Sheikh Zayed Mosque


Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque (Arabic: جامع الشيخ زايد الكبير‎) is located in Abu Dhabi, the capital city of the United Arab Emirates and is considered to be the key for worship in the country.

Sheikh Zayed Mosque 3D

Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque was initiated by the late president of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), HH SheikhZayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, who wanted to establish a structure which unites the cultural diversity of Islamic world, the historical and modern values of architecture and art. His final resting place is located on the grounds beside the same mosque. The mosque was constructed from 1996 to 2007. It is the largest mosque in the United Arab Emirates and the eighth largest mosque in the world. The building complex measures approximately 290 m (960 ft) by 420 m (1,380 ft), covering an area of more than 12 hectares (30 acres), exclusive of exterior landscaping and vehicle parking.

Sheikh Zayed Mosque-2 3D

As the country’s grand mosque, it is the key place of worship for Friday gathering and Eid prayers. During Eid it can be visited by more than 40,000 people.

Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque Center (SZGMC) offices are located in the east minarets. SZGMC manages the day-to-day operations, as a place of worship and Friday gathering, and also a center of learning and discovery through its educational cultural activities and visitor programs.

Sheikh Zayed Mosque-3 3D

The library, located in the north/east minaret, serves the community with classic books and publications addressing a range of Islamic subjects: sciences, civilization, calligraphy, the arts, coins and includes some rare publications dating back more than 200 years. In reflection of the diversity of the Islamic world and the United Arab Emirates, the collection comprises material in a broad range of languages, including Arabic, English, French, Italian, Spanish, German and Korean.


The Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque’s design and construction “unites the world”, using artisans and materials from many countries including Italy, Germany, Morocco, Pakistan, India, Turkey, Malaysia, Iran, China, United Kingdom, New Zealand, Greece and United Arab Emirates. More than 3,000 workers and 38 renowned contracting companies took part in the construction of the mosque. Natural materials were chosen for much of its design and construction due to their long-lasting qualities, including marble stone, gold, semi-precious stones, crystals and ceramics. It was built by the Italian company Impregilo.

The design of the Sheikh Zayed Mosque has been inspired by Persian, Mughal and Moorish mosque architecture, particularly the Badshahi Mosque inLahore, Pakistan and the Hassan II Mosque in Casablanca, Morocco being direct influences. The dome layout and floorplan of the mosque was inspired by the Badshahi Mosque and the architecture was inspired by Persian, Mughal and Moorish design. Its archways are quintessentially Moorish and its minarets classically Arab. The design of the mosque can be best described as a fusion of Arab, Persian, Mughal and Moorish architecture.

Dimensions and Statistics

Interior of the Main Prayer Hall in Sheikh Zayed Mosque
Interior of the Main Prayer Hall in Sheikh Zayed Mosque

The mosque is large enough to accommodate over 40,000 worshipers. The main prayer hall can accommodate over 7,000 worshipers. There are two smaller prayer halls, with a 1,500-capacity each, one of which is the female prayer hall.

There are four minarets on the four corners of the courtyard which rise about 107 m (351 ft) in height. The courtyard, with its floral design, measures about 17,000 m2 (180,000 sq ft),and is considered to be the largest example of marble mosaic in the world.

  • Sivec from Prilep, Macedonia was used on the external cladding (115,119 m2 (1,239,130 sq ft) of cladding has been used on the mosque, including the minarets)
  • Lasa from Laas, South Tyrol, Italy was used in the internal elevations
  • Makrana from Makrana India was used in the annexes and offices
  • Aquabiana and Biano from Italy
  • East White and Ming Green from China

Some Key Architectural Features

The Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque has many special and unique elements: The carpet in the main prayer hall is considered to be the world’s largest carpet made by Iran’s Carpet Company and designed by Iranian artist Ali Khaliqi. This carpet measures 5,627 m2 (60,570 sq ft), and was made by around 1,200-1,300 carpet knotters. The weight of this carpet is 35 ton and is predominantly made from wool (originating from New Zealand and Iran). There are 2,268,000,000 knots within the carpet and it took approximately two years to complete.

The Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque has seven imported chandeliers from Germany that incorporate millions of Swarovski crystals. The largest chandelier is the second largest known chandelier inside a mosque, the third largest in the world and has a 10 m (33 ft) diameter and a 15 m (49 ft) height.

The pools along the arcades reflect the mosque’s spectacular columns, which becomes even more glorious at night. The unique lightning system was designed by lightning architects Speirs + Major to reflect the phases of the moon. Beautiful bluish gray clouds are projected in lights onto the external walls and get brighter and darker according to the phase of the moon.

The 96 columns in the main prayer hall are clad with marble and inlaid with mother of pearl, one of the few places where you will see this craftsmanship.

The 99 names (qualities or attributes) of God (Allah) are featured on the Qibla wall in traditional Kufic calligraphy, designed by the prominent UAE calligrapher — Mohammed Mandi Al Tamimi. The Qibla wall also features subtle fibre-optic lighting, which is integrated as part of the organic design.

In total, three calligraphy styles — Naskhi, Thuluth and Kufic — are used throughout the mosque and were drafted by Mohammed Mandi Al Tamimi of the UAE, Farouk Haddad of Syria and Mohammed Allam of Jordan.

Rihanna Controversy

In 2013, United States-based singer Rihanna received negative criticism for taking photographs, with the Mosque in the background, during a private visit. During the incident, she was reported to have posed in a manner deemed offensive and provocative. Staff asked her to leave following the incident.


Front and entrance of the Sheikh Zayed Mosque
Front and entrance of the Sheikh Zayed Mosque
Water mirror and columns
Water mirror and columns
Inner Court Yard with Minaret
Inner Court Yard with Minaret
Inner Court Yard with storm clouds brewing
Inner Court Yard with storm clouds brewing

Source: Wikipedia

Decorative Stones of the Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque, Abu Dhabi

After sharing my mangrove kayaking pictures for this week’s “Monday Geology Picture” post, I thought I would share some more pictures from my January 2012 trip to Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. The day after kayaking, my friend Karima and I visited the stunningly beautiful and elaborate Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque. This impressive mosque was built for an estimated $545 million USD, is the size of 5 football fields, and can accommodate 40,000 worshipers. The mosque was built over many years and opened in 2007. The mosque welcomes tourists as well as Islamic worshipers. For our visit to the mosque, Karima and I donned conservative, respectful clothing (long skirts, long sleeves, and headscarves) and joined a tour group. The mosque is breath-taking– it was hard to believe, sometimes, that it was real. At times, I felt as if we had stepped into a magical world. I greatly enjoyed my visit to the mosque and highly recommend the tour to anyone visiting Abu Dhabi.

Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque

During the tour, I spent much of my time admiring the decorative building stones, which come in all colors, shapes, and lithologies and were likely sourced from all over the world. The primary building stone used in the mosque is a stunning white marble. I tried to identify the other decorative stones when I could. How many stones can you identify? Where do you think the stones might be from? Leave a comment below!

The Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque
The Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque
The Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque
The Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque
The Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque. Shoes are left outside the mosque in the courtyard.
The Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque. Shoes are left outside the mosque in the courtyard.
The Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque. More shoes in the courtyard.
The Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque. More shoes in the courtyard.
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque. An incredibel courtyard floor!
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque. An incredibel courtyard floor!
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque. Detail of a leaf.
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque. Detail of a leaf.
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque. Intricate stone flowers on the wall of the mosque.
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque. Intricate stone flowers on the wall of the mosque.
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque. More intricate stone flowers. How many different lithologies can you spot?
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque. More intricate stone flowers. How many different lithologies can you spot?
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque. Stone flowers everywhere!
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque. Stone flowers everywhere!
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque. A stunning chandelier.
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque. A stunning chandelier.
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque. Awestruck inside the mosque.
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque. Awestruck inside the mosque.
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque. Karima and I inside the mosque. The wall behind us features the 99 names of God in Islam.
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque. Karima and I inside the mosque. The wall behind us features the 99 names of God in Islam.
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque. The carpet inside the mosque is incredible- intricate and very, very beautiful. And also one of the largest carpets in the world!
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque. The carpet inside the mosque is incredible- intricate and very, very beautiful. And also one of the largest carpets in the world!
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque. Another view of the amazing carpet.
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque. Beautifully carved stone.
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque. Beautifully carved stone.
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque. Decorative tilework in one of the courtyards.
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque. Decorative tilework in one of the courtyards.
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque. Yours truly posing with some beautiful tilework.
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque. Yours truly posing with some beautiful tilework.
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque. More decorative stones (outside the main courtyard areas) with shoe for scale.
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque. More decorative stones (outside the main courtyard areas) with shoe for scale.
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque
Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque

The list of many of the marbles and semi-precious stones that were used in the Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque construction.

The different types of Major Marble supplied on site:

  • SIVEC Supplier FHL Country of Origin Greece/Macedonia
  • LASA Supplier Lasa Quarry Country of Origin Italy
  • MAKARANA Supplier Country of Origin India
  • AQUABIANCA Country of Origin Italy
  • BIANCO P Supplier Carrara Country of Origin Italy
  • MING GREEN Supplier UMGG Country of Origin China
  • EAST WHITE Supplier UMGG Country of Origin China

The External Columns the stones used are:

  1. Dark Lapis lazuli
  2. Light Lapis lazuli
  3. Red Agate
  4. Dark Amethyst
  5. Light Amethyst
  6. Dark Green Adventure
  7. Light Green Adventure
  8. Moss Agate
  9. Pink Adventure
  10. Dark Red Adventure
  11. Light Red Adventure
  12. Abalone Shell
  13. White Mother of Pearl
  14. Fancy Jasper
  15. Sodalite
  16. Haqiq Red
  17. All Veins in Leaves: White Jambu
  18. Mehndi Pfizer

Detail of many Stones being used by Sheikh Zayed Mosque

1. Marble

Marble is a non-foliated metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite. Geologists use the term “marble” to refer to metamorphosed limestone; however, stonemasons use the term more broadly to encompass unmetamorphosed limestone. Marble is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material.

A block of marble
A block of marble
Folded and weathered marble at General Carrera Lake, Chile
Folded and weathered marble at General Carrera Lake, Chile


The Taj Mahal is entirely clad in marble.
The Taj Mahal is entirely clad in marble.

The word “marble” derives from the Greek μάρμαρον (mármaron),from μάρμαρος (mármaros), “crystalline rock, shining stone”, perhaps from the verb μαρμαίρω (marmaírō), “to flash, sparkle, gleam”; R. S. P. Beekes has suggested that a “Pre-Greek origin is probable.”

This stem is also the basis for the English word marmoreal, meaning “marble-like.” While the English term resembles the French marbre, most other European languages (e.g. Spanish mármol, Italian marmo, Portuguese mármore,Welsh marmor, German, Norwegian, Danish and Swedish marmor, Persian and Irish marmar, Dutch marmer,Slovenian marmor, Polish marmur, Turkish mermer, Czech mramor and Russian мрáмор) follow the original Greek.

Physical Origins

Natural patterns on the polished surface of Breccia or
Natural patterns on the polished surface of Breccia or “landscape marble” can resemble a city skyline or even trees, and were used as inlays for furniture, etc.

Marble is a rock resulting from metamorphism of sedimentary carbonate rocks, most commonly limestone or dolomite rock. Metamorphism causes variable recrystallization of the original carbonate mineral grains. The resulting marble rock is typically composed of an interlocking mosaic of carbonate crystals. Primary sedimentary textures and structures of the original carbonate rock (protolith) have typically been modified or destroyed.

Pure white marble is the result of metamorphism of a very pure (silicate-poor) limestone or dolomite protolith. The characteristic swirls and veins of many colored marble varieties are usually due to various mineral impurities such as clay, silt, sand, iron oxides, or chert which were originally present as grains or layers in the limestone. Green coloration is often due to serpentine resulting from originally high magnesium limestone or dolostone with silica impurities. These various impurities have been mobilized and recrystallized by the intense pressure and heat of the metamorphism.


Examples of historically notable marble varieties and locations:
Marble Color Location Country
Carrara marble white or blue-gray Carrara Italy
Al-Andalus marble Red Malaga Spain
Black marble Black, white veins Tongshan County, Hubei China
Costa Sol marble Bronze Malaga Spain
San Cristobal Ivory Cream Beige Teba Spain
Connemara marble green Connemara Ireland
Creole marble white and blue/black Pickens County, Georgia United States
Etowah marble pink, salmon, rose Pickens County, Georgia United States
Murphy marble white Pickens and Gilmer Counties, Georgia United States
Parian marble pure-white, fine-grained Island of Paros Greece
Pentelic marble pure-white, fine-grained semitranslucent Penteliko Mountain, Athens Greece
Purbeck marble Gray/brown Isle of Purbeck United Kingdom
Ruskeala marble white near Ruskeala, Karelia Russia
Rușchița marble white, pinkish, reddish Rușchița, Caraș-Severin County, Poiana Rusca Mountains Romania
Sienna marble yellow with violet, red, blue or white veins near Siena, Tuscany Italy
Bianco Sivec white near Prilep Republic of Macedonia
Swedish green marble green near Kolmården, Södermanland Sweden
Sylacauga marble white Talladega County, Alabama United States
Vermont marble white Proctor, Vermont United States
Yule marble uniform pure white near Marble, Colorado United States
Wunsiedel marble white Wunsiedel, Bavaria Germany



Ritual amphora of veined marble from Zakros. New palace period (1500-1450 BC), Heraklion Archaeological Museum, Crete.
Ritual amphora of veined marble from Zakros. New palace period (1500-1450 BC), Heraklion Archaeological Museum, Crete.

White marble has been prized for its use in sculptures since classical times. This preference has to do with its softness, which made it easier to carve, relative isotropy and homogeneity, and a relative resistance to shattering. Also, the low index of refraction of calcite allows light to penetrate several millimeters into the stone before being scattered out, resulting in the characteristic waxy look which gives “life” to marble sculptures of any kind, which is why many sculptors preferred and still prefer marble for sculpting.

Construction Marble

Construction marble is a stone which is composed of calcite, dolomite or serpentine which is capable of taking a polish. More generally in construction, specifically the dimension stone trade, the term “marble” is used for any crystalline calcitic rock (and some non-calcitic rocks) useful as building stone. For example, Tennessee marble is really a dense granular fossiliferous gray to pink to maroon Ordovician limestone that geologists call the Holston Formation.

In 2013, the Ashgabat city was included in the Guinness Book of Records as the world’s highest concentration of white marble buildings.


Marble Products in Romblon, Philippines.
Marble Products in Romblon, Philippines.

According to the United States Geological Survey, U.S. domestic marble production in 2006 was 46,400 tons valued at $18.1 million, compared to 72,300 tons valued at $18.9 million in 2005. Crushed marble production (for aggregate and industrial uses) in 2006 was 11.8 million tons valued at $116 million, of which 6.5 million tons was finely ground calcium carbonate and the rest was construction aggregate. For comparison, 2005 crushed marble production was 7.76 million tons valued at $58.7 million, of which 4.8 million tons was finely ground calcium carbonate and the rest was construction aggregate. U.S. dimension marble demand is about 1.3 million tons. The DSAN World Demand for (finished) Marble Index has shown a growth of 12% annually for the 2000–2006 period, compared to 10.5% annually for the 2000–2005 period. The largest dimension marble application is tile.

Marble production is dominated by 4 countries that account for almost half of world production of marble and decorative stone. Italy is the world leader in marble production, with 20% share in global marble production followed by China with 16% of world production. India is third ranking with 10% of world production, followed by Spain in fourth ranking position with 6% of world production. The other marble producing countries of the world represent the remaining other half of world marble production.

Microbial Degradation

The haloalkaliphilic methylotrophic bacterium Methylophaga murata was isolated from deteriorating marble in the Kremlin.Bacterial and fungal degradation was detected in four samples of marble from Milan cathedral; black Cladosporium attacked dried acrylic resin using melanin.

Cultural Associations

As the favorite medium for Greek and Roman sculptors and architects (see classical sculpture), marble has become a cultural symbol of tradition and refined taste. Its extremely varied and colorful patterns make it a favorite decorative material, and it is often imitated in background patterns for computer displays, etc.

Jadwiga of Poland's sarcophagus by Antoni Madeyski, Wawel Cathedral, Cracow
Jadwiga of Poland’s sarcophagus by Antoni Madeyski, Wawel Cathedral, Cracow

Places named after the stone include Marblehead, Ohio; Marblehead, Massachusetts; Marble Arch, London; the Sea of Marmara; India’s Marble Rocks; and the towns of Marble, Minnesota; Marble, Colorado; Marble Falls, Texas, andMarble Hill, Manhattan, New York. The Elgin Marbles are marble sculptures from the Parthenon that are on display in the British Museum. They were brought to Britain by the Earl of Elgin.

Artificial Marble

Marble dust is combined with cement or synthetic resins to make reconstituted or cultured marble. The appearance of marble can be simulated with faux marbling, a painting technique that imitates the stone’s color patterns.

Source: Wikipedia

2. Lapis Lazuli

Lapis lazuli /ˈlæpɪs ləˈzl/ or /ˈlæʒl/ (sometimes abbreviated to lapis) is a deep blue semi-precious stone that has been prized since antiquity for its intense color.

Lapis lazuli from Afghanistan in its natural state
Lapis lazuli from Afghanistan in its natural state

Lapis lazuli was being mined in the Sar-i Sang mines and in other mines in the Badakhshan province in northeast Afghanistan as early as the 7th millennium BC,Lapis beads have been found at neolithic burials inMehrgarh, the Caucasus, and even as far from Afghanistan as Mauritania. It was used for the eyebrows on the funeral mask of King Tutankhamun (1341–1323 BC).

At the end of the Middle Ages, lapis lazuli began to be exported to Europe, where it was ground into powder and made into ultramarine, the finest and most expensive of all blue pigments. It was used by the most important artists of the Renaissance and Baroque, including Masaccio, Perugino, Titian and Vermeer, and was often reserved for the clothing of the central figure of the painting, especially the Virgin Mary.

Today mines in northeast Afghanistan are still the major source of lapis lazuli. Important amounts are also produced from mines west of Lake Baikal in Russia, and in the Andes mountains in Chile. Smaller quantities are mined in Italy, Mongolia, the United States and Canada


Lapis is the Latin word for “stone” and lazuli is the genitive form of the Medieval Latin lazulum, which is taken from the Arabic لازورد lāzaward, itself from the Persian لاژورد lāžaward, which is the name of the stone in Persian and also of a place where lapis lazuli was mined.

The name of the stone came to be associated with its color. The English word azure, French azur, the Italian azzurro, the Polish lazur, Romanian azur andazuriu, and the Portuguese and Spanish azul, Hungarian azúr all come from the name and color of lapis lazuli.

Science and Uses

A sample from the Sar-i Sang mine in Afghanistan, where lapis lazuli has been mined since the 7th Millennium BC.
A sample from the Sar-i Sang mine in Afghanistan, where lapis lazuli has been mined since the 7th Millennium BC.
A polished block of lapis lazuli
A polished block of lapis lazuli
Natural ultramarine pigment made from ground lapis lazuli. This was the most expensive blue pigment during the Renaissance, often reserved for depicting the robes of Angels or the Virgin Mary.
Natural ultramarine pigment made from ground lapis lazuli. This was the most expensive blue pigment during the Renaissance, often reserved for depicting the robes of Angels or the Virgin Mary.


Lapis lazuli is a rock whose most important mineral component is lazurite (25% to 40%), a feldspathoid silicate mineral with the formula (Na,Ca)8(AlSiO4)6(S,SO4,Cl)1-2. Most lapis lazuli also contains calcite (white), sodalite (blue), and pyrite (metallic yellow). Other possible constituents:augite; diopside; enstatite; mica; hauynite; hornblende, and nosean. Some lapis lazuli contains trace amounts of the sulfur-rich löllingite variety geyerite.

Lapis lazuli usually occurs in crystalline marble as a result of contact metamorphism.


The intense blue color is due to the presence of the S3 radical anion in the crystal. An electronic excitation of one electron from the highest doubly filledmolecular orbital (No. 24) into the lowest singly occupied orbital (No. 25) results in a very intense absorption line at λmax ~617 nm.


Lapis lazuli is found in limestone in the Kokcha River valley of Badakhshan province in northeastern Afghanistan, where the Sar-e-Sang mine deposits have been worked for more than 6,000 years. Afghanistan was the source of lapis for the ancient Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations, as well as the later Greeks and Romans. Ancient Egyptians obtained this material through trade from Afghanistan. During the height of the Indus valley civilization about 2000 BC, the Harappan colony now known as Shortugai was established near the lapis mines.

In addition to the Afghan deposits, lapis is also extracted in the Andes (near Ovalle, Chile); and to the west of Lake Baikal in Siberia, Russia, at the Tultui Lazurite deposit. It is mined in smaller amounts Angola; Argentina; Burma; Pakistan; Canada; Italy, India; and in the USA in California and Colorado.


Lapis lazuli is commercially synthesized or simulated by the Gilson process, which is used to make artificial ultramarine and hydrous zinc phosphates.[14] It may also be substituted by spinel or sodalite, or by dyed jasper or howlite.


Lapis takes an excellent polish and can be made into jewelry, carvings, boxes, mosaics, ornaments, and vases. It was also ground and processed to make thepigment ultramarine, widely used during the Renaissance in frescoes and oil painting. Its usage as a pigment in oil paint largely ended in the early 19th century when a chemically identical synthetic variety became available.

History and Art

A Mesopotamian lapis lazuli pendant circa 2900 BC.
A Mesopotamian lapis lazuli pendant circa 2900 BC.
A lapis lazuli bowl from Iran (End of 3rd, beginning 2nd millennium BC)
A lapis lazuli bowl from Iran (End of 3rd, beginning 2nd millennium BC)
Close-up of the lapis lazuli inlays in the 25th-century BC Statue of Ebih-Il
Close-up of the lapis lazuli inlays in the 25th-century BC Statue of Ebih-Il
In the funeral mask of Tutankhamun (1341-1323 BC), lapis lazuli was used for the eyebrows of the young Pharaoh.
In the funeral mask of Tutankhamun (1341-1323 BC), lapis lazuli was used for the eyebrows of the young Pharaoh.
An elephant carving on high-quality lapis lazuli, that includes gold-colored pyrite, is a rare example of Mughal inspired art. (length: 8 cm (3.1 in))
An elephant carving on high-quality lapis lazuli, that includes gold-colored pyrite, is a rare example of Mughal inspired art. (length: 8 cm (3.1 in))
Carved lapis lazuli mountain scene, from the Chinese Qing Dynasty (1644–1912).
Carved lapis lazuli mountain scene, from the Chinese Qing Dynasty (1644–1912).
Girl with a Pearl Earring (1665) by Johannes Vermeer is painted with ultramarine, a natural pigment made from lapis lazuli.
Girl with a Pearl Earring (1665) by Johannes Vermeer is painted with ultramarine, a natural pigment made from lapis lazuli.
A lapis lazuli urn two meters high from the State Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg, Russia (19th century).
A lapis lazuli urn two meters high from the State Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg, Russia (19th century).

