rebel faction established Dewan Garuda (Garuda Council) in South Sumatra on 15 January 1957 under Lieutenant Colonel Barlian took over the local government of South Sumatra.

In April 1962, Indonesian government started the construction of Ampera Bridge which was completed and officially opened for public on 30 September 1965 by Minister/Commander of the Army Lieutenant General Ahmad Yani on 30 September 1965, only hours before he was killed by troops belonging to the 30 September Movement. At first, the bridge was known as the Bung Karno Bridge, after the president, but following his fall, it was renamed the Ampera Bridge. A second bridge in Palembang which crosses Musi River, Musi II Bridge was built on 4 August 1992.

On 6 December 1988, Indonesia government expanded Palembang’s administrative area as far as 12 kilometers from the city center, with 9 villages from Musi Banyuasin integrated into 2 new districts of Palembang and 1 village from Ogan Komering Ilir integrated into Seberang Ulu I District.

During May 1998 riots of Indonesia, Palembang was also ravaged by riots with 10 burned shops, more than a dozen burned cars, and several injured people inflicted by rioters as students marching to the Provincial People’s Representative Council office of South Sumatra. Thousands of police and soldiers were put on guard at various points in the city. The Volunteer Team for Humanity (Indonesian: Tim Relawan untuk Manusia, or TRUK) reported that cases of sexual assault also took place.

Reformasi Period

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The opening ceremony of 2011 Southeast Asian Games in Jakabaring Stadium, Palembang, 11 November 2011.

In 2001, a sport complex along with its main stadium, Gelora Sriwijaya Stadium, was built in Jakabaring, completed in 2004. It served as venues for 2004 Pekan Olahraga Nasional. Palembang became host of Pekan Olahraga Nasional in 2004 after 47 years it was last held outside Java and 51 years in Sumatra. 7 years later, Palembang became the host of more prestigious sporting event, 2011 Southeast Asian Games along with Jakarta. In 2013, Indonesian government decide to replace the host of 2013 Islamic Solidarity Games from Pekanbaru to Palembang because several problems occurred in the former host, including Riau Governor, Rusli Zainal who stumbled over a corruption scandal. Palembang, together again with Jakarta, will host the 2018 Asian Games.

Sixth president of Indonesia, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, declared Palembang as a “Water Tourism City” on 27 September 2005. More further on 5 January 2008, Palembang publicised its tourist attractions with the slogan “Visit Musi 2008”.

Palembang completed its first flyover at Simpang Polda in September 2008. Second flyover in Jakabaring completed in 2015. In 2010, Palembang launched its bus transit system, Transmusi. Since 2015, Indonesian government began to upgrade Palembang’s transportation capability with the construction of Indonesia’s first light rail transit system from Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II International Airport to Jakabaring, the city’s toll roads, two Musi River bridges, and two flyovers, all expected to be operational before 2018 Asian Games. The toll road began its operation in October 2017.

Geography and Climate


Geography

At 2°59′10″S 104°45′20″E, Palembang occupies 400.61 km2 of vast lowland area east of Bukit Barisan Mountains in southern Sumatra with average elevation of 8 metres (26 feet), approximately 105 kilometres (65 miles) from nearby coast at Bangka Strait. One of the largest rivers in Sumatra, the Musi River, runs through the city, dividing the city area into two major parts which are Seberang Ilir in the north and Seberang Ulu in the south. Palembang is also located on the confluence of two major tributaries of Musi River, which are Ogan River and Komering River. The river’s water level is influenced by tidal cycle. In rainy season, many areas on the city are inundated by the river’s tide.

Palembang’s topography is quite different between Seberang Ilir and Seberang Ulu area. Seberang Ulu topography is relatively flat, meanwhile Seberang Ilir topography is more rugged with altitude variation between 4 and 20 metres (13 and 66 feet).

Climate

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A NASA satellite image showing the extent of the haze on 24 September 2015. Palembang was directly affected by the haze during this time, disrupting air travels and worsening the health condition of its residents.

Palembang is located in the tropical rainforest climate (Köppen Af) with significant rainfall even in its driest months. The climate in Palembang is often described with “hot, humid climate with a lot of rainfall throughout the year”. The annual average temperature is around 27.3 °C (81.1 °F). Average temperatures are nearly identical throughout the year in the city. Average rainfall annually is 2,623 millimetres. During its wettest months, the city’s lowlands are frequently inundated by torrential rains. However, in its driest months, many peatlands around the city dried, making them more vulnerable to wildfires, causing haze in the city for months.

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Neighborhoods

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Panorama of Palembang from southeast to southwest as seen from Pasar 16 Ilir.

Palembang is roughly divided by Musi River into two major areas known as Seberang Ilir (lit. “downstream bank”) in the north and Seberang Ulu (lit. “upstream bank”) in the south.

Seberang Ilir is the main economic and political centre in Palembang. Some areas such as 16 Ilir, Cinde, and Km 5 are the major retail hub in Palembang while other areas like Ilir Barat Permai, Kampus, and Patal Pusri are growing into major business centres contained a prominent portion of the city’s highrises. Major residential areas in Seberang Ilir such as Tangga Buntung, Bukit Besar, Sekip, Pakjo, Kenten, Pasar Kuto, and Lemabang.

Seberang Ulu is divided into three main neighbourhoods which are Plaju, Kertapati, and Jakabaring. Seberang Ulu is less developed than its counterpart, but this area is undergoing massive development, especially in Jakabaring, with the construction of business centre, government building, and the most notably is the construction of the city’s sport complex, Jakabaring Sport City.

Administration


Government

Palembang is administratively has a status as a city and has its own local government and legislative body. The executive head of Palembang is the Mayor. The mayor and members of representatives are locally elected by popular vote for a 5-year term. The city government enjoys greater decentralization of affairs than the provincial body, such as the provision of public schools, public health facilities and public transportation. Current Mayor of the city is Harnojoyo, previous vice mayor who is appointed because the previous mayor, Romi Herton was impeached because of a bribery scandal during his election. Besides Mayor and Vice Mayor, there is Palembang Municipal People’s Representative Council, which is a legislative body of council members directly elected by the people in legislative elections every five years.

Administrative Division

Palembang consists of eighteen kecamatan (districts), each headed by a Camat. They are further divided again into 07 kelurahan (subdistricts/administrative villages):

Palembang’s Districts (Kecamatan)

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1 Ilir Timur III and Jakabaring is established in 2017.

Demography


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Religion in Palembang (2017)

Ethnicity and language

Palembang is a ethnically diverse city. The indigenous population in the region of Palembang is Palembangnese people, a subgroup of Malay people with heavy influence of Javanese culture. Many of them live in tradional settlements along Musi River bank although recently there are influx of Palembangnese to live on the other part of the city or live outside the city. Several people from other ethnicities from other parts of South Sumatra and outside South Sumatra also lived in Palembang. There are also significant amount of communities of Arab and Chinese Indonesian who lived in the city. Arab Indonesian communities mainly lives in several kampongs such as Kampong Al Munawwar in 13 Ulu, Kampong Assegaf in 16 Ulu, Kampong Al Habsyi in Kuto Batu, Kampong Jamalullail in 19 Ilir and Kampong Alawiyyin in Sungai Bayas, 10 Ilir. Chinese Indonesian communities however mainly lives in several commercial districts in Palembang although there are several traditional Chinese kampongs such as Kampong Kapitan in 7 Ulu.

The local language of Palembang, Musi (Bahasa Palembang), is considered as a dialect of Malay with significant Javanese loanwords. There are also Palembang residents originating from other parts of South Sumatra. They have their own regional languages, such as Komering, Lahat, Rawas and Semendo.

Religion

Palembang’s primary religion is Islam, but many of the inhabitants also practice Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism and Confucianism.

As of the 2017 data from Badan Pusat Statistik Palembang, the population of Palembang was 92.22% Muslim, 3.91% Buddhist, 2.23% Protestant, 1.49% Roman Catholic, 0.13% Hindu, and 0.02% Confucianist. The majority of Palembang people are practising Shafi`i school of Sunni Islam.

Transportation


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Kajang boats were widely used for transportation in Musi River during colonial times.

Before the operational of Ampera Bridge, there were more people in Palembang using water transportation. Large water vehicles such as river steamboat was used to transport people to and from inland. Some people also used smaller boat such as Kajang boat, a traditional boat with simple roof to carry people and goods. Nowadays, people in Palembang prefers road transportation over water one and private transportation over public one. Traffic jam often occured in some main streets, especially during rush hour. Rail and air transportation is also available in Palembang.

Road Transport

Transmusi

Since introduced in 2010, bus rapid transit becomes the main transportation in Palembang under the name Transmusi. Unlike usual bus rapid transits, Transmusi has no special lanes because the road in Palembang are too narrow to build it, so Transmusi often trapped in traffic jams. Transmusi has operated 8 routes (corridors) inside the city and 3 routes to and from the city.

  • Corridor 1 : Bus stop below the Ilir part of Ampera Bridge – Alang Alang Lebar Bus Station (KM 12)
  • Corridor 2 : Perumnas Bus Station – PIM (Palembang Indah Mall)
  • Corridor 3 : Plaju – PS Mall (Palembang Square Mall)
  • Corridor 4 : Jakabaring – Karya Jaya Bus Station (Kertapati)
  • Corridor 5 : Alang Alang Lebar Bus Station (KM 12) – Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II International Airport
  • Corridor 6 : Pusri – Palembang Square (PS)
  • Corridor 7 : Kenten – Dempo
  • Corridor 8 : Alang Alang Lebar Bus Station (KM 12) – Terminal Karya Jaya (Kertapati)
  • Pangkalan Balai Corridor : Alang Alang Lebar Bus Station (KM 12) – Pangkalan Balai
  • Indralaya Corridor : Terminal Karya Jaya – Indralaya
  • Unsri Corridor : Unsri Bukit – Unsri Indralaya

Public bus and angkot services

Palembang operates several bus and angkot routes. First angkots in Palembang were using Willys Jeep and was called “Mobil Ketek” because of its engine sound. Public bus was introduced in 1990s and served some routes from Seberang Ilir neighborhoods such as Km.12, Perumnas, Pusri, and Bukit Besar to Seberang Ulu neighborhoods which are Kertapati, Plaju, and Jakabaring. Because of aging vehicles and complaints in security and driver habits, Palembang public bus is planned to be removed gradually until 2018.

Palembang also operates several air-conditioned public bus to neighboring towns such as Kayuagung, Indralaya, Pangkalan Balai, Prabumulih, and Tanjung Api-Api.

Taxicab

Palembang also has a large number of taxis. The number has been rising since the National Games 2004 and SEA Games 2011, which both were held in Palembang.

Becak and ojek

There are many becak (pedicabs) and ojek (motorcycle taxi) operated in Palembang. Becak are often found in more older settlements along Musi River than ojek which are mostly found in more recent settlements far from the river.

App-based taxi and ojek

App-based taxi and ojek are flourished in the city with Go-Jek and Grab as their leading providers. Because of heated competition with conventional taxi, angkot, and ojek which sometimes ended with violences, app-based taxi and ojek are often barred from taking passengers in some places especially airport.

Rail Transport  

Palembang-Indralaya Rail Bus provides rail transportation from Kertapati Station in Palembang to Sriwijaya University in Indralaya and vice versa.

Railway tracks were introduced by the Dutch in late 1800s. Railway tracks connect Palembang to provinces in southern Sumatra such as Bandar Lampung in Lampung Province, Rejang Lebong Regency in Bengkulu Province, and some main towns in South Sumatra such as Lubuklinggau, Prabumulih, Indralaya, Muara Enim, Lahat, Tebing Tinggi, Baturaja, and Martapura. The largest railway station in Palembang is Kertapati Station. There are plans to connect Palembang to other cities in Sumatra, ultimately connected existing railways in northern, western and southern Sumatra, forming Trans Sumatra Railway.

Water Transport

River Transport

Palembang has several types of river transportation. The most traditional one is a motorboat called “perahu ketek”, a wooden boat which using small engine and moves quite slow. Perahu ketek is often used especially by people who live on riverside to cross the river from one bank to another. Another type of river transportation is called “speedboat”, a wooden motorboat which using more larger engine and designed to withstand the speed of the boat itself, far more faster than perahu ketek. Speedboats often used by the people outside Palembang, especially who lives in Musi River delta, to go to and from Palembang. Palembang also operates some larger riverboat for tourism activities.

Port

Currently Palembang also has two main ferry ports, Tanjung Api-api Port, located on sea-shore, 68 kilometres (42 miles) outside the city, and Boom Baru Port inside the city. These ports operate ferries to Bangka, Belitung and Batam Island. There is a plan to build deep sea port in Tanjung Api-Api.

Air Transport 

The only public airport in Palembang is Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II International Airport. This airport provides domestic routes which connects Palembang with many cities in Indonesia especially Jakarta and also serves international routes to Singapore and Kuala Lumpur. This airport also connects Palembang to other towns in South Sumatra such as Lubuklinggau and Pagaralam.

Rapid Transit

Palembang currently constructs Palembang Light Rail Transit to ease the traffic congestion in the city.This rail transit is expected to be operational in 2018 and become the first rail rapid transit in Indonesia. There will be 13 stations for the LRT system, namely as follows:

  • Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II Airport station
  • Asrama Haji station
  • Telkom station
  • RSUD station
  • POLDA station
  • Demang Lebar Daun station
  • Palembang Icon station
  • Dishub Kominfo station
  • Pasar Cinde station
  • Jembatan Ampera station
  • Gubernur Bastari station
  • Stadion Jakabaring station
  • OPI station

Economy


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View of central area in Palembang Icon Shopping Mall

As the capital of South Sumatra and one of major cities in Indonesia, Palembang’s economy depends highly on trading, service, transportation, manufacturing and construction sectors. GRDP of Palembang was Rp 118.77 trillion (US$ 9.01 billion) in 2016. Of this, the manufacturing and construction sectors take up the largest portions with 33.17 and 18.21 percent contributions, respectively. The minimum wage for 2017 is Rp 2,484,000 per month, somewhat higher than regencies in Java although lower than that of cities such as Medan or Surabaya.

Palembang is a part of Strategic Development Area of Merak – Bakauheni – Bandar Lampung – Palembang – Tanjung Api-Api (MBBPT). To accelerate the region development, Trans-Sumatra Toll Road is being constructed to eventually give Palembang a high-speed highway access to other cities in Sumatra, including Bengkulu in the west, Jambi in the north, and Bandar Lampung in the south.

Business and Industry

Palembang is the regional business center in southern Sumatra region encompassing Jambi, South Sumatra, Bengkulu, Bangka Belitung Islands and Lampung. Several main factories and industries in Indonesia are operating in Palembang such as fertilizer factory of Pupuk Sriwidjaja Palembang in Sei Selayur, portland cement factory of Baturaja Portland Cement in Kertapati and oil and gas refinery of Pertamina in Plaju. Several coal mining industries in South Sumatra also transport coal to the city by freight trains and by trucks before being shipped to Java or abroad.

In Indonesia, South Sumatra is the largest producer of rubber, estimated at over 940,000 tons of production in 2016, and over 850,000 tons of rubber were exported from Palembang in the same year. In 2014, there were 14 rubber processing factories in the city employing 4,000 people with a capacity of close to a million tons annually. There is however no specified industrial parks in the city.

At least 10,683 foreign tourists and 1,896,110 domestic tourists visited the city in 2016. Several hotels are operating in Palembang, many of them are opened after National Games in 2004. Culinary business in Palembang is also developing. A ton of pempek is exported from Palembang to other cities in Indonesia and abroad daily.

Markets and Commercial Centers

Generally, there are two types of markets in Palembang, traditional market and modern market. From 30 traditional markets in Palembang, majority of traditional markets in Palembang is managed by PD Pasar Palembang Jaya meanwile the rest is owned by private or cooperative. Being in the central area of Palembang, 16 Ilir Market is the main traditional market in the city, while the area around the market, especially areas along Jalan Masjid Lama, Jalan Jendral Soedirman, Jalan Kolonel Atmo and Jalan Letkol Iskandar become bustling commercial centers integrated with one another. Another notable trading center in Palembang is Cinde Market, one of the oldest market in Indonesia which was built first in 1957 with its unique mushroom pillars, then razed in 2017 to be replaced with more modern building.

Other modern commercial centers and malls are built in other parts of the city. Most of them are built in along Sekanak River corridor, including Palembang Indah Mall, Ramayana Palembang, Transmart Palembang, Palembang Icon, and Palembang Square, other notable malls such as Palembang Trade Center and OPI Mall are built in Patal Pusri and Jakabaring respectively. Two of main Indonesia retail giants, Indomaret and Alfamart also open their franchise strores in every part of the city.

Tourism


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Great Mosque of Palembang

Palembang is known as Venetië Van Andalas (Venice of Sumatra), mainly because of the topography of the city which was dominated by Musi River and its tributaries.

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People enjoying local dishes on floating warung boats.

As a trading city since antiquity, Palembang is very heterogenous and its local culture and language is also influenced by many civilizations, most notably Chinese, Javanese, and Arabs. Several Dutch legacies in architecture can also seen in the city.

 

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Rumah Limas of IDR 10000 banknote is now located in Museum Balaputradewa, Palembang

The most notable landmarks in Palembang are Ampera Bridge, Musi River, Kuto Besak Fort, Kemaro Island, and Jakabaring Sport City.