In the Ancient World

Lapis lazuli has been mined in Afghanistan and exported to the Mediterranean world and South Asia since the Neolithic age. Lapis lazuli beads have been found at Mehrgarh, a neolithic site near Quetta in Pakistan, on the ancient trade route between Afghanistan and the Indus Valley, dating to the 7th millennium. Quantities of these beads have also been found at 4th millennium BC settlements in Northern Mesopotamia, and at the Bronze Age site of Shahr-e Sukhteh in southeast Iran (3rd millennium BC). A dagger handle with a lapis handle, a bowl inlaid with lapis, and amulets, beads, and inlays representing eyebrows and beards, were found in the Royal Tombs of the Sumerian city-state of Ur from the 3rd Millennium BC.

Lapis was also used in ancient Mesopotamia by the Akkadians, Assyrians, and Babylonians for seals and jewelry. In the Mesopotamian poem, the Epic of Gilgamesh (17th-18th Century BC); one of the oldest known works of literature, lapis lazuli is mentioned several times. The Statue of Ebih-Il, a 3rd millennium BC statue found in the ancient city-state of Mari in modern-day Syria, now in the Louvre, uses lapis lazuli inlays for the irises of the eyes.

Lapis lazuli also made its way across the Mediterranean to ancient Egypt, where it was a favorite stone for amulets and ornaments such as scarabs; Lapis jewelry has been found at excavations of the Predynastic Egyptian site Naqada (3300–3100 BC). At Karnak, the relief carvings of Thutmose III (1479-1429 BC) show fragments and barrel-shaped pieces lapis lazuli being delivered to him as tribute. Powdered lapis was used as eyeshadow by Cleopatra.

In late classical times and as late as the Middle Ages, lapis lazuli was often called sapphire (sapphirus in Latin, sappir in Hebrew), though it had little to do with the stone today known as the blue corundum variety sapphire. In his book on stones, the Greek scientist Theophrastus described “the sapphirus, which is speckled with gold,” a description which matches lapis lazuli.

There are many references to sapphires in the Old Testament, but most scholars agree that, since sapphires were not known before the Roman Empire, they most likely are references to lapis lazuli. For instance, Exodus 24:10: “As they saw the God of Israel, and there was under his feet as it were a paved work of a sapphire stone..” (KJV). The term used in the Latin Vulgate Bible in this citation is “lapidus sapphiri,” the term for lapis lazuli. In modern translations of the Bible, such as the New Living Translation Second Edition, references a surface like brilliant blue lapis lazuli as clear as the sky as being under God’s feet.

Source: Wikipedia

3. Agate

Agate /ˈæɡət/ is a cryptocrystalline variety of silica, chiefly chalcedony, characterised by its fineness of grain and brightness of color. Although agates may be found in various kinds of rock, they are classically associated with volcanic rocks and can be common in certain metamorphic rocks.

Banded agate (agate-like onyx); the specimen is 2.5 cm (1 inch) wide
Banded agate (agate-like onyx); the specimen is 2.5 cm (1 inch) wide

Etymology and History

The stone was given its name by Theophrastus, a Greek philosopher and naturalist, who discovered the stone along the shore line of the river Achates (Greek: Ἀχάτης) sometime between the 4th and 3rd centuries BC.Colorful agates and other chalcedonies were obtained over 3,000 years ago from the Achates River, now calledDirillo, in Sicily.

Ancient Use

Agate is one of the most common materials used in the art of hardstone carving, and has been recovered at a number of ancient sites, indicating its widespread use in the ancient world; for example, archaeological recovery at the Knossos site on Crete illustrates its role in Bronze Age Minoan culture.

Formation and Characteristics

Botswana agate
Botswana agate

Most agates occur as nodules in volcanic rocks or ancient lavas, in former cavities produced by volatiles in the original molten mass, which were then filled, wholly or partially, by siliceous matter deposited in regular layers upon the walls. Agate has also been known to fill veins or cracks in volcanic or altered rock underlain by granitic intrusive masses. Such agates, when cut transversely, exhibit a succession of parallel lines, often of extreme tenuity, giving a banded appearance to the section. Such stones are known as banded agate, riband agate andstriped agate.

In the formation of an ordinary agate, it is probable that waters containing silica in solution—derived, perhaps, from the decomposition of some of the silicates in the lava itself—percolated through the rock and deposited a siliceous coating on the interior of the vesicles. Variations in the character of the solution or in the conditions of deposition may cause a corresponding variation in the successive layers, so that bands of chalcedony often alternate with layers of crystalline quartz. Several vapour-vesicles may unite while the rock is still viscous, and thus form a large cavity which may become the home of an agate of exceptional size; thus a Brazilian geode lined with amethyst and weighing 35 tons was exhibited at the Düsseldorf Exhibition of 1902. Perhaps the most comprehensive review of agate chemistry is a recent text by Moxon cited below.

The first deposit on the wall of a cavity, forming the “skin” of the agate, is generally a dark greenish mineral substance, like celadonite, delessite or “green earth”, which are rich in iron probably derived from the decomposition of the augite in the enclosing volcanic rock. This green silicate may give rise by alteration to a brown iron oxide (limonite), producing a rusty appearance on the outside of the agate-nodule. The outer surface of an agate, freed from its matrix, is often pitted and rough, apparently in consequence of the removal of the original coating. The first layer spread over the wall of the cavity has been called the “priming”, and upon this base, zeolitic minerals may be deposited.

Many agates are hollow, since deposition has not proceeded far enough to fill the cavity, and in such cases the last deposit commonly consists of drusy quartz, sometimes amethystine, having the apices of the crystals directed towards the free space so as to form a crystal-lined cavity or geode.

When the matrix in which the agates are embedded disintegrates, they are set free. The agates are extremely resistant to weathering and remain as nodules in the soil, or are deposited as gravel in streams and along shorelines.

Types of Agate

Agatized Coral
Agatized Coral

A Mexican agate, showing only a single eye, has received the name of cyclops agate. Included matter of a green, golden, red, black or other color or combinations embedded in the chalcedony and disposed in filaments and other forms suggestive of vegetable growth, gives rise to dendritic or moss agate. Dendritic agates have fern like patterns in them formed due to the presence of manganese and iron oxides. Other types of included matter deposited during agate-building include sagenitic growths (radial mineral crystals) and chunks of entrapped detritus (such as sand, ash, or mud). Occasionally agate fills a void left by decomposed vegetative material such as a tree limb or root and is called limb cast agate due to its appearance. Enhydro agate contains tiny inclusions of water, sometimes with air bubbles.

Turritella agate is formed from silicified fossil Elimia tenera (erroneously considered Turritella) shells. E. tenera are spiral freshwater gastropodshaving elongated, spiral shells composed of many whorls. Similarly, coral, petrified wood and other organic remains or porous rocks can also become agatized. Agatized coral is often referred to as Petoskey stone or agate.

“Turritella agate” (Elimia tenera) from Green River Formation, Wyoming

Greek agate is a name given to pale white to tan colored agate found in Sicily back to 400 B.C. The Greeks used it for making jewelry and beads. Even though the stone had been around centuries and was known to both the Sumerians and the Egyptians, both who used the gem for decoration and for playing important parts in their religious ceremonies, any agate of this color from Sicily, once an ancient Greek colony, is called Greek agate.

Another type of agate is Brazilian agate, which is found as sizable geodes of layered nodules. These occur in brownish tones interlayered with white and gray. Quartz forms within these nodules, creating a striking specimen when cut opposite the layered growth axis. It is often dyed in various colors for ornamental purposes.

Certain stones, when examined in thin sections by transmitted light, show a diffraction spectrum due to the extreme delicacy of the successive bands, whence they are termed rainbow agates. Often agate coexists with layers or masses of opal, jasper or crystalline quartz due to ambient variations during the formation process.

Other forms of agate include Lake Superior agate; carnelian agate (has reddish hues); Botswana agate; blue lace agate; plume agate; condor agate, tube agate (with visible flow channels or pinhole-sized “tubes”); fortification agate (with contrasting concentric banding reminiscent of defensive ditches and walls around ancient forts); fire agate (showing internal flash or “fire”, the result of a layer of clear agate over a layer of hydrothermally deposited hematite); and Mexican crazy-lace agate, which often exhibits a brightly colored, complexly banded pattern (also called Rodeo Agate and Rosetta Stone depending on who owned the mine at the time).

Uses in Industry and Art

541px-Byzantine_-_The_-Rubens_Vase-_-_Walters_42562Industry uses agates chiefly to make ornaments such as pins, brooches or other types of jewelry, paper knives, inkstands, marbles and seals. Agate is also still used today for decorative displays, cabochons, beads, carvings and Intarsia art as well as face-polished and tumble-polished specimens of varying size and origin. Because of its hardness and ability to resist acids, agate is used to make mortars and pestles to crush and mix chemicals. Because of the high polish possible with agate it has been used for centuries for leather burnishing tools. Idar-Oberstein was one of the centers which made use of agate on an industrial scale. Where in the beginning locally found agates were used to make all types of objects for the European market, this became a globalized business around the turn of the 20th century: Idar-Oberstein imported large quantities of agate from Brazil, as ship’s ballast. Making use of a variety of proprietary chemical processes, they produced colored beads that were sold around the globe. Agates have long been used in arts and crafts. The sanctuary of a Presbyterian church in Yachats, Oregon, has six windows with panes made of agates collected from the local beaches.

Health Impact

A 15 pound (6.8 kg) tumbler barrel full of glistening tumble-polished agate and jasper.
A 15 pound (6.8 kg) tumbler barrel full of glistening tumble-polished agate and jasper.

Respiratory diseases such as Silicosis and higher incidence of Tuberculosis among workers involved in the agate industry has been reported from India and China.

Source: Wikipedia

4. Amethyst

Amethyst is a violet variety of quartz often used in jewelry. The name comes from the Ancient Greek a- (“not”) and μέθυστος methustos (“intoxicated”), a reference to the belief that the stone protected its owner fromdrunkenness. The ancient Greeks and Romans wore amethyst and made drinking vessels of it in the belief that it would prevent intoxication. It is one of several forms of quartz. Amethyst is a semiprecious stone and is the traditional birthstone for February.

Amethyst cluster from Magaliesburg, South Africa.
Amethyst cluster from Magaliesburg, South Africa.


Amethyst is a purple variety of quartz (SiO2) and owes its violet color to irradiation, iron impurities (in some cases in conjunction with transition element impurities), and the presence of trace elements, which result in complex crystal lattice substitutions. The hardness of the mineral is the same as quartz, thus it is suitable for use in jewelry.

Hue and Tone

Faceted amethyst
Faceted amethyst

Amethyst occurs in primary hues from a light pinkish violet to a deep purple. Amethyst may exhibit one or both secondary hues, red and blue. The best varieties of Amethysts can be found in Siberia, Sri Lanka, Brazil and the far East. The ideal grade is called “Deep Siberian” and has a primary purple hue of around 75–80%, with 15–20% blue and (depending on the light source) red secondary hues. Green quartz is sometimes incorrectly called green amethyst, which is a misnomer and not an appropriate name for the material, the proper terminology being Prasiolite. Other names for green quartz are vermarine or lime citrine.

Of very variable intensity, the color of amethyst is often laid out in stripes parallel to the final faces of the crystal. One aspect in the art of lapidaryinvolves correctly cutting the stone to place the color in a way that makes the tone of the finished gem homogeneous. Often, the fact that sometimes only a thin surface layer of violet color is present in the stone or that the color is not homogeneous makes for a difficult cutting.

Emerald cut amethyst
Emerald cut amethyst

The color of amethyst has been demonstrated to result from substitution by irradiation of trivalent iron (Fe3+) for silicon in the structure, in the presence of trace elements of large ionic radius, and, to a certain extent, the amethyst color can naturally result from displacement of transition elements even if the iron concentration is low. Natural amethyst is dichroic in reddish violet and bluish violet, but when heated, turns yellow-orange, yellow-brown, or dark brownish and may resemble citrine, but loses its dichroism, unlike genuine citrine. When partially heated, amethyst can result in ametrine.

Amethyst can fade in tone if overexposed to light sources and can be artificially darkened with adequate irradiation.


Roman intaglio engraved gem of Caracalla in amethyst, once in the Treasury of Sainte-Chapelle.
Roman intaglio engraved gem of Caracalla in amethyst, once in the Treasury of Sainte-Chapelle.

Amethyst was used as a gemstone by the ancient Egyptians and was largely employed in antiquity for intaglio engraved gems.

The Greeks believed amethyst gems could prevent intoxication, while medieval European soldiers wore amethyst amulets as protection in battle in the belief that amethysts heal people and keep them cool-headed. Beads of amethyst were found in Anglo-Saxon graves in England.

A large geode, or “amethyst-grotto”, from near Santa Cruz in southern Brazil was presented at the 1902 exhibition inDüsseldorf, Germany.

In the 19th century, the color of amethyst was attributed to the presence of manganese. However, since it is capable of being greatly altered and even discharged by heat, the color was believed by some authorities to be from an organic source. Ferric thiocyanate has been suggested, and sulfur was said to have been detected in the mineral.

Synthetic Amethyst

Synthetic amethyst is produced by gamma-ray, x-ray or electron beam irradiation of clear quartz which has been first doped with ferric impurities. On exposure to heat, the irradiation effects can be partially cancelled and amethyst generally becomes yellow or even green, and much of the citrine, cairngorm, or yellow quartz of jewelry is said to be merely “burnt amethyst”.

Synthetic amethyst is made to imitate the best quality amethyst. Its chemical and physical properties are so similar to that of natural amethyst that it can not be differentiated with absolute certainty without advanced gemnological testing (which is often cost-prohibitive). There is one test based on “Brazil law twinning” (a form of quartz twinning where right and left hand quartz structures are combined in a single crystal) which can be used to identify synthetic amethyst rather easily. It is possible to synthesize twinned amethyst, but this type is not available in large quantities in the market.


The Greek word “amethystos” may be translated as “not drunken”, from Greek a-, “not” + methustos, “intoxicated”. Amethyst was considered to be a strong antidote against drunkenness, which is why wine goblets were often carved from it. In his poem “L’Amethyste, ou les Amours de Bacchus et d’Amethyste” (Amethyst or the loves of Bacchus and Amethyste), the French poet Remy Belleau (1528–1577) invented a myth in which Bacchus, the god of intoxication, of wine, and grapes was pursuing a maiden named Amethyste, who refused his affections. Amethyste prayed to the gods to remain chaste, a prayer which the chaste goddess Diana answered, transforming her into a white stone. Humbled by Amethyste’s desire to remain chaste, Bacchus poured wine over the stone as an offering, dyeing the crystals purple.

Variations of the story include that Dionysus had been insulted by a mortal and swore to slay the next mortal who crossed his path, creating fierce tigers to carry out his wrath. The mortal turned out to be a beautiful young woman, Amethystos, who was on her way to pay tribute to Artemis. Her life was spared by Artemis, who transformed the maiden into a statue of pure crystalline quartz to protect her from the brutal claws. Dionysus wept tears of wine in remorse for his action at the sight of the beautiful statue. The god’s tears then stained the quartz purple.

This myth and its variations are not found in classical sources. Although the titan Rhea does present Dionysus with an amethyst stone to preserve the wine-drinker’s sanity in historical text.

Geographic Distribution

Amethyst is produced in abundance from the state of Minas Gerais in Brazil where it occurs in large geodes within volcanic rocks. Many of the hollow agates of southwestern Brazil and Uruguay contain a crop of amethyst crystals in the interior. Artigas, Uruguay and neighboring Brazilian state Rio Grande do Sul are large world producers exceeding in quantity Minas Gerais, as well as Mato Grosso, Espirito Santo, Bahia, and Ceará states, all amethyst producers of importance in Brazil.

An amethyst geode that formed when large crystals grew in open spaces inside the rock.
An amethyst geode that formed when large crystals grew in open spaces inside the rock.

It is also found and mined in South Korea. The largest opencast amethyst vein in the world is in Maissau, Lower Austria. Much fine amethyst comes fromRussia, especially from near Mursinka in the Ekaterinburg district, where it occurs in drusy cavities in granitic rocks. Many localities in south India yield amethyst. One of the largest global amethyst producers is Zambia in southern Africa with an annual production of about 1000 tonnes.

Amethyst occurs at many localities in the United States. Among these may be mentioned: the Mazatzal Mountain region in Gila and Maricopa Counties,Arizona; Red Feather Lakes, near Ft Collins, Colorado; Amethyst Mountain, Texas; Yellowstone National Park; Delaware County, Pennsylvania; Haywood County, North Carolina; Deer Hill and Stow, Maine and in the Lake Superior region of Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan. Amethyst is relatively common in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Nova Scotia. The largest amethyst mine in North America is located in Thunder Bay, Ontario.


Up until the 18th century, amethyst was included in the cardinal, or most valuable, gemstones (along with diamond, sapphire, ruby, and emerald). However, since the discovery of extensive deposits in locations such as Brazil, it has lost most of its value.

Collectors look for depth of color, possibly with red flashes if cut conventionally.As amethyst is readily available in large structures the value of the gem is not primarily defined by carat weight; this is different to most gemstones where the carat weight exponentially increases the value of the stone. The biggest factor in the value of amethyst is the colour displayed.

The highest grade amethyst (called “Deep Russian”) is exceptionally rare and therefore, when one is found, its value is dependent on the demand of collectors. It is, however, still orders of magnitude lower than the highest grade sapphires or rubies (padparadscha sapphire or “pigeon’s blood” ruby).

 5. Jasper

Jasper, a form of chalcedony, is an opaque, impure variety of silica, usually red, yellow, brown or green in color; and rarely blue. The common red color is due to iron(III) inclusions in what is basically a chert. The mineral breaks with a smooth surface, and is used for ornamentation or as a gemstone. It can be highly polished and is used for vases,seals, and snuff boxes. The specific gravity of jasper is typically 2.5 to 2.9.[3] Along with Heliotrope (bloodstone), jasper is one of the traditional birthstones for March. Jaspilite is a banded iron formation rock that often has distinctive bands of jasper.

Jasper outcrop, Bucegi Mountains, Romania
Jasper outcrop, Bucegi Mountains, Romania

Etymology and History

Moveable ring from 664 to 322 BC (Late Period). Green jasper and gold.[4] The Walters Art Museum
Moveable ring from 664 to 322 BC (Late Period). Green jasper and gold.[4] The Walters Art Museum

The name means “spotted or speckled stone”, and is derived via Old French jaspre (variant of Anglo-Norman jaspe) and Latiniaspidem (nom. iaspis)) from Greek ἴασπις iaspis, (feminine noun) from a Semitic language (cf. Hebrew יושפה yushphah,Akkadian yashupu).

Green jasper was used to make bow drills in Mehrgarh between 4th and 5th millennium BC. Jasper is known to have been a favorite gem in the ancient world; its name can be traced back in Arabic, Persian, Hebrew, Assyrian, Greek and Latin. OnMinoan Crete, jasper was carved to produce seals circa 1800 BC, as evidenced by archaeological recoveries at the palace ofKnossos.

Although the term jasper is now restricted to opaque quartz, the ancient iaspis was a stone of considerable translucency. The jasper of antiquity was in many cases distinctly green, for it is often compared to the emerald and other green objects. Jasper is referred to in the Niebelungenlied as being clear and green. Probably the jasper of the ancients included stones which would now be classed as chalcedony, and the emerald-like jasper may have been akin to the modern chrysoprase. The Hebrew word yushphah may have designated a green jasper. Flinders Petrie suggested that the odem, the first stone on the High Priest’s breastplate, was a red jasper, whilst tarshish, the tenth stone, may have been a yellow jasper.


Goat-headed basket carved from red jasper. Russian, late 19th century, Kremlin Armoury
Goat-headed basket carved from red jasper. Russian, late 19th century, Kremlin Armoury

Jasper is an opaque rock of virtually any color stemming from the mineral content of the original sediments or ash. Patterns arise during the consolidation process forming flow and depositional patterns in the original silica richsediment or volcanic ash. Hydrothermal circulation is generally thought to be required in the formation of jasper.

Jasper can be modified by the diffusion of minerals along discontinuities providing the appearance of vegetative growth, i.e., dendritic. The original materials are often fractured and/or distorted, after deposition, into myriad beautiful patterns which are to be later filled with other colorful minerals. Weathering, with time, will create intensely colored superficial rinds.

The classification and naming of jasper presents a challenge. Terms attributed to various well-defined materials includes the geographic locality where it is found, sometimes quite restricted such as “Bruneau” (a canyon) and “Lahontan” (a lake), rivers and even individual mountains, many are fanciful such as “Forest Fire” or “Rainbow”, while others are descriptive such as “Autumn”, “Porcelain” or “Dalmatian”. A few are designated by the country of origin such as a Brown Egyptian or Red African leaving tremendous latitude as to what is called what.

Picture jaspers exhibit combinations of patterns (such as banding from flow or depositional patterns (from water or wind), dendritic or color variations) resulting in what appear to be scenes or images, on a cut section. Diffusion from a center produces a distinctive orbicular appearance, i.e., Leopard Skin Jasper, or linear banding from a fracture as seen in Leisegang Jasper. Healed, fragmented rock produces brecciated (broken) jasper. Examples of this can be seen at Llanddwyn Island in Wales.

The term basanite has occasionally been used to refer to a variety of jasper, for example a black flinty or cherty jasper found in several New England states of the USA. Such varieties of jasper are also informally known as Lydian stone or lydite and have been used as touchstones in testing the purity of precious metal alloys.


Brecciated red jasper tumbled smooth, 1 in (2.5 cm)
Brecciated red jasper tumbled smooth, 1 in (2.5 cm)
Brecciated yellow jasper, cut and oiled
Brecciated yellow jasper, cut and oiled
Dalmatian jasper, Pune, India
Dalmatian jasper, Pune, India
Green jasper rough, Montjuïc, Barcelona
Green jasper rough, Montjuïc, Barcelona
Orbicular jasper, 5 cm (2.0 in), Madagascar
Orbicular jasper, 5 cm (2.0 in), Madagascar
Picture jasper, Bruneau, Idaho. A. E. Seaman Mineral Museum
Picture jasper, Bruneau, Idaho. A. E. Seaman Mineral Museum

Source: Wikipedia

6. Carnelian

Polished carnelian/sard pebbles. Scale is in millimeters.
Polished carnelian/sard pebbles. Scale is in millimeters.

Carnelian (also spelled cornelian) is a brownish-red mineral which is commonly used as a semi-precious gemstone. Similar to carnelian is sard, which is generally harder and darker (the difference is not rigidly defined, and the two names are often used interchangeably). Both carnelian and sard are varieties of the silica mineral chalcedony colored by impurities of iron oxide. The color can vary greatly, ranging from pale orange to an intense almost-black coloration. It is most commonly found in Brazil, India, Siberia, and Germany.