  • Musi River, 750 kilometres (470 miles) long river which divides Palembang into two parts, which are Seberang Ulu and Seberang Ilir. It’s one of the longest river in Sumatra. Since antiquity, the Musi River has become the heart of Palembang and South Sumatra’s economy. There are some landmarks along its bank, such as Ampera Bridge, Kuto Besak Fort, Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II Museum, Kemaro Island, 16 Ilir Market, traditional raft houses, Pertamina’s oil refineries, Pupuk Sriwijaya (PUSRI) fertiliser plants, Bagus Kuning Park, Musi II Bridge, Kampong Al Munawar, etc.
  • Ampera Bridge, main city landmark, is a bridge crossed over 1,177 metres (3,862 feet) above the Musi River which connects Seberang Ulu and Seberang Ilir area of Palembang.
  • Great Mosque of Palembang, also known as the Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II Mosque, is located in the city centre.
  • Kuto Besak Fort, situated on the northern bank of the Musi River adjacent to Ampera Bridge, this fort is one of heritage buildings of the Palembang Darussalam Sultanate. Ordinary civilians can’t enter this fort because the fort’s interior have been turned into military hospital of the Tentara Nasional Indonesia, specifically the Health Department of Military Area Command II/Sriwijaya (Kesehatan Daerah Militer II/Sriwijaya).
  • Kampong Arab Al-Munawar, one of kampong in Palembang which is inhabited by Arab Indonesian descendants. This kampong is renowned by the kampong’s architecture and culture which is a mixture of local Palembangnese Malay and Arabian, especially from Hadhrami. It has been long known that any visitors should dress politely in order to visit this area.
  • Kampong Kapitan, one of the oldest Chinese kampong in the city. The primary attraction is Tjoa Ham Hin’s house with centuries-old furniture inside. There was also a nearby Chinese temple, which was one of the oldest in Palembang as well. Long before its existence as the Chinese settlement area, it was also called Tanggo Rajo where foreigners and newcomers from the archipelago stayed at.
  • Kantor Ledeng, the mayor office of Palembang. It was built during Dutch rule with purpose as a water tower.
  • Kambang Iwak, a pond located in Talang Semut close to Palembang mayor’s residence. During Dutch rule, the area around the pond is the residence of Dutch people who works in the city, notable by european architecture on many houses around this pond and abundance of churches in this area. On the banks of this lake, there is a park and recreation arena which is always crowded by locals during weekends and holidays.
  • Punti Kayu Tourism Forest, city forest located about six miles (9.7 kilometres) from the city centre with an area of 50 hectares (120 acres) and since 1998 designated as protected forests. In this forest there is a family recreation area and a local shelter a group of monkeys: long-tail macaque (Macaca fascicularis) and monkey (Macaca nemistriana) under the Sumatran Pine wood (Pinus mercussi).
  • Sriwijaya Kingdom Archaeological Park, the remnants of Sriwijaya site located on the banks of the River Musi. There is an inscription and stone relics, complex of ancient pond, artificial island and canals dated from the Srivijayan kingdom in this area. The Srivijaya Museum is located in this complex.
  • Bukit Seguntang archaeological park, located in the hills west of Palembang city. In this place there are many relics and tombs of the ancient Malay-Srivijayan king and nobles.
  • Monumen Perjuangan Rakyat / Monpera (People Struggle Monument), located in the city centre, adjacent to the Great Mosque and Ampera Bridge. Several relics during Indonesian National Revolution in South Sumatra are exhibited in this monument.
  • Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II Museum, is the former Dutch-era resident office located near the Ampera Bridge and adjacent to Benteng Kuto Besak. This museum located in the former royal palace of Palembang Sultanate which was demolished after Dutch conquest of Palembang. This museum exhibits several relics and historical objects with collections spanned from Srivijaya Kingdom period to Palembang Darussalam Sultanate era.
  • Museum Balaputradewa, the home of Rumah Limas featured on IDR 10000 banknote. This type of stilt house is the traditional house of the people of Palembang.

Culture


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Palembang bride in Aesan Gede wedding costume wearing gold jewellery and songket Palembang.

Since antiquity, Palembang has been a major port city in Southeast Asia which absorbs neighbouring, as well as foreign, cultures and influences. Throughout its history, Palembang has attracted migrants from other regions in the archipelago, and has made this city as a heterogenous city. Although today the city had lost its function as the major port city in the archipelago, the remnants of its heyday still evident in its culture. Palembangnese people mainly adopt culture which is mainly an amalgamation of Malay and Javanese customs. Even now it can be seen in its culture and language. Word such as “wong (person)” is an example of Javanese loanword in Palembang language. Also the Javanese knight and noble honorific titles, such as Raden Mas or Raden Ayu is used by Palembang nobles, the remnant of Palembang Sultanate courtly culture. The tombs of the Islamic heritage was not different in form and style with Islamic tombs in Java.

Cuisine

Palembang cuisine is the second most well-known cuisine from Sumatra after Padang. They primarily use freshwater fish and prawn as ingredients due to the paramount role of the Musi River for the area. Spices are also generally included although not as liberal as its same-island counterpart. Malay, Indian, and Chinese culture has also influenced Palembang’s culinary scene. Besides freshwater fish dishes, there are many variation of dishes, snacks, drinks, and sweets in Palembang cuisine.

Dishes

  • Pempek, is the dish virtually everyone in Indonesia thinks of when mentioning Palembang cuisine. It is a dough of fish cake and tapioca flour which can be either boiled, fried, or grilled and is eaten with a dark, sweet and spicy sauce called Cuko made from palm sugar and pepper topped with cucumber and prawn powder. Because it is actually a dough, locals have intelligently crafted them into shapes and sizes, as well as being creative with fillings. Examples include lenjer (long), keriting (curly), kapal selam (literally “submarine”, filled with egg), ada`an (round and fried) and pistel (filled with cooked young papaya). Not every fish can be made into authentic Palembang pempek. A real authentic Palembang pempek is made of giant featherback (Chitala lopis) as its main ingredients. However since the species is threatened, an authentic pempek can also be made with several other fish such as striped snakehead (Channa striata), narrow-barred Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson), or snappers (Lutjanus sp.).
  • Tekwan, are small pempek balls served with fresh prawn soup, cellophane noodles, and ear mushrooms, often portrayed as the Palembang version of bakso.
  • Model, are a variety of pempek with tofu fillings served with fresh prawn soup and cellophane noodles (model iwak). The pempek ingredients can be subsituted with fried bread (model gendum).
  • Laksan, are thick sliced pempek lenjer poured with spicy coconut milk and served with prawn powders.
  • Celimpungan, are like laksan but with large sized tekwan balls instead of sliced pempek.
  • Mie Celor, are yellow noodles like Japanese soba poured with coconut milk, prawns, and boiled egg.
  • Burgo, are rolled omelettes made of rice flour which are sliced and served with coconut milk soup and powdered prawns.
  • Lakso, are like burgo but with rice noodles.
  • Martabak HAR, is an egg-murtabak (eggs dropped into the flatten dough before folded while frying) served in curry (usually diced potatoes in beef curry) and topped with chillies in sweet-sour soy. It was popularized in Palembang by an Indian Indonesian named Haji Abdul Rozak in 7 July 1947, giving his initials to the dish name.
  • Pindang Patin, is spicy iridescent shark (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) boiled with spices and usually served hot with sliced pineapple.
  • Pindang Tulang, is spicy beef ribs with little meat still attached to the bone, boiled with spices like pindang patin. This dish has a savory spicy sour taste.
  • Malbi, is sweet dark beef tenderloin with spices.
  • Tempoyak, is fermentated durian stir-fried with onion and chili pepper.
  • Brengkes Tempoyak Ikan Patin, is iridescent shark and tempoyak steamed with spices.
  • Otak-otak, is freshwater fish minced meat mixed with tapioca flour, coconut milk and spices then grilled with banana leaf.

Snacks

  • Kemplang, are thin sliced pempek lenjer which are dried under sun, then grilled or fried.
  • Kerupuk, are like kemplang, but the pempek dough made swirly and served after it was fried.

Drinks

  • Es Kacang Merah, are shave ices served with red kidney beans which is already soaked and boiled to remove their toxic contents, syrups, avocado, and sweet condensed milk.

Sweets and Desserts

  • Kue Maksuba, is a layered cake which is mainly made of duck egg and sweet condensed milk without any flours. Each cake needs approximately more than two dozens of duck eggs. After being properly mixed, the cake batter is thinly poured into a square cake pan then baked layer by layer. This cake was originally served as a royal sweets by Palembang Sultanate Palace to every honourable guests. Nowadays, this cake is served by many Palembang people during customary ceremonies or during Eid al-Fitr and sometimes Eid al-Adha.
  • Kue Delapan Jam, is a cake with ingredients like kue maksuba also without any flours, but it’s not layered and it is cooked by being steamed for approximately eight hours instead of baked. This cake is also often served to honourable guests, during customary ceremonies, or during Eid al-Fitr and sometimes Eid al-Adha. Kue khas Palembang ini juga sering disajikan sebagai sajian untuk tamu kehormatan dan sering disajikan di hari raya.
  • Kue Bolu Kojo, is a green sweet cake with eggs, sweet condensed milk and pandan leaves as its main ingredients. As opposed with Kue Maksuba and Kue Delapan Jam, this cake uses wheat flour. This cake is served to honourable guests, during customary ceremonies, or during Eid al-Fitr and sometimes Eid al-Adha.
  • Kue Srikayo, is a steamed dessert with eggs and pandan leaves as its main ingredients. It’s usually served with glutinous rice.

Art

Textile

Palembang is mainly known for its artistic fabrics, songket. Songket is a hand-woven silk or cotton fabrics patterned with gold or silver threads. It is a luxury product traditionally worn during ceremonial occasions as sarong, shoulder cloths or head ties and tanjak, a headdress songket. During Srivijaya rule, songkets were often used at the court. Songkets are also traditionally worn as an apparel by the Malay royal families in Sumatra and the Malay Peninsular including Palembang Sultanate. Traditionally women are the weavers of songket, however in this modern time men also are known to weave it as well. There are six main patterns in Palembang songket which are songket lepus, songket tawur, songket tretes mender, songket bungo pacik, combinated songket, and songket limar. These patterns are not only used on songkets, but also as decoration for several structures in Palembang such as underpasses, flyovers, and bridges.

Woodcarving

Palembang is also known for its woodcarving. Palembang woodcarving are heavily influenced by Chinese culture with motifs such as jasmine or lotus. Palembang woodcarving style originally is used to wardrobe that stores songket fabrics. But nowadays it’s often applied to house ornaments and also to many house applicants such as wooden display cabinets, wooden beds, aquariums, photo frames, mirrors, etc.

Sport


Jakabaring Sport City

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Jakabaring Aquatic Center in Jakabaring Sport City complex.

Jakabaring Sport City ia a sport complex located 5 kilometres (3.1 miles) southeast from Palembang city centre, across the Musi River through Ampera Bridge in Jakabaring, Seberang Ulu I area. It was the main venue of 2011 Southeast Asian Games. Gelora Sriwijaya Stadium, one of the largest stadium in Indonesia, is located within this complex. The complex consists of Gelora Sriwijaya Stadium football field, Dempo sport hall, Ranau sport hall, Athletic stadium, Aquatic centre, Baseball and Softball field, Shooting range, Athlete lodging, Artificial lake for outdoor water sports (rowing, water ski, dragon boat) and Golf course. Two matches were staged at the stadium in the AFC Asian Cup continued in 2007, the Group D qualifier between Saudi Arabia and Bahrain as well as grabbing a third place between South Korea and Japan. The 2011 Southeast Asian Games was held at Palembang along with Jakarta in November 2011. The opening and closing ceremonies held in Gelora Sriwijaya Stadium. This sport complex also planned to host the 2018 Asian Games in Indonesia along with Jakarta and Bandung in West Java.

Sriwijaya F.C.

Sriwijaya Football Club, which is commonly referred to as SFC, is an Indonesian football club based in Palembang, Province of South Sumatra, Indonesia.

Education


Universities in Palembang:

  • University of Sriwijaya
  • State Polytechnic of Sriwijaya Palembang
  • State Islamic University of Raden Fatah Palembang
  • School of Journalism Indonesia. First Journalism School in Indonesia, SJI was inaugurated by President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono at the top of National Press Day (HPN) in Palembang, 9 February 2010. School of Journalism is the first international journalism school in Indonesia under UNESCO.
  • Universitas Bina Darma
  • Universitas Bina Nusantara – Unit Sumber Belajar Jarak Jauh
  • Universitas Indo Global Mandiri
  • Universitas Muhammadiyah Palembang
  • Universitas Palembang
  • Universitas Sjakhyakirti
  • Universitas IBA
  • Universitas Taman Siswa
  • Universitas PGRI
  • Universitas Kader Bangsa
  • Universitas Tridinanti
  • Universitas Terbuka
  • Politeknik Akamigas Palembang
  • Multi Data Palembang
  • Universitas Musi Charitas

Top Senior High Schools in Palembang:

  • SMA Xaverius 1 Palembang
  • SMA Negeri 5 Palembang
  • SMA Negeri Sumatera Selatan
  • SMA Xaverius 3 Palembang
  • SMA Ignatius Global School (IGS) Palembang
  • Sekolah Kusuma Bangsa
  • SMA Negeri 1 Palembang
  • SMA Negeri 3 Palembang
  • MAN 2 Palembang
  • SMA Plus Negeri 17 Palembang
  • SMA Negeri 6 Palembang

Top Junior High Schools in Palembang:

  • SMP Xaverius 1 Palembang
  • SMP Xaverius Maria Palembang
  • SMP Ignatius Global School (IGS) Palembang
  • SMP Sekolah Palembang Harapan (SPH) Palembang
  • SMP Kusuma Bangsa Palembang
  • SMP Negeri 1 Palembang
  • SMP Negeri 9 Palembang
  • MTs Negeri 1 Palembang

Twin Towns – Sister Cities


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Semarang

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Semarang (formerly Dutch: Samarang), is a city on the north coast of the island of Java, Indonesia. It is the capital and largest city of the province of Central Java.

It has an area of 373.78 square kilometres (144.32 sq mi) and a population of approximately 1.8 million people, making it Indonesia’s fifth most populous city after Jakarta, Surabaya, Bandung and Medan. The built-up (metro) area had 3,183,516 inhabitants at the 2010 census spread on 2 cities and 26 districts. Greater Semarang (a.k.a. Kedungsapur) has a population of close to 6 million (see Greater Semarang section), and is located at 6°58′S 110°25′E. A major port during the Dutch colonial era, and still an important regional center and port today, the city has a dominant Javanese population.

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History


In 1678, Sunan Amangkurat II promised to give control of Semarang to the Dutch East India Company (VOC) as a part of a debt payment. In 1682, the Semarang state was founded by the Dutch colonial power. On 5 October 1705 after years of occupations, Semarang officially became a VOC city when Susuhunan Pakubuwono I made a deal to give extensive trade rights to the VOC in exchange of wiping out Mataram’s debt. The VOC, and later, the Dutch East Indies government, established tobacco plantations in the region and built roads and railroads, making Semarang an important colonial trading centre.

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The historic presence of a large Indo (Eurasian) community in the area of Semarang is also reflected by the fact a creole mix language called Javindo existed there.

Classical Indische Town (1678–1870)

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The early VOC settlement of Semarang with its prominent pentagonal fortress.

Semarang was handed by the Sultan of Mataram to the Dutch East Indies in 1678. The city was pictured as a small settlement with a pious Muslim area called Kauman, a Chinese quarter, and a Dutch fortress. The fortress has a pentagonal form with only one gate in the south and five monitoring towers to protect the Dutch settlement from rebellion actions, segregating the spaces between Dutch settlement and other areas. In fact, the city of Semarang was only referred to the Dutch quarter while the other ethnic settlement were considered as villages outside the city boundary. The city, known as de Europeesche Buurt, was built in classical European style with church located in the centre, wide boulevards and streets skirted by beautiful villas. According to Purwanto (2005), the urban and architectural form of this settlement is very similar to the design principles applied in many Dutch cities, which begun to concern on the urban beautification.

Due to the long and costly Java War, there were not much of funding from the Dutch East Indies government, effecting the development of Semarang. The majority of land was used for rice fields and the only small improvement was the development of surrounding fortress. Although less developed, Semarang has a fairly arranged city system, in which urban activities were concentrated along the river and the settlement was linked to a market where different ethnic groups met to trade. The existence of the market, in the later years, become a primary element and a generator of urban economic growths.

An important influence on urban growth was the Great Mail Road project in the 1847, which connected all the cities in northern coast of Central and East Java and made Semarang as the trade centre of agricultural production. The project was soon followed by the development of the Netherlands Indies railway and the connecting roads into the inner city of Semarang at the end of 19th century. Colombijn (2002) marked the development as the shift of urban functions, from the former river orientation to all services facing the roads.

The modern city (1870–1922)

Improved communication, as the result of the Mail and Railway projects, brought an economic boom to the city in the 1870s. There were hospitals, churches, hotels, and large houses built along new main roads; Bojongscheweg, Pontjolscheweg, and Mataram street, densified population in the ethnic settlements and created the urban kampong (village).

Urban growth densified the urban kampong, reaching 1,000 inhabitants per hectare and degrading the quality of living conditions. In the early 20th century, mortality rate were high due to the overcrowding and lack of hygiene that triggered cholera and tuberculosis outbreaks. Cobban (1993) noted the ethical movement of kampongverbetering led by Henry Tillema in 1913 and the concern of the Advisor for Decentralisation for kampong improvement through the betterment of public toilets, drainage, and the planning of public housing.