Carnelian intaglio with a Ptolemaic queen, Hellenistic artwork, Cabinet des Médailles
Carnelian intaglio with a Ptolemaic queen, Hellenistic artwork, Cabinet des Médailles

The bow drill was used to drill holes into carnelian in Mehrgarh between 4th-5th millennium BC. Carnelian was recovered from Bronze AgeMinoan layers at Knossos on Crete in a form that demonstrated its use in decorative arts; this use dates to approximately 1800 BC. Carnelian was used widely during Roman times to make engraved gems for signet or seal rings for imprinting a seal with wax on correspondence or other important documents. Hot wax does not stick to carnelian. Sard was used for Assyrian cylinder seals, Egyptian andPhoenician scarabs, and early Greek and Etruscan gems. TheHebrew odem (translated sardius), the first stone in the High Priest’s breastplate, was a red stone, probably sard but perhaps red jasper.


Polish signet ring in light-orange Carnelian intaglio showing Korwin coat of arms
Polish signet ring in light-orange Carnelian intaglio showing Korwin coat of arms
Necklace with gold beads and carnelian beads, Cypriot artwork with Mycenaean inspiration, ca. 1400–1200 BC. From Enkomi. British Museum
Necklace with gold beads and carnelian beads, Cypriot artwork with Mycenaean inspiration, ca. 1400–1200 BC. From Enkomi. British Museum

Although now the more common term, “carnelian” is a 16th-century corruption of the 14th-century word “cornelian” (and its associated orthographies corneline and cornalyn). Cornelian, cognate with similar words in several Romance languages, comes from the Mediaeval Latin corneolus, itself derived from the Latin wordcornum, the cornel cherry,whose translucent red fruits resemble the stone. TheOxford English Dictionary calls “carnelian” a perversion of “cornelian”, by subsequent analogy with the Latin word caro, carnis, flesh. According to Pliny the Elder, sard derives its name from the city of Sardis in Lydia, but it more likely comes from the Persian word سرد sered, meaning yellowish-red.

Distinction between Carnelian and Sard

This Egyptian necklace consists of biconical carnelian beads, beads of rolled strips of sheet gold, and ten amulets.[6] The Walters Art Museum.
This Egyptian necklace consists of biconical carnelian beads, beads of rolled strips of sheet gold, and ten amulets.[6] The Walters Art Museum.

The names carnelian and sard are often used interchangeably, but they can also be used to describe distinct subvarieties. The general differences are as follows:

  Carnelian Sard
Color Lighter, with shades ranging from orange to reddish-brown. Darker, with shades ranging from a deep reddish-brown to almost black.
Hardness Softer Harder and tougher.
Fracture Uneven, splintery and conchoidal Like carnelian, but duller and more hackly (having the appearance of something that has been hacked, i.e. jagged).

All of these properties vary across a continuum, and so the boundary between carnelian and sard is inevitably blurred.

Source: Wikipedia

7. Serpentine Group

The serpentine group are greenish, brownish, or spotted minerals commonly found in serpentinite rocks. They are used as a source of magnesium and asbestos, and as a decorative stone. The name is thought to come from the greenish color being that of a serpent.


The serpentine group describes a group of common rock-forming hydrous magnesium iron phyllosilicate ((Mg,Fe)3Si2O5(OH)4) minerals; they may contain minor amounts of other elements including chromium, manganese,cobalt or nickel. In mineralogy and gemology, serpentine may refer to any of 20 varieties belonging to the serpentine group. Owing to admixture, these varieties are not always easy to individualize, and distinctions are not usually made. There are three important mineral polymorphs of serpentine: antigorite, chrysotile and lizardite.

Dish of serpentine with inlaid gold fish, 1st century BCE or CE, with 9th century mounts
Dish of serpentine with inlaid gold fish, 1st century BCE or CE, with 9th century mounts

The chrysotile group of minerals are polymorphous, meaning that they have the same chemical formulae, but the molecules are arranged into different structures, or crystal lattices. Chrysotile with a fiberous habit is one type ofasbestos. Other minerals in the chrysotile group may have a platy habit.

Many types of serpentine have been used for jewellery and hardstone carving, sometimes under the name false jade or Teton jade.


Their olive green color and smooth or scaly appearance is the basis of the name from the Latin serpentinus, meaning “serpent rock,” according to Best (2003). They have their origins in metamorphic alterations of peridotite andpyroxene. Serpentines may also pseudomorphously replace other magnesium silicates. Alterations may be incomplete, causing physical properties of serpentines to vary widely. Where they form a significant part of the land surface, the soil is unusually high in clay.

Necklace and earring set made from semiprecious stones. The spherical green beads are Russian serpentine. Also used are jasper (red) and fluorite (blue)
Necklace and earring set made from semiprecious stones. The spherical green beads are Russian serpentine. Also used are jasper (red) and fluorite (blue)

Antigorite is the polymorph of serpentine that most commonly forms during metamorphism of wet ultramafic rocks and is stable at the highest temperatures—to over 600 °C at depths of 60 km or so. In contrast, lizardite and chrysotile typically form near the Earth’s surface and break down at relatively low temperatures, probably well below 400 °C. It has been suggested that chrysotile is never stable relative to either of the other two serpentine polymorphs.

Samples of the oceanic crust and uppermost mantle from ocean basins document that ultramafic rocks there commonly contain abundant serpentine. Antigorite contains water in its structure, about 13 percent by weight. Hence, antigorite may play an important role in the transport of water into the earth in subduction zones and in the subsequent release of water to create magmas in island arcs, and some of the water may be carried to yet greater depths.

Soils derived from serpentine are toxic to many plants, because of high levels of nickel, chromium, and cobalt; growth of many plants is also inhibited by low levels of potassium and phosphorus and a low ratio of calcium/magnesium. The flora is generally very distinctive, with specialised, slow-growing species. Areas of serpentine-derived soil will show as strips ofshrubland and open, scattered small trees (often conifers) within otherwise forested areas; these areas are called serpentine barrens.

Most serpentines are opaque to translucent, light (specific gravity between 2.2–2.9), soft (hardness 2.5–4), infusible and susceptible to acids. All are microcrystalline and massive in habit, never being found as single crystals. Luster may be vitreous, greasy or silky. Colours range from white to grey, yellow to green, and brown to black, and are often splotchy or veined. Many are intergrown with other minerals, such as calcite and dolomite. Occurrence is worldwide; New Caledonia, Canada (Quebec), USA (northernCalifornia, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maryland and southern Pennsylvania), Afghanistan, Britain (Cornwall and Ireland), Greece(Thessaly), China, Ural Mountains (Russia), France, Korea, Austria (Styria and Carinthia), India (Assam, and Manipur), Myanmar (Burma), New Zealand,Norway and Italy are notable localities.

Serpentines find use in industry for a number of purposes, such as railway ballasts, building materials, and the asbestiform types find use as thermal and electrical insulation (chrysotile asbestos). The asbestos content can be released to the air when serpentine is excavated and if it is used as a road surface, forming a long term health hazard by breathing. Asbestos from serpentine can also appear at low levels in water supplies through normal weathering processes, but there is as yet no identified health hazard associated with use or ingestion. In its natural state, some forms of serpentine react with carbon dioxide and re-release oxygen into the atmosphere.

The more attractive and durable varieties (all of antigorite) are termed “noble” or “precious” serpentine and are used extensively as gems and in ornamental carvings. The town of Bhera in the historic Punjab province of the Indian subcontinent was known for centuries for finishing a relatively pure form of green serpentine obtained from quarries in Afghanistan into lapidary work, cups, ornamental sword hilts, and dagger handles. This high-grade serpentine ore was known as sang-i-yashm or to the English, false jade, and was used for generations by Indian craftsmen for lapidary work. It is easily carved, taking a good polish, and is said to have a pleasingly greasy feel. Less valuable serpentine ores of varying hardness and clarity are also sometimes dyed to imitatejade. Misleading synonyms for this material include “Suzhou jade”, “Styrian jade”, and “New jade”.

New Caledonian serpentine is particularly rich in nickel. The Māori of New Zealand once carved beautiful objects from local serpentine, which they called tangiwai, meaning “tears”.

The lapis atracius of the Romans, now known as verde antique, or verde antico, is a serpentinite brecciapopular as a decorative facing stone. In classical times it was mined at Casambala, Thessaly, Greece. Serpentinite marbles are also widely used: Green Connemara marble (or Irish green marble) fromConnemara, Ireland (and many other sources), and red Rosso di Levanto marble from Italy. Use is limited to indoor settings as serpentinites do not weather well.

Polished slab of bowenite serpentine, a variety of antigorite. Typical cloudy patches and veining are apparent.
Polished slab of bowenite serpentine, a variety of antigorite. Typical cloudy patches and veining are apparent.


Lamellated antigorite occurs in tough, pleated masses. It is usually dark green in colour, but may also be yellowish, gray, brown or black. It has a hardness of 3.5–4 and its lustre is greasy. The monoclinic crystals show micaceous cleavage and fuse with difficulty. Antigorite is named after its type locality, the Geisspfad serpentinite, Valle Antigorio in border region Italy/ Switzerland.

Bowenite is an especially hard serpentine (5.5) of a light to dark apple green colour, often mottled with cloudy white patches and darker veining. It is the serpentine most frequently encountered in carving and jewellery. The name retinalite is sometimes applied to yellow bowenite. The New Zealand material is called tangiwai.

Although not an official species, bowenite is the state mineral of Rhode Island: this is also the variety’s type locality. A bowenite cabochon featured as part of the “Our Mineral Heritage Brooch”, was presented to First Lady Mrs. Lady Bird Johnson in 1967.

Williamsite is a local varietal name for antigorite that is oil-green with black crystals of chromite or magnetite often included. Somewhat resembling fine jade, williamsite is cut into cabochons and beads. It is found mainly in Maryland and Pennsylvania, USA.

Gymnite is an amorphous form of antigorite.] It was originally found in the Bare Hills, Maryland, and is named from the Greek, gymnos meaning bare or naked.

State Emblem

In 1965 the California Legislature designated serpentine (the mineral) as “the official State Rock and lithologic emblem.”

Source: Wikipedia

8. Aventurine

Aventurine is a form of quartz, characterised by its translucency and the presence of platy mineral inclusionsthat give a shimmering or glistening effect termed aventurescence.

Aventurine is used for a number of applications, including landscape stone, building stone, aquaria, monuments, and jewelry. (Unknown scale)
Aventurine is used for a number of applications, including landscape stone, building stone, aquaria, monuments, and jewelry. (Unknown scale)

The most common colour of aventurine is green, but it may also be orange, brown, yellow, blue, or gray. Chrome-bearing fuchsite (a variety of muscovite mica) is the classic inclusion, and gives a silvery green or blue sheen. Oranges and browns are attributed to hematite or goethite. Because aventurine is a rock, its physical properties vary: its specific gravity may lie between 2.64-2.69 and its hardness is somewhat lower than single-crystal quartz at around 6.5.

Aventurine feldspar or sunstone can be confused with orange and red aventurine quartzite, although the former is generally of a higher transparency. Aventurine is often banded and an overabundance of fuchsite may render it opaque, in which case it may be mistaken for malachite at first glance.

Aventurine (unknown scale)
Aventurine (unknown scale)

The name aventurine derives from the Italian “a ventura” meaning “by chance”. This is an allusion to the lucky discovery of aventurine glass or goldstone at some point in the 18th century. Although it was known first, goldstone is now a common imitation of aventurine and sunstone. Goldstone is distinguished visually from the latter two minerals by its coarse flecks of copper, dispersed within the glass in an unnaturally uniform manner. It is usually a golden brown, but may also be found in blue or green.

The majority of green and blue-green aventurine originates in India (particularly in the vicinity of Mysore and Madras) where it is employed by prolific artisans. Creamy white, gray and orange material is found in Chile, Spain and Russia. Most material is carved into beads and figurines with only the finer examples fashioned into cabochons, later being set into jewellery.

Source: Wikipedia

9. Sodalite

Sodalite is a rich royal blue mineral widely enjoyed as an ornamental gemstone. Although massive sodalite samples are opaque, crystals are usually transparent to translucent. Sodalite is a member of the sodalite group with hauyne, nosean, lazurite and tugtupite.

A sample of sodalite
A sample of sodalite

Discovered in 1811 in the Ilimaussaq intrusive complex in Greenland, sodalite did not become important as an ornamental stone until 1891 when vast deposits of fine material were discovered in Ontario, Canada.


A light, relatively hard yet fragile mineral, sodalite is named after itssodium content; in mineralogy it may be classed as a feldspathoid. Well known for its blue color, sodalite may also be grey, yellow, green, or pink and is often mottled with white veins or patches. The more uniformly blue material is used in jewellery, where it is fashioned into cabochons andbeads. Lesser material is more often seen as facing or inlay in various applications.

A sample of sodalite-carbonate pegmatite from Bolivia, with a polished rock surface.
A sample of sodalite-carbonate pegmatite from Bolivia, with a polished rock surface.

Although somewhat similar to lazurite and lapis lazuli, sodalite rarely contains pyrite (a common inclusion in lapis) and its blue color is more like traditional royal blue rather than ultramarine. It is further distinguished from similar minerals by its white (rather than blue) streak. Sodalite’s six directions of poor cleavage may be seen as incipient cracks running through the stone.


Hackmanite dodecahedron from the Koksha Valley, Afghanistan
Hackmanite dodecahedron from the Koksha Valley, Afghanistan

Hackmanite is an important variety of sodalite exhibiting tenebrescence. When hackmanite from Mont Saint-Hilaire (Quebec) or Ilímaussaq (Greenland) is freshly quarried, it is generally pale to deep violet but the colour fades quickly to greyish or greenish white. Conversely, hackmanite from Afghanistan and the Myanmar Republic (Burma) starts off creamy white but develops a violet to pink-red colour in sunlight. If left in a dark environment for some time, the violet will fade again. Tenebrescence is accelerated by the use of longwave or, particularly, shortwave ultraviolet light. Much sodalite will also fluoresce a patchy orange under UV light.


Sodalite was first described in 1811 for the occurrence in its type locality in the Ilimaussaq complex, Narsaq,West Greenland.

Occurring typically in massive form, sodalite is found as vein fillings in plutonic igneous rocks such as nepheline syenites. It is associated with other minerals typical of undersaturated environments, namely leucite, cancriniteand natrolite. Other associated minerals include nepheline, titanian andradite, aegirine, microcline, sanidine,albite, calcite, fluorite, ankerite and baryte.

Significant deposits of fine material are restricted to but a few locales: Bancroft, Ontario, and Mont-Saint-Hilaire, Quebec, in Canada; and Litchfield, Maine, and Magnet Cove, Arkansas, in the USA. The Ice River complex, near Golden, British Columbia, contains sodalite. Smaller deposits are found in South America (Brazil and Bolivia),Portugal, Romania, Burma and Russia. Hackmanite is found principally in Mont-Saint-Hilaire and Greenland.

Euhedral, transparent crystals are found in northern Namibia and in the lavas of Vesuvius, Italy.

Source: Wikipedia


Kota Kembang – Paris Van Java

See Also:

Gedung Sate, Bandung
Gedung Sate, Bandung

Bandung  is the capital city of West Java, and the third largest city in Indonesia after Jakarta and Surabaya. Nicknamed Parijs van Java (Paris of Java) by the Dutch for its resemblance to Paris and European atmosphere back at the colonial times. Bandung also earned another nickname as Kota Kembang, literally meaning the Flower City since Bandung used to have a lot of flowers.

Bandung view From the peak
Bandung view From the peak

Located at the altitude of 768 m with the surroundings of lush and beautiful Parahyangan mountains makes the climate mild and pleasant. The city has been well known for the universities, apparel products and a great place for gastronomic adventure. Nowadays, Bandung has become a very popular weekend escape for Jakartans, who would crowd the city on weekends and national holidays.


In this page, Bandung is divided into unofficial districts that are used mainly for traveling purposes only. The districts below are listed from top to bottom, from left to right.

Bandung Districts
Bandung Districts

Bandung West

Mainly industrial and residential area. Also contains Hussein Sastranegara International Airport and also the Aircraft industry. This region is connected to the west with Cimahi and Padalarang where you can find more industries, and also the Kota Baru Parahyangan (residential area)

Bandung North

Mainly contains the up and coming residential area in the north part of Bandung. The air is considerably cooler here so it is preferable for residential area. Still need some progress for well managed residential area but in some enclave it already has upscale residential area. This region also contains many universities. Contains malls like Paris Van Java malls and Bandung Trade Center. Jalan Setiabudi in the north also has a row of Factory Outlets and in process of gentrification. Further north from this region are more residential suburb that seeks Bandung’s fresher air. Note that the famous Lembang and Kampung Daun are north of this area.

Cipaganti and Cihampelas Areal

Two long strips that contains upscale residential area (on Jalan Cipaganti) and Bandung’s jeans center (on Jalan Cihampelas). Stride on small streets between those two main street and you will find more relaxed residential area with some nice cafes dotting the area. Cihampelas Walk Mall (open concept) is in this area. Travel service from Jakarta mostly have terminal in this area.

Dago Area

In the colonial era, this is the favorite residential area for rich people. Currently you can find row of factory outlets, restaurants, and hotel along Jalan Dago (Jalan Ir. H. Juanda). Together with Riau/Gedung Sate Area, this part of the city is undergoing a tremendous change in the process of gentrification. You can find the Bandung Institute of Technology and Bandung Zoo here. The area is nice to explore, possible on foot but preferable by car.

Upper Dago Area

Another upscale residential area in the hilly part of the city. It boasts many restaurants that overlooking Bandung basin and you can see the city light in the evening. Some nice cafes and art gallery have found a way in here.

Bandung East

Contains middle class residential area in the vast area further to the east of Bandung. Contains the Saung Angklung Mang Udjo.

Riau/Gedung Sate Area

Part of the historical colonial government complex which is very planned and nice to explore on foot. Together with Dago area, this part of the city is undergoing tremendous change in the process of gentrification. You can find many restaurants and factory outlets in this area. A lot of trees shading the road making this area a perfect location for cafes. Be sure to stop by Gedung Sate as the architectural heritage in Bandung.

Upper Central Area

This is the new important business area in Bandung. Contains Bandung’s railway station, Paskal Hypersquare, and Istana Plaza Mall.

City Hall Area

Also part of the historical colonial government complex similar like Riau/Gedung Sate Area. But this area has more building that still functional as government / military building. Broad road and big government complexes mark the area. Contains Bandung’s city hall, the central bank office, Bandung’s cathedral, and many more historical building. Together with Riau and Dago Area, a lot of architectural sights here. The famous Braga street is here.

Kota Area

This is a very busy business and China town area. Contains Pasar Baru Trade Center with its grand bazaar style. On weekdays continually suffering from traffic jam.

Bandung South

A vast area that is dense with residential, business, and industrial area. Majority are not a tourist area except some dots like the shoes production center in Cibaduyut. Contains a lot of textile and garment industry that is the main industry in Bandung area.



Although the oldest written reference to the city dates back to 1488, there were numerous archaeological finds of Australopithecus (Java Man) that lived on the banks of Cikapundung river and the shores of Bandung’s Great Lake.

In the 17th-18th century, the Dutch East Indies Company (VOC) created small plantations in Bandung, with a road to Batavia (today’s Jakarta) completed in 1786. In 1809, Louis Bonaparte, the ruler of the Netherlands and its colonies, ordered the Dutch Indies Governor H.W. Daendels to improve Java’s defenses against the threat of the English, who occupied the nearby Malay peninsula. Daendels responded by building the Great Post Road (De Groote Postweg) that stretched about 1000 km between the west and the east coasts of Java. Because north coast was in the form of impassable swamps and marshes at the time, the road was diverted through Bandung along what is now Jalan Asia-Afrika.

Daendels liked Bandung’s strategic location so much that he ordered the capital to be moved there. Military barracks were built and Bupati Wiranatakusumah II, the chief administrator of that area, built his dalem (palace), Masjid Agung (the grand mosque) and pendopo (meeting place) in the classical Javan alun-alun (city square) near a pair of holy city wells (Sumur Bandung) and facing the mystical mountain of Tangkuban Perahu.

Powered by its cinchona (for malaria drug quinine), tea, and coffee plantations, Bandung prospered and developed into an exclusive European style resort with hotels, cafes, and shops. Many of Bandung landmarks, including the Preanger and Savoy Homann hotels, as well as the shopping street of Jalan Braga, are still available today. The Concordia Society building, now Gedung Merdeka, was built with a large ball room as a club for rich Europeans to spend their weekends.

In 1880, the first major railroad between Jakarta to Bandung opened, boosting small industries and bringing in Chinese workers. The first of Bandung universities, the Technische Hogeschool (TH) was established on July 3rd, 1920. One of the its alumni members is President Soekarno himself. That university is now known as the Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB)

In 1942, after Japanese soldiers landed in coastal areas of Java, the Dutch retreated from Jakarta to Bandung, but were driven out from there as well and surrendered soon after. After the end of the war, first the British and later the Dutch came back trying to reestablish the pre-war colonial situation, but on March 24, 1946, during the struggle for Indonesian independence, the city of Bandung was burned down by retreating forces of the TRI, because they would not comply with the order given by the British forces to move out of Bandung to the south (Bandung Sea of Fire/Bandung Lautan Api). For the TRI this act was a sign of refusal to surrender. Over 200,000 people fled the city during the incident.

In 1955, the Asia Africa Conference (Konferensi Asia Afrika) was held in Bandung, paving the way for the creation of the Non-Aligned Movement in 1961. The Indonesian parliament was located in Bandung from 1955 to 1966, but was moved back to Jakarta in 1966.


Today’s Bandung is a sprawling city of 2.7 million people and suffers from many of the same problems as other Indonesian cities. Traffic is congested, old buildings have been torn down, and once idyllic residences have turned into business premises.

Jalan Asia-Afrika, the former Grote Postweg, still remains as one of Bandung’s main thoroughfares and connects together the alun-alun (city square) with many of the city’s colonial landmarks.

Please refer to the district map of Bandung: the most important district for tourist majority are located in north of Bandung. The easiest landmark for your orientation is the north/south border by the railway and or the new Pasupati elevated road. Once you identify whether you are located north or south of Bandung, identify the area immediately, the landmark will be the major road in the intended district/area and the major building / tourist attraction on that road. Discuss using compass direction (north/east/west/south) of that major building / major road. Since Bandung is not organized in blocks, this is the way local organize themselves and is a very effective way to discuss way to go with local.

Road in bahasa Indonesia is translated into Jalan and abbreviated into Jl.; this applies to all kind of road from small road to major road. You will see a lot of Jl. in front of the road name in this guide. Very small road that cannot by passed by car is called Gang and abbreviated into Gg.

Get in

Bandung is located in the central highlands. It can be reached from Jakarta either via the toll road or by airplane. When using the road, there are many small buses connecting Jakarta and Bandung. An alternative to the toll road is the winding and mountainous roads through Puncak (=Peak). The route through Puncak is quite scenic but on weekends and public holidays the traffic is congested.

By Plane

Bandung’s Husein Sastranegara (IATA: BDO) airport has a difficult location among the mountains and has only limited services with narrow-body airplanes. The airport is located at the end of Pajajaran Street, 4 km from the centre of the city. There’s no metered taxi available from bandung airport. The official taxi of the airport didn’t use meter and will only served once you had a taxi ticket (the ticket shown the amount you have to pay to the driver) which can be bought at the taxi booth near the international arrival exit gate, they charges minimum of Rp 40.000 (about US$ 5). Most hotels provide a free airport transfer services.

Some airlines serving Bandung:

  • Air Asia  – operates thrice daily flights from Kuala Lumpur and twice daily from Singapore, Denpasar (Bali), Surabaya and Medan and once a day from Pekanbaru. (no-frill airline)
  • Batavia Air  – operates 3x weekly flight from Singapore.
  • Garuda Indonesia – operate daily flight from Surabaya.
  • Lion Air  – operates twice daily from Denpasar, and Surabaya, daily from Banjarmasin, Batam and Medan.
  • Merpati Nusantara Airlines  – operate daily flight from Denpasar, Jakarta, Semarang, Surabaya, Yogyakarta.
  • Pacific Royale – operate daily flight from Semarang.
  • Sky Aviation – operate daily flight from Batam.
  • Sriwijaya Air  – operate daily flight from Surabaya.
  • Silk Air  – operates 5x weekly flight from Singapore.
  • Wings Air  – operate daily flight from Yogyakarta

Jakarta’s Soekarno-Hatta airport is about 3 hours away (plus any traffic jams). A number of companies offer direct shuttle services; see the next section for details.

Travelers arriving direct into Bandung airport will find that it is very close to the city. Taxi fares are fixed at Rp42,000 to most parts of the city. Buy the ticket at the counter because when you ask the “mafia” controlled taxis nearby, they will quote you Rp70,000. The fixed price is still a rip off as the taxi fare from our airport at Bandung SuperMal to the airport, in the morning only cost us Rp30,000. It’s a monopoly contracted out to only one taxi company.

If you’re early at the airport, check-in and walk out of the airport to a small cafe across that road that serves hot noodles, kway teow and tea for half the price you’ll pay for it inside the airport (again another monopoly).

By Bus

Bus services connect Bandung and smaller surrounding cities. Several long-route buses are also available from major big cities. The most convenient way is the air-conditioned bus with the express or non-stop tag. The main bus terminals in Bandung are Leuwipanjang, serving buses from the west (Bogor, Jakarta, Merak, Pandeglang, Tangerang, Depok, Bekasi, Cikarang, Cibinong and Sukabumi.) and Cicaheum, serving buses from the east (Cirebon, Garut, Tasikmalaya, Banjar, Pangandaran, Indramayu, central Java cities, eastern Java cities and also from Bali Island).

By Shuttle Bus

With 6-12 seater minivans leaving every fifteen minutes up to every 1 to 2 hours depends on the providers, the shuttle bus market between Jakarta and Bandung is fiercely competitive. Roughly speaking, services can be categorised as either door to door in a chartered car or van that takes your group exactly where you want to go, for around US$50-75, or point to point from a terminal to another, for under US$10. Many companies offer both. Most shuttle providers use Isuzu Elf minivan (similar with Toyota Hiace, but bigger & more spacious) and some companies offer more luxurious options using Toyota Alphard or Hyundai H-1 with a higher fare and distinct routes, but some routes are deleting, because the high price fare after high increase of diesel fuel made consumers use lower grade of shuttle bus.

Bandung Shuttle Providers

  • 4848 Taxi. Jl Prapatan 34, Jakarta. ☎ +62 21 381 4488, +62 21 386 4848. The service is great, reliable and safe. Price: approx. US$ 25/car (4 persons). One destination only in a small area in Jakarta, so you have to ask which area in Jakarta the will serve.
  • DayTrans, [10] (Indonesian-language only) Jakarta (Blora, Sarinah, Fatmawati, Karet, Mall Senayan City, FX Plaza, Meruya-Intercon, Kebon Jeruk-Binus, Grogol, Atrium Plaza, Hotel Acacia, Cempaka Putih Pulomas, Tebet/Pancoran and Jatiwaringin), ☎ +62 21 7063 6868 atau 6386 4005. Bandung (Dipati Ukur, Cihampelas and Pasteur), ☎ +62 22 7063 6868. Rp 90,000 for a share ride.
  • Cipaganti, Probably the biggest name in the business, they serve over a half a dozen points throughout Jakarta and its suburbs from their various terminals in Bandung, such as Bandung Trade Center (BTC) on the western side of the city (Pasteur), Cihampelas, and many more, with shuttles leaving every 30 min or so on most routes. Rp 100,000 for a shared ride (Note: special discount rates apply for students), Rp 700,000 for a point-to-point charter.
  • Star Shuttle, This is belong to Cipaganti Group to compete with Baraya. ☎ +62 21 700 500 000 and +62 21 700 500 000. Same as with Cipaganti, you have to mention that you will use Star Shuttle.
  • Baraya, The ticket fee is only Rp 70,000 for a shared ride. ☎ +62 21 7244 999 and +62 22 253 3456.
  • Primajasa Bus, ☎ +62 22 607 3992 (Bandung), ☎ +62 21 800 9545 (Jakarta). Direct shuttle service from Jakarta’s Soekarno-Hatta airport to Batununggal but they don’t stop at Bandung Super Mall anymore. The trip takes approx. 3 hr and the cost is approx. US$8.50/person or Rp 75,000. Schedule: once every half hour from 0:30AM-4PM. Their buses feature a smoking room and toilet at the back. From Lebak Bulus bus terminal in Lebak Bulus, South Jakarta, the Primajasa costs Rp 50,000. There will be a numerous other buses running the route from Lebak Bulus, and Kampung Rambutan bus terminal – it is possible to get an economy bus for Rp 20,000, although it will be full of people smoking, non airconditioned, and probably less secure. Ask around, but always be cautious in bus terminals in Indonesia – especially at night.
  • Silver Bird Van Taxi (Blue Bird Group), Jl. Mampang Prapatan Raya 60, South Jakarta. ☎ +62 21 798 1234. Price: Rp 750,000 door to door, plus toll fee Rp 40,000.
  • X-Trans, Jl. Blora 1 AB, Central Jakarta, ☎ +62 21 315 0555. Price: approx. US$55/car maximum 10 persons for point-to-point charter or Rp 90,000 for a share ride.
  • CitiTrans, Jakarta (Fatmawati, Bintaro, Sudirman, Kelapa Gading, Pasar Pagi, Central Park), ☎ 08041111000. Bandung (Dipati Ukur, Cihampelas Walk, Pasteur), ☎ 08041111000. Rp 90,000 single-trip, non-stop, on 7 or 10-person (depends on pool) shuttles with separate seats.

Due to competitions, all shuttles now only have 2 prices, for 6-10 seats about Rp90,000-Rp100,000 and for 10-12 seats about Rp60,000-Rp70,000 in a minibus. While Taxis use car with maximum 4 passengers, excluding the driver.

By Car

Bandung is two hours away from Jakarta by car, thanks to the new Cipularang toll road that completes the inter-city highway between Jakarta and Bandung. It is now faster to travel to Bandung by car than by train from Jakarta.

During the rainy season, parts of the Cipularang toll road may be closed because of landslides. On weekends, traffic jams often occur near the toll gates in the Djunjunan/Terusan Pasteur area.

One alternative route is by the slower, but enjoyable, route from Jakarta – Puncak – Cianjur – Bandung. If you travel by car using this route, then make sure to stop at the Puncak Pass, the tip of the highland just on the outskirts of Jakarta. From here, the view of tea plantation with fresh air can be enjoyed. There are plenty of good restaurants and hotels out there.

There is also a beautiful safari park/zoo in Puncak: Taman Safari Indonesia, Jl. Raya Puncak No.601, Cisarua, Bogor. ☎ +62 251 250 000, Fax +62 251 250555.

By Train

State operator PT Kereta Api Indonesia  offers frequent services between Jakarta and Bandung, as well as connections onward to Surabaya. Even the fastest services take more than three hours, making this a slower option than the shuttle buses, but the scenery between Jakarta and Bandung is beautiful. The railroad passes mountains and padi terraces. Don’t miss this view when traveling by train. Use the AC (air-conditioned) coach if you cannot cope with the tropical heat. Most hotels in Bandung provide free transportation from train station to the hotel.

Unlike other countries, Indonesia do not use number for their train service. As a rule of thumb, the highest standard will be given by ‘Argo’ class train.

The ticket can be bought online or you can get only the booking code and pay at the stations, post offices, train ticket agents, Indomaret group, Alfamart group and Railcard & Railbox. You can also directly buy tickect without booking code at these online ticket distributors.

Bdg Train

Get Around

Travelling around in Bandung is quite complex and frustrating, especially to newcomers. There is no mass rapid transit system, metro nor tram in Bandung. Locals travel using small public minibuses, known as angkot from angkutan=transport and kota=city.

By Angkot

This city transport has only origin and destination names on top. Sometimes with via description if there are more than one angkot route for a certain origin-destination route. There is no route description anywhere. For locals, it is somewhat amazing that they only memorize where and how the route of each angkot route.

Although there is an official price for angkot from organda (the local organization of these private city transport), sometimes price is based on how far you travel. It’s better that you ask the driver or kernet (driver assistance) about the price to go to a location. To ask for an angkot to stop and pick you up, just raise your hand and they will stop. When you’re inside and want to stop, just ask the kernet to stop. Or say ‘kiri’ (key-ree) or simply ‘stop’ out loud. It was easy to find a bell that you can press to stop but not anymore. Most angkot fare are ranging from Rp 2000-5000, it depends on the route and distance.

The official angkot routes are listed on Bandung’s Info Kota website . A local startup KIRI  computes which angkot to take when getting around the city.

An unofficial, yet very helpful, website is Mau Kemana, which literally means something like “Where are you going?”. It shows the actual routes with Angkot prices .

By Taxi

If you don’t know which angkot routes to take, then you can take a taxi. Officially, taxis use meters, but some taxi drivers may refuse to use meters and will charge you a fixed price instead. Don’t be afraid to refuse and walk away, even locals are annoyed by this behaviour. Metered cabbies may also take you the long way to get more money. So be careful when traveling by taxi. The most reliable taxi company in Bandung is Blue Bird. Bluebird drivers will almost always use the most appropriate route and will always use the meter. Competing directly in the premium range with Blue Bird, Cipaganti Taxi has started their operation with a red colored car. Gemah Ripah is a third ranking taxi service that seems to be improving their service.

In Bandung, taxis are less common waiting on roadsides, due to the multitude of small roads and lack of space to wait. For this reason, ordering a taxi by phone is usually the simplest and safest bet. The taxi will drive up directly in front of you (ask for its number on the phone for identification), and there is no extra charge (sans a cheap cancellation fee, if necessary).

Alternatively, ask a uniformed security guard or policeman nearby to either flag down a nearby taxi, or point in the direction of a nearby taxi waiting area.

Taxi drivers off the street, or booked by telephone are usually polite and friendly, chosing to charge you by meter but watch out for those mentioned below.

Do allow lots of travel time in Bandung, although the city is small. A short trip that is about 8km will take you 45 min to an hour through the heavy traffic during peak times (morning 8-9am, evening 5-6pm). A short trip from Dago factory outlet areas to The Valley just a few km up north took almost 50minwhen travelling at 6pm.

List of Taxi companies in Bandung:

  • 4848, Jl. Suniaraja Tmr 39. ☎ +62 22 4234848. Reliable, good service on Bandung to Jakarta route.
  • Bandung Raya, Jl. Dr Setiabudi 177. ☎ +62 22 201 4018.
  • Blue Bird, Jl. Terusan Buah Batu 194. ☎ +62 22 7561234. Good reputation and reliable, this is the premium taxi company in Indonesia. Call center employees can speak English.
  • Centris Taxi, Jl. Soekarno-Hatta 606-A. ☎ +62 22 7512100. Branch of Centris Taxi company in Jakarta.
  • Cipaganti Taxi, Jl. Gatot Subroto No. 94. ☎ +62 22 7319498, +62 22 70070000, +62 22 76919440
  • Gemah Ripah,. ☎ +62 22 4217070. Second choice after Blue Bird.
  • Kota Kembang, Jl. Kiaracondong 338. ☎ +62 22 7312312.
  • Putra, Komplek Marga Asih Indah, Jl. Nilem 2 Blok J1. No. 10. ☎ +62 22 5405010

Most are trustworthy but watch out for those who wait near shopping centers and infront of hotels (except approved by the hotel), they will charge you a flat fee, refusing to take you for less. One example is taxis waiting outside “Chi Plaza” where they only take fixed fare passenger.

By Bus

There are also some bus lines, but they don’t cover the whole city. City buses usually cover long routes across the city from end-to-end; for example, from the north to the south and from the west to the east. The city bus is called DAMRI.

By Car

Using your own car or renting a car is probably the easiest and the most convenient way to travel around Bandung and surrounds. If you don’t have a valid driving licence, then you can also rent a car with a chauffeur, which is very common for western travelers. Perhaps it is even better to rent a car from Jakarta. You can stop for one night in Puncak, Bogor or Sukabumi.

Rental cars are available from numerous outlets, including major international brands. Note that traffic in Bandung is quite complex and the city administration likes to experiment with the traffic management. There is often a lack of traffic signs and directions. Many major roads are one-way, which makes it difficult to turn around if you are lost. Be careful not to enter a street that may a one-way street from the opposite direction but be lacking a prominent no-entry sign. There may be a watchful policeman hiding somewhere, he will pop up instantly to stop you and then you may have to pay him some money.

A lot of car rent at Bandung are scattered. Diaz Travelindo is one from many local rent car company at Bandung you can use. Car rental for travel within Bandung jakarta is about Rp350,000 per day (12 hr), or Rp500,000 (12 hr) for travel outside Bandung e.g. to Tangkuban Perahu volcanic area.

Architectural Jewels

There were many buildings built in a classic Dutch colonial style during the late 18th and early 19th century. The locals referred to this time as the Bandoeng tempo doeloe (old Bandung) era. The art-deco style was very popular throughout the earlier half of the 20th century and the city and it’s suburbs retain many fine examples of these architectural styles. The city administration has a tendency to lean toward a modern style throughout the city with many of the more recent bridges, banks, malls and commercial areas. However many of the historical buildings have conservation orders and there are some very well preserved and maintained examples of the colonial era architecture to be seen. The non-profit organization Bandung Heritage Society [16] has been formed recently to assist in endeavours to further preserve the city’s historic buildings.

Make sure you see these buildings before they’re gone.

  • Villa Isola, Jl. Dr. Setiabudi 229.Architect: C.P.W. Schoemaker. Built in 1932 for an Italian millionaire D.W. Berretty as a villa. It lies in the northern part of Bandung, overlooking the city to south and the Tangkuban Perahu mountain to the north. Villa Isola and its 2 gardens have a magnificent design by its architect, combining the unique landscape and the Indo-European architectural style. This monumental art was later used for a hotel, named Hotel de Luxe. Now it serves as UPI’s (Indonesia University of Education) headmastership building.
  • Gedung Merdeka, Jl. Asia-Afrika 65 (near alun-alun or city square). Architect: Van Gallen Last and C.P.W Schoemaker. Built in 1895 for a club house for rich people, named the Concordia Society. In 1955, this building was famous as the first Asian-African conference venue. Now it is a museum for that conference.
  • Savoy Homann Hotel, Jl. Asia-Afrika 112, ☎ +62 22 4232244. it was built in 1880, renovated in 1938 by a Dutch architect A.F. Aabers with an art-deco style as it is seen today. It still serves a hotel until now. The King and Queen of Siam, The Prince and Queen of Belgium, The Governor General of Indo-China, The Duchess of Westminster and even Charles Chaplin had stayed there three times. You can also still stay in this hotel and enjoying the old colonial time.
  • Grand Hotel Preanger, Jl. Asia-Afrika 81.It has two sides: the old facade and the modern wing side. The old facade has an interesting story, as C.P.W. Schoemaker designed the art-deco style that is blended with local culture. It was a controversial issue at that time, but that gives a unique style.
  • Gedung Sate, Bandung. Gedung Sate, Jl. Diponegoro. Architect: J. Gerber, built in 1921. It was used as the head of the Dutch Indies Government Companies. The roof has a decoration of a popular satay food as now it is famous for the name, though it was not meant to be like that. In fact, it is a 6 ornaments, symbolizing 6 million guldens, the cost of the building. Now, the complex is the office of West Java governor and the local provincial house of representatives. Interestingly, this building mixes different architectural styles: Spanish Moorish style for the windows, Italian renaissance for the over all building, and between Balinese pura & Thai’s pagoda for the roof. The facade faces directly to the Mt. Tangkubanperahu. The building is open for public, and at the end of the journey inside, you can sip a nice hot bajigur drink while watching the city view from the top floor.
  • Cipaganti Mosque, Jl. Cipaganti. Architect: C.P.W. Schoemaker, built in 1933. It was the only mosque that was built in the European residential area in the northern part of Bandung. The central facade still has the original design, but the mosque has been expanded to both of its side.
  • ITB West and East Hall (Aula Barat & Timur ITB), Jl. Ganesha 10. ITB is Institute Technology Bandung, the oldest institute of technology in Indonesia. It was built in 1918 by the architect Maclaine Pont. The most prominent Dutch East Indian architecture is the West and East Hall of this institute, where a West Sumatran style of architecture was used.

Arts & Science

Bandung has been the melting point between the local Sundanese culture and the high-end technology developed at the Institute Technology Bandung. There are some interesting places to visit:

  • Saung Angklung Udjo, Jl. Padasuka 118, (around 7km from Bandung), [17]. Angklung is a traditional South-East Asian musical instrument, made by bamboo. Udjo Nalagena, a famous angklung artist, created an Angklung House in the outskirt of Bandung, where angklung is made, learned and played. You can enjoy an angklung orchestra played by 12 year old or less children or even be a part of this orchestra, holding one of the angklung instruments. The place is in the middle of padi terrace and bamboo field, a perfect location to feel the relaxedness of a small village. It is one of the famous travel destinations among westerners and is highly recommended.. The easiest way is to rent a car to go there or ask your travel agent if there is a program to visit this place.
  • Bosscha Observatory, Jl. Peneropongan Bintang, Lembang. ☎ +62 22 2786001. [18], built in 1923 by Nederlandsch-Indische Sterrekundige Vereeniging (Assoc. of Dutch-Indies Astronomers) is the only observatory in Indonesia. It lies in Lembang, a small suburb city in the northern part of Bandung. It is now part of the Dept. of Astronomy, Institute Technology Bandung. To visit there, ask the department administration first for a reservation.
  • Reservation must be made 1 month before.
  • Bosscha is closed on national holidays, Sunday and Monday.
  • Day visit at 9:00, 12:00 (except Friday at 13:00) and 15:00.
  • ublic night (17:00-19:30), between April-October, with some presentations and demos. Ask there for a specific date as this public night is open at the 7th & 8th of the lunar month.
  • Special visit can be arranged, subject to their availability.
  • Geological Museum, Jl. Diponegoro 57, (near Gedung Sate complex). ☎ +62 22 7203205. Houses 250,000 rocks, a mineral collection, and 60,000 fossils. There are 3 major rooms in the museums: the geology of Indonesia, the history of life and the geology of human life. The building itself has an art-deco style, built in 1928 by a Dutch architect Wnalda van Scholtwenburg. Location:
    Visiting time: every day 09:00-15:00 except Friday. Price: Free. Recommended museum by locals.
  • Sri Baduga Maharaja Museum, Jl. Badan Kemanan Rakyat (BKR) No. 185, Tegallega, Bandung – 40243 ☎ +62 22 5210976. The museum is located on southern side of Tegallega square, south from city center. The museum is the state museum of West Java province. Opened since 1980, the museum houses historical and archaeological relics of West Java history; dated from the era of Tarumanagara, Galuh, to Sunda Pajajaran kingdom, also displaying ethnography of Sundanese culture.
    Visiting time: Monday-Friday 08:00-15:00, Saturday-Sunday 08:00-14:00.
  • Pos dan Giro Museum Inside the East Building of Gedung Sate
  • Mandala Wangsit Siliwangi Museum, located in Jl. Lembong 28, Bandung, is a military and weaponry museum depicting the history of Indonesian struggle for independence 1945-1949 and beyond. The museum building originally was a colonial heritage building built in 1910 as Dutch East Indies’ Militaire Akademie.
See & Do - Buy - Sleep in Bandung
See & Do – Buy – Sleep in Bandung


There are many activities that you can do in the city or outside the city. As Bandung highland is surrounded by a string of mountains. Activities in the outskirts of the city are centred about the mountain resorts, adventure activities and outdoor sports. In the city, you can have culinary activities (see the Eat section) as there are so many food varieties, shopping with many clothing outlets and distros (see the Buy section) or just hanging around.