In 1917, a healthy housing project was implemented in the Southern part of Semarang called Candi Baru. Thomas Karsten, the advisor for city planning, transformed the concept of ethnic segregation that divided previous urban settlements into a new housing district plan based on economic classes. Although practically the three ethnic groups were also divided into three economic classes where the Dutch and rich Chinese occupied the largest lots in the housing district, Karsten had effectively emerged the developed district by integrating the road network, introducing newly improved public washing and bathing, squares and sporting facilities that could be used communally. Following the Candi Baru, there were three other housing plans between 1916–1919 to accommodate a 55% population increase in Semarang; 45,000 Javanese, 8500 Chinese and 7000 Europeans. Karsten marked a new approach to town planning with emphasis on the aesthetic, practical and social requirements, articulated not in terms of race but economic zones.

Driven by economic growth and spatial city planning, the city had doubled in size and expanded to the south by the 1920s, creating a nucleus of a metropolis where multi-ethnic groups lived and traded in the city. The villages in the suburbs such as Jomblang and Jatingaleh steadily became the satellite towns of Semarang, more populated with a bigger market area. Before the invasion of Japan in 1942, Semarang had already become the capital of Central Java Province, as the result of trade and industrial success and spatial planning.

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NIS company head office (Gedung Lawang Sewu), Semarang, Dutch East Indies.

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A Chinese house in Semarang at the turn of the 20th century.

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Aerial picture of Old Semarang area in 1920s.

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Old 0-6-0 locomotive next to the Lawang Sewu building.

Japanese occupation and early independence

The Japanese military occupied the city, along with the rest of Java, in 1942, during the Pacific War of World War II. During that time, Semarang was headed by a military governor called a Shiko, and two vice governors known as Fuku Shiko. One of the vice governors was appointed from Japan, and the other was chosen from the local population.

After Indonesian independence in 1945, Semarang became the capital of Central Java province

Geography


Semarang is located on the northern coast of Java.

Climate

Semarang features a tropical rainforest climate that borders on a tropical monsoon climate (Am). The city features distinctly wetter and drier months, with June through August being the driest months. However, in none of these months does average precipitation fall below 60 mm, hence the tropical rainforest categorization. Semarang on average sees approximately 2800 mm of rain annually. Average temperatures in the city are relatively consistent, hovering around 28 degrees Celsius.

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Ethnicity


The dominant Semarang ethnic is Javanese, followed by minorities of Chinese, India, Arab, and others (including local ethnics such as Sundanese, Batak, Madura, etc.).

Semarang Chinese

There are only about 4-5 % of Chinese ethnic and around 139.878 in central java .Chinese Ethnicity in Semarang is centered on China town that are located in Gang Pinggir. China town warungs open every Friday, Saturday, and Sunday evening. Other similar warungs closed from Monday – Thursday. The Chinatown is called “Kampong Pecinan Semawis” and it offers a great variety of meals, Chinese accessories, and Chinese worship equipment.

Flood Control


In August 2011, a 421 metres (1,381 ft) tunnel dodger at Kreo river has been finished and Jatibarang Dam construction can begin, with completion targeted for July 2013. The dam is planned to ease 230 cubic metres (8,100 cu ft) per second of flood water and will generate 1.5 Megawatts of electricity, provide a drinking water resource and a boost to tourism.

Transport


Air

Semarang’s Achmad Yani airport is served by a number of operators including Air Asia, Garuda Indonesia, Sriwijaya Air and Lion Air.

Road

The primary means of public transportation is by minibus, called “bis.” Semarang’s largest bus terminals are Mangkang and Terboyo.

A bus rapid transit serves Semarang, called Trans Semarang. Although the system is called as “BRT System”, it has no resemblance to any BRT System in the world, or fulfilling the criteria of a BRT System.

Semarang has a toll road, the Semarang Toll Road. The Semarang–Solo Toll Road is under construction.

Semarang is on Indonesian National Route 1 that connects it to Merak and Ketapang (Banyuwangi). Indonesian National Route 14 toward Bawen starts here.

Rail

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Semarang Old Town.

Semarang was connected to Surakarta (Solo) by a rail line in 1870.

There are two large train stations in Semarang: Semarang Poncol and Semarang Tawang.

Sea

The main seaport is the Tanjung Mas seaport.

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The Great Mosque of Central Java, the largest mosque in the city.

Sights and Landmarks 


Tugu Muda 

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Tugu Muda (English “Young Monument”) is a monument built to commemorate the services of the heroes who have fallen in the Battle of Five Days in Semarang. The height of Tugu Muda is 53 meters. Tugu Muda is located in front of Lawang Sewu at Pemuda street. It depicts the Tugu Muda fighting spirit and patriotism of Semarang residents, especially the youth who are persistent, self-sacrificing in high spirits maintaining the independence of Indonesia. The laying of the first stone took place on October 28, 1945, by Mr. Wongsonegoro (Governor of Central Java) at the originally planned location is near the square.

Temples 

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Blenduk Church, the oldest church in Central Java.

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The Sam Poo Kong temple is the oldest Chinese temple in the city.

Education 


There are 593 elementary schools, 220 junior high schools, 106 senior high schools, and 88 vocational high schools, both public and private in Semarang.

Universities 

There are 20 universities in Semarang, 12 of them private and 8 public. The most renowned universities of Semarang are Diponegoro University and Soegijapranata University.

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Gedung Widya Puraya Universitas Diponegoro

Logo_diponegoro_universityDipenegoro University (UNDIP) is one of national or state-owned universities in Semarang, founded in 1956. The university has 11 faculties: Faculty of Economics and Business, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, Faculty of Law, Faculty of Medicine, Faculty of Engineering, Faculty of Fishery and Marine Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Faculty of Public Health, Faculty of Animal Agriculture, and Faculty of Psychology. The university also offers a postgraduate program.

Soegijapranata Catholic University (UNIKA) is one of the private universities in Semarang, founded in 1982. There are 8 faculties in UNIKA: Faculty of Architecture and Design, Faculty of Law and Communication, Faculty of Engineering, Faculty of Language and Arts, Faculty of Economics and Business, Faculty of Agricultural and Technology, Faculty of Psychology, and Faculty of Computer Science.

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Sport Centres 


There are several sport centres in Semarang. Jatidiri sport centre or Jatidiri Stadium is one of the biggest sport centres in Semarang, located in Karangrejo, Gajah Mungkur. The centre comprises a soccer field, in line skate track, tennis filed, climbing wall, swimming pool, and many others. The capacity of the centre is about 21.000 people.

Knight Stadium is a futsal and basketball centre in Semarang, located in Grand Marina complex. There is a café and fitness centre in Knight Stadium.

Semarang River 


Like Singapore River, Semarang is constructing Semarang River at Banjir Kanal Barat (Garang River) near Karangayu Bridge. In the middle of July 2011, gardens in river banks and some traditional boats are available to use. The project will be finished in 2013 with river gardens, trotoars, garden lighting, water activities, art sites, sport sites and balconies and stairs for sightseeing.

Culture 


Food 

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Lumpia Semarang.

Semarang is widely known for its Bandeng presto (pressure-cooked milkfish), Lumpia, Wingko, Tahu Gimbal, and Ganjel Rel. Semarang has also been called ‘The city of Jamu’ because it is an important centre for the production of jamu which are a wide range of Indonesian herbal medicines that are very popular across Indonesia.

Festivals 

Dugderan (id) is an annual festival in Semarang desecrated to welcome the Ramadan month (a fasting month for Moslems). The word “dug” describes the sound of bedug (traditional Indonesian musical instrument). The word “der” describes the sound of fireworks.

The icon of the festival is a special puppet dragon-like animal called Warak Ngendog. The word “warak“ stands for “holy” and the word “ngendog“ expresses a reward for Moslems. Warak Ngendog’s feet are chained, representing people’s desire that should be postponed during this holy month. As Dugderan is a festival unique for Semarang, it represents an important attraction for both local and non-residential people.

Adipura Award 


Semarang has got Adipura Award for 6 times in a row since 2012. Adipura Award is given for achievement in cleanliness and greenery at parks, streets, markets, shop buildings, premises, schools, even cleanliness of water ways and rivers.

Greater Semarang 


Greater Semarang was initially defined by the government as Semarang, Semarang Regency, the newly carved Salatiga city, Kendal Regency, and Demak Regency. Despite the definition, this includes a lot of rural areas and the urban cores remain distinct; they have not amalgamated into a characterless metro area as in Greater Jakarta.

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Sources: BPS Jateng

Notable people born in Semarang 


  • Agung Laksono, politician and former Chairman of the House of Representatives.
  • Anindya Kusuma Putri, Puteri Indonesia 2015 and Top 15 of Miss Universe 2015.
  • Anne Avantie, fashion designer.
  • Conrad Emil Lambert Helfrich, Dutch admiral.
  • Daniel Sahuleka, Dutch musician.
  • Fuad Hassan, politician, former Minister of Education and Culture.
  • Hubertus van Mook, Dutch politician.
  • Liem Bwan Tjie, architect.
  • Oei Tiong Ham, Chinese Indonesian tycoon.
  • P. F. Dahler, politician, member of Investigating Committee for Preparatory Work for Independence (BPUPK).
  • Purnomo Yusgiantoro, politician and current Minister of Defence.
  • Raden Saleh, painter.
  • Rob Nieuwenhuys, literary historian and author.
  • Sutiyoso, chief of Indonesian Intelligence Bureau (BIN).
  • Tukul Arwana, comedian and television personality.
  • Willem Einthoven, medical doctor, invented electrocardiography (ECG), Nobel Prize winner.
  • Sister Cities 

Semarang is twinned with:

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Surabaya

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Surabaya (Indonesian pronunciation: [suraˈbaja]) (formerly Dutch: Soerabaja/Soerabaia) is a port city and the capital of East Java (Jawa Timur) province of Indonesia. It is one of the earliest port cities in Southeast Asia. Located on northeastern Java on the Madura Strait, it is the second-largest-city in Indonesia. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population over 2.8 million, approximately 6 million in the metropolitan area, and the extended metropolitan area, which is known as Gerbangkertosusila is home for more than 9 million inhabitants. During 18th and 19th centuries, Surabaya was the largest city in Dutch East Indies, larger than Batavia (at present Jakarta) and the center of trading in the nation, which was then a competitor of Shanghai and Hong Kong. Today the city remains one of the important financial hubs of the Indonesian archipelago, arguably second only to Jakarta, and the Port of Tanjung Perak is Indonesia’s second busiest seaport.

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History


Etymology

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Fighting shark and crocodile, the emblem of Surabaya city applied since colonial times, derived from local folk etymology

Surabaya (Suroboyo) is locally believed to derive its name from the words “suro” (shark) and “boyo” (crocodile), two creatures which, in a local myth, fought each other in order to gain the title of “the strongest and most powerful animal” in the area. It was said that the two powerful animals agreed a truce and set boundaries: the shark’s domain would be the sea while the crocodile’s domain would be the land. However one day the shark swam into the river estuary to hunt. This angered the crocodile, who declared it his territory. The shark argued that the river was a water realm which meant that it was shark territory, while the crocodile argued that the river flowed deep inland, so it was therefore crocodile territory. A ferocious fight resumed as the two animals bit each other’s tails. Neither of them won the fight.

Another source alludes to a prophecy of Jayabaya, a 12th-century psychic king of Kediri Kingdom, foreseeing a fight between a giant white shark and a giant white crocodile taking place in the area, which is sometimes interpreted as foretelling the Mongol invasion of Java, a major conflict between the forces of Kublai Khan, Mongol ruler of China, and those of Raden Wijaya’s Majapahit in 1293. The two animals are now used as the city’s symbol, with the two facing and circling each other, as depicted in a statue appropriately located near the entrance to the city zoo.

Alternate derivations proliferate: from the Javanese “sura ing baya”, meaning “bravely facing danger”; or from the use of “surya” to refer to the sun. Some people consider Jayabaya’s prophecy as being about the great war between native Surabayan people and foreign invaders at the start of the war of independence in 1945. Another story tells of two heroes who fought each other in order to be the king of the city. The two heroes were named Sura and Baya. These folk etymologies, though embraced enthusiastically by its people and city leaders, are unverifiable.

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Dutch residenthuis (Resident House) along the water in Surabaya

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Red Bridge area from the air in the 1920s.

Early History

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Map of Surabaya from an 1897 English travel-guide

The earliest record of Surabaya was in the 1225 book Zhu fan zhi written by Zhao Rugua, in which it was called Jung-ya-lu. The name Janggala was probably originated from the name “Hujung Galuh” (Old Javanese lit: “Cape Diamond” or “Cape Gemstone”), or “Jung-ya-lu” according to Chinese source. Hujung Galuh was located on the estuarine of Brantas River and today is the part of modern Surabaya city and Sidoarjo Regency.

By the 14th to 15th century, Surabaya seems to be one of Majapahit ports or coastal settlements, together with Tuban, Gresik, and Hujung Galuh (Sidoarjo). Ma Huan documented the early fifteenth-century visit of Zheng He’s treasure ships in his 1433 book Yingya Shenglan: “after traveling south for more than twenty li, the ship reached Sulumayi, whose foreign name is Surabaya. At the estuary, the outflowing water is fresh”.

Ma Huan visited Java during Zheng He’s 4th expedition in the 1413, during the reign of Majapahit king Wikramawardhana. He describes his travel to Majapahit capital, first he arrived to the port of Tu-pan (Tuban) where he saw large numbers of Chinese settlers migrated from Guangdong and Chou Chang. Then he sailed east to thriving new trading town of Ko-erh-hsi (Gresik), Su-pa-erh-ya (Surabaya), and then sailing inland into the river by smaller boat to southwest until reached the Brantas river port of Chang-ku (Changgu). Continued travel by land to southwest he arrived in Man-che-po-I (Majapahit), where the Javanese king stay.

Pre-colonial Era

By late 15th century, Islam began to take its root in Surabaya. The settlement of Ampel Denta, located around Ampel Mosque in today Ampel sub-district, Semampir district, north Surabaya, was established by a charismatic Islamic proselytizer Sunan Ampel.

In the late fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, Surabaya grew to be a duchy, a major political and military power in eastern Java. The Portuguese writer Tomé Pires mentioned that a Muslim lord was in power in Surabaya in 1513 though likely still a vassal of the Hindu–Buddhist Majapahit. At that time, Surabaya was already a major trading port, owing to its location on the River Brantas delta and on the trade route between Malacca and the Spice Islands via the Java Sea. During the decline of Majapahit, the lord of Surabaya resisted the rise of the Demak Sultanate, and only submitted to its rule in 1530. Surabaya became independent after the death of Sultan Trenggana of Demak in 1546.

The Duchy of Surabaya entered a conflict with, and was later captured by, the more powerful Sultanate of Mataram in 1625 under Sultan Agung.  It was one of Mataram’s fiercest campaigns, in which they had to conquer Surabaya’s allies, Sukadana and Madura, and to lay siege to the city before capturing it. With this conquest, Mataram then controlled almost the whole of Java, with the exception of the Sultanate of Banten and the Dutch settlement of Batavia.

Colonial Era

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Handelstraat, Surabaya in the 1930s: subsequently the Jembatan Merah area.

The expanding Dutch East India Company took the city over from a weakened Mataram in November 1743. In consolidating its rule over Surabaya and, in time, the rest of East Java, the Dutch collaborated with leading regional magnates, including Ngabehi Soero Pernollo (1720–1776), his brother Han Bwee Kong, Kapitein der Chinezen (1727–1778) and the latter’s son, Han Chan Piet, Majoor der Chinezen (1759–1827), all from the powerful Han family of Lasem.

In the 18th and 19th centuries, Surabaya was the largest city in Dutch East Indies. Surabaya became a major trading center under the Dutch colonial government, and hosted the largest naval base in the colony. Surabaya was also the largest city in the colony serving as the center of Java’s plantation economy, industry and were supported by its natural harbor. In 1920, a census recorded that Batavia had become the largest city. In 1917, a revolt occurred among the soldiers and sailors of Surabaya, led by the Indies Social Democratic Association. The revolt was firmly crushed and the insurgents given harsh sentences.

Independence Era

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The burnt-out car of Brigadier Mallaby on the spot where he was killed by pro-independence Indonesian soldiers during the Battle of Surabaya on 31 October 1945

Japan occupied the city in 1942, as part of the occupation of Indonesia, and it was bombed by the Allies in 1944. After Japanese surrender at the end of World War II Surabaya was seized by Indonesian nationalists. The young nation soon came into conflict with the British, who had become caretakers of the Dutch colony after the surrender of the Japanese.

The Battle of Surabaya, one of the well-known battles of the Indonesian revolution, started after the Arek-Arek Suroboyo (Teenagers of Surabaya) assassinated the British Brigadier Mallaby on October 30, 1945 near Jembatan Merah (the “Red Bridge”), allegedly with a stray bullet. The Allies gave an ultimatum to the Republicans inside the city to surrender, but they refused. The ensuing battle, which cost thousands of lives, took place on November 10, which Indonesians subsequently celebrate as Hari Pahlawan (Heroes’ Day). The incident of the red-white flag (the Dutch flag at the top of Yamato Hotel’s tower that was torn into the Indonesian red-white flag) by Bung Tomo is also recorded as a heroic feat during the struggle of this city.

The city is known as Kota Pahlawan “city of heroes” due to the importance of the Battle of Surabaya in galvanizing Indonesian and international support for Indonesian independence during the Indonesian National Revolution.

In June 2011, Surabaya received the Adipura Kencana Award as number one among 20 cities in Indonesia. Surabaya was reported by a Singaporean as being clean and green.