  • Saturday night at Jalan Dago. Every Saturday night, teenagers and youngsters are hanging around at Jalan Dago. The street stretches from Holiday Inn Hotel in the south and a few blocks to the north until Simpang Dago. The street is crowded with modified cars with loud music. Don’t bring your own car if you don’t want to get stuck in a traffic jam. Just walk and watch these hip-hop youngsters. There are some cafes and chic restaurants in the street that you can sit in. Don’t forget to buy some grilled sweet or hot-chili corn that is sold at the street stalls. The party usually lasts until midnight.
  • Sunday morning at Gasibu Park. After having a party on Saturday night, wake up very early in the morning around 5-7AM. Go to Gasibu park at the front of the Gedung Sate complex and wear your sportswear. At the park, you can go jogging and do some stretching, and after you finish, food stalls are already waiting for you with a lot of food varieties. People’s favourites are dim sum ceker (a chicken foot cooked like a dim sum) and nasi liwet (a rice cooked with coconut milk and served with chicken and other vegetables). In the walking distance, there is a famous yoghurt drink cafe with a nice and relaxing setting at Jl Cisangkuy.
  • Lembang trip. A trip to the north of Bandung cannot be missed. Rent a car and start to go at the very early in the morning to Lembang, an uphill resort city.
  • On the way to Lembang, you can make a sidetrip to Bosscha, the only observatorium in Indonesia. Please make sure you have made a reservation and take a note on its opening hours.
  • Continue your journey to Lembang and stop at one of the food stall that sells fresh milk. You can drink fresh milk with many flavours. The milk is really fresh. While this stop is interesting, it it not extraordinary in that they serve only fresh milk (strawberry, mocca flavoured) and some poor quality bread sandwiches. Stop if you need a break, give it a miss if you do not.
  • Go to the Mt. Tangkuban Perahu. Go circling around Kawah Ratu (Queen’s crater) to see the volcanic activity closely. There are other craters: Kawah Upas and Kawah Domas. Beware of the tourist hawkers who sell many things at unreasonably expensive prices. From August 2012 until further notice, Directorate of Vulcanology and Mitigation announced that 1.5 kilometers radius from Kawah Ratu might be danger for everybody. From September 3, 2012 until further notice, local authority closed Mt. Tangkuban Perahu area for visitors because of afraid of undetected harmful gas.
  • Continue the journey to Sari Ater, a hot water spring complex. On the way, there is a good Sundanese restaurant, named Sindang Reret, that you can stop by for your lunch.s Read further down for details on visiting Kawah Domas.
  • Sari Ater [19] is a resort with natural hot water spring pools, some recreation parks and healthy spas. Stay overnight and have a good dinner at their restaurant. This hot spring has shallow pools some with lukewarm and some with hot spring water for you to soak. There is a restaurant serving food just adjacent to the pools.
  • On the way back to Bandung, take a stop at a street food stall and have some grilled ‘sweet corns or grilled ketan (sticky rice) while enjoying the view of the tea plantation.
  • Ram fighting: Villages around Bandung host ram fights on alternate Sundays. It’s a big event for locals who turn out in their hundreds to watch 5-minute bouts between prize fighter male sheep. Tournaments are held in purpose-built rings in outlying villages. Best to hire a motorbike/guide in Bandung who knows when and where the next tournament is on. Ram fighting is not a blood sport but animal lovers may be upset at the sight of the fights, which are organised and refereed rather like boxing matches.
  • Kawah Putih (2,430 meters), about 50 km south of Bandung (Travel south through Ciwidey), [20]. Kawah Putih is a striking crater lake and tourist spot in a volcanic crater around 50 km to the south of Bandung. Expect quite lengthy drive from the city centre. Allocate at least more than half day to visit this crater lake. The admission fee is not as cheap as other tourist spot, but the scenery is breathtaking and out of this world.  edit
  • Burangrang Street Culinary, Jl Burangrang (This road is two-way accessible by car. You can get in from Lingkar Selatan street from south or from ahmad yani street from north.). Burangrang street was officially inaugurated as culinary street by the city mayor on 7 June 2008. In this street you can find many kiosk, cafes, restos and street food stalls or hawkers (more than 60), selling various food of local culinary. However, 70% of the food served are heavy meals, with the price varying. The place is clean of litters. Some of the food stalls in Burangrang street are: Sate Maranggi 77 (satay), Ketan Susu 77 (milk sticky rice), fried foods, Bajigur bandrek 77 (bajigur: local specialty drink with ginger), Nasi Rames Pak Anas (a kind of mixed rice), pujasera, martabak san fransisco (local style mutabbaq), bubur ayam pelana (chicken porridge), kebab lovers, pempek sari sanjaya (fish paste), Nasi Goreng Jabrig (nasi goreng), Pisang goreng simanalagi (fried banana), bakpao BPI (steamed bun), nasi pecel madium cak tembong (rice with nuts sauce), batagor riri (fish paste), batagor athong (fish paste), batagor burangrang (fish paste), bakso tahu saboga (toufu meatball), bakso tahu putri (toufu meatball), cafe ngopi doeloe, bakso malang enggal (meatball), serabi kinca dan oncom (indonesian sweet pancake), sate padang pariaman mansyur (satay), roti bakar si kumis (grilled bread), etc.


The ticket prices are based on the days, in which Monday as the cheapest ticket price, and weekends as the most expensive

  • Blitzmegaplex, Paris Van Java Mall, Jl. Sukajadi 136-139.☎ +62 820 63630. 9 screens. Ticket price: Rp 15,000-22,000-27,000
  • BSM XXI, Bandung Supermall Lt. 3, Jl. Jend Gatot Subroto. ☎ +62 22 612 6521. 5 screens. Ticket price: Rp 15,000-25,000
  • BTC XXI, Bandung Trade Center Lt. P-2/3, Jl Dr. Djundjunan no. 143-149. ☎ +62 22 910 1121. 5 screens. Ticket price: Rp 10,000-15,000
  • Braga 21, Braga City Walk Lt. 2, Jl. Braga 99-101. Telp. (022) 844 60121. 3 screens. Ticket price: Rp 10,000
  • CiWalk XXI, Cihampelas Walk Lt. 4, Jl. Cihampelas 160. 8 screens. Ticket price: Rp 15,000-25,000
  • CiWalk XXI The Premiere, Cihampelas Walk Lt. 4, Jl. Cihampelas 160. 2 screens. Ticket price: Rp 50,000
  • Empire 21, Bandung Indah Plaza Lt. 3, Jl. Merdeka 56. ☎ +62 22 424 0719. 6 screens. Ticket price: Rp 15,000
  • Galaxy 21, Jl. Kepatihan. ☎ +62 22 420 8143. 6 screens. Ticket price: Rp 9,000-13,000
  • Jatos 21, Jatinangor Town Square, Jl. Raya Jatinangor No. 150. ☎ +62 22 8792 0089. 5 screems. Ticket price: Rp 10,000 – 15,000
  • Nusantara 21, Jl. Alun-Alun Timur No. 3-7. ☎+62 22 4237 040. 4 screens. Ticket price: Rp 8,000 – 10,000
  • Regent 21, Jl. Sumatra 2. ☎ +62 22 423 6370. 3 screens. Ticket price: Rp 8,000-10,000

 Outdoor activities

  • Alun-alun Bandung or city square. Alun-alun is the classical central core of the democratic city in Indonesia, since the 15th century. It is typically a square of grass field with 4 sides are the city major residence, pendopo (a place to meet between citizens and the government), a mosque and a prison. The grand mosque is still visible, though it has been renovated 7 times. Now, it has undergone a major renovation and expansion with two 81 m high minarets and a Taj Mahal interior design. The pendopo is also still there, behind a high wall. The prison has been transformed into a mall with one block is preserved as a museum, a cell block where Soekarno, the first president of Indonesia, spent some time in there. The major transition is that now alun-alun serves as an entertainment park, where shopping mall buildings are surrounding the square.
  • Bandung Zoo, Jl. Kebun Binatang No. 6. ☎ +62 22 2502770. Built in 1930.
  • Mt. Tangkuban Perahu. Is on the northern side of Bandung, the closest city is Lembang. (Angkot route: St. Hall-Lembang). You can see it from a distance at many places in Bandung but a tour to Bandung will not be complete without visiting the crater. If you are in Bandung, take a look towards the north keeping an eye out for a mountain of unusual shape. The name itself comes from the local legend of Sangkuriang (“Legenda Sangkuriang”) The legend is based upon a disobedient son who kicks his boat upside-down and was then transformed into stone. Hence the name of this mountain. Tangkubanflipped and perahu boat. It is still an active volcanic mountain. The crater is reachable by car and it is fun to do hiking to the top by foot from Lembang. Elevation is 2,084 m above sea level and the path from Lembang is not too steep. At the crater, there is a tourist spot. Near the main crater is another amazing site, ‘Kawah Upas’, where you stand between two big craters, to the left and to the right. Entrance fee to the park is Rp 50,000 for foreigners . When you reach Tangkuban Perahu, the first thing you’ll see (and most popular) is the main crater (Kawah Ratu). One crater is dormant, but has a side vent that emits some smoke. The scenery below the mountain is worth a visit. But don’t stop there. Many viitors miss this but it’s probably the best part of Tangkuban Perahu.
    • Getting to Tangkuban PerahuFrom Bandung Indah Plaza (BIP), take an ‘angkot’ heading to “CICAHEUM – LEDENG”. The angkot will stop at Terminal Ledeng (Rp 3,000). From the terminal, take a mini van or ‘Elep’ towards Subang and get down at Tangkuban Perahu (Rp 12,000). From the entrance of Tangkuban Perahu, it’s another 4-5 km hike up on a really bad road. You can often hire a local ‘motorcycle cab’ (local drivers are often waiting nearby) to take you up. If you can ride a motorcycle, it’s a lot easier to rent one to get there.In 2012, several times Tangkuban Perahu is suddenly closed by so many vendors whom don’t want to organize and everyone want to be a vendor without any regulation at Tangkuban Perahu and even they want to operate all the Tangkuban Perahu site area by themself.Juanda Forest Park or Dago Pakar (Taman Hutan Raya ir. H. Juanda). It is a forest park and serves as a water reservoir catchment area for the city. There are some interesting parks for children or to have a picnic. There are also some old WWII caves used during the Japanese occupation in the 1940s. Some people walk through the forest to reach Maribaya park in Lembang. This is at the end of Jalan Dago. The Angkot routes are Abd. Muis-Dago and followed by walking or take a ride by motorcycle.Puncrut-Lembang Hiking trail. Started from Puncrut, Jl. Kiputih, North Bandung.There are guided tours to Perahu, but charges are Rp250,000 per person (including entrance charges), so if you are 2 persons or more, it is worth hiring a car for about Rp500,000 for the day (entrance charges are extra).
  • Kawah Domas. A 30 min walk from Kawah Ratu, trek 1.3 km down to Kawah Domas to get upclose and personal with volcanic activity. It is compulsory to hire a registered guide to walk you down to this active crater. They will charge Rp 250,000/hr. To visit the Kawah Domas and walk to the car park at Kawah Domas down the hill from Kawah ratu is approx 1 hr 30 min. It will be more if you indulge in mud massages, egg boiling or similar. Walk around Kawah Ratu on your own and only then get a guide if you feel you need one. Take note that the people selling tourist items will possibly hassle you. Politely tell them not to follow if you are not going to buy anything. Tourists are often pestered to retain a guide or to buy souvenirs. After finishing you do not need to walk back to Kawah ratu which makes life much easier. The walk to Kawah Domas looks like hell on earth and it is a must-do experience with bubbling mud, boiling hot water and hissing sulphur vapour. You can smell the sulfur, watch the hot water springs very closely or even buy a boiled egg cooked on the hot surface.Now there is an alterntive way to go Kawah Domas in less pain and without guide. After seeing Kawah Ratu, go down the mountain to parkir Kawah Domas (the Kawah Domas car park). Walk from here to Kawah Domas. You will still have to pay for the registered guide cpstomg Rp250,000 to enter to Kawah Domas. The walk is less tiring than the walk down from Kawah ratu, this may be better for the less fit.


Shopping for clothing and accessories is the main reason many weekend visitors travel from Jakarta. Many items are less expensive than in Jakarta. Denim (jeans) stores are along Jl. Cihampelas. These became very popular in the 90s with unique facades built to attract people. The more up-market fashion stores include the many emporiums on Jl. Dago and Jl. Riau. Sisa exports (rejected export products), and factory outlets are prolific and have a very wide range of export quality items. These are sometimes available in the larger sizes that may be suitable for some visitors. A new trend are the distro (distribution outlets). Luxury labels are often available but for those the extensive upmarket malls in Jakarta may be more suitable with a much larger range, however they are often more expensive.

Local Handicrafts and Souvenirs

  • Wayang Golek, is a Sundanese puppet show. Unlike Javanese wayang puppet, wayang golek is made from wood. Find wayang golek at Galeri Cupumanik, Jl. Haji Umar.
  • Angklung, is a Sundanese ethnical music instrument (see at See section).
  • Elizabeth, Jl. Otto Iskandar Dinata 520, ☎ +62 22 5201125. Leather handicrafts, including shoes, bags and other accessories. Well-known local shoe and leather craft outlets are centred in the Cibaduyut area.
  • Jeans Street, Jl. Cihampelas. A lot of denim shops decorated with funky designs. Giant models of Superman, Goku, Rambo and others, stand guard over some of the shops.
  • Souvenir Shop, Jl. Cihampelas no.39. ☎ +62 22 4205427. Very good quality and inexpensive local souvenirs. The shop in one of the many old Dutch colonial style buildings.
  • Toko Sin Sin, Jl. Braga 59, ☎ +62 22 4238574. Sells various high quality handicraft and souvenirs, including wayang golek (wood puppet), wayang kulit (leather puppet), angklung, leather and crocodile skin handicraft (mostly bags, wallets, and belts), wood carvings, Indonesian traditional silverworks, paintings, and even Indonesian furniture. This is a shop with very long history, started even before Indonesia gained independence.
  • LORI, Jl. Guntur 1, ☎ +62 22 7315604, Fax: +62 22 7311459. Ethnic contemporary styled jewellery and handicraft accessories for women and men. Product use natural, environment friendly materials such as stones, cowstone, woods, seeds and Rudrakash/Ganitrus Beads.

Shopping Malls

  • Alun-alun. Centre of the city. In the alun-alun area there are many shopping malls, but they are rather old.
  • Cihampelas Walk, (Ciwalk), Jl. Cihampelas. Shopping, dining and hanging out in a cozy and relaxing atmosphere.
  • Bandung Electronic Centre, (BEC), Jl. Purnawarman 13-15.  Specialising in electronic devices.
  • Bandung Indah Plaza, (BIP), Jl. Merdeka 56. Food court, cinema.
  • Trans Studio Mall, (TSM; formerly Bandung Supermal), Jl. Gatot Subroto 289. Food court, cinema. Also offers you high class clothing stores such as Hugo Boss, Raoul, Next, Mango, Guess, Esprit, and many more.
  • Bandung Trade Center, Jl. Terusan Pasteur 143. Food Court.
  • Braga City Walk, Jl. Braga.  Shops, restaurants and cafes. This famous historical street still maintains old colonial style buildings.
  • Istana Plaza, Jl. Pasirkaliki 121 – 123.  Free wireless internet, assisted taxi stand, cinema, shopping reward programs, and ice skating ring.
  • Kings Shopping Centre, 1 & 2, Jl. Kepatihan. Food court, fashion, cinema.
  • Setrasari Plaza, Jl. Surya Sumantri 120. Food court. Near universities.
  • Paris Van Java Mall, Jl Sukajadi.  An attractive atmosphere with a mixed environment of outdoor and indoor mall. Carrefour, a mega international style supermarket, Gramedia, a giant bookstore, cafe, bistros. Both smaller shops and high end clothing stores such as MNG, Guess, H.O.B., and Esprit can be found here.
  • Pasar Baru Trade Center, Jl Otto Iskandar Dinata. 08.00am – 05.00pm. Pasar baru is one of the most visited fashion shopping center in Bandung. Pasar baru is the oldest modern market that still exist until today with 8 storeys of shops. Mostly sells fashion and clothings such as garment, textile, shoes, bags, batik clothes, casual clothes, bed cover, muslim clothes, lace, jibab, kebaya (Betawi traditional cloth), muslim apparels, wedding accessories, etc. Clothes are from low quality to superior quality. Price is known to be cheap compared to other places in Bandung. Haggling prices can be done.
  • Kepatihan Plaza, Jl. Kepatihan. Fashion, supermarket and food court.
  • Istana Building Commodities Centre, Jl. Jendral Ahmad Yani. Building materials, electronics, computers.
  • Bandung Electronic Mall, Jl. Naripan. Electronics, computers, cellphones and food court.
  • Planet Dago, Jl. Ir. H. Juanda. Cellphones, bowling court.
  • Plaza Dago, Jl. Ir. H. Juanda. Fashion, ice skate court, food court.
  • Metro Indah Mall, (former Metro Trade Centre) Kompleks MTC Jl. Soekarno Hatta No. 590, ☎ +62 22 7538448, +62 22 7537577.
  • Mall Lingkar Selatan, Jl. Peta. Supermarket, food court.
  • Jatinangor Town Square, Jl. Raya Jatinangor. Shopping mall in eastern Bandung.
  • Plaza Pajajaran, Jl. Raya Jatinangor.
  • Cimahi Mall, Jl. Gandawijaya. The first shopping mall in Cimahi.
  • Mall IITC Kopo, Jl. Kopo. Cellphones and food court.
  • Bandung Trade Mall, Jl. Kiaracondong.
  • Lucky Square, Jl. Terusan Jakarta.
  • Plaza Cimahi, Jl. Raya Cibabat. A newer shopping mall in Cimahi.

Factory outlets

During the quality inspection, some of the products may have been been rejected, or the local manufacturers may have overrun their production quota. These residual products are sold with sisa export tags, because they were made for export. Some of these items have Grade A (best quality, but overrun product) or Grade B (export quality, but do not pass QC) qualities. Don’t be surprised to see made in Korea or made in Singapore in their tags. Sometimes you will see the original price, such as US$65, but they may sell it for Rp 45,000, a fraction of the list price in the destination market.

Enjoy bargain hunting but make a careful inspection yourself. Check for below-standard/damaged items. Beware also for the fake products with branded name. The shops often have a wide range of modern contemporary styles and accessories. Some stores may have a small food court.

Most of factory outlets are concentrated in Jl. Riau, Jl. Dago (Jl. Ir. H. Juanda) and around Jl.Sukajadi-Jl.Setiabudi area.

Factory outlets in Jl. Riau:

  • Heritage (inside an old historical building)
  • Cascade
  • Summit (Also have a cafe (Dailycious cafe) that sells the famous batagor, siomay, oxtails, noodles and fresh juices)
  • Oasis
  • Metropolitan
  • Renaritti
  • Secret
  • Terminal Tas
  • Edward Forrer
  • Stamp.

Factory outlets in Jl. Dago:

  • Rich & Famous
  • Coconel
  • Glamour
  • Blossom
  • Uptown (also opens a cafe that sells good chicken noodle and famous for the strawberry juice)
  • Dago Stock Centre
  • Morning Dew
  • Justine.

Around Jl. Sukajadi – Jl. Setiabudi:

  • Rumah Mode Jl. Setiabudi 41F
  • Diaz, Jl. Sederhana, mostly handbags

Other places:

  • Batian Jl. Otto Iskandardinata 535, you can find used and new items here
  • Stock Center Jl. Sukarno Hatta
  • Cargo Jl. Diponegoro
  • Cosmo Jl. Pelajar Pejuang 45
  • The Big Price Cut (The first factory outlet in Bandung) Jl. Aceh

Distros (distribution outlets)

Distros are a new phenomenon in Bandung where a shop sells stylish products that were made by local designers. They are served as a distribution store, because these local designers do not have their own marketing label yet. The products that are sold are books, indie label records, magazines and also fashion products and accessories. After their products receive large attention they may then release their own clothing label. There are more than 200 local brand names in Bandung. One thing that makes distros stand out from factory outlet is that distros come from individual designers and young entrepeneurs, while factory outlet products come from a garment factory.

Note that now distros are getting famous in Indonesia. The local branded name with free and independent motivation has been shifted. Be careful when buying in distros as the prices are increasing to a level almost the same as at boutique shops.

Some of the Bandung distros:

  • unkl347, Jl. Trunojoyo 4
  • Invictus,Jl.Pager gunung 13 and Jl.Trunojoyo 6
  • Ouval Research, Jl. Buah Batu 64
  • No Label, Jl. Sumatra 24, Blackjack, Jl. Trunojoyo
  • Screamous, Jl. Trunojoyo
  • Badger, Jl. Trunojoyo
  • Airplane,”starseeker”,”oglea”, “Blankwear” Jl. Sultan Agung
  • Cosmic, Jl. Trunojoyo
  • Green Light, Bandung Indah Plaza Lt. 2 and Jl. Buah Batu
  • Temple, Jl. Dipatiukur
    Skaters, Bandung Indah Plaza Lt. 2, Jl. Cihampelas and Jl. Raya Lembang
  • Black ID, Jl. Lombok and Paris Van Java Mall.
  • cumaSegini, Jl. Swadaya.Distro Bandung


Bandung is a heaven for food lovers who enjoy new experiences. There are a lot of varieties, not only local cuisine but international ones. You can find any food you want for any kind of taste. Do note, that most eateries in Bandung focus on creating new variations, not making sure it tastes good.

Everybody has their own favourites. One page is not enough to list all food stalls, food courts, restaurants and cafes in Bandung. Here are some lists that are popular or have a long history.

Local Delicacies

  • Bakso Tahu / Siomay is a steamed meat with or without tofu. It is served with peanut paste, sweet soy sauce and a lime. It is suitable for a snack to eat at anytime. In almost all streets you can find somebody selling this food with a wheeled stall (gerobak). The popular place is called Siomay Pak Lili at Jl. Geger Kalong Girang that has sold this food for 15 years.
  • Batagor is similar to bakso tahu/siomay but it is fried instead of being steamed. It is served similar with peanut paste and sweet soy sauce. Served also as a snack. Legends are Kingsley at Jl. Veteran, selling this food already for 28 years, Batagor Riri [29] at Jl. Burangrang 41 (in front of the BCA building), Batagor Haji Isan at Jl. Bojongloa, Batagor Haji Darto at Pasar Simpang Dago, and Dailycious Batagor at the Summit Factory Outlet JL. RE. Martadinata (Riau) 61.
  • Basreng is a spicy snack made from fried meatballs, with the addition of the spicy and savory seasonings suitable for you. You can also buy it from online on Ruang Jualan.
  • Martabak is a fried stuffed pancake. There are two types: sweet and savory. Sweet martabak is a thick pancake stuffed with chocolate/cheese/banana/sugar. The savory martabak is a thin fried pancake stuffed with eggs, some vegetables, mushrooms, chicken/beef and one filled with sweet corn and cheese. The most popular ones are Martabak Lodaya and Martabak San Fransisco at Jl. Lodaya. Another recommended place is Martabak Andir at Jl. Jendral Sudirman, near the Andir wet market. One more best martabak which should not be forgotten is Martabak Canada at Jl. Kebon Kawung near the Pertamina outlet.
  • Soto Bandung is a soup with beef meat, soy beans and some vegetables. The old food stalls selling this food is at Soto Ojolali, Jl. Cibadak (near alun-alun), since 1940s.
  • Lotek is a mixed boiled vegetables, served with peanut paste and some chillies, similar to gado gado. The hotter the better. The famous place is Lotek Kalipah Apo, Jl. Kalipah Apo, every day 9AM-16PM. Have been selling this food for already 48 years. One plate is around Rp 4,500.
  • Mie Kocok is a noodle soup, served with beef foot, beef skin and tauge or mung bean sprout. If you don’t fancy with these parts of beef, then you can ask not to have it and you can still taste its appetite. The famous place is a street vendor, Mie Kocok SKM, at Jl. Sunda.
  • Mie Ayam is a noodle soup served with chicken and it comes with a variety of toppings. The famous place is at Mie Naripan in Jl. Naripan, they serve varieties of good noodles there. Another good place is at Bakmi Mangkok Mas in Jl. Setiabudhi.
  • Nasi Timbel is the famous Sundanese dish. It is a tube-shaped rice that has a distinguish flavour, because it is cooked inside a banana leaf. It is usually served with lalapan (raw vegetables), fried tofu & tempe, fried chicken and chili paste. You can find this type of dish in most of Sundanese restaurants. The well-known timbel food stall is located nearby Istiqomah mosque. Another good place is at Nasi Timbel Dago at Jl. Dago for around Rp 20,000.-
  • Laksa Bandung is the famous old traditional dish. This dish is kind of chicken soup using coconut milk with turmeric for the stock, and in side it contains sliced rice cake (cooked inside a banana leaf), bean sprout, vermicelli, shredded chicken and for the finishing is garnished with holly basil and Oncom Bandung the traditional fermented soy bean cake. The well-known laksa vendor is located at the junction of Jl. Pungkur and Lengkong Pondok Laksa is very appetising and one plate costs around Rp 7,000,-

Legendary Eateries

  • Sate Kardjan, Jl. Pasirkaliki, open 24 hr daily . Lamb satay speciality, since 1970. Try sate buntel (a grilled minced lamb meat), tongseng (lamb meat in a coconut milk soup), nasi goreng kambing (fried rice with lamb) or sate cempe (satay from 10 month old lamb). We visited this place after much trouble to find it, and found that the sate is average and the ambience wanting. Not worth the trip to find this place.
  • Bakmi Naripan, Jl. Naripan 108 (around the corner of Jl. Sunda and Jl. Naripan), Bandung, ☎ +62 22 4205516, a Indonesian Chinese noodle establishment since 1960’s.
  • Bubur Ayam Mang Oyo, Jl. Sulanjana (near Gasibu) and several branches. It’s a chicken porridge. Nice for starting your day.
  • Kedai Ma’ Uneh, Jl. Terasana I No. 132 Pajajaran. It’s in an alley in front of Pajajaran sport complex. Delicious Sundanese food.
  • Baso Lela, Jl. Awiligar, everyday open until 9PM. On the a hill side with a nice view to the city. Try yamien, a dried boiled noodle, mixed with soy sauce. There are sweet yamien and salt yamien. Try also chicken noodle and the strawberry juice as a dessert.
  • Santosa, Jl. Aceh, everyday open from 5PM-9:30PM. A hawker with open air eating. Open since the 1960s. Try the fried kway teow/noodle/rice. They use a special wok to enhance the taste. Located opposite of the municipal office, near KONI Jabar dorm.
  • Waroeng Boentoet, Jl. Anggrek No. 48, Bandung (near Jl. RE Martadinata/Riau). It is the only restaurant in Bandung that specialized in a traditional heritage of delicious oxtail soup with the legendary taste sensation of the essence of spices. The Waroeng is decorated in a nice and simple vintage theme, with a very good service and affordable price that will provide its customers a high level of dine in satisfaction. Try some of its specialties like oxtail soup, oxtail teriyaki, oxtail barbeque, oxtail black pepper, oxtail chili penyet, fruits salad, black sticky rice milkshake, vegetable-fruit juice, and purple yam juice. This place is a must. Easy to find and good prices for excellent food.