Geography


Topography

Surabaya locates on the northern coast of East Java province. It is mostly lowlands with a river estuary of Kalimas, one of two branches of Brantas River. Surabaya city borders Madura Strait in the north and east, Sidoarjo Regency in the south, and Gresik Regencyin the west. The regencies surrounding Surabaya are:

  • Lamongan Regency to the northwest
  • Gresik Regency to the west
  • Bangkalan Regency to the northeast (on Madura island)
  • Sidoarjo Regency to the south, and Mojokerto Regency
  • Jombang Regency to the southwest

Like many other large Indonesian metropolises, many residents reside outside the city limits in a metropolitan area called Gerbangkertosusila.

Climate 

Under the Köppen climate classification system, Surabaya features a tropical wet and dry climate (Aw), with distinct wet and dry seasons. The city’s wet season runs from November through June, while the dry season covers the remaining five months. Unlike a number of cities and regions with a tropical wet and dry climate, average high and low temperatures are very consistent throughout the course of the year, with an average high temperature of around 31 degrees Celsius and average low temperatures of around 26 degrees Celsius.

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Outskirt areas of Surabaya

Government


The city has its own local government and legislative body. The mayor and members of representatives are locally elected by popular vote for a 5-year term.The city government enjoys greater decentralization of affairs than the provincial body, such as the provision of public schools, public health facilities and public transportation. Current Mayor of the city is Tri Rismaharini, who is the first female mayor in Surabaya and has led Surabaya to achieve multiple regional, national and international awards since her first term as Surabaya Mayor in 2010. In 2012 Surabaya was awarded the “ASEAN Environmentally Sustainable City Award”. Besides Mayor and Deputy Mayor, there is Surabaya Municipal People’s Representative Council, which is a legislative body of 50 council members directly elected by the people in legislative elections every five years.

Surabaya is divided into 31 kecamatan (districts), and 161 urban villages. The dirtricts are grouped into 5 areas of Central, North, South, East and West. The districts are as follows,

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Demographics


Surabaya is the second most populous city in Indonesia with 2,765,908 recorded in the chartered city limits (kota) in the 2010 census. With the extended metropolitan development area called Gerbangkertosusila (derived from Gresik-Bangkalan-Mojokerto-Surabaya-Sidoarjo-Lamongan) adding more than nine million inhabitants in several cities and approximately 50 districts spread over non-contiguous urban areas including Gresik, Sidoarjo, Mojokerto and Pasuruan regencies. Though central government of Indonesia recognizes only the metropolitan area (Surabaya, Gresik and Sidarjo) as Greater Surabaya (Zona Surabaya Raya) with a population of 6,484,206 (2010), making Surabaya now the third largest metropolitan area in Indonesia. The city is highly urbanized, with industries centralized in the city, and contains slums. As the main education center, the city is also home for students from around Indonesia.

Surabaya is an old city that has expanded over time, and its population continues to grow at approximately 1.2% per year. In recent years, more people have moved to Surabaya from nearby suburbs and villages in East Java

Ethnicity

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Kya-Kya or Kembang Jepun, The city’s Chinatown

Ethnic Javanese people are the majority in Surabaya, with Chinese Indonesians, Indian Indonesians and ethnic Madurese being significant minorities in the city. Surabaya also has ethnic populations from other parts of Indonesia: Sundanese, Minang, Batak, Banjar, Balinese, and Bugis.

Language

Most citizens speak a dialect of Indonesian/Javanese called Suroboyoan, a sub-dialect of the Arekan dialect. A stereotype of this dialect concerns equality and directness in speech. The usage of register is less strict than the Central Java dialect. The Suroboyoan dialect is a mixture of both Bahasa Indonesia and Javanese, also with some significant influence from foreign languages such as Madurese etc., which has formed a special dialect known as Suroboyoan. The Suroboyoan dialect is actively promoted in local media, such as in local TV shows, radio, newspapers and traditional dramas called Ludruk.

Religion

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Al-Akbar National Mosque

Although around 85% of citizens in Surabaya adhere to Sunni Islam, other major religions include Christianity (Roman Catholicism, Protestantism, and Orthodox), of whom the majority are Roman Catholics. The influence of Hinduism is strong in basic Surabayan culture, but only a minority of the population adheres to Hinduism mostly among the ethnic Indian minority. There is also significant population of Chinese Indonesians who adhere to Buddhism and Confucianism, and a small community of Dutch Jews who adhere to Judaism.

The city had an influential role as a major Islamic center in Java during the Wali Sanga era. The prominent and honored Islamic figure in Surabaya was Sunan Ampel (Raden Rahmat). His tomb is a sacred religious site in the city and is visited by Surabayans and pilgrims from different parts of Indonesia. The largest Muslim organization in Indonesia, Nahdlatul Ulama was established in Surabaya on 26 January 1926. Al-Akbar Mosque is the largest mosque in Surabaya.

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Tian Ti Pagoda

Christianity as a whole in Surabaya is mainly practised by Chinese Indonesians as well as native Javanese, Bataks and Ambonese who attend either a Roman Catholic or Protestant church. A minority of Javanese practice at the Gereja Kejawen, a branch of native Christianity.There are around 15 churches in Surabaya, which vary in size. Gereja Katolik Kelahiran Santa Perawan Maria (The Church of The Nativity of Blessed Virgin Mary), also known as Gereja Kepanjen, built in 1815 as the first church in Surabaya and one of the oldest churches in Indonesia. The main Orthodox Church in Indonesia, St Nikolas Church, is also based in Surabaya. The Orthodox Christian Center Surabaya was opened on 15 October 2008.

Once the major religion in Surabaya and across the archipelago during the Majapahit era, Hinduism played a major role on traditional Surabayan culture. Small Hindu communities still exist in Surabaya most commonly in the eastern sections of the city. Surabaya was the location of the only synagogue in Java, but it rarely obtained a minyan (quorum). The synagogue was destroyed in protests and riots related to Palestine-Israeli conflict.   There is still a Jewish cemetery in the city.

Economy


Since the early 1900s, Surabaya has been one of the most important and busiest trading city ports in Asia. Principal exports from the port, include sugar, tobacco and coffee. Its rich history as a trading port has led to a strong financial infrastructure with modern economic institutions such as banks, insurance and sound export-import companies. The economy is influenced by the recent growth in foreign industries and the completion of the Suramadu Bridge. The high potential and economic activities make the city an attractive destination to foreign investors. The city is home to a large shipyard, and numerous specialized naval schools.

Business

As the provincial capital, Surabaya has a number of offices and business centers. As a metropolitan city, Surabaya became the center of economic, financial and business activities in East Java and beyond. Also, Surabaya is the second largest port city in Indonesia after Jakarta. As a trading center, Surabaya is not only a trade center for East Java but also facilitates areas in Central Java, Kalimantan and Eastern Indonesia. Surabaya’s strategic location is almost in the center of Indonesia and just south of Asia makes it one of the important hubs for trading activities in Southeast Asia. Surabaya is currently in the process of building high rise skyscrapers, including apartments, condominiums, and hotels, by way of attracting foreign capital. Surabaya and the surrounding area is undergoing the most rapidly growing economic development in East Java and one of the most advanced in Indonesia. The city is also one of the most important cities in supporting Indonesia’s economy.

Most of the population is engaged in services, industry and trade. Surabaya is a fast growing trading center. Major industries include shipbuilding, heavy equipment, food processing and agriculture, electronics, home furnishings, and handicrafts. Many major multinational companies are based in Surabaya, such as PT Sampoerna Tbk, Maspion, Wing’s Group, Unilever Indonesia, Pakuwon Group, Jawa Pos Group and PT PAL Indonesia.

Business Districts

The area in between Jalan Basuki Rachmat, Jalan Embong Malang, and Jalan Bubutan has grown as a business center and has turned into one of the main heart of business and trade activities in Surabaya. Some of the important buildings in this area include Wisma BRI Surabaya, Hotel Bumi Surabaya, Wisma Dharmala Surabaya, The Peak Residence, Sheraton Hotel etc.

Another cluster around Jalan Mayjend Sungkono, Jalan Adityawarman, Jalan HR Muhammad, and Jalan Bukit Darmo has grown as a new business center of the city. This area has now grown as one of the most rapidly growing commercial and business centers in East Java, with high rise buildings. Some of the tallest buildings in Surabaya located in this area, such as Adhiwangsa Apartment, Waterplace Residence, Puri Matahari, Beverly Park Apartment, The Via & The Vue Apartment, Ciputra World Hotel, Puncak Permai Apartment, Rich Palace Hotel, and so forth.

Retail

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Ciputra World Surabaya

Surabaya has plenty of shopping centers like other major cities of Indonesia, ranging from traditional markets to most modern shopping malls. Outlets of local and international brands have presence in modern shopping malls. There are many dedicated markets for electronic goods, gadgets and computer hardware.

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Plaza Tunjungan

Some important shopping malls of the city are:

  • BG Junction
  • Ciputra World Surabaya
  • City of Tomorrow
  • East Coast Center and Food Festival
  • Galaxy Mall
  • Grand City
  • HI-Tech Mall
  • ITC Surabaya
  • Jembatan Merah Plaza
  • Lenmarc
  • Marvell City
  • Pakuwon Trade Center
  • Pakuwon Mall
  • Pasar Atom Mall
  • Tunjungan Plaza
  • Surabaya Town Square
  • World Trade Center Surabaya.

Infrastructure


Architecture

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Cheng Hoo (Zheng He) Mosque, Surabaya

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Majapahit Hotel building is a cultural heritage of Surabaya

Architecture in Surabaya is a mixture of colonial, Asian, Javanese, modern, and post-modern influences. There are still many colonial era relics still standing today, such as Hotel Majapahit and Surabaya Post Office. As a relatively old city in Indonesia and Southeast Asia, most colonial buildings in Surabaya were built around the 17th century to early 20th century. These buildings have influence of Dutch / European style in the Middle Ages. Before the Second World War, there were many shop houses in the old part of the city, mostly of two storey. These shop houses have influence of European and Chinese traditions. Although some have been dismantled for new construction, there are still many old buildings that are preserved as cultural heritage and city icons, which are around the area of Kembang Jepun Street, Karet Street, Gula Street, Slompretan Street, and Rajawali Street.

After independence of Indonesia, the center of Surabaya’s architectural development was concentrated only in the area of Jembatan Merah, and its surroundings. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, modern and post-modern style buildings were increasingly emerging in Surabaya. Along with the economic development, such buildings continue to grow in Surabaya until now. In the era of 2010s, Surabaya has become a region for high-rise buildings in East Java, such as The Peak Residence and One Icon Residence (200 meters).

Important Landmarks

  • Kebun Binatang Surabaya (Surabaya Zoo) opened in 1916. It was the first in the world to have successfully bred orangutans in captivity.
  • Zheng He Mosque, a recently built mosque, one of the unique mosques with Chinese-style architecture in Indonesia. Dedicated to the Hui Chinese diplomat, Zheng He.
  • Al-Akbar Mosque, the largest mosque in Jawa Timur.
  • Gereja Katolik Kelahiran Santa Perawan Maria, one of the first churches to be built in Indonesia, and the first one ever built in Jawa Timur.
  • Hero monument, a 41 metres (135 ft) high monument, is the main symbol of Surabaya and commemorates the heroes of the revolutionary struggle. There is a museum on location as well, exhibiting reminders of the struggle for independence.
  • Museum Nahdlatul Ulama, the resource center of the culture and history of Nahdlatul Ulama, an independent Islamic religious organization.
  • Museum Bank Indonesia, a bank museum occupying the former De Javasche Bank built in 1904.
  • House of Sampoerna, a museum devoted to the history of clove cigarette (kretek) manufacturing in Indonesia, housed in Dutch colonial buildings dating to 1864.
  • Jalesveva Jayamahe Monument, a large, admiral-like statue which commemorates the Indonesian Navy.
  • Monkasel, abbreviated from Monumen Kapal Selam (Submarine Monument)  A Soviet-built Whiskey class submarine (named KRI Pasopati (410)), first launched in 1952, served in the Indonesian Navy from 1962 until decommissioned in 1990. After her decommissioning, Pasopati was dismantled and transferred to its present site in 1996. The submarine was reassembled on the current site and opened as a museum and tourist attraction in 1998.
  • Kenjeran Beach, located in the eastern of Surabaya, which also housed Sanggar Agung, a Chinese temple build over the sea.
  • Market of the Chinese Tomb, last resting place of Han Bwee Kong, Kapitein der Chinezen, magnate, mandarin and landlord in Surabaya and East Java, and patriarch of the patrician Han family of Lasem
  • Han Ancestral Hall, a historic house that serves as a memorial temple for the ancestors of the Han family of Lasem
  • Tomb of Sunan Ampel
  • Bungkul Park

Military Establishment

The Eastern Fleet is headquartered here. It is one of two fleets in the Indonesian Navy. Its maritime heritage is also represented in a form of KRI Pasopati Submarine Monument, a retired Russian Whiskey class submarine.

Transportation

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Ujung passenger Port

Transportation in Surabaya is supported by land and sea infrastructure serving local, regional, and international journeys. Air transport is located at Juanda Airport, Sedati, Sidoarjo). Intracity transport is primarily by motor vehicles, motorcycles and taxis with limited public bus transport available. Surabaya is also a transit city between Jakarta and Bali for ground transportation. Another bus route is between Jakarta and the neighboring island of Madura.

Airport

Surabaya’s Juanda International Airport is a passenger and cargo airport which also serves as Surabaya’s Navy Airbase, operated by the TNI-AL (Indonesian Navy) and located just outside Surabaya, on the outskirts of Sidoarjo. This airport has served Surabaya for many years, and currently has 2 terminals, with domestic flights served from Terminal 1 and all international flights and Garuda Indonesia’s domestic flights serviced from Terminal 2. Although considered smaller than Kuala Namu International Airport in Medan and Ngurah Rai International Airport in Denpasar, Bali, Juanda International Airport is still regarded as Indonesia’s second busiest airport right after Jakarta’s Soekarno Hatta International Airport

Seaport

Port of Tanjung Perak is the trading port in East Java and is one of the busiest ports in the country. It is the second largest port of trade, container and passenger in Indonesia after the Port of Tanjung Priok in Jakarta. There is also Teluk Lamong Port Terminal, which is the main buffer terminal terminal of Tanjung Perak Port. The port terminal of Lamong Bay is the first green port in Indonesia and is one of the most sophisticated port terminals in the world where the entire operating system is automated.

Train

The city has three major train stations, being Surabaya Kota (also known as Semut), Pasar Turi, and Gubeng. Surabaya’s main train station is Pasar Turi Station. The Argo Bromo Anggrek operated by PT Kereta Api (Indonesia’s main rail operator) connects Surabaya from this station to Gambir Station (Jakarta). Both economy and executive class trains are served to and from Surabaya.

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Pedicabs (becak) in the street in Surabaya

Bus 

The main bus terminal is Terminal Purabaya (located in Bungurasih, Waru, Sidoarjo), the other major terminal is Osowilangon in Tambak, Surabaya.

Public Transport

There are various kinds of local transport including: taxi-cabs, shuttle bus, city bus, Angguna, pedicab and commuter trains. Online transportation services like GO-JEK, Uber, and Grab are also available in Surabaya.

Suramadu Bridge

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Suramadu Bridge, The longest bridge in Indonesia

The Suramadu Bridge (derived from Surabaya-Madura) connects Surabaya and Madura Island over the Madura Strait. A 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) highway has been proposed to be built from the Suramadu Bridge to Madura International Seaport-City in Pernajuh village, Kocah district, Bangkalan, Madura at a cost of approximately Rp. 60 billion (US$7 billion). This container port was built to ease the burden on Surabaya’s overloaded Tanjung Perak Port.

Sports


The city has one professional football club, Persebaya. The club has won the Indonesian Premier Division three times–twice when the division was the first tier and once as the second tier. Fans refer to themselves as Bonek, an abbreviation for Bondo Nekat (which translates as “equipped by bravery”). The city is the home of CLS Knights Indonesia, a basketball club which participated in Asean Basketball League.

Surabaya has a multi-purpose stadium, Gelora Bung Tomo Stadium. The stadium is used mostly for football matches. It is the new home stadium of Persebaya, replacing Gelora 10 November Stadium. It was the venue of a match between Persebaya 1927 against then–English Premier League club Queens Park Rangers, held on 23 July 2012.

Education


Universities and post-secondary institutions

Surabaya has several major universities and institutions, including those with religious or technical specialties:

  • Airlangga University (UNAIR), a major public research university in Indonesia based in Surabaya and Banyuwangi.
  • Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology (ITS), a public technological institute teaches robotics and mechanics, and is the center of Ship and Ocean Structure Design to support offshore exploration.
  • State University of Surabaya (UNESA), a university educating teachers; also with programs in Economics, Technology, and Law.
  • State Islamic University of Sunan Ampel (UINSA), a public university for Islamic studies.
  • Narotama University (UNNAR), Surabaya
  • Electronic Engineering Polytechnic Institute of Surabaya (PENS-PPNS), a technical institution located in Surabaya.
  • Adhi Tama Institute of Technology Surabaya, an institute specializing in Technical Studies.
  • Hang Tuah University Surabaya, a private university specializing in Maritime Studies.
  • Universitas Pembangunan Nasional “Veteran” Jawa Timur
  • Institut Sains Terapan dan Teknologi Surabaya, an institute specializing in Computer Programming.
  • Universitas Kristen Petra, a Christian university in Indonesia.
  • Pelita Harapan University
  • Widya Mandala Catholic University (3 campuses), a Catholic private university in Surabaya with facilities for Healthcare Studies at a newly opened third campus in the eastern part of the city
  • University of Surabaya, a private university teaching Pharmacy and Psychology.
  • Universitas Bhayangkara, a university affiliated with Indonesian Police Department of East Java.
  • Wijaya Kusuma University Surabaya, a university which is the oldest private faculty of medicine in eastern Indonesia. Established in 1981, The Faculty of Medicine was founded in 1986.
  • Wijaya Putra University a Public University established in 1984
  • Ciputra University, a private entrepreneurial-oriented university founded in 2006 by the Ciputra Group.

Primary and secondary schools

  • International schools include:
  • Surabaya Intercultural School
  • Surabaya Japanese School (スラバヤ日本人学校)
  • Surabaya Taipei International School; 印尼泗水臺灣學校)
  • Surabaya European School

Private schools include:

  • St. Louis Catholic School
  • Angelus Custos Catholic School
  • GLORIA Christian School
  • Petra Christian School
  • IPH Christian School

Cuisine


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Rujak cingur, specialty of Surabaya.

As a metropolitan city all types of Indonesian cuisine and other international restaurants have presence in the city. However, as the capital of East Java, cuisines from the province dominates the culinary culture of the city. East Javanese cuisines include, variety of processed fruits, crisps temph, Bakpao telo, Bakso Malang, Rawan, Tahu campur lamongan, Cwie noodles, tahu takwa, tahu pong, and getuk pisang, pecel madiun, wingko, tape, nasi krawu, otak-otak bandeng, bonggolan, shrimp crackers, shrimp paste, and petis, Tempeh Chips, tahu tepo, and Nasi lethok, sego tempong, salad soup, and pecel rawon, Suwar-suwir, tape proll, gaplek, lodho, goat satay and pecel tulungagung.

Surabaya is famous for Rawon, Rojak cingur, Semanggi, Lontong Balap, clams satay, mussels and rice cake.

  • Rujak cingur: a marinated cow snout or lips and noses (cingur), served with boiled vegetables and shrimp crackers. It is then dressed in a sauce made of caramelized fermented shrimp paste (petis), peanuts, chili, and spices. It is usually served with lontong, a boiled rice cake. Rujak cingur is considered traditional food of Surabaya.
  • Rawon: a dark beef soup, served with mung bean sprouts and the ubiquitous sambal. The dark (almost black) color comes from the kluwak (Pangium edule) nuts.
  • Lontong kupang: lontong with small cockles in petis sauce.
  • Semanggi: a salad made of boiled semanggi (M. crenata) leaves that grow in paddy fields. It is dressed in a spicy peanut sauce.

Twin towns – Sister Cities


Surabaya is twinned with:

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Gallery


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Mosque in Surabaya

Temple of Heaven

Temple of Heaven – Brilliant World Heritage Site

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About Temple of Heaven

The Temple of Heaven is the best place in Beijing to explore the traditional royal sacrificial culture of ancient China. At the same time, it is a pleasant place for leisure stay of walking or sightseeing, also for exploration of local culture.

Type: World Heritage Site, Historic Sites, Parks, Sights & Landmarks
Best Seasons: Spring/Autumn
Recommended Visiting Time: 1~2 hours
Opening Hours: Apr to Oct: 06:00 ~ 20:00 / Nov to Mar: 06:30 ~ 21:00
Tickets: ¥15 / Nov to Mar: ¥10
Address: Tiantan Road, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100050, China


Brief Impression about Temple of Heaven – Facts

The Temple of Heaven (天坛) is one of the most brilliant ancient architectures in China. It is also an outstanding masterpiece of classic imperial buildings throughout Chinese history. The site was firstly built in 1420 by Yongle Emperor (永乐皇帝), then expanded by the subsequent emperors of both Ming and Qing Dynasty, and had served as the holy place for emperors to pay homage to Heaven and to pray for a year of rich harvest.

Compared with all other sacrificial sites in the world, the Temple of Heaven is the largest not only in the size and scale, but also the forms and traditions. In 1998, the UNESCO listed the Temple of Heaven in the World Heritage Sites List with description as “a masterpiece of architecture and landscape design which simply and graphically illustrates a cosmogony of great importance for the evolution of one of the world’s great civilizations…”

Location & Transportation


Where is the Temple of Heaven

The Temple of Heaven is located in the central area of Beijing City which is also the attraction-gathering region. The famous Forbidden City (Palace Museum) and Tiananmen Square are conveniently situated at the northwest of Temple of Heave within short walking distance.

  • 6 km from Forbidden City
  • 5 km from Tiananmen Square
  • 21 km from Summer Palace
  • 75 km from Badaling Great Wall
  • 6.5 km from Jingshan Park

Transfer to/around Temple Heaven

The visit of Temple of Heaven takes about 1~2 hours, so it is usually recommended to tour with other sites in Beijing city, such as the Tiananmen Square, Forbidden City, Summer Palace or Hutongs as a full day tour package which has covered convenient and private transfer to and around the Temple of Heaven.

Subway and public buses are also available for independent travelers. You can take subway Line 5, and exist at Tiantan Dongmen Station which is only several minutes’ walking away from the East Gate of Temple of Heaven. Many buses pass by the park, including 120, 17, 2, 35, 36, 504, 53, etc.

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Temple of Heaven Location Map

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Temple of Heaven in Qing Dynasty

Architectural Art, Layout & Geomantic Omen


Layout

The Temple of Heaven is featured in precise structure, peculiar design and magnificent decoration. Covering more than 267 hectares (660 acres), the Temple of Heaven is the general reference of Huanqiu Altar (圜丘) and Qigu Altar(祈谷) which locate separately at an axle path from south to north – Danbi Bridge (丹陛桥). The most important building of Huanqiu Altar is Huangqiongyu Pavillion (皇穹宇). Qigu Altar has Qinian Pavilion (祈年殿), Huangqian Pavilion (皇乾殿) and Qinian Gate (祈年门), etc.

Ancient Chinese mythology believed the Heaven is circle and the Earth is square, which is fully embodied in the design of Temple Heaven. Two long-sketching cordons of wall surrounded the temple complex. The southern outer wall was built like a taller semi-circular representing Heaven. While the northern wall is shorter, rectangular, stands for the Earth. Both the Huanqiu Altar and Qigu Altar are round, and stand on two square yards.

The brilliant artisans of Qing Dynasty built supernatural sites – Echo Wall, Three-Sound Stone, and Conversation Stone according to the science of acoustics.

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Layout of Temple of Heaven

Architectural Art, Layout & Geomantic Omen


Important Buildings in the Park

Qinian Hall (Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests) is most magnificent building in the Temple of Heaven. It is a wooden triple-gable circular pavilion which is 38 meters high with a three-level marble stone base. The ancient emperors prayed for good harvests here. There are 28 pillars propping up the hall. The inner 4 pillars are large, and stand for four seasons. The middle 12 pillars represent the twelve months. The outer 12 pillars indicate 12 periods of a day.

Huangqiongyu Hall (The Imperial Vault of Heaven) is smaller with only one circular gable and one level of marble stone base compared with Qinian Hall. It is the place to enshrine the worshiping tablets of Gods. Inside the hall are pillars and vault decorated by beautiful paintings and carvings. Outside is a circular wall – Echo Wall which can transmit sounds over long distances.

Huanqiu Altar (The Circular Mound Altar) is an empty circular platform with three levels of marble stones. Vivid dragons were carved on the stones to stand for the emperors. The number nine stands for power as well as the emperors in ancient China. You will surprisedly find the balusters and steps are either the sacred number nine or its multiples. In the ancient time, the emperors burn the offerings for Heaven in a stove on the platform.

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Inside Qinian Hall

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Huangqiongyu Hall

Local Folk & Activities

The Temple of Heaven is divided into two parts – public park area and tourist area. The public area now serves as an entertaining and morning exercise place for locals, and is open from early morning to later night. People living near usually like to take exercise or take part in folk activities in the park, such as running, cycling, playing Tai Chi. You can spare some time to stroll leisurely in the park to get involved in the interested activities, or just experience the peaceful atmosphere of local people’s living.

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Local Acitivities in Temple of Heaven

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Temple of Heaven Tourist Map

Sacrificial Culture of Temple of Heaven


In the ancient China, the emperors attached great importance on the sacrifice to the Heaven because they are believed to be the son of Heaven. They ruled the county on behalf of Heaven.

To show their respect and gratefulness to the Heaven, the emperors of Ming and Qing Dynasties moved from Forbidden City to encamp in the Temple of Heaven with their retunes twice a year. The emperor would pray to Heaven for good harvests on the altar. Grand ceremony must be held perfectly, because the smallest mistake would bring bad luck for the whole nation in the next years.

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Sacrificial Ceremony in Temple of Heaven

Useful Tips


Best time to go – seasonal advice – Different views in different season

March to May and September to November is the best time to visit the Temple of Heaven. But actually the Temple of Heaven is suitable for travel all year around. You can see the blooming lilac during the middle April. In summer days, the whole park is decorated by flourishing green trees. The cool autumn is the best season when the sky is clear and blue. Winter is cold, but you can get rid of the crowds, and focus on exploring the fabulous architectures.

Ticket & Fee

Apr to Oct: ¥35 / Nov to Mar: ¥30

Notes: Note: the price include both the entrance fee and tickets for sites for Qigu Altar and Huanqiu Altar(¥20), Sacrificial Music Hall and Fast Palace (¥10).

Tour Guide Service

Independent travelers can rent the self-service audio guide device at the four gates of Temple of Heaven (Chinese, Cantonese, English, French, German, Spanish, Japanese, and Korean). You can also hire a personal tour guide in the park to get more detailed explanation.

Source: chinadiscovery

Forbidden City

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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The Forbidden City is a palace complex in central Beijing, China. The former seat of Imperial Chinese Dragon Throne from the Ming dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty—the years 1420 to 1912, it now houses the Palace Museum. The Forbidden City served as the home of emperors and their households as well as the ceremonial and political center of Chinese government for almost 500 years.

Constructed from 1406 to 1420, the complex consists of 980 buildings and covers 72 ha (over 180 acres). The palace exemplifies traditional Chinese palatial architecture, and has influenced cultural and architectural developments in East Asia and elsewhere. The Forbidden City was declared a World Heritage Site in 1987, and is listed by UNESCO as the largest collection of preserved ancient wooden structures in the world.

Since 1925 the Forbidden City has been under the charge of the Palace Museum, whose extensive collection of artwork and artefacts were built upon the imperial collections of the Ming and Qing dynasties. Part of the museum’s former collection is now in the National Palace Museum in Taipei. Both museums descend from the same institution, but were split after the Chinese Civil War. Since 2012, the Forbidden City has seen an average of 15 million visitors annually, and had 16 million visitors in 2016.

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Contents
1 Name
2 History
3 Description
3.1 Walls and gates
3.2 Outer Court or the Southern Section
3.3 Inner Court or the Northern Section
3.4 Religion
3.5 Surroundings
3.6 Symbolism
4 Collections
5 Influence

Name


The common English name “Forbidden City” is a translation of the Chinese name Zijin Cheng (Chinese: 紫禁城; pinyin: Zíjinchéng; literally: “Purple Forbidden City“). The name Zijin Cheng first formally appeared in 1576. Another English name of similar origin is “Forbidden Palace”.

The name “Zijin Cheng” is a name with significance on many levels. Zi, or “Purple”, refers to the North Star, which in ancient China was called the Ziwei Star, and in traditional Chinese astrology was the heavenly abode of the Celestial Emperor. The surrounding celestial region, the Ziwei Enclosure (Chinese: 紫微垣; pinyin: Zǐwēiyuán), was the realm of the Celestial Emperor and his family. The Forbidden City, as the residence of the terrestrial emperor, was its earthly counterpart. Jin, or “Forbidden”, referred to the fact that no one could enter or leave the palace without the emperor’s permission. Cheng means a city.

Today, the site is most commonly known in Chinese as Gùgōng (故宫), which means the “Former Palace”. The museum which is based in these buildings is known as the “Palace Museum” (Chinese: 故宫博物院; pinyin: Gùgōng Bówùyùan).

History


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The Forbidden City as depicted in a Ming dynasty painting

When Hongwu Emperor’s son Zhu Di became the Yongle Emperor, he moved the capital from Nanjing to Beijing, and construction began in 1406 on what would become the Forbidden City.

Construction lasted 14 years and required more than a million workers. Material used include whole logs of precious Phoebe zhennan wood (Chinese: 楠木; pinyin: nánmù) found in the jungles of south-western China, and large blocks of marble from quarries near Beijing. The floors of major halls were paved with “golden bricks” (Chinese: 金砖; pinyin: jīnzhuān), specially baked paving bricks from Suzhou.

From 1420 to 1644, the Forbidden City was the seat of the Ming dynasty. In April 1644, it was captured by rebel forces led by Li Zicheng, who proclaimed himself emperor of the Shun dynasty. He soon fled before the combined armies of former Ming general Wu Sangui and Manchu forces, setting fire to parts of the Forbidden City in the process.

By October, the Manchus had achieved supremacy in northern China, and a ceremony was held at the Forbidden City to proclaim the young Shunzhi Emperor as ruler of all China under the Qing dynasty. The Qing rulers changed the names on some of the principal buildings, to emphasise “Harmony” rather than “Supremacy”, made the name plates bilingual (Chinese and Manchu), and introduced Shamanist elements to the palace.

In 1860, during the Second Opium War, Anglo-French forces took control of the Forbidden City and occupied it until the end of the war. In 1900 Empress Dowager Cixi fled from the Forbidden City during the Boxer Rebellion, leaving it to be occupied by forces of the treaty powers until the following year.

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The East Glorious Gate under renovation as part of the 16-year restoration process

After being the home of 24 emperors – 14 of the Ming dynasty and 10 of the Qing dynasty – the Forbidden City ceased being the political centre of China in 1912 with the abdication of Puyi, the last Emperor of China. Under an agreement with the new Republic of China government, Puyi remained in the Inner Court, while the Outer Court was given over to public use, until he was evicted after a coup in 1924. The Palace Museum was then established in the Forbidden City in 1925. In 1933, the Japanese invasion of China forced the evacuation of the national treasures in the Forbidden City. Part of the collection was returned at the end of World War II, but the other part was evacuated to Taiwan in 1948 under orders by Chiang Kai-shek, whose Kuomintang was losing the Chinese Civil War. This relatively small but high quality collection was kept in storage until 1965, when it again became public, as the core of the National Palace Museum in Taipei.

After the establishment of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, some damage was done to the Forbidden City as the country was swept up in revolutionary zeal. During the Cultural Revolution, however, further destruction was prevented when Premier Zhou Enlai sent an army battalion to guard the city.

The Forbidden City was declared a World Heritage Site in 1987 by UNESCO as the “Imperial Palace of the Ming and Qing Dynasties”, due to its significant place in the development of Chinese architecture and culture. It is currently administered by the Palace Museum, which is carrying out a sixteen-year restoration project to repair and restore all buildings in the Forbidden City to their pre-1912 state.

In recent years, the presence of commercial enterprises in the Forbidden City has become controversial. A Starbucks store that opened in 2000 sparked objections and eventually closed on 13 July 2007. Chinese media also took notice of a pair of souvenir shops that refused to admit Chinese citizens in order to price-gouge foreign customers in 2006.

On November 8, 2017, President of the United States Donald Trump was the first US President to be granted a state dinner in the Forbidden City since the founding of the People’s Republic of China.

Description


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The Forbidden City viewed from Jingshan Hill

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The Forbidden City is a rectangle, with 961 metres (3,153 ft) from north to south and 753 metres (2,470 ft) from east to west. It consists of 980 surviving buildings with 8,886 bays of rooms. A common myth states that there are 9,999 rooms including antechambers, based on oral tradition, and it is not supported by survey evidence. The Forbidden City was designed to be the centre of the ancient, walled city of Beijing. It is enclosed in a larger, walled area called the Imperial City. The Imperial City is, in turn, enclosed by the Inner City; to its south lies the Outer City.

The Forbidden City remains important in the civic scheme of Beijing. The central north–south axis remains the central axis of Beijing. This axis extends to the south through Tiananmen gate to Tiananmen Square, the ceremonial centre of the People’s Republic of China, and on to Yongdingmen. To the north, it extends through Jingshan Hill to the Bell and Drum Towers. This axis is not exactly aligned north–south, but is tilted by slightly more than two degrees. Researchers now believe that the axis was designed in the Yuan dynasty to be aligned with Xanadu, the other capital of their empire.

Walls and Gates

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The Meridian Gate, front entrance to the Forbidden City, with two protruding wings

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The northwest corner tower

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The Gate of Supreme Harmony

The Forbidden City is surrounded by a 7.9 metres (26 ft) high city wall and a 6 metres (20 ft) deep by 52 metres (171 ft) wide moat. The walls are 8.62 metres (28.3 ft) wide at the base, tapering to 6.66 metres (21.9 ft) at the top. These walls served as both defensive walls and retaining walls for the palace. They were constructed with a rammed earth core, and surfaced with three layers of specially baked bricks on both sides, with the interstices filled with mortar.

At the four corners of the wall sit towers (E) with intricate roofs boasting 72 ridges, reproducing the Pavilion of Prince Teng and the Yellow Crane Pavilion as they appeared in Song dynasty paintings. These towers are the most visible parts of the palace to commoners outside the walls, and much folklore is attached to them. According to one legend, artisans could not put a corner tower back together after it was dismantled for renovations in the early Qing dynasty, and it was only rebuilt after the intervention of carpenter-immortal Lu Ban.