Chic Restaurants

For those who want a breathtaking view, eat in a local Sundanese village or have romantic international cuisine. Don’t expect the taste to be half as good as the view and experience though.

  • Kampung Daun, Jl Sersan Bajuri Km 4.7 No 88 Villa Trinity Complex (you need to drive there with your own car ). Sundanese food. You eat at a hut in the middle of valley (no padi fields) near a small waterfall and river. At night it’s really amazing to walk along candlelit pathways. Eating out really means eating out here. The atmosphere here is enchanting and magical. Lots of trees, bushes and secluded “pondok” small huts for relaxing and food, cool as it is set in a valley with the sound of running water from the waterfall beside you. Food prices are higher than in Bandung or even other high end restaurants cause you need to cover the cost of the use of the huts.
  • fashion pasta: Italian Style Living Restaurant, Jl Resor Dago Pakar No 18 A ( International place for lunch and dining . Try all original the best Italian food, from Antipasti, Pizza, Salad , Soup, Pasta , Main Course , Dessert ). ph +62 22 2516101/ +62 22 72221014
  • Sierra Cafe & Lounge, Jl. Bukit Pakar no 33. Located on the hill of Dago Pakar in Bandung, Sierra delivers a relaxing and indulging ambience with a breathtaking view of Bandung’s city lights. International cuisines include Western, Japanese and Thai).
  • N Cafe, Jl. Sutra Duta Kencana II/11. Balinese & European cuisines, with great scenery, try the balinese fried duck.
  • Kedai Nyonya Rumah, Jl. Naripan 92. Indonesian cuisine.
  • Tizis Restaurant, Jl. Kidang Pananjung 3. European dishes with homemade bread and pastries.
  • Atmosphere Cafe, Jl. Lengkong Besar No. 97, ☎ +62 22 4262815.
  • The Peak Resort Dining, Komplek Girandah Desa Karyawangi, Ciwaruga, Parongpong, ☎ +62 22 2705429
  • Congo Gallery & Cafe, Jl. Rancakendal Luhur No.8, Dago Pakar, ☎ +62 22 2531065. This venue is famous with its romantic ambience and solid wood collections. The price is not as expensive as other same class restaurant.
  • The Stone Cafe, Jl. Rancakendal Luhur No.5 (Gerbang Dago Resort), Dago Atas, ☎ +62 22 2500577.
  • The Valley Bistro, Jl. Lembah Pakar Timur No. 28 (Dago) , ☎ +62 22 2531052.
  • The View Restaurant, Jl Resort Dago Pakar Raya No. 28, ☎ +62 22 2531198 , fax: +62 22 2531196

 Sundanese Restaurants

  • Sunda is the ethnic name of the local people living in West Java. Sundanese food has some distinctive features. It mainly consists of fried fish, pepes ikan (steamed fish in a banana leaf), raw vegetables and chili pastes. To try these type of foods there are numerous Sundanese restaurants. Some of the popular ones have several branches in Bandung.
  • Tojoyo, Jl Prabudimuntur 22 (Jembatan Layang Surapati), ☎ +62 22 4203682
  • Dago Panyawangan, Jl Dago 137, ☎ +62 22 2507551.
  • Sindang Reret, Jl. Surapati No. 53, ☎ +62 22 2501474. Another branch is outside the city in the north at Jl. Raya Cikole Km.22 Lembang, ☎ +62 22 2786500. The better one is the branch restaurant .
  • Ponyo, Jl. Malabar 60, ☎ +62 22 7301477. There are many branches outside the city.
  • AA Laksana, Jl. Soekarno Hatta 494, ☎ +62 22 7509303. There are 2 other branches at Jl. Jakarta 21 and Jl. Cihampelas 30. A big self-service eatery with long tables already filled with plates of food. Take what you want and ask the server to count the plates when finished.
  • Ampera, The famous Sundanese restaurant in Bandung with cheap price and lot of branch. Jl. Sukarno Hatta (Cigereleng), Jl. Sukarno Hatta (Sanggar Hurip), Jl. Sukarno Hatta (Metro), Jl. Pajajaran, Jl. Pungkur, Jl. Dewi Sartika (Kebon Kalapa), Jl. Taman Citarum, Kepatihan Plaza and Jl. Raya Lembang. When we ate at Ampera on Angerrek, food was cold and tasteless.
  • Saung Kabayan, Jl. Dr. Djunjunan.
  • Raja Sunda, Jl. Dr. Djunjunan.
  • Sambel Cibiuk, Jl. Merak.
  • Bumbu Desa, newer and more prestigious Sundanese traditional restaurant, branch in Bandung can be located at Jl. Laswi No. 1, ☎ +62 22 7100539, Jl. Pasirkaliki No. 160, ☎ +62 22 4234330 and Rumah Mode Jl. Dr. Setiabudhi No. 41, ☎ +62 22 91147980.
  • Ibu Haji Ciganea, famous sundanese food restaurant from Purwakarta, Bandung branch can be located at Jl. Lodaya No. 29, ☎ +62 22 7314291

Chinese Style Restaurants

  • The Duck King, Paris Van Java Mall, Jl. Sukajadi. Possibly the best Chinese restaurant in Bandung.
  • Golden Lake Chinese Restaurant, Jl.Setiabudhi 269-275, ☎ +62 22 2012610, [30]. 7AM-2PM, 6PM-10PM. Discount up to 30%, until Aug 31, 2011, Cantonese meals, yamcha/dimsum served by chef from Hongkong. edit
  • Eastern Restaurant, Istana Plaza Mall, at Upper Central Bandung Jl. Pasirkaliki. Halal Chinese Restaurant but very popular in Bandung
  • Grand Eastern Restaurant, Jalan Pasirkaliki No. 18 near Paskal Hypersquare and Bandung Train Station. ☎ +62 22 4200580
    JESS 2 DAGOChinese and Malay cuisine RestaurantJl.Ir.H.Djuanda 151 B.The place for : 2504893
  • Thai style restaurants
  • Coca Suki, Jl. Ir. H. Juanda (Dago) 173, [31]. A branch of the Coca restaurant in Thailand.
  • Thai Palace, in Istana Plaza Mall. Jl. PasirKaliki and another branch at Upper Dago Area on Jl. Ir. H. Juanda No. 345 B ☎ +62 22 2503006 ; +62 22 2512857.

Japanese and Korean Style Restaurants

  • Hanamasa, Istana Plaza. Jl. PasirKaliki. Jl. Merdeka 39-41. ☎ +62 22 4204426. Japanese restaurant with yakiniku, shabu-shabu, robatayaki, beef, chicken, seafood. Opening hours: 11AM-10PM. Approximately US$22/person.
  • Hoka Hoka Bento, Jl. Merdeka 47. ☎ +62 22 424 5494. Japanese Restaurant with ekkado, chicken katsu, sukiyaki, koori kon nyaku, shrimp ball, beef yakiniku, shabu-shabu, teriyaki, udon. Hours: 10AM-10PM. Price is approximately US$4/person. Branches : Bandung Electronic Center 3rd Fl., Bandung Trade Center 3rd Fl., Istana Plaza 3rd Fl., Mall IITC Kopo GF., Borma Jl. Terusan Jakarta No. 53E, Metro Indah Mall GF., Kings Shopping Center 1, 4th Fl., Jl. Dr. Setiabudhi No. 61, Stasiun Bandung Jl. Kebon Kawung, Hero Jl. Buah Batu No. 237, Yogya Jl. Sunda No. 60 4th Fl.
  • Momiji Japanese Cuisine, Jl. Braga 64, ☎ +62 22 4203786. Serving authenthic Japanese cuisine in Jalan Braga, the famous historical street of Bandung.
  • Sushi Tei, Jl.Sumatra No.9. ☎ +62 22 4223181. Nice upscale restaurant that is cheaper than hotel restaurant but more expensive than average restaurant in Bandung. Famous for its sushi
  • Midori, Jl. Sultan Tirtayasa 31. ☎ +62 22 4260787. Similar price range with Sushi Tei. Its sashimi are thick
  • Korean House, at North Bandung on Jl. Sukajadi No. 175 ☎ +62 22 203 1626.

Western Restaurants

  • MYLK Steakhouse, Jalan Setiabudi 206. ☎ +62 22 2041191. European restaurant with local and imported Australian Steaks, burgers, pasta. Open 10AM-10PM (Weekdays), 11AM-11PM (Saturdays). US$4-12/person.
  • Chef’s Table Resto and Bar, Jalan Setiabudi 67. ☎ +62 22 2033453. European restaurant with selections of ribs, steaks, pasta, pizza with no MSG. Open untill 11PM. US$8-10/person.
  • Atmosphere Resort Cafe, Jalan Lengkong Besar 97. ☎ +62 22 4262815
  • Glosis Restaurant at Cihampelas Walk (Ciwalk). Jl. Cihampelas. Prices are approximately US$8/person
  • Vienna cafe & resto, Previously Cafe Venezia. Jl. Sukajadi 205. ☎ +62 22 2031277. Italian restaurant with pasta, pizza, fried chicken, salad, soup. 9AM-11PM. Approximately US$15/person.
  • Sadewa Steak Near Pajajaran, 5 min from Airport, 10 min from Railway Station. Jl. Sadewa 24, Bandung. Specialize European steak and pasta in a cozy environment. Open 4:30PM-10PM. Price: approx. US$4/person.
  • Canary. Jl. Ir. H. Juanda 28. ☎ +62 22 423 8928. International style restaurant withhamburger, steak, fried chicken, sate, soup, salad. Hours 7AM-9PM. Price: approx. US$7/person.
  • Pizza Hut, well known international brand for pizza with multiple outlets including; Indah Plaza GF, Mollis GF, Kings Shopping Center 2 GF, Bandung Supermall, Istana Plaza GF, Carrefour Kiaracondong, Jl. Dr. Setiabudhi, Jl. Buah Batu, Jl. Kopo Bihbul and Jl. Ir. H. Juanda.
  • Burger King” at PVJ (Paris van Java) mall, Jl. Sukajadi
  • McDonalds, American fast food restaurant providing formulaic burgers and fried chicken at Bandung Indah Plaza GF, Premiere Plaza GF, Kings Shopping Center 2 GF, Kepatihan Plaza 3rd Fl, Istana Plaza Parking Ground, Istana Plaza 3rd Fl, Dago Boutique Apartment, Griya Jl. Buah Batu, Jl. Dr. Setiabudhi, Jl. Jendral Gatot Subroto. Delivery ☎ 14045.
  • KFC, American fast food with a formulaic fried chicken style; Jl. Pajajaran No. 68, Jl. Buah Batu No. 189B, ☎ +62 22 7321887, Jl. RE. Martadinata No. 72, ☎ +62 22 4261465, Jl. Sukarno Hatta No. 423, ☎ +62 22 7562076, Jl. Kepatihan No. 19A, ☎ +62 22 4208660, Bandung Supermall, Bandung Trade Center GF, Jl. Dr. Setiabudhi No. 169, ☎ +62 22 2017616, Jl. Merdeka No. 27, Jl. Ir. H. Juanda No. 40-42, ☎ +62 22 4218965, Jl. Kopo No. 599, Paris Van Java Mall GF, Metro Indah Mall GF,
  • The Stone Cafe, the unforgettable dining experience, Jl. Rancakendal Luhur No.5 (Gerbang Dago Resort), Dago Atas. ☎ +62 22 2500577. International style menu, Sundanese Menu, Chinese menu. Hours: 11AM-11PM on weekdays, 11AM-2AM on Sat and Sundays. Live music every Day.

Mexican Restaurants

  • Erla’s Mexican Cafe. Jl. Dago Pojok 3. opposite Sheraton Hotel @Ir. H. Juanda ☎ +62 250 5352. Owned by a local family, this cafe sells various western and mexican food, offer homey atmosphere and cheapest beers in town. Home for expatiate who are looking for evening chat and meet other tourist and foreigner. Price from 1USD/dish. open from 12pm till 3am.
  • Amigos Restaurant at Le’aries Garden Hotel. Jl. Terusan Pasteur Annex. ☎ +62 22 200 5401 (fax: +62 22 200 7406) [32]. Amigos Bandung is the biggest Mexican restaurant in Indonesia and one of the largest in South East Asia. It offers authentic Mexican cuisine and decoration. Price: approx. US6/person

Mediterranean Restaurants

  • Gaza Mediterranean Restaurant, Jl. Pahlawan 72 . ☎ +62 22 721 9361 [33]. Gaza is the one and the only Mediterranean restaurant in Bandung. It offers traditional North Africa, Middle East and West Europe Cuisine, healthy food combining and also vegetarian friendly. Price: approx. US6/person

Seafood Restaurants

  • HDL Jl. Cilaki. Street food in stalls on pedestrian area of the street. Reportedly very delicious and affordable but you need to take caution if you are not accustomed with street food in developing countries.
  • Praoe Seafood Jl Sumatera 31. Phone: +62-22-4215606
  • Parit 9 Seafood Jln Anggrek No 61 Bandung. Phone: +62-22-7103908
  • D’Cost seafood Budget no-frill seafood restaurant that has several branches in Bandung. One of them in North of Bandung on Jl. Sukajadi no. 197. Phone +62-22-2044200
  • Ice cream and pastry
  • Food in Bandung does not stop at the restaurants/cafes. There are plenty of bakeries in the city that you can buy some pastries. Some of them have high popularities that you must take a queue even before the shop is open in the morning.


  • Sumber Hidangan, Jl. Braga 20, in the colonial centre of the city. The bakery was opened as Het Snoephuis (The Candy House) in 1929. The interior is still much the same as it was in earlier times. Breads and cookies’ have names in Dutch, such as zwieback, roomsoes, krentenbrood, saucijzenbrood, suiker hagelslaag. Its old-time ambience and original menu attracts tourists and long-time patrons, but the run-down premise and declining sophistication of its foods and services suggest a losing struggle to remain in business. Open daily from 8:30AM-7PM, closed on Sunday.
  • Bawean Bakery, Jl. Bawean 4. Established in 1946, the name was Sweetheart Bakery until they changed it name during the New Order regime. The new name is taken from the shop location in Jalan Bawean. Their specialties are cakes baked using rum; such as nougat rolls, brownies and similar. By using this alcoholic ingredient their cakes taste a bit bitter but they can be kept for up to 6 days.
  • Brussel’s Spring, Jl. Sumatera next to the Exsport Station bag store. Steaks and waffle ice creams are very tasty. The prices range between Rp 20,000-75,000.
  • Kartika Sari, try the famous cake: pisang molen, a cake stuffed with banana. Very delicious.
    There are 6 stores: Jl. Kebon Jukut 3C, Jl. Buah Batu 165A, Jl. H. Akbar, Jl. Kopo Sayati 111A, Jl. Terusan Jakarta 77E, Jl. Ir. H. Juanda (Dago).
  • Brownies Kukus Amanda, Jl. Rancabolang 29, Jl. Lodaya 8, Jl. Purwakarta. Try brownies kukus, steamed brownies with melted chocolate inside. Soft and very delicious. Very popular and people sometimes queue waiting for it to open.
  • Brownies Primarasa, Jl. Kemuning 20, Jl. Buah Batu 169A, and Jl. Peta 169. Speciality is the chocolate brownies.
  • Dunkin Donuts, Jl. Ir. H. Juanda No. 51, ☎ +62 22 4208617. Airport Hussein Sastranegara. American bakery chain with donuts, croissant and sandwiches. Price: approx. US$3/person.
  • Sus Merdeka, Jl. Merdeka (in front of Bandung Indah Plaza). Famous for its Choux/puff pastry with rum butter filling.
  • J.Co Donuts & Coffee, Well known local donut shop with fascinating flavours. Paris Van Java Mall GF, Istana Plaza GF, Bandung Supermall GF, Cihampelas Walk GF.

Ice Cream

  • Braga Permai (formerly Maison Bogerijn), Jl Braga 58. ☎ +62 22 420 1831. Famous ice cream parlor in Bandung.
  • Baskin and Robbins,[34]. Jl Sukajadi 232, ☎ +62 22 203 8457. Jl. RE Martadinata No. 225,☎ +62 22 720 8122. Jl. Gatot Subroto No. 289, ☎ +62 22 910 1404. Istana Plaza, Jl. Pasir Kaliki 121-123, ☎ +62 22 6000403. . Ice cream parlor.
  • Rasa Bakery, At the intersection of Jl. Tamblong & Jl. Asia Afrika. One of the best places for ice cream in Bandung. The traditionally made ice cream. Rp 10,000-20,000.
  • I Scream for Ice Cream, Jl. Hariangbanga.


  • Alcoholic drinks can often be found at bars, night clubs, hotels and 24 hr mini-markets. Drinking fresh icy yogurt or juice is very tempting, especially after spending a day in a hot sun.
  • Yoghurt Cisangkuy, Jl. Cisangkuy (near Gedung Sate complex). It has many flavours of fresh yogurt with fresh fruits. Very suitable as a resting place after walking in the hot weather.
  • Es Cendol Elizabeth, in front of the Elizabeth bag shop at Jl. Otto Iskandar Dinata and Jl. Cihampelas. Cendol is an Indonesian drink made with coconut and coconut milk, served with ice cubes and sweet brown sugar.
  • Bandoengsche Melk Centrale (BMC), Jl. Aceh 30, in an old Dutch colonial house. They specialise in fresh milk beverages.
  • Rumah Kopi, (Coffee house). Jl. Awiligar (near baso Lela). They serve many kinds of coffee.
  • Susu Segar Lembang, at many street vendors in Lembang. It is outside the city, but it would be nice to stop if you do a sidetrip to Lembang.
  • Es Sekoteng Bungsu, Jl. Bungsu 29. Es sekoteng is a grated ice cube with avocado, young coconut and kolang-kaling (some local preserved fruit).

For alcoholic drinks you can buy it in these stores:

  • Dago 34, Jl. Dago no. 34. Located in the heart of Dago.
  • Warung Internasional, Jl. Dago. it located near Dago 34.
  • Taurus, located near Alun-Alun, it’s easy to find.
  • Kopi Aroma, Jl. Banceuy No. 51 (close to Alun-Alun area), ☎ +62 22 4230473 (fax: +62 22 4232648), [35]. Good quality coffee store and factory, in an old district of town. The Robusta coffee beans are stored for 5 years and the Arabica beans for as long as 8 years and sourced from coffee plantations throughout Indonesia. edit
  • Tea Gallery Walini, Jl.Dago, No.92, ☎ +62 22 2502631. 10AM-12midnight. Traditional Sundanese teas in a cosy and relax environment. Rp 8,000-35,000,-.


Central Bandung


  • Chez Bon Hostel, Jalan Braga 45, ☎ +6222 426-0-600, [36]. Clean and comfortable. Free wireless internet. Shared bathrooms. 120 000 IDR.
  • De Hoff Atria Guest House, Located at Jalan Westhoff near Pasirkaliki anad Pajajaran, ☎ +62 22 93198989 / +628161177110, [37]. The surrounding area is quite and leafy. This bugdget guest house is very near to Istana Plaza, Paris Van Java Mall, Cihampelas Walk and also Paskal Hypersquare. Superior room king bed for IDR 200,000.
  • Hunny Hostel, Paskal Hyper Square, blok C, #28, Pasir Kaliki, ☎ +62 85 862 006 722 or +62 22 86060701, [38]. Inside a safe and guarded complex, a short walk from the train station, close to a lot of street food stall, a food court and a lot of local buses (angkots/bemos) this is a truly backpackers place. Managed by a very kind and helpful family that speaks very good english. The dorms and rooms are very clean in a fairly new building. They will provide you a map of Bandung and all indications for the nearby interesting things to see. Free breakfast, free WiFi in the common room, a rooftop terrace to enjoy the chilly nights of Bandung. Mixed dorm, Female dorm and a few rooms. Dorm bed for 100,000 Rp.
  • ZZZ Express, A few hundred meters after Hunny Hostel, same street, ☎ +62 22 96083105 / 87786212, [39]. Another cheap backpackers hostel. Seems slightly less lively than its neighboring competitor Hunny Hostel but offers the same services at the same price and looks slightly newer. Dorm bed for 100,000 Rp.
  • Midrange / Splurge
  • Aston Hotel and Residence Jl. Braga 99-101. ☎ +62 22 8446 0000, (fax:+62 22 8446 0100), [40]. 4 star hotel inside the Braga City Walk.
  • Grand Preanger Jl. Asia-Afrika 81. ☎ toll free 0 800 182-1112 or +62 22 423 1631 (, (fax:+62 22 4231631), [41]. In the Alun-Alun area, the facade has an art-deco style. 5 stars.
  • Panghegar Jl. Merdeka 2. ☎ +62 22 423 2286 ( (fax:+62 22 423 1583) [42]. In the city centre with a revolving restaurant on the roof. 4 Stars.
  • Hilton Bandung Jl. HOS Tjokroaminoto No. 41-43. ☎ +62 22 8606 6888 (fax:+62 22 8606 6999), [43]. 5 stars.
  • Hyatt Regency Bandung, Jl. Sumatera 51. ☎ +62 22 421 1234, ( fax: +62 22 4210380) [44]. 252 rooms and suites in the city centre with Indonesian decor, marble bath, working desk, broadband internet access, daily newspaper, in-room coffee and nightly turndown. Regency Club lounge for free continental breakfast, evening cocktails and canapes. 5 stars.
  • Le’aries Garden Hotel & Amigos Restaurant, The hotel lobby entrance Jl. Cibogo No.11, annex Jl. Terusan Pasteur (200m from Toll Gate). ☎ +62 22 200 7408 (, (fax:+62 22 200 7406). Amigos Bandung is the biggest Mexican restaurant in Indonesia, and one of the largest in South East Asia. It offers authentic Mexican food and decoration. The Le’aries hotel is the only hotel with full citi-garden view. 3 stars.
  • Santika Jl. Sumatera 52-54. ☎ +62 22 420 3009 (, (fax:+62 22 423 9601) [45]. 3 stars.
  • De Riau Motel Jl. Cimanuk 37. ☎ +62 82 11 78910 88, +62 611 77 110 ( [46]. Affordable cheap motel at the city center. In close proximity to Gedung Sate, Geology Museum as well as youngster favourite Factory Outlets.
  • The slick curves of the Savoy Homann
  • Savoy Homann Jl. Asia-Afrika 112. ☎ +62 22 423 2244 ( (fax:+62 22 423 6187) [47]. Bandung’s oldest hotel and one-time host to Charlie Chaplin and Yasser Arafat, among many others. The current building is a striking art-deco work from the 1930s. Getting a little long in tooth. Renovated in 2007. 4 stars.
  • Vue Palace Hotel Jl. Otto Iskandardinata no.3. ☎ +62 22 426 6288 ( 4 stars.