The wall is pierced by a gate on each side. At the southern end is the main Meridian Gate (A). To the north is the Gate of Divine Might (B), which faces Jingshan Park. The east and west gates are called the “East Glorious Gate” (D) and “West Glorious Gate” (C). All gates in the Forbidden City are decorated with a nine-by-nine array of golden door nails, except for the East Glorious Gate, which has only eight rows.

The Meridian Gate has two protruding wings forming three sides of a square (Wumen, or Meridian Gate, Square) before it. The gate has five gateways. The central gateway is part of the Imperial Way, a stone flagged path that forms the central axis of the Forbidden City and the ancient city of Beijing itself, and leads all the way from the Gate of China in the south to Jingshan in the north. Only the Emperor may walk or ride on the Imperial Way, except for the Empress on the occasion of her wedding, and successful students after the Imperial Examination.

Outer Court or the Southern Section

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The Hall of Supreme Harmony

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The name plate on the Hall of Supreme Harmony

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The throne in the Hall of Preserving Harmony

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The Hall of Central Harmony (foreground) and the Hall of Preserving Harmony

Traditionally, the Forbidden City is divided into two parts. The Outer Court (外朝) or Front Court (前朝) includes the southern sections, and was used for ceremonial purposes. The Inner Court (内廷) or Back Palace (后宫) includes the northern sections, and was the residence of the Emperor and his family, and was used for day-to-day affairs of state. (The approximate dividing line shown as red dash in the plan above.) Generally, the Forbidden City has three vertical axes. The most important buildings are situated on the central north–south axis.

Entering from the Meridian Gate, one encounters a large square, pierced by the meandering Inner Golden Water River, which is crossed by five bridges. Beyond the square stands the Gate of Supreme Harmony (F). Behind that is the Hall of Supreme Harmony Square. A three-tiered white marble terrace rises from this square. Three halls stand on top of this terrace, the focus of the palace complex. From the south, these are the Hall of Supreme Harmony (太和殿), the Hall of Central Harmony (中和殿), and the Hall of Preserving Harmony (保和殿).

The Hall of Supreme Harmony (G) is the largest, and rises some 30 metres (98 ft) above the level of the surrounding square. It is the ceremonial centre of imperial power, and the largest surviving wooden structure in China. It is nine bays wide and five bays deep, the numbers 9 and 5 being symbolically connected to the majesty of the Emperor. Set into the ceiling at the centre of the hall is an intricate caisson decorated with a coiled dragon, from the mouth of which issues a chandelier-like set of metal balls, called the “Xuanyuan Mirror”. In the Ming dynasty, the Emperor held court here to discuss affairs of state. During the Qing dynasty, as Emperors held court far more frequently, a less ceremonious location was used instead, and the Hall of Supreme Harmony was only used for ceremonial purposes, such as coronations, investitures, and imperial weddings.

The Hall of Central Harmony is a smaller, square hall, used by the Emperor to prepare and rest before and during ceremonies. Behind it, the Hall of Preserving Harmony, was used for rehearsing ceremonies, and was also the site of the final stage of the Imperial examination. All three halls feature imperial thrones, the largest and most elaborate one being that in the Hall of Supreme Harmony.

At the centre of the ramps leading up to the terraces from the northern and southern sides are ceremonial ramps, part of the Imperial Way, featuring elaborate and symbolic bas-relief carvings. The northern ramp, behind the Hall of Preserving Harmony, is carved from a single piece of stone 16.57 metres (54.4 ft) long, 3.07 metres (10.1 ft) wide, and 1.7 metres (5.6 ft) thick. It weighs some 200 tonnes and is the largest such carving in China. The southern ramp, in front of the Hall of Supreme Harmony, is even longer, but is made from two stone slabs joined together – the joint was ingeniously hidden using overlapping bas-relief carvings, and was only discovered when weathering widened the gap in the 20th century.

In the south west and south east of the Outer Court are the halls of Military Eminence (H) and Literary Glory (J). The former was used at various times for the Emperor to receive ministers and hold court, and later housed the Palace’s own printing house. The latter was used for ceremonial lectures by highly regarded Confucian scholars, and later became the office of the Grand Secretariat. A copy of the Siku Quanshu was stored there. To the north-east are the Southern Three Places (南三所) (K), which was the residence of the Crown Prince.

Inner Court or the Northern Section

The Inner Court is separated from the Outer Court by an oblong courtyard lying orthogonal to the City’s main axis. It was the home of the Emperor and his family. In the Qing dynasty, the Emperor lived and worked almost exclusively in the Inner Court, with the Outer Court used only for ceremonial purposes.

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The Palace of Heavenly Purity

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Water spouts drain rainwater from upper level platforms on which the principal halls are built.

At the centre of the Inner Court is another set of three halls (L). From the south, these are the Palace of Heavenly Purity (乾清宮), Hall of Union, and the Palace of Earthly Tranquility. Smaller than the Outer Court halls, the three halls of the Inner Court were the official residences of the Emperor and the Empress. The Emperor, representing Yang and the Heavens, would occupy the Palace of Heavenly Purity. The Empress, representing Yin and the Earth, would occupy the Palace of Earthly Tranquility. In between them was the Hall of Union, where the Yin and Yang mixed to produce harmony.

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The throne in the Palace of Heavenly Purity

The Palace of Heavenly Purity is a double-eaved building, and set on a single-level white marble platform. It is connected to the Gate of Heavenly Purity to its south by a raised walkway. In the Ming dynasty, it was the residence of the Emperor. However, beginning from the Yongzheng Emperor of the Qing dynasty, the Emperor lived instead at the smaller Hall of Mental Cultivation (N) to the west, out of respect to the memory of the Kangxi Emperor. The Palace of Heavenly Purity then became the Emperor’s audience hall. A caisson is set into the roof, featuring a coiled dragon. Above the throne hangs a tablet reading “Justice and Honour” (Chinese: 正大光明; pinyin: zhèngdàguāngmíng).

The Palace of Earthly Tranquility (坤寧宮) is a double-eaved building, 9 bays wide and 3 bays deep. In the Ming dynasty, it was the residence of the Empress. In the Qing dynasty, large portions of the Palace were converted for Shamanist worship by the new Manchu rulers. From the reign of the Yongzheng Emperor, the Empress moved out of the Palace. However, two rooms in the Palace of Earthly Harmony were retained for use on the Emperor’s wedding night.

Between these two palaces is the Hall of Union, which is square in shape with a pyramidal roof. Stored here are the 25 Imperial Seals of the Qing dynasty, as well as other ceremonial items.

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The Nine Dragons Screen in front of the Palace of Tranquil Longevity

Behind these three halls lies the Imperial Garden (M). Relatively small, and compact in design, the garden nevertheless contains several elaborate landscaping features. To the north of the garden is the Gate of Divine Might.

Directly to the west is the Hall of Mental Cultivation (N). Originally a minor palace, this became the de facto residence and office of the Emperor starting from Yongzheng. In the last decades of the Qing dynasty, empresses dowager, including Cixi, held court from the eastern partition of the hall. Located around the Hall of Mental Cultivation are the offices of the Grand Council and other key government bodies.

The north-eastern section of the Inner Court is taken up by the Palace of Tranquil Longevity (寧壽宮) (O), a complex built by the Qianlong Emperor in anticipation of his retirement. It mirrors the set-up of the Forbidden City proper and features an “outer court”, an “inner court”, and gardens and temples. The entrance to the Palace of Tranquil Longevity is marked by a glazed-tile Nine Dragons Screen. This section of the Forbidden City is being restored in a partnership between the Palace Museum and the World Monuments Fund, a long-term project expected to finish in 2017.

Religion

Religion was an important part of life for the imperial court. In the Qing dynasty, the Palace of Earthly Harmony became a place of Manchu Shamanist ceremony. At the same time, the native Chinese Taoist religion continued to have an important role throughout the Ming and Qing dynasties. There were two Taoist shrines, one in the imperial garden and another in the central area of the Inner Court.

Another prevalent form of religion in the Qing dynasty palace was Buddhism. A number of temples and shrines were scattered throughout the Inner Court, including that of Tibetan Buddhism or Lamaism. Buddhist iconography also proliferated in the interior decorations of many buildings. Of these, the Pavilion of the Rain of Flowers is one of the most important. It housed a large number of Buddhist statues, icons, and mandalas, placed in ritualistic arrangements.

Surroundings

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Location of the Forbidden City in the historic centre of Beijing

The Forbidden City is surrounded on three sides by imperial gardens. To the north is Jingshan Park, also known as Prospect Hill, an artificial hill created from the soil excavated to build the moat and from nearby lakes.

To the west lies Zhongnanhai, a former royal garden centred on two connected lakes, which now serves as the central headquarters for the Communist Party of China and the State Council of the People’s Republic of China. To the north-west lies Beihai Park, also centred on a lake connected to the southern two, and a popular royal park.

To the south of the Forbidden City were two important shrines – the Imperial Shrine of Family or the Imperial Ancestral Temple (Chinese: 太廟; pinyin: Tàimiào) and the Imperial Shrine of State or Beijing Shejitan (Chinese: 社稷壇; pinyin: Shèjìtán), where the Emperor would venerate the spirits of his ancestors and the spirit of the nation, respectively. Today, these are the Beijing Labouring People’s Cultural Hall and Zhongshan Park (commemorating Sun Yat-sen) respectively.

To the south, two nearly identical gatehouses stand along the main axis. They are the Upright Gate (Chinese: 端门; pinyin: Duānmén) and the more famous Tiananmen Gate, which is decorated with a portrait of Mao Zedong in the centre and two placards to the left and right: “Long Live the People’s Republic of China” and “Long live the Great Unity of the World’s Peoples”. The Tiananmen Gate connects the Forbidden City precinct with the modern, symbolic centre of the Chinese state, Tiananmen Square.

While development is now tightly controlled in the vicinity of the Forbidden City, throughout the past century uncontrolled and sometimes politically motivated demolition and reconstruction has changed the character of the areas surrounding the Forbidden City. Since 2000, the Beijing municipal government has worked to evict governmental and military institutions occupying some historical buildings, and has established a park around the remaining parts of the Imperial City wall. In 2004, an ordinance relating to building height and planning restriction was renewed to establish the Imperial City area and the northern city area as a buffer zone for the Forbidden City. In 2005, the Imperial City and Beihai (as an extension item to the Summer Palace) were included in the shortlist for the next World Heritage Site in Beijing.

Symbolism

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Imperial roof decoration of the highest status on the roof ridge of the Hall of Supreme Harmony

The design of the Forbidden City, from its overall layout to the smallest detail, was meticulously planned to reflect philosophical and religious principles, and above all to symbolise the majesty of Imperial power. Some noted examples of symbolic designs include:

  • Yellow is the color of the Emperor. Thus almost all roofs in the Forbidden City bear yellow glazed tiles. There are only two exceptions. The library at the Pavilion of Literary Profundity (文渊阁) had black tiles because black was associated with water, and thus fire-prevention. Similarly, the Crown Prince’s residences have green tiles because green was associated with wood, and thus growth.
  • The main halls of the Outer and Inner courts are all arranged in groups of three – the shape of the Qian triagram, representing Heaven. The residences of the Inner Court on the other hand are arranged in groups of six – the shape of the Kun triagram, representing the Earth.
  • The sloping ridges of building roofs are decorated with a line of statuettes led by a man riding a phoenix and followed by an imperial dragon. The number of statuettes represents the status of the building – a minor building might have 3 or 5.
  • The Hall of Supreme Harmony has 10, the only building in the country to be permitted this in Imperial times. As a result, its 10th statuette, called a “Hangshi”, or “ranked tenth” (Chinese: 行十; pinyin: Hángshí), is also unique in the Forbidden City.
    The layout of buildings follows ancient customs laid down in the Classic of Rites. Thus, ancestral temples are in front of the palace. Storage areas are placed in the front part of the palace complex, and residences in the back.

Collections


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Palace Museum exhibits on display in the corridor connecting the Hall of Literary Glory and the Hall of Main Respect

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Two Qing dynasty “blue porcelain” wares

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A blue and white porcelain vase with cloud and dragon designs, marked with the word “Longevity” (寿), Jiajing period of Ming dynasty

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Bathing Horses (section) by Zhao Mengfu (1254–1322)

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Equestrian painting of the Qianlong Emperor (r. 1735–1796) by Giuseppe Castiglione

The collections of the Palace Museum are based on the Qing imperial collection. According to the results of a 1925 audit, some 1.17 million pieces of art were stored in the Forbidden City. In addition, the imperial libraries housed a large collection of rare books and historical documents, including government documents of the Ming and Qing dynasties.

From 1933, the threat of Japanese invasion forced the evacuation of the most important parts of the Museum’s collection. After the end of World War II, this collection was returned to Nanjing. However, with the Communists’ victory imminent in the Chinese Civil War, the Nationalist government decided to ship the pick of this collection to Taiwan. Of the 13,491 boxes of evacuated artefacts, 2,972 boxes are now housed in the National Palace Museum in Taipei. More than 8,000 boxes were returned to Beijing, but 2,221 boxes remain today in storage under the charge of the Nanjing Museum.

After 1949, the Museum conducted a new audit as well as a thorough search of the Forbidden City, uncovering a number of important items. In addition, the government moved items from other museums around the country to replenish the Palace Museum’s collection. It also purchased and received donations from the public.

Today, there are over a million rare and valuable works of art in the permanent collection of the Palace Museum, including paintings, ceramics, seals, steles, sculptures, inscribed wares, bronze wares, enamel objects, etc. A new inventory of the Museum’s collections was conducted between 2004 and 2010. Subsequently, the Palace Museum was shown to hold a total of 1,807,558 artefacts and includes 1,684,490 items designated as nationally protected “valuable cultural relics.” At the end of 2016, the Palace Museum held a press conference, announcing that 55,132 previously unlisted items had been discovered in an inventory check carried out from 2014 to 2016. The total number of items in the Palace Museum collection is presently at 1,862,690 objects.

Ceramics

The Palace Museum holds 340,000 pieces of ceramics and porcelain. These include imperial collections from the Tang dynasty and the Song dynasty, as well as pieces commissioned by the Palace, and, sometimes, by the Emperor personally. The Palace Museum holds about 320,000 pieces of porcelain from the imperial collection. The rest are almost all held in the National Palace Museum in Taipei and the Nanjing Museum.

Painting

The Palace Museum holds close to 50,000 paintings. Of these, more than 400 date from before the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368). This is the largest such collection in China. The collection is based on the palace collection in the Ming and Qing dynasties. The personal interest of Emperors such as Qianlong meant that the palace held one of the most important collections of paintings in Chinese history. However, a significant portion of this collection was lost over the years. After his abdication, Puyi transferred paintings out of the palace, and many of these were subsequently lost or destroyed. In 1948, many of the works were moved to Taiwan. The collection has subsequently been replenished, through donations, purchases, and transfers from other museums.

Bronzeware

The Palace Museum’s bronze collection dates from the early Shang dynasty. Of the almost 10,000 pieces held, about 1,600 are inscribed items from the pre-Qin period (to 221 BC). A significant part of the collection is ceremonial bronzeware from the imperial court.

Timepieces

The Palace Museum has one of the largest collections of mechanical timepieces of the 18th and 19th centuries in the world, with more than 1,000 pieces. The collection contains both Chinese- and foreign-made pieces. Chinese pieces came from the palace’s own workshops, Guangzhou (Canton) and Suzhou (Suchow). Foreign pieces came from countries including Britain, France, Switzerland, the United States and Japan. Of these, the largest portion come from Britain.

Jade

Jade has a unique place in Chinese culture. The Museum’s collection, mostly derived from the imperial collection, includes some 30,000 pieces. The pre-Yuan dynasty part of the collection includes several pieces famed throughout history, as well as artefacts from more recent archaeological discoveries. The earliest pieces date from the Neolithic period. Ming dynasty and Qing dynasty pieces, on the other hand, include both items for palace use, as well as tribute items from around the Empire and beyond.

Palace Artefacts

In addition to works of art, a large proportion of the Museum’s collection consists of the artefacts of the imperial court. This includes items used by the imperial family and the palace in daily life, as well as various ceremonial and bureaucratic items important to government administration. This comprehensive collection preserves the daily life and ceremonial protocols of the imperial era.

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In the East Glorious Gate

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In the West Wing of the Meridian Gate

Influence


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A gilded lion in front of the Palace of Tranquil Longevity

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Glazed building decoration

The Forbidden City, the culmination of the two-thousand-year development of classical Chinese and East Asian architecture, has been influential in the subsequent development of Chinese architecture, as well as providing inspiration for many artistic works. Some specific examples include:

Depiction in art, film, literature and popular culture

The Forbidden City has served as the scene to many works of fiction. In recent years, it has been depicted in films and television series. Some notable examples include:

  • The Forbidden City (1918), a fiction film about a Chinese emperor and an American.
    The Last Emperor (1987), a biographical film about Puyi, was the first feature film ever authorised by the government of the People’s Republic of China to be filmed in the Forbidden City.
  • Forbidden City Cop (1996) a Hong Kong wuxia comedy film about an imperial secret agent
  • Marco Polo a joint NBC and RAI TV miniseries broadcast in the early 1980s, was filmed inside the Forbidden City. Note, however, that the present Forbidden City did not exist in the Yuan dynasty, when Marco Polo met Kublai Khan.
  • The 2003 real-time strategy game Rise of Nations depicts the Forbidden City as one of the great wonders of the world; in terms of game mechanics, it functions identically to a major city and provides additional resources to the player.