North Bandung / Dago / Jl. H. Juanda

  • Bumi Sawunggaling Hotel, Jl. Sawunggaling No.13, ☎ +62 22 421 8254, [48]. All rooms have A/C, cableTV, and mini-bar. Business centre, spa, wifi and travel services. From Rp 320,000.
  • The Palais Dago Hotel, Jl. Ir. H. Djuanda No. 90, ☎ +62 22 250 5111, [49]. Boutique hotel with well appointed rooms, bar, cafe and resto, meeting room and business centre. From Rp 1,000,000.
  • Holiday Inn, Jl. Ir. H. Juanda (Dago) 31-33. ☎ +62 22 421 1333 ( (fax:+62 22 4216666) [50]. Lower Dago area. 4 Stars.
  • Aston Primera Pasteur, Jl. Dr. Junjunan 96. ☎ +62 22 206 0123 (fax:+62 22 206 0124) [51]. Hotel & conference centre. 4 stars.
  • The Luxton, Jl. Ir. H. Juanda (Dago) 18. ☎ +62 22 4220 700, (fax +62 22 4220 600) [52]. 4 stars.
  • Sheraton Inn Jl. Ir. H. Juanda (Dago) 390. ☎ +62 22 250 0303 (fax:+62 22 250 0301) [53]. Upper Dago area, close to the dago golf centre. 5 stars.
  • Jayakarta Jl. Ir. H. Juanda (Dago) 381A,. ☎ +62 22 250 5888 ( (fax:+62 22 250 5388) [54]. Upper Dago area. 4 stars.
  • De Bukit Dago Jl. Bukit Pakar Timur IV/D6 (Dago). ☎ +62 22 93 19 8989, +62 82 11 78910 88. ( (fax:+62 22 4207950), [55]. A villa/guest house in the Dago hill area with Bandung city views.
  • Patra Jasa, Patra Jasa. Jl. Ir. H. Juanda 132. ☎ +62 22 250 4664. (fax:+62 22 250 4995). Close to Bandung Institute of Technology. 2 stars.
  • Geulis, Jl. Ir. H. Juanda no. 129. ☎ +62 22 250 7777, +62 22 250 3600. (fax:+62 22 250 3086). 3 stars.
  • Marbella Dago Pakar, Komplek Resort Dago Pakar, Desa Ciburial Kecamatan Cimenyan. 5 stars.
  • Garden Permata, Jl. Lemahneundeut no. 7. ☎ +62 22 201 1000. 4 stars.
  • GH Universal, Jl. Setiabudhi 376. ☎ +62 22 2010388. 5 stars.
  • Dago Guest House Jl. Bukit Dago Selatan 53B, Dago. (Located in the West Java Art & Culture Complex (Kompleks Taman Budaya Propinsi Jawa Barat)). ☎ +62 22 250 7050, (fax:+62 22 250 7030), (, [56]. Private bathroom with shower, A/C, cableTV. Book online for cheaper rates. Free airport pickup, internet.
  • Tamara Guest House Jl. Wira Angun-Angun No.46. ☎ +62 22 420 4442, [57], ( Guesthouse with single, twin, and triple bedrooms, with private bathroom, western appliances and hot water; Free continental breakfast, internet access, cableTV in common room, trilingual host; English, Dutch, Indonesia. Taxi, tour, and car rental can be arranged.
  • De Villa Kompleks Villa Istana Bunga, Villa keluarga. North Bandung, Parongpong – Cisarua. ☎ +62 22 93 19 8989, +62 82 11 78910 88 (, (fax:+62 22 426 0799), [58]. Spacious garden, 24 hr private security, public swimming pool, basketball and tennis court. Bandung city view and scenery view.


  • The Padma Bandung Jl. Ranca Bentang 56-58. ☎ +62 22 203 0333, ( (fax:+62 22 2030633) [59]. 5 star with view to the northern hills, swimming pool.
  • De Bale Townhouse (Kompleks Bale Pakuan Town house) ,Jl. Cimbuleuit 197. ☎ +62 611 77 110, +62 22 93 19 8989 [60]. Newly built town house with modern architecture.


  • Novotel Bandung Jalan Cihampelas No 23. ☎ +62 22 421 1001, (fax:+62 22 4212999), ([61]. 4 star hotel.
  • Aston Tropicana Hotel Jalan Cihampelas no. 125-129. ☎ +62 22 203 0101. ( 5 star.
  • Sensa Hotel Bandung, Jl Cihampelas No 160., ☎ +62 22 206 1111, [62]. 5 star. Connected to the ‘Cihampelas Walk’, boulevard-style shopping mall.
  • Villa Puncrut, Jl. Bukit Raya Timur No. 504, Ciumbeleuit., ☎ +62 812 1301 6022 (, [63].
  • Cihampelas Hotel, Jln. Cihampelas No 222 and 240., ☎ +62 22 203 3425, [64]. 15 A/C rooms, all with internet, cableTV, coffee/tea maker, and a private bathroom with shower and bathtub.
  • Daarul Jannah Cottage, Jln. Gegerkalong Girang No 67., ☎ +62 22 200 7955, [65]. 15 A/C rooms, all with Internet, coffee/tea maker, and a private bathroom with shower.
  • Hotel Nalendra Bandung, Jl. Cihampelas 225-227., ☎ +62 22 203 4000. 91 room 3 star hotel in 3 types ( standard, deluxe & suite ). A/C, TV, hot water, cafe, mini-bar, massage, swimming pool, free internet in lobby area, free pick up & drop to airport & train station, breakfast for 2 person. From Rp 530,000.


  • House Indonesia, Jl. Sangkuriang No. 1, Bandung, ☎ +6222 8783 2323. (,
  • Villa Roberni Villa Istana Bunga, V3 North Bandung, Parongpong. ☎ +62 22 278 9443, +62 82126580828 (, (fax:+62 22 278 9443).
  • the Santorini Villa Villa Istana Bunga, W.8 North Bandung, Parongpong. ☎ +62 22 278 9443, +62 82126580828 (, (fax:+62 22 278 9443).
  • Villa Damar, Jl. Damar no.7, Jawa Barat, ☎ +62 21 2041361. Deluxe, Junior Suite and Garden Suite, all equipped with Air-conditioning, Flat-screen TV and Refrigerator. Facilities and services are Spa & wellness centre, Restaurant and coffee shop. From USD 64.00.
  • Jadul Village Resort & Spa, Terusan Sersan Bajuri 45 Cihideung, ☎ +62-22-2785544, checkin: 02:00 PM; checkout: 12:00 PM. Jadul Village Resort & Spa offers rooms equipped with safe and TV. Some of its facilities and services are restaurant, cafe, meeting room, spa, buggy service, bar and lounge. Rates start at 1,000,000.00 IDR.
  • The Imperium International Hotel, Jl. Dr Rum 30-32, ☎ +62 22 420 2244, A/C, cableTV, mini-bar, and a coffee/tea maker. Club Music Room, a sport centre, and a swimming pool. From US$45.
  • Cassadua Hotel, Jl Cassa no. 2, ☎ +62 22 200 582, Balcony, terrace, cableTV, internet, private toilet and bath. Fitness room/gym, restaurant, bar, meeting rooms, airport transfer, room service and wake-up call. From Rp 225,000.00.
  • Hotel Jelita Parahyangan, Jl. Pasirkaliki 61, ☎ +62 22 603 1133, A/C rooms, all with private toilet and bath, cableTV, mini-home theater, and balcony/terrace. Airport and city transfers, cafe, and laundry services. From Rp 198,000.
  • Ahadiat Hotel & Bungalow, Jl. Sindang Sirna Elok No.9, ☎ +62 22 2005870. Rooms and suites with A/C, cableTV, private toilet and shower with bathtub. Outdoor swimming pool, massage service, and wifi. From Rp 375,000.
  • Ottenville Boutique Hotel, Jln Dr Otten no 6, ☎ +62 22 423 4518, A/C rooms, all with a toilet and bath with hot/cold shower, flat-screen satellite TV, and coffee/tea maker/mini-bar. From Rp 348,000.00. edit
  • Hotel Talagasari Permai, Jl. Dr. Setiabudhi 269-275. (North Bandung, close to Lembang and Tangkuban Perahu), ☎ +62 22 2012632. checkin: 7AM; checkout: 12 noon. A/C rooms , TV, bathroom with shower and bathtub, swimming pool, karaoke. Sundanese, European and Chinese restaurant, free breakfast for 2 persons. Discount 50% promo until 31 Aug, 2011 & 1 night free for 10 stays in 3 months. From Rp 280,000 nett. edit
  • Topas Galeria Hotel, Jl. Dr. Djunjunan No. 153, ☎ +62 22 602 0550, A/C rooms, all with cableTV, internet connection and a mini-bar. Room service, massage service, and airport/city transfer. From Rp 600,000. edit
  • Hotel Mitra ,Jl. WR. Supratman No.98. ☎ +62 22 720 7245. (fax:+62 22 721 8304), 3 stars.
  • Arion Swiss Bellhotel (formerly Citra Cikopo), Jl. Otto Iskandardinata no. 16. ☎ +62 22 424 0000. (fax:+62 22 426 6270). 4 stars.
  • Grand Aquila Jl. Dr. Djundjunan (Terusan Pasteur) 11. ☎ +62 22 203 9280, (fax:+62 22 2039282),  ( Nearby the Pasteur toll gate. 5 stars.
  • Papandayan Jl. Jend. Gatot Subroto 83. ☎ +62 22 731 0799 (, (fax:+62 22 7310988),  4 stars.
  • Horison Bandung Jl. Pelajar Pejuang 121. ☎ +62 22 730 5000 (, (fax:+62 22 731 0993), 4 star in the residential Buah Batu area.


Tourism offices

  • Dinas Pariwisata Kota Bandung: JL. Ahmad Yani No. 227, ☎ +62 22 7210768. [81].
  • Jl. Stasiun Timur No. 1, ☎ +62 22 421 6648.


  • Ambulance: 118.
  • Masada Ambulance : 022 91663284

Police: 110.

  • West Java Police HQ (Polda Jawa Barat) : Jl. Soekarno Hatta No. 748, ☎ +62 22 7806392.

Police Stations

  • Greater Bandung (Polwiltabes Bandung), Jl. Merdeka
  • West Bandung (Polresta Bandung Barat), Jl. Sukajadi No. 141A, ☎ +62 22 203 1615.
  • East Bandung (Polresta Bandung Timur), Jl. AH. Nasution No. 21, ☎ +62 22 7805981.
  • Central Bandung (Polresta Bandung Tengah), Jl. Jend. Ahmad Yani No. 282, ☎ +62 22 7200058, +62 22 7271115.
  • Bandung (Polres Bandung), Soreang.
  • Cimahi (Polres Cimahi), Jl. Raya Cibabat,☎ +62 22 2031181.


  • Royal Netherlands Honorary Consulate, Jl. Dayang Sumbi No. 3, ☎ +62 22 250
  • 6195, (fax: +62 22 2506197)
  • France Consular Agency, Jl. Purnawarman No. 32, ☎ +62 22 4212417, (fax: +62 22 4207877
  • Hungary Honorary Consulate, Jl. Padasaluyu Utara II No. 3, ☎ +62 22 2010354, (fax:
  • +62 22 2014407)
  • Poland Honorary Consulate, Jl. Bukit Pakar Utara No. 75, ☎ +62 22 2503765.
  • Hospitals with 24 hour emergency rooms
  • RS Umum Pusat Dr Hasan Sadikin, JI. Pasteur No 38, ☎ +62 22 2034953.
  • RS Santo Borromeus, JI. Ir. H Juanda No 100, ☎ +62 22 250 4041, +62 22 2552000
  • RS Rajawali: Jl Rajawali 38. ☎ +62 22 6011913
  • RS Advent Bandung, JI. Cihampelas No 161. ☎ +62 22 2034386.
  • RS Immanuel Bandung, JI. Kopo No 161. ☎ +62 22 5001656.
  • RS Santo Yusup Bandung: Jl Cikutra No.7. ☎ +62 22 7208172.
  • RS Muhammadiyah Bandung: Jl. KH Ahmad Dahlan No.53. ☎ +62 22 7301062.
  • Santosa Bandung International Hospital: Jl. Kebonjati No.38. ☎ +62 22 4248555.
  • RS Kebonjati : Jl. Kebonjati No. 152.
  • RS Advent : Jl. Cihampelas No. 161.
  • RS Al Islam Bandung : Jl. Sukarno Hatta No. 644.

 Get Out

There are some sidetrips to the mountain range surrounding Bandung:

  • North: mount Tangkuban Perahu. Lembang is a favourite weekend break destination at the base of the mountain with hiking trail and active volcanic crater. You can stay at Sari Ater , a natural hot spring water complex, or rent a villa. In the vicinity, Maribaya park offers a wonderful waterfall traps.
    • South: tea plantations. Ciwidey & Pangalengan are the main destination to the south mountains. Situ Patenggang lake in the middle of tea plantation in Ciwidey offers a relaxing time in a boat, fishing, camping or in a bungalow. A few kilometers from the lake is Kawah Putih (white crater), made by sulfuric activity in the area with a camping park, called Ranca Upas. The area is frequently use as pre-wedding photography area. Entrance fee: Rp 150,000/car or Rp 5,000/motorcycle plus Rp 16,000 per person. Significant different entrance fee between car and motorcycle due to Forestry Administration discourage of using cars.
    • West: chalk mountain range. There are not many nature destinations in the west, except Situ Ciburuy lake at the side of the main road hub to Cianjur and the Saguling dam. You might also want to taste peuyeum, a local food made from fermented cassava. If you are hungry, there are plenty of good Sundanese restaurants in the vicinity, because the road (non toll) to the west is the main hub between Bandung and Jakarta through Puncak.
    • East: a link of Bandung to the eastern part of West Java and to neighbouring Central Java province. You can go to Sumedang, famous for their tahu sumedang fried tofu, on road to Cirebon (about 2-3 hr), a coastal city known for fishing and oil industries. To the southeast you can go to Garut (about 1-2 hour), a resort city in the valley of mountain, and visit 8th century Hindu temple Candi Cangkuang. The city also well known for its dodol snack. Further Southeast is the Pangandaran beach, facing Southern Java coast Indian Ocean.
View of Kawah Putih (White Crater)
View of Kawah Putih (White Crater)


Wali Songo

Dari Wikipedia

Sejarah tentang Wali Songo


Related Posts:

Wali Songo atau Wali Sanga dikenal sebagai penyebar agama Islam di tanah Jawa pada abad ke 14. Mereka tinggal di tiga wilayah penting pantai utara Pulau Jawa, yaitu Surabaya-Gresik-Lamongan-Tuban di Jawa Timur, Demak-Kudus-Muria di Jawa Tengah, dan Cirebon di Jawa Barat.

Era Walisongo adalah era berakhirnya dominasi HinduBudha dalam budaya Nusantara untuk digantikan dengan kebudayaan Islam. Mereka adalah simbol penyebaran Islam di Indonesia, khususnya di Jawa. Tentu banyak tokoh lain yang juga berperan. Namun peranan mereka yang sangat besar dalam mendirikan Kerajaan Islam di Jawa, juga pengaruhnya terhadap kebudayaan masyarakat secara luas serta dakwah secara langsung, membuat para Walisongo ini lebih banyak disebut dibanding yang lain.

Arti Wali Songo

Ada beberapa pendapat mengenai arti Wali Songo. Pertama adalah wali yang sembilan, yang menandakan jumlah wali yang ada sembilan, atau sanga dalam bahasa Jawa. Pendapat lain menyebutkan bahwa kata songo/sanga berasal dari kata tsana yang dalam bahasa Arab berarti mulia. Pendapat lainnya lagi menyebut kata sana berasal dari bahasa Jawa, yang berarti tempat.

Pendapat lain yang mengatakan bahwa Wali Songo adalah sebuah majelis dakwah yang pertama kali didirikan oleh Sunan Gresik (Maulana Malik Ibrahim) pada tahun 1404 Masehi (808 Hijriah). Para Wali Songo adalah pembaharu masyarakat pada masanya. Pengaruh mereka terasakan dalam beragam bentuk manifestasi peradaban baru masyarakat Jawa, mulai dari kesehatan, bercocok-tanam, perniagaan, kebudayaan, kesenian, kemasyarakatan, hingga ke pemerintahan.

Nama para Wali Songo

Dari nama para Walisongo tersebut, pada umumnya terdapat sembilan nama yang dikenal sebagai anggota Walisongo yang paling terkenal, yaitu:

  • Sunan Gresik atau Maulana Malik Ibrahim
  • Sunan Ampel atau Raden Rahmat
  • Sunan Bonang atau Raden Makhdum Ibrahim
  • Sunan Drajat atau Raden Qasim
  • Sunan Kudus atau Ja’far Shadiq
  • Sunan Giri atau Raden Paku atau Ainul Yaqin
  • Sunan Kalijaga atau Raden Said
  • Sunan Muria atau Raden Umar Said
  • Sunan Gunung Jati atau Syarif Hidayatullah


Sunan Gresik (Maulana Malik Ibrahim)Sunan Gresik

Maulana Malik Ibrahim adalah keturunan ke-22 dari Nabi Muhammad. Ia disebut juga Sunan Gresik, atau Sunan Tandhes, atau Mursyid Akbar Thariqat Wali Songo . Nasab As-Sayyid Maulana Malik Ibrahim Nasab Maulana Malik Ibrahim menurut catatan Dari As-Sayyid Bahruddin Ba’alawi Al-Husaini yang kumpulan catatannya kemudian dibukukan dalam Ensiklopedi Nasab Ahlul Bait yang terdiri dari beberapa volume (jilid). Dalam Catatan itu tertulis: As-Sayyid Maulana Malik Ibrahim bin As-Sayyid Barakat Zainal Alam bin As-Sayyid Husain Jamaluddin bin As-Sayyid Ahmad Jalaluddin bin As-Sayyid Abdullah bin As-Sayyid Abdul Malik Azmatkhan bin As-Sayyid Alwi Ammil Faqih bin As-Sayyid Muhammad Shahib Mirbath bin As-Sayyid Ali Khali’ Qasam bin As-Sayyid Alwi bin As-Sayyid Muhammad bin As-Sayyid Alwi bin As-Sayyid Ubaidillah bin Al-Imam Ahmad Al-Muhajir bin Al-Imam Isa bin Al-Imam Muhammad bin Al-Imam Ali Al-Uraidhi bin Al-Imam Ja’far Shadiq bin Al-Imam Muhammad Al-Baqir bin Al-Imam Ali Zainal Abidin bin Al-Imam Al-Husain bin Sayyidah Fathimah Az-Zahra/Ali bin Abi Thalib, binti Nabi Muhammad Rasulullah

Ia diperkirakan lahir di Samarkand di Asia Tengah, pada paruh awal abad ke-14. Babad Tanah Jawi versi Meinsma menyebutnya Asmarakandi, mengikuti pengucapan lidah orang Jawa terhadap As-Samarqandy. Dalam cerita rakyat, ada yang memanggilnya Kakek Bantal.

Isteri Maulana Malik Ibrahim

Maulana Malik Ibrahim memiliki, 3 isteri bernama: 1. Siti Fathimah binti Ali Nurul Alam Maulana Israil (Raja Champa Dinasti Azmatkhan 1), memiliki 2 anak, bernama: Maulana Moqfaroh dan Syarifah Sarah 2. Siti Maryam binti Syaikh Subakir, memiliki 4 anak, yaitu: Abdullah, Ibrahim, Abdul Ghafur, dan Ahmad 3. Wan Jamilah binti Ibrahim Zainuddin Al-Akbar Asmaraqandi, memiliki 2 anak yaitu: Abbas dan Yusuf. Selanjutnya Sharifah Sarah binti Maulana Malik Ibrahim dinikahkan dengan Sayyid Fadhal Ali Murtadha [Sunan Santri/ Raden Santri] dan melahirkan dua putera yaitu Haji Utsman (Sunan Manyuran) dan Utsman Haji (Sunan Ngudung). Selanjutnya Sayyid Utsman Haji (Sunan Ngudung) berputera Sayyid Ja’far Shadiq [Sunan Kudus].

Maulana Malik Ibrahim umumnya dianggap sebagai wali pertama yang mendakwahkan Islam di Jawa. Ia mengajarkan cara-cara baru bercocok tanam dan banyak merangkul rakyat kebanyakan, yaitu golongan masyarakat Jawa yang tersisihkan akhir kekuasaan Majapahit. Malik Ibrahim berusaha menarik hati masyarakat, yang tengah dilanda krisis ekonomi dan perang saudara. Ia membangun pondokan tempat belajar agama di Leran, Gresik. Pada tahun 1419, Malik Ibrahim wafat. Makamnya terdapat di desa Gapura Wetan, Gresik, Jawa Timur.

Sunan Ampel (Raden Rahmat)Sunan Ampel

Sunan Ampel bernama asli Raden Rahmat, keturunan ke-22 dari Nabi Muhammad, menurut riwayat ia adalah putra Ibrahim Zainuddin Al-Akbar dan seorang putri Champa yang bernama Dewi Condro Wulan binti Raja Champa Terakhir Dari Dinasti Ming. Nasab lengkapnya sebagai berikut: Sunan Ampel bin Sayyid Ibrahim Zainuddin Al-Akbar bin Sayyid Jamaluddin Al-Husain bin Sayyid Ahmad Jalaluddin bin Sayyid Abdullah bin Sayyid Abdul Malik Azmatkhan bin Sayyid Alwi Ammil Faqih bin Sayyid Muhammad Shahib Mirbath bin Sayyid Ali Khali’ Qasam bin Sayyid Alwi bin Sayyid Muhammad bin Sayyid Alwi bin Sayyid Ubaidillah bin Sayyid Ahmad Al-Muhajir bin Sayyid Isa bin Sayyid Muhammad bin Sayyid Ali Al-Uraidhi bin Imam Ja’far Shadiq bin Imam Muhammad Al-Baqir bin Imam Ali Zainal Abidin bin Imam Al-Husain bin Sayyidah Fathimah Az-Zahra binti Nabi Muhammad Rasulullah. Sunan Ampel umumnya dianggap sebagai sesepuh oleh para wali lainnya. Pesantrennya bertempat di Ampel Denta, Surabaya, dan merupakan salah satu pusat penyebaran agama Islam tertua di Jawa. Ia menikah dengan Dewi Condrowati yang bergelar Nyai Ageng Manila, putri adipati Tuban bernama Arya Teja dan menikah juga dengan Dewi Karimah binti Ki Kembang Kuning. Pernikahan Sunan Ampel dengan Dewi Condrowati alias Nyai Ageng Manila binti Aryo Tejo, berputera: Sunan Bonang,Siti Syari’ah,Sunan Derajat,Sunan Sedayu,Siti Muthmainnah dan Siti Hafsah. Pernikahan Sunan Ampel dengan Dewi Karimah binti Ki Kembang Kuning, berputera: Dewi Murtasiyah,Asyiqah,Raden Husamuddin (Sunan Lamongan,Raden Zainal Abidin (Sunan Demak),Pangeran Tumapel dan Raden Faqih (Sunan Ampel 2. Makam Sunan Ampel teletak di dekat Masjid Ampel, Surabaya.

Sunan Bonang (Makhdum Ibrahim)Sunan Bonang

Sunan Bonang adalah putra Sunan Ampel, dan merupakan keturunan ke-23 dari Nabi Muhammad. Ia adalah putra Sunan Ampel dengan Nyai Ageng Manila, putri adipati Tuban bernama Arya Teja. Sunan Bonang banyak berdakwah melalui kesenian untuk menarik penduduk Jawa agar memeluk agama Islam. Ia dikatakan sebagai penggubah suluk Wijil dan tembang Tombo Ati, yang masih sering dinyanyikan orang. Pembaharuannya pada gamelan Jawa ialah dengan memasukkan rebab dan bonang, yang sering dihubungkan dengan namanya. Universitas Leiden menyimpan sebuah karya sastra bahasa Jawa bernama Het Boek van Bonang atau Buku Bonang. Menurut G.W.J. Drewes, itu bukan karya Sunan Bonang namun mungkin saja mengandung ajarannya. Sunan Bonang diperkirakan wafat pada tahun 1525. Ia dimakamkan di daerah Tuban, Jawa Timur.

Sunan DrajatSunan Dradjad

Sunan Drajat adalah putra Sunan Ampel, dan merupakan keturunan ke-23 dari Nabi Muhammad. Nama asli dari sunan derajat adalah masih munat. masih munat nantinya terkenal dengan nama sunan derajat.sunan derajat terkenal juga dengan kegiatan sosialnya. Dialah wali yang memelopori penyatuan anak-anak yatim dan orang sakit. Ia adalah putra Sunan Ampel dengan Nyai Ageng Manila, putri adipati Tuban bernama Arya Teja. Sunan Drajat banyak berdakwah kepada masyarakat kebanyakan. Ia menekankan kedermawanan, kerja keras, dan peningkatan kemakmuran masyarakat, sebagai pengamalan dari agama Islam. Pesantren Sunan Drajat dijalankan secara mandiri sebagai wilayah perdikan, bertempat di Desa Drajat, Kecamatan Paciran, Lamongan. Tembang macapat Pangkur disebutkan sebagai ciptaannya. Gamelan Singomengkok peninggalannya terdapat di Musium Daerah Sunan Drajat, Lamongan. Sunan Drajat diperkirakan wafat pada 1522.

Sunan KudusSunan Kudus

Sunan Kudus adalah putra Sunan Ngudung atau Raden Usman Haji, dengan Syarifah Ruhil atau Dewi Ruhil yang bergelar Nyai Anom Manyuran binti Nyai Ageng Melaka binti Sunan Ampel. Sunan Kudus adalah keturunan ke-24 dari Nabi Muhammad. Sunan Kudus bin Sunan Ngudung bin Fadhal Ali Murtadha bin Ibrahim Zainuddin Al-Akbar bin Jamaluddin Al-Husain bin Ahmad Jalaluddin bin Abdillah bin Abdul Malik Azmatkhan bin Alwi Ammil Faqih bin Muhammad Shahib Mirbath bin Ali Khali’ Qasam bin Alwi bin Muhammad bin Alwi bin Ubaidillah bin Ahmad Al-Muhajir bin Isa bin Muhammad bin Ali Al-Uraidhi bin Ja’far Shadiq bin Muhammad Al-Baqir bin Ali Zainal Abidin bin Al-Husain bin Sayyidah Fathimah Az-Zahra binti Nabi Muhammad Rasulullah. Sebagai seorang wali, Sunan Kudus memiliki peran yang besar dalam pemerintahan Kesultanan Demak, yaitu sebagai panglima perang, penasehat Sultan Demak, Mursyid Thariqah dan hakim peradilan negara. Ia banyak berdakwah di kalangan kaum penguasa dan priyayi Jawa. Di antara yang pernah menjadi muridnya, ialah Sunan Prawoto penguasa Demak, dan Arya Penangsang adipati Jipang Panolan. Salah satu peninggalannya yang terkenal ialah Mesjid Menara Kudus, yang arsitekturnya bergaya campuran Hindu dan Islam. Sunan Kudus diperkirakan wafat pada tahun 1550.

Sunan GiriSunan Giri

Sunan Giri adalah putra Maulana Ishaq. Sunan Giri adalah keturunan ke-23 dari Nabi Muhammad, merupakan murid dari Sunan Ampel dan saudara seperguruan dari Sunan Bonang. Ia mendirikan pemerintahan mandiri di Giri Kedaton, Gresik; yang selanjutnya berperan sebagai pusat dakwah Islam di wilayah Jawa dan Indonesia timur, bahkan sampai ke kepulauan Maluku. Salah satu keturunannya yang terkenal ialah Sunan Giri Prapen, yang menyebarkan agama Islam ke wilayah Lombok dan Bima.

Sunan KalijagaSunan Kalijaga

Sunan Kalijaga adalah putra adipati Tuban yang bernama Tumenggung Wilatikta atau Raden Sahur atau Sayyid Ahmad bin Mansur (Syekh Subakir). Ia adalah murid Sunan Bonang. Sunan Kalijaga menggunakan kesenian dan kebudayaan sebagai sarana untuk berdakwah, antara lain kesenian wayang kulit dan tembang suluk. Tembang suluk lir-Ilir dan Gundul-Gundul Pacul umumnya dianggap sebagai hasil karyanya. Dalam satu riwayat, Sunan Kalijaga disebutkan menikah dengan Dewi Saroh binti Maulana Ishaq, menikahi juga Syarifah Zainab binti Syekh Siti Jenar dan Ratu Kano Kediri binti Raja Kediri.

Sunan Muria (Raden Umar Said)Sunan Muria

Sunan Muria atau Raden Umar Said adalah putra Sunan Kalijaga. Ia adalah putra dari Sunan Kalijaga dari isterinya yang bernama Dewi Sarah binti Maulana Ishaq. Sunan Muria menikah dengan Dewi Sujinah, putri Sunan Ngudung. Jadi Sunan Muria adalah adik ipar dari Sunan Kudus. 

Sunan Gunung Jati (Syarif Hidayatullah)Sunan Gunung Jati

Sunan Gunung Jati atau Syarif Hidayatullah adalah putra Syarif Abdullah Umdatuddin putra Ali Nurul Alam putra Syekh Husain Jamaluddin Akbar. Dari pihak ibu, ia masih keturunan keraton Pajajaran melalui Nyai Rara Santang, yaitu anak dari Sri Baduga Maharaja. Sunan Gunung Jati mengembangkan Cirebon sebagai pusat dakwah dan pemerintahannya, yang sesudahnya kemudian menjadi Kesultanan Cirebon. Anaknya yang bernama Maulana Hasanuddin, juga berhasil mengembangkan kekuasaan dan menyebarkan agama Islam di Banten, sehingga kemudian menjadi cikal-bakal berdirinya Kesultanan Banten.

Makam Sunan Gunung Jati - Syarif HidayatullahMakam Sunan Gunung Jati

Tokoh pendahulu Walisongo

Syekh Jumadil QubroSyekh Jumadil Qubro

Syekh Jumadil Qubro adalah Maulana Ahmad Jumadil Kubra / Husain Jamaluddin al akbar bin Ahmad Jalaluddin bin Abdillah bin Abdul Malik Azmatkhan bin Alwi Ammil Faqih bin Muhammad Shahib Mirbath bin Ali Khali’ Qasam bin Alwi bin Muhammad bin Alwi bin Ubaidillah bin Ahmad Al-Muhajir bin Isa bin Muhammad bin Ali Al-Uraidhi bin Ja’far Shadiq bin Muhammad Al-Baqir bin Ali Zainal Abidin bin Al-Husain bin Sayyidah Fathimah Az-Zahra binti Nabi Muhammad Rasulullah Syekh Jumadil Qubro adalah putra Husain Jamaluddin dari isterinya yang bernama Puteri Selindung Bulan (Putri Saadong II/ Putri Kelantan Tua). Tokoh ini sering disebutkan dalam berbagai babad dan cerita rakyat sebagai salah seorang pelopor penyebaran Islam di tanah Jawa.

Makamnya terdapat di beberapa tempat yaitu di Semarang, Trowulan, atau di desa Turgo (dekat Pelawangan), Yogyakarta. Belum diketahui yang mana yang betul-betul merupakan kuburnya.

Asal usul Walisongo

Teori keturunan Hadramaut

Walaupun masih ada pendapat yang menyebut Walisongo adalah keturunan Samarkand (Asia Tengah), Champa atau tempat lainnya, namun tampaknya tempat-tampat tersebut lebih merupakan jalur penyebaran para mubaligh daripada merupakan asal-muasal mereka yang sebagian besar adalah kaum Sayyid atau Syarif. Beberapa argumentasi yang diberikan oleh Muhammad Al Baqir, dalam bukunya Thariqah Menuju Kebahagiaan, mendukung bahwa Walisongo adalah keturunan Hadramaut (Yaman):

  • L.W.C van den Berg, Islamolog dan ahli hukum Belanda yang mengadakan riset pada 1884-1886, dalam bukunya Le Hadhramout et les colonies arabes dans l’archipel Indien (1886)[1] mengatakan:
”Adapun hasil nyata dalam penyiaran agama Islam (ke Indonesia) adalah dari orang-orang Sayyid Syarif. Dengan perantaraan mereka agama Islam tersiar di antara raja-raja Hindu di Jawa dan lainnya. Selain dari mereka ini, walaupun ada juga suku-suku lain Hadramaut (yang bukan golongan Sayyid Syarif), tetapi mereka ini tidak meninggalkan pengaruh sebesar itu. Hal ini disebabkan mereka (kaum Sayyid Syarif) adalah keturunan dari tokoh pembawa Islam (Nabi Muhammad SAW).”
  • Van Den Berg juga menulis dalam buku yang sama (hal 192-204):
”Pada abad ke-15, di Jawa sudah terdapat penduduk bangsa Arab atau keturunannya, yaitu sesudah masa kerajaan Majapahit yang kuat itu. Orang-orang Arab bercampul-gaul dengan penduduk, dan sebagian mereka mempuyai jabatan-jabatan tinggi. Mereka terikat dengan pergaulan dan kekeluargaan tingkat atasan. Rupanya pembesar-pembesar Hindu di kepulauan Hindia telah terpengaruh oleh sifat-sifat keahlian Arab, oleh karena sebagian besar mereka berketurunan pendiri Islam (Nabi Muhammad SAW). Orang-orang Arab Hadramawt (Hadramaut) membawa kepada orang-orang Hindu pikiran baru yang diteruskan oleh peranakan-peranakan Arab, mengikuti jejak nenek moyangnya.”
Pernyataan van den Berg spesifik menyebut abad ke-15, yang merupakan abad spesifik kedatangan atau kelahiran sebagian besar Walisongo di pulau Jawa. Abad ke-15 ini jauh lebih awal dari abad ke-18 yang merupakan saat kedatangan gelombang berikutnya, yaitu kaum Hadramaut yang bermarga Assegaf, Al Habsyi, Al Hadad, Alaydrus, Alatas, Al Jufri, Syihab, Syahab dan banyak marga Hadramaut lainnya.
  • Hingga saat ini umat Islam di Hadramaut sebagian besar bermadzhab Syafi’i, sama seperti mayoritas di Srilangka, pesisir India Barat (Gujarat dan Malabar), Malaysia dan Indonesia. Bandingkan dengan umat Islam di Uzbekistan dan seluruh Asia Tengah, Pakistan dan India pedalaman (non-pesisir) yang sebagian besar bermadzhab Hanafi.
  • Kesamaan dalam pengamalan madzhab Syafi’i bercorak tasawuf dan mengutamakan Ahlul Bait; seperti mengadakan Maulid, membaca Diba & Barzanji, beragam Shalawat Nabi, doa Nur Nubuwwah dan banyak amalan lainnya hanya terdapat di Hadramaut, Mesir, Gujarat, Malabar, Srilangka, Sulu & Mindanao, Malaysia dan Indonesia. Kitab fiqh Syafi’i Fathul Muin yang populer di Indonesia dikarang oleh Zainuddin Al Malabary dari Malabar, isinya memasukkan pendapat-pendapat baik kaum Fuqaha maupun kaum Sufi. Hal tersebut mengindikasikan kesamaan sumber yaitu Hadramaut, karena Hadramaut adalah sumber pertama dalam sejarah Islam yang menggabungkan fiqh Syafi’i dengan pengamalan tasawuf dan pengutamaan Ahlul Bait.
  • Di abad ke-15, raja-raja Jawa yang berkerabat dengan Walisongo seperti Raden Patah dan Pati Unus sama-sama menggunakan gelar Alam Akbar. Gelar tersebut juga merupakan gelar yang sering dikenakan oleh keluarga besar Jamaluddin Akbar di Gujarat pada abad ke-14, yaitu cucu keluarga besar Azhamat Khan (atau Abdullah Khan) bin Abdul Malik bin Alwi, seorang anak dari Muhammad Shahib Mirbath ulama besar Hadramaut abad ke-13. Keluarga besar ini terkenal sebagai mubaligh musafir yang berdakwah jauh hingga pelosok Asia Tenggara, dan mempunyai putra-putra dan cucu-cucu yang banyak menggunakan nama Akbar, seperti Zainal Akbar, Ibrahim Akbar, Ali Akbar, Nuralam Akbar dan banyak lainnya.

Teori keturunan Cina (Hui)

Sejarawan Slamet Muljana mengundang kontroversi dalam buku Runtuhnya Kerajaan Hindu Jawa (1968), dengan menyatakan bahwa Walisongo adalah keturunan Tionghoa Muslim.[1] Pendapat tersebut mengundang reaksi keras masyarakat yang berpendapat bahwa Walisongo adalah keturunan Arab-Indonesia. Pemerintah Orde Baru sempat melarang terbitnya buku tersebut.

Referensi-referensi yang menyatakan dugaan bahwa Walisongo berasal dari atau keturunan Tionghoa sampai saat ini masih merupakan hal yang kontroversial. Referensi yang dimaksud hanya dapat diuji melalui sumber akademik yang berasal dari Slamet Muljana, yang merujuk kepada tulisan Mangaraja Onggang Parlindungan, yang kemudian merujuk kepada seseorang yang bernama Resident Poortman. Namun, Resident Poortman hingga sekarang belum bisa diketahui identitasnya serta kredibilitasnya sebagai sejarawan, misalnya bila dibandingkan dengan Snouck Hurgronje dan L.W.C. van den Berg. Sejarawan Belanda masa kini yang banyak mengkaji sejarah Islam di Indonesia yaitu Martin van Bruinessen, bahkan tak pernah sekalipun menyebut nama Poortman dalam buku-bukunya yang diakui sangat detail dan banyak dijadikan referensi.

Salah satu ulasan atas tulisan H.J. de Graaf, Th.G.Th. Pigeaud, M.C. Ricklefs berjudul Chinese Muslims in Java in the 15th and 16th Centuries adalah yang ditulis oleh Russell Jones. Di sana, ia meragukan pula tentang keberadaan seorang Poortman. Bila orang itu ada dan bukan bernama lain, seharusnya dapat dengan mudah dibuktikan mengingat ceritanya yang cukup lengkap dalam tulisan Parlindungan.

Sumber Tertulis Tentang Wali Songo

  1. Terdapat beberapa sumber tertulis masyarakat Jawa tentang Walisongo, antara lain Serat Walisanga karya Ranggawarsita pada abad ke-19, Kitab Walisongo karya Sunan Dalem (Sunan Giri II) yang merupakan anak dari Sunan Giri, dan juga diceritakan cukup banyak dalam Babad Tanah Jawi.
  2. Mantan Mufti Johor Sayyid `Alwî b. Tâhir b. `Abdallâh al-Haddâd (meninggal tahun 1962) juga meninggalkan tulisan yang berjudul Sejarah perkembangan Islam di Timur Jauh (Jakarta: Al-Maktab ad-Daimi, 1957). Ia menukil keterangan diantaranya dari Haji `Ali bin Khairuddin, dalam karyanya Ketrangan kedatangan bungsu (sic!) Arab ke tanah Jawi sangking Hadramaut.
  3. Dalam penulisan sejarah para keturunan Bani Alawi seperti al-Jawahir al-Saniyyah oleh Sayyid Ali bin Abu Bakar Sakran, ‘Umdat al-Talib oleh al-Dawudi, dan Syams al-Zahirah oleh Sayyid Abdul Rahman Al-Masyhur; juga terdapat pembahasan mengenai leluhur Sunan Gunung Jati, Sunan Ampel, Sunan Giri, Sunan Kudus, Sunan Bonang dan Sunan Gresik.

Masjid Agung Demak

Masjid Agung Demak adalah salah satu mesjid tertua yang ada di Indonesia. Masjid ini terletak di desa Kauman, Kabupaten Demak, Jawa Tengah.

frontMasdjid Agung Demak


Masjid ini dipercayai pernah menjadi tempat berkumpulnya para ulama (wali) yang menyebarkan agama Islam di tanah Jawa yang disebut dengan Walisongo. Pendiri masjid ini diperkirakan adalah Raden Patah, yaitu raja pertama dari Kesultanan Demak sekitar abad ke-15 Masehi.

Raden Patah bersama Wali Songo mendirikan masjid yang karismatik ini dengan memberi gambar serupa bulus. Ini merupakan candra sengkala memet, dengan arti Sarira Sunyi Kiblating Gusti yang bermakna tahun 1401 Saka. Gambar bulus terdiri atas kepala yang berarti angka 1 (satu), 4 kaki berarti angka 4 (empat), badan bulus berarti angka 0 (nol), ekor bulus berarti angka 1 (satu). Dari simbol ini diperkirakan Masjid Agung Demak berdiri pada tahun 1401 Saka.


Masjid ini mempunyai bangunan-bangunan induk dan serambi. Bangunan induk memiliki empat tiang utama yang disebut saka guru. Salah satu dari tiang utama tersebut konon berasal dari serpihan-serpihan kayu, sehingga dinamai saka tatal. Bangunan serambi merupakan bangunan terbuka. Atapnya berbentuk limas yang ditopang delapan tiang yang disebut Saka Majapahit. Atap limas Masjid terdiri dari tiga bagian yang menggambarkan ; (1) Iman, (2) Islam, dan (3) Ihsan. Di Masjid ini juga terdapat “Pintu Bledeg”, mengandung candra sengkala, yang dapat dibaca Naga Mulat Salira Wani, dengan makna tahun 1388 Saka atau 1466 M, atau 887 H.

Di dalam lokasi kompleks Masjid Agung Demak, terdapat beberapa makam raja-raja Kesultanan Demak dan para abdinya. Di kompleks ini juga terdapat Museum Masjid Agung Demak, yang berisi berbagai hal mengenai riwayat Masjid Agung Demak.

Masjid Agung Demak dicalonkan untuk menjadi Situs Warisan Dunia UNESCO pada tahun 1995.

Bhineka Tunggal Ika – Pemersatu Bangsa Indonesia

Lambang Bhinneka Tunggal IkaGaruda Pancasila dengan semboyan Bhinneka Tunggal Ika. Click Image to Enlarge

Bhinneka Tunggal Ika adalah moto atau semboyan Indonesia. Frasa ini berasal dari bahasa Jawa Kuna dan seringkali diterjemahkan dengan kalimat “Berbeda-beda tetapi tetap satu”.

Diterjemahkan per patah kata, kata bhinneka berarti “beraneka ragam” atau berbeda-beda. Kata neka dalam bahasa Sanskerta berarti “macam” dan menjadi pembentuk kata “aneka” dalam Bahasa Indonesia. Kata tunggal berarti “satu”. Kata ika berarti “itu”. Secara harfiah Bhinneka Tunggal Ika diterjemahkan “Beraneka Satu Itu”, yang bermakna meskipun berbeda-beda tetapi pada hakikatnya bangsa Indonesia tetap adalah satu kesatuan. Semboyan ini digunakan untuk menggambarkan persatuan dan kesatuan Bangsa dan Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia yang terdiri atas beraneka ragam budaya, bahasa daerah, ras, suku bangsa, agama dan kepercayaan.

Kalimat ini merupakan kutipan dari sebuah kakawin Jawa Kuna yaitu kakawin Sutasoma, karangan Mpu Tantular semasa kerajaan Majapahit sekitar abad ke-14.

Kakawin ini istimewa karena mengajarkan toleransi antara umat Hindu Siwa dengan umat Buddha.

Sajak Penuh

Kutipan ini berasal dari pupuh 139, bait 5. Bait ini secara lengkap seperti di bawah ini:

  • Rwāneka dhātu winuwus Buddha Wiswa,
  • Bhinnêki rakwa ring apan kena parwanosen,
  • Mangka ng Jinatwa kalawan Śiwatatwa tunggal,
  • Bhinnêka tunggal ika tan hana dharma mangrwa.


  • Konon Buddha dan Siwa merupakan dua zat yang berbeda.
  • Mereka memang berbeda, tetapi bagaimanakah bisa dikenali?
  • Sebab kebenaran Jina (Buddha) dan Siwa adalah tunggal
  • Terpecah belahlah itu, tetapi satu jugalah itu. Tidak ada kerancuan dalam kebenaran.

Konon dikatakan bahwa Wujud Buddha dan Siwa itu berbeda. Mereka memang berbeda. Namun, bagaimana kita bisa mengenali perbedaannya dalamselintas pandang? Karena kebenaran yang diajarkan Buddha dan Siwa itu sesungguhnya satu jua. Mereka memang berbeda-beda, namun hakikatnya sama. Karena tidak ada kebenaran yang mendua. (Bhineka Tunggal ika tan Hana Dharma Mangrwa).

Terjemahan ini didasarkan, dengan adaptasi kecil, pada edisi teks kritis oleh Dr Soewito Santoso.