Live Performance concert venue

The Forbidden City has also served as a performance venue. However, its use for this purpose is strictly limited, due to the heavy impact of equipment and performance on the ancient structures. Almost all performances said to be “in the Forbidden City” are held outside the palace walls.

  • In 1997, Greek-born composer and keyboardist Yanni performed a live concert in front of the Forbidden City the first modern Western artist to perform at the historic Chinese site. The concert was recorded and later released as part of the Tribute album.
  • Giacomo Puccini’s opera, Turandot, the story of a Chinese princess, was performed at the Imperial Shrine just outside the Forbidden City for the first time in 1998.
  • In 2001, the Three Tenors, Plácido Domingo and José Carreras and Luciano Pavarotti, sang in front of Forbidden City main gate as one of their performances.
  • In 2004, the French musician Jean Michel Jarre performed a live concert in front of the Forbidden City, accompanied by 260 musicians, as part of the “Year of France in China” festivities.

Lake Tahoe

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Lake Tahoe

Lake Tahoe (/ˈtɑːhoʊ/; Washo: dáʔaw) is a large freshwater lake in the Sierra Nevada of the United States. Lying at 6,225 ft (1,897 m), it straddles the state line between California and Nevada, west of Carson City. Lake Tahoe is the largest alpine lake in North America, and at 122,160,280 acre•ft (150,682,490 dam3) trails only the five Great Lakes as the largest by volume in the United States. Its depth is 1,645 ft (501 m), making it the second deepest in the United States after Crater Lake in Oregon (1,945 ft (593 m)).

The lake was formed about 2 million years ago as part of the Lake Tahoe Basin, with the modern extent being shaped during the ice ages. It is known for the clarity of its water and the panorama of surrounding mountains on all sides. The area surrounding the lake is also referred to as Lake Tahoe, or simply Tahoe. More than 75% of the lake’s watershed is national forest land, comprising the Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit of the United States Forest Service.

Lake Tahoe is a major tourist attraction in both Nevada and California. It is home to winter sports, summer outdoor recreation, and scenery enjoyed throughout the year. Snow and ski resorts are a significant part of the area’s economy and reputation. The Nevada side also offers large casinos, with highways providing year-round access to the entire area.

Contents
1 Geography
2 Natural history
2.1 Geology
2.2 Climate
2.3 Ecology
3 Human history
3.1 Native people
3.2 Exploration and naming
3.3 Mining era
3.4 Development
3.5 Government and politics
3.6 Historical locations
4 Environmental issues
4.1 Water quality
4.2 Ecosystem changes
4.3 Environmental protection
5 Tourist activities
5.1 Winter sports
5.2 Water sports
5.3 Hiking and bicycling
5.4 Gambling
6 Transportation
6.1 Highways
6.2 Major area airports
7 Communities
7.1 California
7.2 Nevada
8 In the media

Geography


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North Lake Tahoe aerial photo

Lake Tahoe is the second deepest lake in the U.S., with a maximum depth of 1,645 feet (501 m), trailing Oregon’s Crater Lake at 1,949 ft (594 m). Tahoe is the 16th deepest lake in the world, and the fifth deepest in average depth. It is about 22 mi (35 km) long and 12 mi (19 km) wide and has 72 mi (116 km) of shoreline and a surface area of 191 square miles (490 km2). Approximately two-thirds of the shoreline is in California. The south shore is dominated by the lake’s largest city, South Lake Tahoe, California, which adjoins the town of Stateline, Nevada, while Tahoe City, California, is located on the lake’s northwest shore. Although highways run within sight of the lake shore for much of Tahoe’s perimeter, many important parts of the shoreline lie within state parks or are protected by the United States Forest Service. The Lake Tahoe Watershed (USGS Huc 18100200) of 505 sq mi (1,310 km2) includes the land area that drains to the lake and the Lake Tahoe drainage divide traverses the same general area as the Tahoe Rim Trail.

Lake Tahoe is fed by 63 tributaries. These drain an area about the same size as the lake and produce half its water, with the balance entering as rain or snow falling directly on it.

The Truckee River is the lake’s only outlet, flowing northeast through Reno, Nevada, into Pyramid Lake which has no outlet. It accounts for one third of the water that leaves the lake, the rest evaporating from the lake’s vast surface. The flow of the Truckee River and the height of the lake are controlled by the Lake Tahoe Dam at the outlet. The natural rim is at 6,223 ft (1,897 m) above sea level, with a spillway at the dam controlling overflow. The maximum legal limit, to which the lake can be allowed to rise in order to store water, is at 6,229.1 ft (1,898.6 m). Around New Year 1996/1997 a Pineapple Express atmospheric river melted snow and caused the lake and river to overflow, inundating Reno and surrounding areas.

See also: List of Lake Tahoe peaks and Lake Tahoe-Nevada State Park

Natural History


Geology

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Lake Tahoe from space

The Lake Tahoe Basin was formed by vertical motion (normal) faulting. Uplifted blocks created the Carson Range on the east and the main Sierra Nevada crest on the west. Down-dropping and block tilting (half-grabens) created the Lake Tahoe Basin in between. This kind of faulting is characteristic of the geology of the adjoining Great Basin to the east.

Lake Tahoe is the youngest of several extensional basins of the Walker Lane deformation zone that accommodates nearly 12 mm/yr of dextral shear between the Sierra Nevada-Great Valley Block and North America.

Three principal faults form the Lake Tahoe basin: the West Tahoe Fault, aligned between Meyers and Tahoe City, and which is the local segment of the Sierra Nevada Fault, extending on shore north and south of these localities; the Stateline/North Tahoe Fault, starting in the middle of the lake and creating the relief that forms Stateline, NV; and the Incline Village Fault, which runs parallel to the Stateline/North Tahoe Fault offshore and into Incline Village. The West Tahoe Fault appears to be the most active and potentially hazardous fault in the basin. A study in Fallen Leaf Lake, just south of Lake Tahoe, used seafloor mapping techniques to image evidence for paleoearthquakes on the West Tahoe and revealed the last earthquake occurred between 4,100 and 4,500 years ago. Subsequent studies revealed submarine landslides in Fallen Leaf Lake and Lake Tahoe that are thought to have been triggered by earthquakes on the West Tahoe fault and the timing of these events suggests a recurrence interval of 3,000–4,000 years.

Some of the highest peaks of the Lake Tahoe Basin that formed during the process of Lake Tahoe creation are Freel Peak at 10,891 feet (3,320 m), Monument Peak at 10,067 feet (3,068 m), Pyramid Peak at 9,984 feet (3,043 m) (in the Desolation Wilderness), and Mount Tallac at 9,735 feet (2,967 m). The north shore boasts three peaks at 10,000+ feet: Mount Rose, Houghton and Relay peaks. Mt. Rose is a very popular hiking and backcountry skiing destination.

Eruptions from the extinct volcano Mount Pluto formed a dam on the north side. Melting snow filled the southern and lowest part of the basin to form the ancestral Lake Tahoe. Rain and runoff added additional water.

The Sierra Nevada adjacent to Lake Tahoe were carved by scouring glaciers during the Ice Ages, which began a million or more years ago, and retreated ~15,000 years ago at the end of the Pleistocene. The glaciers carved canyons that are today iconic landmarks such as Emerald Bay, Cascade Lake, and Fallen Leaf Lake, among others. Lake Tahoe itself never held glaciers, but instead water is retained by damming Miocene volcanic deposits.

Soils of the basin come primarily from andesitic volcanic rocks and granodiorite, with minor areas of metamorphic rock. Some of the valley bottoms and lower hill slopes are mantled with glacial moraines, or glacial outwash material derived from the parent rock. Sandy soils, rock outcrops and rubble and stony colluvium account for over 70% of the land area in the basin. The basin soils (in the < 2 mm fraction) are generally 65–85% sand (0.05–2.0 mm).

Given the great depth of Lake Tahoe, and the locations of the normal faults within the deepest portions of the lake, modeling suggests that earthquakes on these faults can trigger tsunamis. Wave heights of these tsunamis are predicted to be on the order of 10 to 33 ft (3 to 10 m) in height, capable of traversing the lake in just a few minutes. A massive collapse of the western edge of the basin that formed McKinney Bay around 50,000 years ago is thought to have generated a tsunami/seiche wave with a height approaching 330 ft (100 m).

Climate

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Fallen Leaf Lake and Lake Tahoe in background from Angora Ridge Rd. to the Angora Lakes Resort

Lake Tahoe has a dry-summer continental climate (Dsb in the Koeppen climate classification). Mean annual precipitation ranges from over 55 inches (1440 mm) for watersheds on the west side of the basin to about 26 inches (660 mm) near the lake on the east side of the basin. Most of the precipitation falls as snow between November and April, although rainstorms combined with rapid snowmelt account for the largest floods. There is a pronounced annual runoff of snowmelt in late spring and early summer, the timing of which varies from year to year. In some years, summertime monsoon storms from the Great Basin bring intense rainfall, especially to high elevations on the northeast side of the basin.

August is normally the warmest month at the Lake Tahoe Airport (elevation 6,254 ft, 1,906 m) with an average maximum of 78.7 °F (25.9 °C) and an average minimum of 39.8 °F (4.3 °C). January is the coolest month with an average maximum of 41.0 °F (5.0 °C) and an average minimum of 15.1 °F (−9.4 °C). The all-time maximum of 99 °F (37.2 °C) was recorded on July 22, 1988. The all-time minimum of −16 °F (−26.7 °C) was recorded on December 9, 1972. Temperatures exceed 90 °F (32.2 °C) on an average of 2.0 days annually. Minimum temperatures of 32 °F (0 °C) or lower occur on an average of 231.8 days annually, and minimum temperatures of 0 °F (−17.8 °C) or lower occur on an average of 7.6 days annually. Freezing temperatures have occurred in every month of the year.

Climate data for Tahoe City, California (Elevation 6,230 ft, 1,899 m)

Climate data for Tahoe City

Ecology

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Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) jumping a beaver dam

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Damaged beaver dam on Blackwood Creek. Beaver dams are easily crossed by trout and their ponds may serve as critical breaks for wildfires.

Vegetation in the basin is dominated by a mixed conifer forest of Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi), lodgepole pine (P. contorta), white fir (Abies concolor), and red fir (A. magnifica). The basin also contains significant areas of wet meadows and riparian areas, dry meadows, brush fields (with Arctostaphylos and Ceanothus) and rock outcrop areas, especially at higher elevations. Ceanothus is capable of fixing nitrogen, but mountain alder (Alnus tenuifolia), which grows along many of the basin’s streams, springs and seeps, fixes far greater quantities, and contributes measurably to nitrate-N concentrations in some small streams. The beaches of Lake Tahoe are the only known habitat for the rare Lake Tahoe yellowcress (Rorippa subumbellata), a plant which grows in the wet sand between low- and high-water marks.

Each autumn, from late September through mid-October, mature kokanee salmon (Oncorhyncus nerka) transform from silver-blue color to a fiery vermilion, and run up Taylor Creek, near South Lake Tahoe. As spawning season approaches the fish acquire a humpback and protuberant jaw. After spawning they die and their carcasses provide a feast for gatherings of mink (Neovison vison), bears (Ursus americanus), and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). The non-native salmon were transplanted from the North Pacific to Lake Tahoe in 1944.

North American beaver (Castor canadensis) were re-introduced to the Tahoe Basin by the California Department of Fish and Wildlife and the U.S. Forest Service between 1934 and 1949. Descended from no more than nine individuals, 1987 beaver populations on the upper and lower Truckee River had reached a density of 0.72 colonies (3.5 beavers) per kilometer. At the present time beaver have been seen in Tahoe Keys, Taylor Creek, Meeks Creek at Meeks Bay on the western shore, and Kings Beach on the north shore, so the descendants of the original nine beavers have apparently migrated around most of Lake Tahoe. Recently novel physical evidence has demonstrated that beaver were native to the Sierra until at least the mid-nineteenth century, via radiocarbon dating of buried beaver dam wood uncovered by deep channel incision in the Feather River watershed. That report was supported by a summary of indirect evidence of beaver including reliable observer accounts of beaver in multiple watersheds from the northern to the southern Sierra Nevada, including its eastern slope. A specific documented record of beaver living historically in Lake Tahoe’s North Canyon Creek watershed above Glenbrook includes a description of Spooner Meadow rancher Charles Fulstone hiring a caretaker to control the beaver population in the early 20th century. A recent study of Taylor Creek showed that beaver dam removal decreased wetland habitat, increased stream flow, and increased total phosphorus pollutants entering Lake Tahoe – all factors which negatively impact the clarity of the lake’s water. In addition, beaver dams located in Ward Creek, located on the west shore of Lake Tahoe, were also shown to decrease nutrients and sediments traveling downstream.

The lake’s cold temperatures and extreme depth can slow the decomposition rate of organic matter. For example, a diver was found at a depth of 300 feet (90 m) 17 years after being lost, with his body preserved nearly perfectly.

Human History


Native People

The area around Lake Tahoe was previously inhabited by the Washoe tribe of Native Americans. Lake Tahoe was the center and heart of Washoe Indian territory, including the upper valleys of the Walker, Carson and Truckee Rivers. The English name for Lake Tahoe derives from the Washo word “dá’aw,” meaning “The Lake” or possibly “The Lake of the Sky.”

Exploration and Naming

Lt. John C. Frémont was the first person of European descent to see Lake Tahoe, during Fremont’s second exploratory expedition on February 14, 1844. John Calhoun Johnson, Sierra explorer and founder of “Johnson’s Cutoff” (now U.S. Route 50), was unlikely the first white man to see Meeks Bay and from a peak above the lake he named Fallen Leaf Lake after his Indian guide, as the area had been overly explorated by the Spaniards for centuries. His first job in the west was in the government service, carrying the mail on snowshoes from Placerville to Nevada City, during which time he named the lake “Lake Bigler” in honor of California’s third governor John Bigler.

In 1853 William Eddy, the surveyor general of California, identified the lake as Lake Bigler. During the Civil War, Union advocates objected to the name, because Bigler was an ardent secessionist. Due to this, the U.S. Department of the Interior introduced the name Tahoe in 1862. Both names were in use: the legislature passed legislation declaring the official name to be Lake Bigler in 1870, while to most surveys and the general public it was known as Lake Tahoe. The lake didn’t receive its official and final designation as Lake Tahoe until 1945.

Mining Era

Upon discovery of gold in the South Fork of the American River in 1848, thousands of gold seekers going west passed near the basin on their way to the gold fields. European civilization first made its mark in the Lake Tahoe basin with the 1858 discovery of the Comstock Lode, a silver deposit just 15 miles (24 km) to the east in Virginia City, Nevada. From 1858 until about 1890, logging in the basin supplied large timbers to shore up the underground workings of the Comstock mines. The logging was so extensive that loggers cut down almost all of the native forest.

Lake Tahoe became a transportation hub for the surrounding area as mining and logging commenced prior to development of railroads. The first mail delivery was via a sailboat which took a week to visit each of the lakeside communities. The first steamboat on Lake Tahoe was the 42-foot (13 m) paddle wheel tugboat Governor Blasdel towing log rafts to a sawmill on the south side of Glenbrook Bay from 1863 until her boiler exploded in 1877. The 40-foot (12 m) Truckee and 55-foot (17 m) propeller-driven Emerald were also towing log rafts in 1870. J.A. Todman brought steam-powered passenger service to Lake Tahoe in 1872 with the 100-foot (30 m) 125-passenger side-wheel steamer Governor Stanford which reduced the mail delivery trip around Lake Tahoe to eight hours. Todman expanded service with steamboats Mamie, Niagara, and Tod Goodwin. Lawrence & Comstock provided competition with their steel-hulled steamboat Tallac in 1890 and later purchased Todman’s steamboats Mamie and Tod Goodwin. The Carson and Tahoe Lumber and Fluming Company purchased the 83-foot (25 m) Niagara and built the iron-hulled steamboats Meteor in 1876 and Emerald (II) in 1887. The 75-foot (23 m) Meteor was the fastest boat on Lake Tahoe with a speed of 22 miles (35 km) per hour. Lake Tahoe Railway and Transportation Company dominated the passenger and mail route after launch of their 200-passenger steamboat Tahoe on 24 June 1896. The 154-ton Tahoe was 170 feet (52 m) long with a slender 18-foot (5.5 m) beam so her 1,200 horsepower (890 kW) engines could push her over the lake at 18.5 knots. Lake Tahoe Railway and Transportation Company purchased Tallac and rebuilt her as Nevada with length increased by 20 feet (6.1 m) to serve as a backup steamboat when Tahoe required maintenance.

Tod Goodwin burned at Tallac, and most of the other steamboats were retired as the sawmills ran out of trees and people began traveling by automobile. Niagara was scrapped at Tahoe City in 1900. Governor Stanford was beached at Glenbrook where its boiler was used until 1942 heating cottages at Glenbrook Inn and Ranch. Steamboats continued to carry a mail clerk around Lake Tahoe until 1934, when the mail contract was given to the 42-foot (13 m) motorboat Marian B powered by two Chevrolet engines. Mail delivery moved ashore after Marian B was lost on 17 May 1941 with her owner and the mail clerk attempting mail delivery during a storm. The 60-foot (18 m) Emerald (II) left Lake Tahoe in 1935 to become a fishing boat in San Diego. Historic Tahoe, Nevada, and Meteor were purchased with hope they might be preserved; but were scuttled in deep water after deterioration made preservation impractical. The latter two lie in Glenbrook Bay, but Tahoe sank in deeper water.

Development

Even in the mining era, the potential of the basin as a tourist destination was recognized. Tahoe City was founded in 1864 as a resort community for Virginia City.

Public appreciation of the Tahoe basin grew, and during the 1912, 1913 and 1918 congressional sessions, congressmen tried unsuccessfully to designate the basin as a national park.

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The only outlet of Lake Tahoe and the headwaters of the Truckee River at Lake Tahoe Dam

While Lake Tahoe is a natural lake, it is also used for water storage by the Truckee-Carson Irrigation District (TCID). The lake level is controlled by Lake Tahoe Dam built in 1913 at the lake’s only outlet, the Truckee River, at Tahoe City. The 18-foot (5.5 m) high dam can increase the lake’s capacity by 744,600 acre•ft (918,500,000 m3).

During the first half of the 20th century, development around the lake consisted of a few vacation homes. The post-World War II population and building boom, followed by construction of gambling casinos in the Nevada part of the basin during the mid-1950s, and completion of the interstate highway links for the 1960 Winter Olympics held at Squaw Valley, resulted in a dramatic increase in development within the basin. From 1960 to 1980, the permanent residential population increased from about 10,000 to greater than 50,000, and the summer population grew from about 10,000 to about 90,000. Since the 1980s, development has slowed due to controls on land use.

Government and Politics

After a dispute that included gunshots exchanged between militia, in 1864, California and Nevada defined a partition that followed geographical coordinates: the state line runs east of the approximate center line of the lake; at 39 degrees north latitude, the state line runs southeasterly towards the Colorado River.

Unbeknownst to the negotiators, this compromise split Lake Tahoe: two-thirds for California, one-third for Nevada. In California, Lake Tahoe is divided between Placer County and El Dorado County. In Nevada, Lake Tahoe is divided among Washoe County, Douglas County and Carson City (an independent city).

As the population grew and development expanded in the 1960s, the question of protecting the lake became more imperative. In 1969, the U.S. Congress and the California and Nevada State Legislatures created a unique compact to share resources and responsibilities. The Compact established the Tahoe Regional Planning Agency (TRPA), a bi-state agency charged with environmental protection of the Basin through land-use regulation and planning. In 1980, the U.S. Congress amended the Compact with public law 96-551. The law designated a new agency, the Tahoe Transportation District (TTD), to facilitate and implement Basin and regional transportation improvements/additions for the protection, restoration and use of the lake. Schisms between both agencies and local residents have led to the formation of grass-roots organizations that hold to even stricter environmentalism.

Historical Locations

Lake Tahoe is also the location of several 19th and 20th century palatial homes of historical significance. The Thunderbird Lodge built by George Whittel Jr once included nearly 27 miles (43 km) of the Nevada shoreline. Vikingsholm was the original settlement on Emerald Bay and included an island teahouse and a 38-room home. The Ehrman Mansion is a summer home built by a former Wells Fargo president in Sugar Pine Point and is now a state park.

Environmental Issues


Water Quality

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An example of road runoff with fine sediment at El Dorado Beach. However, this storm drain was removed during construction. The new beach now called Lakeview Commons opened in Summer 2012.

Despite land-use planning and export of treated sewage effluent from the basin, the lake is becoming increasingly eutrophic (having an excessive richness of nutrients), with primary productivity increasing by more than 5% annually, and clarity decreasing at an average rate of 0.25 meters per year. Until the early 1980s, nutrient-limitation studies showed that primary productivity in the lake was nitrogen-limited. Now, after a half-century of accelerated nitrogen input (much of it from direct atmospheric deposition), the lake is phosphorus-limited. Theodore Swift et al., concluded that “suspended inorganic sediments and phytoplanktonic algae both contribute significantly to the reduction in clarity, and that suspended particulate matter, rather than dissolved organic matter, are the dominant causes of clarity loss.” The largest source of fine sediment particles to Lake Tahoe is urban stormwater runoff, comprising 72 percent of the total fine sediment particle load. Recent research has shown that the urban uplands also provide the largest opportunity to reduce fine sediment particle and phosphorus contributions to the lake. Historic clarity of approximately 30 meters can be achieved with total reduction of approximately 75 percent from urban sources.

Historically, the clarity of Lake Tahoe continued to decrease through 2010, when the average Secchi depth, 64.4 feet, was the second lowest ever recorded (the lowest was 64.1 feet in 1997). This represented a decrease of 3.7 feet from the previous year. However, the lake’s clarity increased from 2011 to 2014, improving by nearly 20 percent.

A water quality study by the Lahontan Water Quality Control Board and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection determined the largest source of fine sediment particles: 71 percent is developed area (urban) erosion and run-off, much of it associated with transportation infrastructure and services.

Lake Tahoe is a tributary watershed drainage element within the Truckee River Basin, and its sole outlet is the Truckee River, which continues on to discharge to Pyramid Lake. Because of the sensitivity of Truckee River water quality (involving two protected species, the cui-ui sucker fish and the Lahontan cutthroat trout), this drainage basin has been studied extensively. The primary investigations were stimulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, who funded the development of the DSSAM model to analyze water quality below Lake Tahoe.

Lake Tahoe never freezes. Since 1970, it has mixed to a depth of at least 1,300 ft (400 m) a total of 6 or 7 times. Dissolved oxygen is relatively high from top to bottom. Analysis of the temperature records in Lake Tahoe has shown that the lake warmed (between 1969 and 2002) at an average rate of 0.015 °C per year. The warming is caused primarily by increasing air temperatures, and secondarily by increasing downward long-wave radiation. The warming trend is reducing the frequency of deep mixing in the lake, and may have important effects on water clarity and nutrient cycling.

Ecosystem Changes

Since the 1960s, the Lake’s food web and zooplankton populations have undergone major changes. In 1963–65, opossum shrimp (Mysis diluviana) were introduced to enhance the food supply for the introduced Kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). The shrimp began feeding on the lake’s cladocerans (Daphnia and Bosmina), and their populations virtually disappeared by 1971. The shrimp provide a food resource for salmon and trout, but also compete with juvenile fish for zooplankton. Since the 1970s, the cladoceran populations have somewhat recovered, but not to former levels. Since 2006, goldfish have been observed in the lake, where they have grown to “giant size”, behaving like an invasive species. They may have descended from former pets which owners dumped or escaped, when used as fishing bait.

In June 2007, the Angora Fire burned approximately 3,100 acres (1,300 ha) throughout the South Lake Tahoe area. While the impact of ash on the lake’s ecosystem is predicted to be minimal, the impact of potential future erosion is not yet known.

Environmental Protection

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Emerald Bay, Lake Tahoe

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Secret Beach on Lake Tahoe’s Nevada side

Until recently, construction on the banks of the Lake had been largely under the control of real estate developers. Construction activities have resulted in a clouding of the lake’s blue waters. Currently, the Tahoe Regional Planning Agency is regulating construction along the shoreline (and has won two Federal Supreme Court battles over recent decisions). These regulations are unpopular with many residents, especially those in the Tahoe Lakefront Homeowners Association.

The League to Save Lake Tahoe (Keep Tahoe Blue) has been an environmental watchdog in the Lake Tahoe Basin for 50 years. Founded when a proposal to build a four-lane highway around the lake—with a bridge over the entrance to Emerald Bay—was proposed in 1957, the League has opposed many development projects in the area, which it alleges were environmentally harmful. The League embraces responsible and diversified use of the Lake’s resources while protecting and restoring its natural attributes.

Since 1980, the Lake Tahoe Interagency Monitoring Program (LTIMP) has been measuring stream discharge and concentrations of nutrients and sediment in up to 10 tributary streams in the Lake Tahoe Basin, California-Nevada. The objectives of the LTIMP are to acquire and disseminate the water quality information necessary to support science-based environmental planning and decision making in the basin. The LTIMP is a cooperative program with support from 12 federal and state agencies with interests in the Tahoe Basin. This data set, together with more recently acquired data on urban runoff water quality, is being used by the Lahontan Regional Water Quality Control Board to develop a program (mandated by the Clean Water Act) to limit the flux of nutrients and fine sediment to the Lake.

UC Davis remains a primary steward of the lake. The UC Davis Tahoe Environmental Research Center is dedicated to research, education and public outreach, and to providing objective scientific information for restoration and sustainable use of the Lake Tahoe Basin. Each year, it produces a well-publicized “State of the Lake” assessment report.

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A view from the east shore of Lake Tahoe

Tourist Activities


Much of the area surrounding Lake Tahoe is devoted to the tourism industry and there are many restaurants, ski slopes, golf courses and casinos catering to visitors.

Winter Sports

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Ski slopes overlooking Lake Tahoe

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Lake Tahoe Gondola Ride

During ski season, thousands of people from all over Nevada and California, including Reno, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, San Diego, San Francisco, and Sacramento, flock to the slopes for downhill skiing. Lake Tahoe, in addition to its panoramic beauty, is well known for its blizzards.

Some of the major ski areas in Tahoe include:

  • Heavenly Mountain Resort: the largest ski area in California and Nevada, located near Stateline
  • Squaw Valley: the second largest ski area, known for its hosting of the 1960 Winter Olympics, located near Tahoe City
  • Alpine Meadows: a medium-sized ski area on the north shore only a few miles from Squaw Valley
  • Diamond Peak: a small ski area located in Incline Village, Nevada
  • Northstar California: a popular north shore ski area
  • Kirkwood Mountain Resort: a ski area which gets more snow than any other ski area in the Tahoe region
  • Sierra-at-Tahoe: a medium-sized south shore ski area
  • Boreal Mountain Resort: a small ski area on Donner Pass
  • Sugar Bowl Ski Resort: a medium-sized ski area in Donner Pass
  • Donner Ski Ranch: a very small ski area on Donner Pass
  • Homewood Mountain Resort: a medium-sized ski area on the west shore
  • Mount Rose Ski Resort: a medium-sized ski area north-east of the Lake, on Slide Mountain

The majority of the ski resorts in the Lake Tahoe region are on the northern end of the lake, near Truckee, California and Reno, Nevada. Kirkwood, Sierra-at-Tahoe and Heavenly are located on the southern side of the lake, 55–75 miles (90–120 km) from Reno. Scattered throughout Tahoe are public and private sled parks. Some, such as Granlibakken are equipped with rope tows to help sledders get up the hill.

Many ski areas around Tahoe also have snow tubing, such as Squaw Valley. Throughout Tahoe, cross-country skiing, snowmobile riding and snowshoeing are also popular.

Water Sports

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A sailboat on Lake Tahoe

During late Spring to early Fall, the lake is popular for water sports and beach activities. The two cities most identified with the Lake Tahoe tourist area are South Lake Tahoe, California and the smaller Stateline; smaller centers on the northern shoreline include Tahoe City and Kings Beach.

Other popular activities include parasailing, jet ski rentals and eco-friendly paddle sport rentals. There are rental locations located around Lake Tahoe. Kayaking and stand up paddle boards have also become very popular.

Boating is a primary activity in Tahoe in the summer. The lake is home to one of the most prestigious wooden boat shows in the country, the Lake Tahoe Concours d’Elegance, held every August. There are lake front restaurants all over the lake, most equipped with docks and buoys (See the restaurants section). There are all sorts of boating events, such as sailboat racing, firework shows over the lake, guided cruises, and more. As an interstate waterway, Lake Tahoe is subject to the United States Coast Guard. Lake Tahoe is home to Coast Guard Station Lake Tahoe.

SCUBA diving is popular at Lake Tahoe, with some dive sites offering dramatic drop-offs or wall dives. Diving at Lake Tahoe is considered advanced due to the increased risk of decompression sickness (DCS) while diving at such a high altitude.

Fred Rogers became the first person to swim the length of Lake Tahoe in 1955, and Erline Christopherson became the first woman to do so in 1962.

Hiking and Bicycling

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View from the Tahoe Rim Trail

There are numerous hiking and mountain biking trails around the lake. They range widely in length, difficulty and popularity. One of the most famous of Tahoe’s trails is the Tahoe Rim Trail, a 165-mile (270-km) trail that circumnavigates the lake. Directly to the west of the lake is the Granite Chief Wilderness, which provides great hiking and wilderness camping. Also, to the southwest is the very popular Desolation Wilderness. One of the most popular trailheads used to access these popular destinations is Eagle Lake Trailhead, located near Emerald Bay on Tahoe’s west shore. The Flume Trail of the east shore is one of Mountain Biking Magazine’s Top 10 Trails in the U.S. There are also many paved off-road bicycle paths that meander through communities on all sides of the lake.

Gambling

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Casinos in Stateline, Nevada

Gambling is legal on the Nevada side of Lake Tahoe. Casinos, each with a variety of slot machines and table games, are located on the South Shore in Stateline, and on the North Shore in Crystal Bay and Incline Village.

When Nevada legalized gambling in 1931, the first casino at the lake had already been open for years. First built on the North Shore in Crystal Bay by Robert Sherman in 1926, the Calneva cabin became the property of Norman Henry Biltz and was sold to Bill Graham and Jim McKay in 1929.

The Calneva was rebuilt after a fire in 1937 and expanded several times, most noticeably in 1969 when the high-rise hotel was built. Along the way, Frank Sinatra owned the property in the early 1960s, shared his cabins with the likes of Sam Giancana and Marilyn Monroe, and sold out at the height of the area’s popularity.

Other casinos at the North Shore include the Crystal Bay Club, first built in 1937 as the Ta-Neva-Ho; the Tahoe Biltmore, and the Nugget. The Hyatt Regency is found at Incline Village.

At South Shore, Bill Harrah purchased the Stateline Country Club, which had stood since 1931 and built Harrah’s Tahoe. Other casinos include Hard Rock Hotel and Casino Lake Tahoe, Harveys Lake Tahoe, Montbleu, and the Lakeside Inn.

Transportation


Lake Tahoe can be reached directly by car, and indirectly by train or air. The nearest passenger train service is the Amtrak station in Truckee, and is served by Amtrak’s train, the California Zephyr, which runs daily between Chicago and the San Francisco Bay Area. The closest scheduled passenger airline service is available via the Reno-Tahoe International Airport (RNO).

Highways

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Cave Rock Tunnel on US 50

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U.S. Route 50 in South Lake Tahoe

Visitors can reach Lake Tahoe under ideal conditions within two hours from the Sacramento area, one hour from Reno or thirty minutes from Carson City. In winter months, chains or snow tires are often necessary to reach Tahoe from any direction. Traffic can be heavy on weekends due to tourists if not also from weather.

The primary routes to Lake Tahoe are on Interstate 80 via Truckee, U.S. Route 50, and Nevada State Route 431 via Reno. Most of the highways accessing and encircling Lake Tahoe are paved two-lane mountain roads. US 50 is a four-lane highway (from the canyon of the South Fork American River at Riverton, over the Sierra Nevada at Echo Summit, and into the Lake Tahoe Basin, is a mainly two-lane road) passing south of the lake and along part of the eastern shore.

California State Route 89 follows the western shore of the lake through the picturesque wilderness and connects camping, fishing and hiking locations such as those at Emerald Bay State Park, DL Bliss State Park and Camp Richardson. Farther along are communities such as Meeks Bay and Tahoe City. Finally, the highway turns away from the lake and heads northwest toward Truckee.

California State Route 28 completes the circuit from Tahoe City around the northern shore to communities such as Kings Beach, Crystal Bay, and into Incline Village, Nevada where the road becomes Nevada State Route 28. Route 28 returns along the eastern shore to US 50 near Spooner Lake.

Major area airports
Reno-Tahoe International Airport/KRNO (Reno, Nevada)
Sacramento International Airport/KSMF (Sacramento, California)
Lake Tahoe Airport/KTVL (South Lake Tahoe, California)
Truckee-Tahoe Airport/KTRK (Truckee, California)
Minden-Tahoe Airport/KMEV (Minden, Nevada)

Communities


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Placer County

  • Carnelian Bay #3
  • Dollar Point #4
  • Kings Beach #1
  • Sunnyside-Tahoe City #5
  • Tahoe Vista #2
  • Tahoma (partially in El Dorado County) #6

El Dorado County

  • South Lake Tahoe #7

  • Tahoma (partially in Placer County) #6

Nevada

  • Carson City #14

Douglas County

  • Glenbrook #13
  • Lakeridge #11
  • Logan Creek #12
  • Round Hill Village #8
  • Skyland #10
  • Stateline #17
  • Zephyr Cove #9

Washoe County

  • Crystal Bay #16
  • Incline Village #15

In the Media


The Ponderosa Ranch of the TV series Bonanza was formerly located on the Nevada side of Lake Tahoe. The opening sequence of the TV series was filmed at the McFaul Creek Meadow, with Mount Tallac in the background. In September 2004 the Ponderosa Ranch closed its doors, after being sold to developer David Duffield for an undisclosed price.

The 1974 film The Godfather Part II used the lakeside estate Fleur de Lac as the location of several scenes, including the elaborate First Communion celebration, the Senator’s shakedown attempt of Michael, the assassination attempt on Michael, Michael disowning Fredo, Carmela Corleone’s funeral, Fredo’s death while fishing, and the closing scene of Michael sitting alone outside. Fleur de Lac, on the western California shore of Lake Tahoe, was formerly the Henry Kaiser estate. The surrounding lakeside area has been developed into a private gated condominium community and some of the buildings of the “Corleone compound” still exist, including the boathouse.

The 2014 film Last Weekend, starring Patricia Clarkson and directed by Tom Dolby and Tom Williams, used the west shore lakefront home of Ray and Dagmar Dolby as the primary location for its interiors and exteriors. The house, built in 1929, was also the site for the exteriors for A Place in the Sun, starring Elizabeth Taylor and Montgomery Clift. The 1988 film Things Change was also filmed here.